CIA - The World Factbook -- Canada

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Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a

self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services, as well as responding to separatist concerns in predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
Geography Canada Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic

Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W Map references: North America Area: total: 9,984,670 sq km


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land: 9,093,507 sq km water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative: somewhat larger than the US Land boundaries: total: 8,893 km

border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Coastline: 202,080 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,

potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 4.57%

permanent crops: 0.65% other: 94.78% (2005)
Irrigated land: 7,850 sq km (2003) Total renewable water resources: 3,300 cu km (1985) Freshwater withdrawal total: 44.72 cu km/yr (20%/69%/12%) (domestic/industrial/agricultural): per capita: 1,386 cu m/yr (1996) Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to

development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting

lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coalburning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities


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Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, agreements: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air

Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, AntarcticEnvironmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic

location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
People Canada

Population: 33,212,696 (July 2008 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.3% (male 2,780,491/female 2,644,276)

15-64 years: 68.8% (male 11,547,354/female 11,300,639) 65 years and over: 14.9% (male 2,150,991/female 2,788,945) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 40.1 years

male: 39 years female: 41.2 years (2008 est.)
Population 0.83% (2008 est.) growth rate: Birth rate: 10.29 births/1,000 population (2008 est.) Death rate: 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.) Net migration 5.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.) rate: Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality total: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births rate: male: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy total population: 81.16 years at birth: male: 78.65 years

female: 83.81 years (2008 est.)


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Total fertility 1.57 children born/woman (2008 est.) rate: HIV/AIDS - adult 0.3% (2003 est.) prevalence rate: HIV/AIDS - 56,000 (2003 est.) people living with HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS - 1,500 (2003 est.) deaths: Nationality: noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%,

Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Religions: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church

9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)
Languages: English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5% Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life total: 17 years expectancy male: 17 years (primary to female: 17 years (2004) tertiary education): Education 5.2% of GDP (2002) expenditures: Government Canada

Country name: conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Canada
Government constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a type: federation Capital: name: Ottawa

geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November note: Canada is divided into six time zones
Administrative 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba,


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divisions: New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*,

Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Independence: 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December

1931 (recognized by UK)
National Canada Day, 1 July (1867) holiday: Constitution: made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and

traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments
Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system

based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); branch: represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September

2005) head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006) cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Legislative bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 branch: seats; members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the

prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a maximum of five-year terms starting in 2009 elections) elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be held 19 October 2009) election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 102, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2; seats by party as of November 2007 Conservative Party 125, Liberal Party 96, New Democratic Party 30, Bloc Quebecois 49, other 4, vacant 4


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Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister

through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Political parties Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada and leaders: [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the

Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Political other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; pressure chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy groups and industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; leaders:

trade unions

International ACCT, ADB (nonregional members), AfDB (nonregional members), organization APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia participation: Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating

Diplomatic chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON representation chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001 in the US: telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740

FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton (New Jersey), Raleigh, San Jose (California)
Diplomatic chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS representation embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8 from the US: mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430; P.O.

Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1 telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335 FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082 consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg
Flag two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white description: square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the

white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
Economy Canada


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Economy - As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, overview: Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system,

pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over the equitable distribution of federal funds to the Canadian provinces. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs 80% of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. During 2007, Canada enjoyed good economic growth, moderate inflation, and the lowest unemployment rate in more than three decades.
GDP $1.271 trillion (2007 est.) (purchasing power parity): GDP (official $1.432 trillion (2007 est.) exchange rate): GDP - real 2.7% (2007 est.) growth rate: GDP - per capita $38,600 (2007 est.) (PPP): GDP - agriculture: 2.1% composition by industry: 28.8% sector: services: 69.1% (2007 est.) Labor force: 17.95 million (2007 est.) Labor force - by agriculture 2%, manufacturing 13%, construction 6%, services 76%, occupation: other 3% (2006) Unemployment 6% (2007 est.) rate: Population 10.8%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a below poverty calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable line: economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2005) Household lowest 10%: 2.6% income or highest 10%: 24.8% (2000) consumption by percentage share: Distribution of 32.1 (2005)


