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Mr. VAIBHAV NAIK.

Production process

Lathe machine

Schematic view of a center lathe

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

Lathe machine Parts of lathe machine Following are the principal parts of the lathe machine. • Bed. • Headstock. • Tailstock. • Carriage • Feed mechanism • Screw cutting mechanism

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

1. Bed 1) The lathe bed forms the base of the machine. 2) The headstock and tailstock are located at either end of the bed and the carriage rest over the lathe bed and slides on it. 3) It supports all moving and non moving parts of the machine. 4) Cast iron alloyed nickel and chromium forms good material suitable for the lathe bed. 2. Headstock 1) The headstock is secured permanently on the inner ways at the left hand end of the bed. 2) It provides the mechanical means of rotating the work at multiple speeds. 3) It comprises essentially a hollow spindle and mechanism for driving and altering the spindle speed. 4) All parts are housed within the headstock casting. 3. Tailstock   The tailstock is located on the inner ways at the right hand end of the bed. To accommodate different length of the work, the body of the tailstock can be adjusted along the way chiefly by sliding it to desired position where it can be clamped by bolts and plates. Two main functions of tailstocks are a) It supports the other end of the work when it is being machined between the centers. b) It holds tool for performing operation such as drilling, reaming and tapping.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

4. Carriage 1) The carriage of the lathe has several parts that serve to support, move and control the cutting tool. 2) It consist of the following parts : • Saddle. • The cross slide. • Compound slide or Compound rest. • Tool post and • Apron.

Carriage: Moves on the outer ways. Used for mounting and moving most the cutting tools. • Cross Slide: Mounted on the traverse slide of the carriage, and uses a handwheel to feed tools into the workpiece. • Tool Post: To mount tool holders in which the cutting bits are clamped. • Compound Rest: Mounted to the cross slide, it pivots around the tool post. • Apron: Attached to the front of the carriage, it has the mechanism and controls for moving the carriage and cross slide.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

5. Feeding mechanism The feed mechanism has a different unit through which the motion is transmitted from the headstock spindle to the carriage. Following are the units • Ends of bed gearing. • Feed gear box. • Feed rod and lead screw. • Apron mechanism.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

Explain the various parts of the Carriage with their function? Ans: Carriage 1) The carriage of the lathe has several parts that serve to support, move and control the cutting tool. 2) It consist of the following parts : • Saddle. • The cross slide. • Compound slide or Compound rest. • Tool post and • Apron.

a. Saddle • The saddle is H shaped casting that fits over the bed and slides along the way. • It carries cross slide and the tool post.

b.Cross Slide • The cross slide comprises a casting, machined on the underside for attachment to the saddle and carries locations on the upper face for the tool post or compound rest. • The cross slide of the saddle is mechanized with dovetail way, at right angle to the center axis of the lathe, which serves to guide the cross slide itself.

c.Compound rest • The compound rest or compound slide is mounted on the top of the cross slide and has a circular base graduated in degrees. • It is used for obtaining angular and short taper cut as well as for positioning of the tool to the work. • Compound rest is hand operated as there is no power feed to compound rest • It can be swiveled at any angle within a circle, by loosening the two set screw which fit into V groove around the compound rest base.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

d.Tool post • The tool post is located on the top of the compound rest to hold the tool and to enable it to be adjusted to a convenient working position. • The type of mounting of tool post depends upon the class of work for which is to be used. • Rigidity of tool holder and Effective method of securing are the essential factors for designing the tool post. • Type of tool post I. Single screw tool post. II. Four bolt tool post. III. Open side tool post. IV. Four way tool post

e. Apron • The apron is fastened to the saddle and hangs over the Front of the bed. • It contains gear, clutches and lever for operating carriage by hand and power feeds. • The apron also contains friction clutches for automatic feeds.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

STANDARD COMPONENTS OF MOST LATHES

Explanation of the standard components of most lathes: • Bed: Usually made of cast iron. Provides a heavy rigid frame on which all the main components are mounted. • Ways: Inner and outer guide rails that are precision machined parallel to assure accuracy of movement. • Headstock: mounted in a fixed position on the inner ways, usually at the left end. Using a chuck, it rotates the work. • Gearbox: inside the headstock, providing multiple speeds with a geometric ratio by moving levers. Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process

