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CHECK LIST FOR DESIGN OF PILS FOUNDATIONS


by R. B. Peck The d e s i g n of a p i l e f o u n d a t i o n cannot b e c a r r i e d o u t by cook-book pro-. cedures. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d e s i g n can proceed i n a r a t i o n a l m a t t e r such t h a t no important p o i n t s a r e overlooked. The f o l l o w i n g c h e c k l i s t is undoutedly o v e r s i m p l i f i e d , b u t i t may prove w e f u l . Check L i s t
1. Perf o m s u b s u r f a c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and draw s o i l prof i l e ( s ) a c r o s s s i t e , showing a p p r o p r i a t e numerical v a l u e s of s o i l ' p r o p e r t i e s . I n d i c a t e i f and . where man-made o b s t r u c t i o n s may occur.

2 . I d e n t i f y and c l a s s i f y zones i n t h e s u b s o i l a c c o r d i n g t o whether they a r e f a v o r a b l e o r u n f a v o r a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o f o u n d a t i o n performance.


a. Favorable: s t r o n g , r e l a t i v e l y i n c o m p r e s s i b l e
b . Unfavorable: weak, c o m p r e s s i b l e
'

3. Determine n a t u r e of t h e l o a d s t o b e supported and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of t h e i r occurrence.


4 , Assume, s u c c e s s i v e l y , t h a t t h e p i l e s w i l l be supported by o r i n each of t h e f a v o r a b l e zones and c a l c u l a t e ( o r e s t i m a t e ) t h e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of a l l o v e r l y i n g ( n e g a t i v e s k i n f r i c t i o n ) and u n d e r l y i n g ( s e t t l e m e n t ) u n f a v o r a b l e zones. E l i m i n a t e a l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e s .
\

f )

5. For m h s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e , d e t e r m i n e a p p r o p r i a t e s h a p e s ( s 1 of p i l e ( t a p e r , bulb, c y l i n d r i c a l , etc. )

6. For each a p p r o p r i a t e shape, choose d i a m e t e r and r e a s o n a b l e l o a d p e r p i l e , and e s t i m a t e p i l e l e n g t h ,

7. Consider problems of i n s t a l l a t i o n (heave, j e t t i n g , d i s t o r t i o n , d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , e t c . ) and e l i m i n a t e u n s u i t a b l e t y p e s .

8. Make g e n e r a l economic comparison of remaining s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and design accordingly. 9. Check f o r group a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e s i g n ( c a p a c i t y , s e t t l e m e n t ) and c o n s t r u c t i o n (compact i o n , heave) ,
\ '

10. Determine i f p i l e l o a d t e s t s a r e needed. I f s o , s p e c i f y procedure, i n c l u d i n g t h a t f o r d r i v i n g t e s t p i l e s . Make s u r e a l l s u p p o r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n is t o be o b t a i n e d (hammer, c u s h i o n b l o c k , complete d r i v i n g r e c o r d , e t c . ) .

11. E s t a b l i s h r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r hammer and c u s h i o n b l o c k s ; d e t e r m i n e whether - p i l e s a r e t o b e d t i v e n t o q p e c i f i e d r e s i s t a n c e ; e s t a b l i s h how r e s i s t a r i c e i s t o be determined (based on l o a d t e s t s , formula formula f i t t e d t o l o a d t e s t , experience i n l o c a l i t y ? ) .

12. E s t a b l i s h any n e c e s s a r y r e s t r i c t i o n s on i n s t a l l a t i o n procedures and r e s u l t s ( v e r t i c a l i t y , s t r a i g h t n e s s , water i n p i l e s , v i r b a t i o n s , e t c . ) , 13. Review r e a s o n a b l e n e s s of d e s i g n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Are t h e e p e c i f i c a t i o n s c l e a r a s t o what t h e c o n t r a c t o r must do? Are t h e y c l e a r as t o what. he w i l l be p a i d f o r ? Do t h e y p r o v i d e f o r prompt adjustment t o meet unexpected c o n d i t i o n s ?

Conclusion. Imperfect a s t h e f o r e g o i n g check l i s t may be, i t embodies t h e e s s e n t i a l s t e p s toward good design. An e n g i n e e r who keeps up w i t h developmcnts i n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e can f i t new f i n d i n g s i n t o t h e framework. H i s If he has done d e s i g n s should t h e n b e ab sound a s p r e s e n t knowledge p e n u i t r . h i s job w e l l , problems should be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e brought about by t h e i n e v i t a b l e shortcomings i n t h e s t a t e of t h e a r t , and t h e s e rhould be s u s c e p t i b l e t o s o l u t i o n on t h e job by r e a s o n a b l e men.