You are on page 1of 63

Terrorism

in
India
Case study with reference to Northeast
India
-
Prashant Divekar
Jnana Prabodhini,Pune
 Introduction to terrorism in Northeast India
 Case study : Mizoram , Nagaland
 Phases of insurgency
 Present security situation in India
 Can we find solution ?
Welcome to Northeast
India
North East India

China

na
Chi

My
n

an
uta

ma
Bh

r
Chicken Neck 32 km
Terrorism
North East faces insurgencies or armed separatist
movements from over 50 relatively stronger groups !
Each conflict with its own roots & history
Language & Ethnicity
Tribal rivalry
Migration
Terrorism
Control over resources
Exploitation & alienation
Destabilization efforts
Instability parameters
in Northeast india
 Historical legacy
 Cultural cleavage
 Economic backwardness
 Geopolitics
 Demographic aggression
 Dynamics of crossfire
The Principal Insurgencies

•ULFA, BdSF in Assam
•NSCN (I-M), NSCN (K), NNC in Nagaland
•PLA, PREPAK, KNA in Manipur
•TUJS, TNV, ATTF, NLFT in Tripura
•ALA, HALC in Meghalaya

These are the major players. Almost all tribes
have an armed outfit
Major Insurgent Groups in NE
Name Area of Allies Training
action
BdSF / Indo-Bhutan ULFA, KIA Manas,
NDFB border Nilphamari
(Bdesh)
ULFA Upper Assam KIA,ISI, KIA, NSCN,
ALP Bdesh
PLA Imphal Valley PREPAK,K Burma
IA
NLFT Tripura IM Bdesh
NSCN(IM) Nagaland, SDUFSEH Nagaland,
Manipur, R Bdesh, Burma
Barak
NSCN(K) Mon, Tirap KIA Burma
Main Players of Insurgent Outfits and their Base Camps

Source : South Asia’s Fractured Frontier
Demand for
separate
Nationhood
2. Greater Nagaland Ngl. + Asm. + Ap. + Mnp.
3. Bodo land Assom (4 districts)
4. Karbi land Assom (1 district)
5. Dimasa land Assom (2 districts Nch + Dmp)
6. Kamtapur state Assom ( Gwalpara to Siliguri)
7. Garo land Meghalaya (2 districts)
8. Khasi land Meghalaya (2 districts)
9. Swadhin Assom (23 districts)
10. Greater Bangladesh (26 districts Asm+w.ban+Bhr+
Jhk)
11. Kanglai pak (4 districts Manipur)
Geo-political Location
Demographic Imbalance
This issue poses a great threat to the National Security
Causes
•Bangladeshi Intruders
•Migrants and refugees
•Contact with the out side world
Effects
•Clashes with in various ethnic groups
•Local – non local and tribal – non tribal fights
•Disputes over the resources
•Increasing anti-national activities
Why Influx?
Illegal migrants – Ghuspaithi

 High density
population
 Low economic
strength
 Pressure of
fundamentalist
on local Govt.
 Porous border
 Interests of Indian
politicians
 Greater Bangladesh
Progress of Christianity

 Disturb States
 Nagalim for Christ
 Christ as a god for tribal
 Force , Fraud,
insentives
Towards
“Greater Bangladesh
abnormal increase of muslim popula

Assam 09 Dist.
W. Bengal 10 Dist.
Bihar 04 Dist.
Jharkhand 02 Dist.
RELIGIOUS PROFILE OF
ASOM
1901 1071 1981 1991 2001

IR 84.55 72.83 70.53 68.25 65.38

M 15.03 24.56 26.52 28.43 30.92

C 0.41 2.61 2.95 3.32 3.70
THE NORTH EAST
(EXCEPT ASOM)
1901 1981 1991 2001

IR 91.2 62.6 56.4 49.4

M 6.6 4.4 4.7 5.2

C 2.2 33.0 39.0 45.4
IDENTITY CRISIS
Nepali? Chaines? Japnis?
Perhaps the most important and delicate social
issue !
Who are we ? Where do we stand ?
Are we linked with the rest of the Indian society ?
Effects of Terrorism

Drug trafficking
Extortion

Terrorism Volatile situation
Insecurity
AIDS
Other Social problems
Case study
Mizoram
Mizoram
 1891: The British capture control of the Mizoram area and
merge it into Assam province.
 April 1946: A political party, the Mizo Union,
 1954: The institution of the chieftainship is abolished in
Mizoram. The loss of the special
 privileges and powers of local chiefs raises resentment
 1959: A major famine occurs in Mizoram resulting in
thousands of deaths. a decline in the Mizo Union’s popularity
 1961: The Mizo National Famine Front is formed by Laldenga
reportedly in response to central government indifference to
the famine
Mizoram
 October 1962: The Mizo National Famine Front is renamed the Mizo
National Front (MNF).
 February 28, 1966: The Mizo National Volunteer (renamed the Mizo
National Army in earlyMarch), the military wing of the MNF, seizes and
holds the capital of Aizawal for eight days.The 1000-odd fighters also
capture control of other key towns in the Mizo hills and raid government
treasuries and arms depots
 Operation Jericho -- the campaign to liberate the Mizo hills and wage
insurgent warfare against Indian forces
 1966-68: The Presbyterian and Baptist churches attempt to peacefully
resolve the conflict.
 1971: During the Indo-Pakistani war over Bangladesh, the MNF is caught
in the dispute. Laldenga flees to the Arakan province of Burma, then
Karachi (Pakistan), and finally returns to the Chittagong Hills in
Bangladesh
Mizoram
 January 1976: Laldenga arrives in New Delhi from Europe.
 February 1976: A secret agreement is signed between MNF and
government leaders in which the MNF acknowledges that Mizoram is
an integral part of India and that any settlement will abide by the
country's constitution . Union government offers general amnesty and
economic help such as a rehabilitation package to surrendering MNF
cadres.
 1980 Laldenga holds talks with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. All
charges against him are dropped. Laldenga also orders an MNF
ceasefire and publicly disavows terrorism.
 1985 Laldenga meets Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.
 30 June 1986 Mizo Accord signed between Union government and
MNF.
Nagaland
Nagaland