• Spindle: Hole through the headstock to which bar stock can be fed, which allows shafts that are up to 2 times the length between lathe centers to be worked on one end at a time. • Chuck: 3-jaw (self centering) or 4-jaw (independent) to clamp part being machined. • Chuck: allows the mounting of difficult workpieces that are not round, square or triangular. • Tailstock: Fits on the inner ways of the bed and can slide towards any position the headstock to fit the length of the work piece. An optional taper turning attachment would be mounted to it. • Tailstock Quill: Has a Morse taper to hold a lathe center, drill bit or other tool. • Carriage: Moves on the outer ways. Used for mounting and moving most the cutting tools. • Cross Slide: Mounted on the traverse slide of the carriage, and uses a handwheel to feed tools into the workpiece. • Tool Post: To mount tool holders in which the cutting bits are clamped. • Compound Rest: Mounted to the cross slide, it pivots around the tool post. • Apron: Attached to the front of the carriage, it has the mechanism and controls for moving the carriage and cross slide. • Feed Rod: Has a keyway, with two reversing pinion gears, either of which can be meshed with the mating bevel gear to forward or reverse the carriage using a clutch. • Lead Screw: For cutting threads.

Lathe machine

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Production process

• Split Nut: When closed around the lead screw, the carriage is driven along by direct drive without using a clutch. • Quick Change Gearbox: Controls the movement of the carriage using levers. • Steady Rest: Clamped to the lathe ways, it uses adjustable fingers to contact the workpiece and align it. Can be used in place of tailstock or in the middle to support long or unstable parts being machined. • Follow Rest: Bolted to the lathe carriage, it uses adjustable fingers to bear against the workpiece opposite the cutting tool to prevent deflection.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process Comparison of capstan and turret lathe No. Capstan lathe Turret lathe 1. Short slide since the saddle is Saddle moves along the bed, thus clamped on the bed in position. allowing the turret to be of large size.

2.

Light duty machine, generally for Heavy duty machine, generally for components whose diameter is components with large diameters as less than 50mm. 200mm.

3.

Too much overhang of the turret Since the turret slides on the bed, when it is nearing cut. there is no such difference. Turret lathes are larger, in size as compared to capstan lathes. A turret lathe has the (hexagon) tool head mounted on a saddle sliding directly on the bed. Turret lathe having a capacity for bar work up to 200 mm diameter X 1500 mm long or for chuck work upto 750 mm diameter

4 5

A Capstan lathe is usually a small or medium size machine The tool head carried upon a slide mounted in a saddle bolted to the bed of the lathe. Capstan lathes ale limited to a maximum of 300 mm diameter chucks.

6.

Short slide since the saddle is Saddle moves along the bed, thus 7 clamped on the bed in position. allowing the turret to be of large size.

8

Light duty machine, generally for Heavy duty machine, generally for components with large diameters as components whose diameter is 200mm less than 50mm. Too much overhang of the turret when it is nearing cut. Since the turret slides on the bed, there is no such difference.

9

Capstan LatheS
Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process

PARTS OF CAPSTAN LATHE A B C D E F TURRET LOCKING HANDLE TURRET CAPSTAN CAPSTAN REST CAPSTAN SLIDE BLOCK SLIDING BRIDGE

Main parts of Capstan Lathes

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process The main parts of a horizontal turret lathe are: i. ii. iii. iv. Bed Head stock, spindle, chuck etc., Carriage Turret.

1. BED • • • The bed is a long, box like casting fitted with rectangular ways upon which are mounted the carriage, and turret. It also supports the headstock. The bed provides strength and rigidity to other parts. It ensures proper alignment of parts also.

2. Headstock • The headstock is a large casting located on the left end of the bed. • It houses the transmission mechanism (gears etc.) which operates the spindle at various speeds. • These speeds are controlled by the built in speed selector.

3. Carriage: • • • The carriage is fitted over the ways of the bed. Mounted on it is the tool post. The front of the carriage includes the apron which contains the feed mechanism.

4. Turret: The turret is a hexagon on square shaped tool holder.

Turret Lathe

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

HEADSTOCK SPINDLE PILOT BAR TOOLPOST REAR TOOL POST CROSS SLIDE INTERMEDIATE SLIDE TURRET TURRET CLAMP LEVER SADDLE LOCKING LEVER STAR HANDLE FOR TURRET OPERATION TURRET APRON TURRET SADDLE INTERMEDIATE SADDLE APRON FEED GEARBOX

Main parts of Turret Lathes – The main parts of a horizontal turret lathe are: Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process 1. Bed 2. Head stock, spindle, chuck etc., 3. Carriage 4. Turret. 1. BED • • • The bed is a long, box like casting fitted with rectangular ways upon which are mounted the carriage, and turret. It also supports the headstock. The bed provides strength and rigidity to other parts. It ensures proper alignment of parts also.

