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# DC MOTORS AND GENERATOR ATITA NOTES (21-01Plan 4) 1.

1A direct current motor is rotating machine which converts direct current energy into mechanical energy. It consists of two main parts, a field and an armature. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF THE D.C. MOTOR 2. The strength of the magnetic field around the conductor is proportional to the current in the conductor. Increase the current flow and the strength of the circular magnetic field is also increased. 3. Take a straight conductor (piece of wire) pass a direct current along it, a circular magnetic field is set up around the conductor. The direction of this field may be found by using the CORKSCREW RULE. Fleming's Left Hand Rule 4. To know which finger to use, emphasize the capital letter as shown. MOTION (force) = thumb FIELD = First finger CURRENT = second finger 5. We use the LEFT HAND RULE for MOTORS, knowing any two of the directions it enables us to determine the third direction. COMMUTATOR 6. The two ends of wire are soldered respectively to the two halves of a COMMUTATOR. 7. A battery is connected to the commutator via two carbon brushes, which are held in contact with springs, when current flows the coil rotates 8. The purpose of the commutator is to reverse the coil current. 9. To keep the loop rotating in the same direction the current flow in the loop must be reversed every 180 of rotation. This is achieved by the commutator. 10 .To maintain rotation by reversing the loop (armature) current. ARMATURE 11 To improve our simple d.c. motor we add more loops of wire with their own commutator segments which will give a smoother running motor. 12 We can now use the correct name for our simple coils, the ARMATURE.

Field 13 The uniform field can be produced by a permanent magnet or an electro-magnet, the electro-magnet is the most common in aircraft motors.

Back E.M.F. The direction of this induced E.M.F. (LENZ'S LAW) is such that it opposes the motion producing it; it therefore opposes the voltage applied to the armature. The value of this back E.M.F. is proportional to the strength of the field and the speed of rotation but is always less than the applied voltage. It is the difference between the applied voltage and the back E.M.F. which drives the current through the resistance of' the armature. This difference is referred to as the effective voltage. Effective voltage = applied voltage - back E.M.F.

## ARMATURE REACTION, IN A D.C. MOTOR

When the armature of a motor is carrying current, the main field of the motor is distorted by the magnetic flux resulting from the armature current. Reactive Sparking For a two pole motor each half of the armature windings carries half of the armature current. As each coil passes under the brush it is shorted out and then the current is reversed. This induced E.M.F. is applied between the trailing edge of the commutator segment and the brush in the form of a spark which is known as reactive sparking. As the majority of aircraft loads are almost constant the usual method of compensating for REACTIVE SPARKING is to move the brushes under the MNA. (AGAINST THE ROTATION).

MOTOR SPEED
The motor speed can be controlled by varying the current in the field windings. Increasing the field current will increase the back E.M.F. in the armature and therefore less armature current flows. The motor therefore slows down with an increase in field current. Another method of speed control current is to vary the armature current. Increasing the armature current will increase the motor speed.

MOTOR TORQUE
The torque of the motor is proportional to the product of the armature current and the flux per pole. The relationship between torque and armature current is known as the torque characteristics of the motor

## LOSSES IN A D.C. MOTOR

COPPER LOSSES These are electrical losses (I2R). (a) Field windings. (b) Inter pole and compensating windings. (c) Armature windings. IRON LOSSES These are the magnetic circuit losses. (a) Hysteresis loss in the armature, (b) Eddy current loss in the armature and field poles. FRICTION LOSSES These are purely mechanical losses. (a) Wind age resistance of the armature. (b) Friction of the bearings. (c) Friction of the brushes. Main Points Remember Increasing the field flux will increase the back E.M.F. Increasing the back E.M.F. will reduce the armature current Reducing the armature current will reduce the force or torque of the armature. If the field flux is decreased the motor speed increases.