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family income Gini index: Inflation rate 2.1% (2007 est.) (consumer prices): Investment 22.6% of GDP (2007 est.) (gross fixed): Budget: revenues: $569.3 billion

expenditures: $556.2 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt: 64.2% of GDP (2007 est.) Agriculture - wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products: products; fish Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed

minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Industrial 0.3% (2007 est.) production growth rate: Electricity - 609.6 billion kWh (2005) production: Electricity - fossil fuel: 28% production by hydro: 57.9% source: nuclear: 12.9%

other: 1.3% (2001)
Electricity - 540.2 billion kWh (2005) consumption: Electricity - 42.93 billion kWh (2005) exports: Electricity - 19.33 billion kWh (2005) imports: Oil - production: 3.31 million bbl/day (2007 est.) Oil - 2.29 million bbl/day (2005) consumption: Oil - exports: 2.274 million bbl/day (2004) Oil - imports: 1.185 million bbl/day (2004) Oil - proved 178.8 billion bbl reserves: note: includes oil sands (1 January 2006 est.) Natural gas - 178.2 billion cu m (2005 est.) production: Natural gas - 92.76 billion cu m (2005 est.)


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consumption: Natural gas - 101.9 billion cu m (2005 est.) exports: Natural gas - 9.403 billion cu m (2005) imports: Natural gas - 1.537 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.) proved reserves: Current account $12.67 billion (2007 est.) balance: Exports: $431.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.) Exports - motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, commodities: telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood

pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - US 79.3%, UK 2.8%, China 2.1% (2007) partners: Imports: $386.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.) Imports - machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, commodities: electricity, durable consumer goods Imports - US 54.4%, China 9.4%, Mexico 4.2% (2007) partners: Economic aid - ODA, $3.9 billion (2007) donor: Reserves of $41.08 billion (2007 est.) foreign exchange and gold: Debt - external: $758.6 billion (30 June 2007) Stock of direct $527.4 billion (2007 est.) foreign investment - at home: Stock of direct $514.7 billion (2007 est.) foreign investment abroad: Market value of $1.481 trillion (2005) publicly traded shares: Currency Canadian dollar (CAD) (code): Currency code: CAD


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Exchange rates: Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.0724 (2007), 1.1334 (2006), 1.2118

(2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March Communications Canada Telephones - 21 million (2006) main lines in use: Telephones - 18.749 million (2006) mobile cellular: Telephone general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology system: domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations

international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2007)
Radio AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004) broadcast stations: Radios: 32.3 million (1997) Television 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997) broadcast stations: Televisions: 21.5 million (1997) Internet country .ca code: Internet hosts: 4.196 million (2007) Internet Service 760 (2000 est.) Providers (ISPs): Internet users: 28 million (2007) Transportation Canada Airports: 1,343 (2007) Airports - with total: 509 paved runways: over 3,047 m: 18

2,438 to 3,047 m: 16 1,524 to 2,437 m: 149 914 to 1,523 m: 248 under 914 m: 78 (2007)
Airports - with total: 834 unpaved 1,524 to 2,437 m: 68 runways: 914 to 1,523 m: 356

under 914 m: 410 (2007)


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Heliports: 11 (2007) Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2006) Railways: total: 48,068 km

standard gauge: 48,068 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadways: total: 1,042,300 km

paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways) unpaved: 626,700 km (2006)
Waterways: 636 km

note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2007)
Merchant total: 166 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,162,760 GRT/2,771,653 DWT marine: by type: bulk carrier 60, cargo 8, carrier 1, chemical tanker 9,

combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 62, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 5 foreign-owned: 17 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 3, US 10) registered in other countries: 200 (Australia 9, Bahamas 77, Barbados 12, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 42, Liberia 4, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 5, Netherlands 1, Norway 10, Panama 19, Spain 4, St Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Taiwan 2, Vanuatu 5) (2008)
Ports and Fraser River Port, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, Port-Cartier, Quebec terminals: City, Saint John (New Brunswick), Sept-Isles, Vancouver Military Canada

Military Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command (LFC), Maritime Command branches: (MARCOM), Air Command (AIRCOM), Canada Command (homeland

security) (2008)
Military service 17 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (with age and parental consent); 16 years of age for reserve and military college obligation: applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required;

maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2008)
Manpower males age 16-49: 8,072,010 available for females age 16-49: 7,813,462 (2008 est.) military service: Manpower fit for males age 16-49: 6,646,281 military service: females age 16-49: 6,417,924 (2008 est.) Manpower male: 227,435 reaching female: 215,556 (2008 est.) militarily significant age annually: Military 1.1% of GDP (2005 est.) expenditures:


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Transnational Canada Issues Disputes - managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, international: Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the

disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada, the US, and other countries dispute the status of the Northwest Passage; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to

US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
This page was last updated on 2 October, 2008


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