2. Headstock • The headstock is a large casting located on the left end of the bed. • It houses the transmission mechanism (gears etc.) which operates the spindle at various speeds. • These speeds are controlled by the built in speed selector. 3. Carriage: • • • The carriage is fitted over the ways of the bed. Mounted on it is the tool post. The front of the carriage includes the apron which contains the feed mechanism.

4. Turret: • The turret is a hexagon on square shaped tool holder mounted on the saddle or carriage on the bed ways. • The main ram turret usually is six sided, and provision is made for mounting tools on each of the six faces. • The turret can be rotated about a vertical axis to bring each tool into operating position, and the entire unit can be moved longitudinally, either manually or by power, to provide feed for the tools.

Comparison of capstan and turret lathe Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process Sr.No. Capstan lathe Turret lathe 1. Short slide since the saddle is Saddle moves along the bed, thus clamped position. 2. for 3. Too much overhang of the turret when it is nearing cut. components whose Since the turret slides on the bed, there is no such difference. on the bed in allowing the turret to be of large size. Heavy duty machine, generally for components with large diameters as Light duty machine, generally 200mm. diameter is less than 50mm.

Lathe accessories and Attachments Lathe accessories 1) The equipment which are used for holding and supporting are called Lathe accessories. 2) Lathe accessories include • Centers • Catch plate and carriers • Chuck • Collets Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process • • • • Face plate Angle plate Mandrels and Rests

Lathe attachment 1) The equipment which is used for specific purpose is called Lathe attachment. 2) Lathe attachment include • Stops, • Ball turning rests • Thread chasing dials and • Attachments used for grinding, milling, gear cutting, turret.

Lathe accessories a. Lathe centers • The most common method of holding the work in the lathe is between the two centers – LIVE CENTER and DEAD CENETER. • These two centers take up thrust due to metal cutting and the entire load of the work piece on the small bearing surfaces.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process • •

Centers are made up of hard material to resist deflection and wear. The dead center is subjected to wear due to friction. The included angle of the center is usually 600 for general purpose work and 750 for heavy work.

Types of lathe Centers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ordinary center Tipped centers. Ball centers. Insert type centers. Rotating or frictionless centers. Pipe Centers.

b. Carriers and Catch plate • • • Carrier and catch plate are used to drive a workpiece when it is held between its centers. Carrier or driving dog are attached to the end of the workpiece by a set screw and Catch plate are either screwed or bolted to the nose of the headstock spindle. Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process • A projecting pin from the catch plate or carriers fits into the slot provided in either of them. This imparts positive drive between the lathe spindle and work piece. The projecting pin of single plate catch plate drives the straight end or tail of carrier attached to the workpiece. Two pins of double pin catch plate drive engage with double tail or double slot carrier and provide uniform drive. The bent tail is used in conjunction with a face plate or slotted plate.

• • •

C. Chuck • • A chuck is the one of most important device used for holding and rotating a piece of work in the lathe. Workpiece of short length and large diameter of irregular shape which can not be conveniently mounted between the centers are held quickly and rigidly in chuck.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process • • A chuck is attached to the lathe spindle by means of bolts with a back plate screwed on to the Spindle nose. Accurate alignment of chuck with the lathe axis is effected by spigot ting.

Types of CHUCK • Four jaw independent chuck. • Three jaw universal chuck. • Air or hydraulic operated chuck. • Magnetic chuck. • Collect chuck. • Combination Chuck. • Drill chuck.

d. Face plate

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

FACE PLATE

• • •

A face plate consists of the circular disc bored out and threaded to fit the nose of the lathe spindle. This has a radial plain and T slot for holding work by bolts and clamp. Face plate are used for holding workpieces which cannot be conveniently held between the centers or by chucks.

e. Angel plate

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

Figure illustrate the use of angle plate • •

This is a CI plate have two faces machined to make them absolutely at right angle to each other. Holes and slots are provided on both the faces so that it may be clamped on a faceplate and can hold the workpiece on the other face by bolts and clamps. Angle plates are used in conjunction with face plate when the holding surfaces of the work pieces should be kept horizontal. Example: machining of the pipe elbow.

Lathe operation

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

Classification of lathe operation

Lathe machine

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Production process

Operation performed by holding workpiece between the centers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Straight turning. Shoulder turning. chamfering Thread cutting. Facing. Knurling. Filing. Taper turning. Eccentric turning.

Operation performed by holding workpiece by a chuck or face plate or angle plate 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Drilling. reaming boring counter boring taper boring tapping Internal thread cutting. Under cutting Parting off.

Operation performed by holding by using special attachment 1. Grinding. 2. Milling.

1. Centering

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process • When the work is required to be turned between the centers or between a chuck and a center, a conical shape hole must be provided at the ends of the workpiece to provide bearing surfaces for lathe centers. Centering is the operation of producing conical holes in workpieces.

2. Turning

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process Turning in the lathe is to remove excess of the material from the workpiece to produce a cone shaped or cylindrical surface • • Types of turning Straight turning.( Rough turning and finish turning ) Shoulder turning. Straight turning a. The work is turned straight when it is made to rotate about the lathe axis and the tool is fed parallel to the lathe axis. b. The straight turning produces cylindrical surfaces by removing the excess of the metal from the workpiece. Rough turning The rough turning is the process of removal of excess of material from the workpiece in a minimum time by applying high rate and heavy depth of the cut. In Rough turning operation • Depth of cut ranges :2-5 mm • Feed: 0.3-0.3mm/rev of workpiece. finish turning The finish turning is the operation which requires high cutting speed and small feed and a very small depth of ct to generate a smooth surface.

In Finish turning operation • Depth of cut ranges :05-1 mm • Feed: 0.1-0.3mm/rev of workpiece.

Taper turning

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process 1) Taper turning means to produce a conical surface by gradual reduction in diameter from a cylindrical workpiece. 2) A taper may be turned in a lathe by feeding the tool at an angle to the axis of the rotation of the workpiece. 3) The angle formed by the path of the tool with the axis of the workpiece should correspond half the angle. 4) While turning the taper, it is essential that the tool cutting edge should be set accurately on the center line of the workpiece otherwise correct taper will not be obtained. A taper may be turned by any one of the following method • By a broad nose form tool. • • • • By setting over the tailstock centers. By swivel ling the compound rest. By a taper turning attachment. By combining longitudinal and cross feed in a special lathe.

Application Machine spindle have taper holes which receive taper shank of various tools and work holding device

Chamfering Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process

1) Chamfering is the operation of beveling the extreme ends of a workpiece. 2) This is done • To remove the burrs. • To protect the end of workpiece from being damaged & • To have a better look. 3) The operation may be performed after knurling, rough turning, boring, drilling and thread cutting. 4) Chamfering is essential operation after thread cutting so that but may pass freely on threaded workpiece

Facing Lathe machine T.V.S.

Production process

1) Facing is the operation of machining the end of a piece of a work to produce a flat surface square with the axis. 2) This is also used to cut the work to the required length. 3) Facing involves feeding the tool perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the workpiece 4) During Facing • A properly ground facing tool must be used. • A regular turning tool may also be used. • The cutting edge should be set at the same height as the center of the workpiece.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process IMP Definition 1. Cutting speed • The cutting speed of the tool is the speed at which the metal is removed by the tool from the workpiece. • Cutting speed is expressed in meters per minute. • Cutting speed = πdn/ 1000 m/min

2. Feed • The feed of a cutting tool is the distance the tool advances for each revolution of the work. • Feed is expressed in millimeters per revolution. 3. Depth of Cut • The depth of the cut is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to the uncut surface of the workpiece. • In lathe the depth of the cut is expressed as


4.

d1 = diameter of the workpiece before machining. d2 = diameter of the machined surfaces. Depth of cut varies inversely to the cutting speed.
 

Machining time

l= length of job in mm. s= feed of the job in mm /rev. n =rpm of the work. l /s =number of revolution for a complete cut.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

Numerical Control (N.C) It can be defined as a programmable automation in which the process is controlled by numbers, letters and symbols. Components of N.C o Program of instructions o Machine control unit o Machine tool N.C. Procedure o Process planning o Part programming o Tape preparation o Tape verification o Production Components Of CNC • • • • • • • • • A tape reader Micro or mini computer Computer hardware interface and servo mechanism Machine tool Greater flexibility High productivity Good reliability Metric conversions Memory functions

Advantages

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process Manual part programming • • • • • • • • • • Coordinate function Feed function Speed function Tool function Preparatory functions Miscellaneous functions Program number Tool length compensation Cutter radius compensation Canned cycles

Computer assisted part programming Preparing the part programs for CNC machine tools manually is a viable system for any kind of job. But the assistance of a computer is desirable for part programming because of a variety of reasons. The first and foremost in this respect is the complexity of the work piece which makes manufal part programming a very difficult exercise. Close tolerance contouring to some mathematically defined, or through a set of points other than a circular arc, is an example requiring too many coordinate calculations making manual part programming too tedious to be practicable.

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

Production process

APT language The complete APT part program consists of the following four types of statements • • • • Geometry Motion Post processor auxiliary

Lathe machine

T.V.S.

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