 Oldest player and performing the pivotal role.
 Most troubles are result of our ignorance, misplaced
arrogance, separateness (fostered).
 Naga hills was the very last British annexation.
 Was Nagaland an intrinsic part of India’s politico-cultural
milieu ?
 Spread of Christianity-.
 Rev. Bronson, Namsang (Tirap) in 1836.

 Rev. Clarke baptized 9 Aos in 1872.

 Baptist never looked back.

 Chief administrative center was established in Kohima (1878).
Nagaland
 Naga club (1918). Important chiefs, British authorities, educated
Nagas and people returned from WW1.
 Simon commission visited Kohima in 1929. Naga club demanded the
return of their liberty when India got her independence.
 Participation in WW2, hoping for liberty.
 April 1945: “Naga hills district tribal council” (by sir Charles).
 Naga club to Naga national council (NNC) in ’46.
 “Naga unification and freedom” T. Aliba Imti Ao.
Nagaland
 1950-54: start of Naga insurgency. Phizo started an
underground government and an army.
 December 1963, formation of Nagaland.
 Phizo shifted to UK and was active through Naga vigil.
 Naga rebels started training under Chinese.
 Shillong accord in ’75. NNC dissolved and NSCN born.
 A vertical split in 1988. (IM and K).
 IM formed SDUFSEHR.
 Ceasefire from 1997. IM & K fight with each other.
Nagalim
 40 tribes
 4 million people
 1,20,000 sq. km.
 India + Myamar
 ‘Nagalim For
Christ’
 Support of West
North East of India

Design In Separating
North East from India

ARUNACHAL

ASSAM
Mizo –naga problem
comparison

 Integrating all sub  Naga identity +
tribes under on mizo separate sub tribal
cohesive identity identity (23 sub tribes)
 Greater Mizoram  Greater nagaland
identity was given by identity
major groups ( ? ) Meitis- kukis- assamies
Angami- sema - tangkhuls
Dynamics of crossfire 1
(going beyond boundary)
 Naga –mizo
 NSCN(K)-KIA-ULFA
Indo burma revolutionary front
 NSCN(IM)-KIA-ULFA
Indo burma liberation front
 NSCN(IM)-ALMA
 United Liberation Front of Seven Sisters (ULFSS)
 Self-defense United Front of Southeast Himalayan region
(SDUFSEHR)
 MULA, PLA, ATTA, NSCN (IM), MNF SECERATE
MEETING HELP IN DACCA
Dynamics of crossfire 1
(going beyond boundary)
 Multiple fronts
 To protect strong holds
 To mobilize additional resources

Smaller ethno-political movements play in hands of
NSCN(IM)
Naga, Mizo, Meitei
 Set examples & patterns of insurgency in Northeast
India
Phases of insurgency
Insurgency after World War
II
 Location/ target : underdeveloped
countries
 Two aspects :

Nationalism/ anti colonialism
Revolt against imperialism
Phases of insurgency
1. A political/ communal group organizes
for an objective
2. The group develops capacity for
disruptive & violent strategies of political
action
3. The group uses wide spread & organized
armed violence
4. Talk fight : settlements, demobilization,
disarmament
5. Final settlement
Common operational
objectives of insurgent groups
 Isolation from Govt.-
diplomatic,material support
 Increase international support
 Gorilla warfare
 Distrust Govt. creditability
 Establish civil services &
administration
 Capture support of critical segment
of the population
Availability of weapons
 Cross-border arms trafficking
 Large-scale cross-border
trafficking requires significant
financial resources
Quadrangle Security
Threat
China

Design for
Second Partition
Of India

Chicken’s Neck

- Developed By Former Army Perso
Main Players of Insurgent Outfits and their Base Camps

Source : South Asia’s Fractured Frontier
Present security situation in India
OVERALL SECURITY SITUATION IN
NORTH EASTERN STATES

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

45
OVERALL SECURITY SITUATION IN
NORTH EASTERN STATES
Head 2003 2 2005 2006 2006 2007
004 (30.6. (30.6.07)
06)

Incidents 1332 1 1332 1366 636 810
234
SFs killed 90 110 70 76 29 47
Civilians 494 414 393 309 130 271
killed
Extremists 523 404 406 395 209 257
killed
SECURITY SITUATION IN
NORTH EASTERN STATES
 There has been increase in the overall terrorist violence in
the North-East till 30th June, 2007 over the corresponding
period in the previous year.
 ULFA continues to be involved in increased violence.
 Manipur continues to be affected by insurgent activities of
a large number of militant outfits divided on ethnic lines.
 Inter-factional clashes in Nagaland continue to disturb the
otherwise peaceful environment.
 In 2006, situation in Tripura showed a marked
improvement. However, in the current year upto 30th June,
2007 the number of incidents of violence has increased.
 While Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh continue to
witness a few incidents of violence, Mizoram and Sikkim
remain by and large peaceful.

47
SECURITY SITUATION IN ASSAM

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

48
SECURITY SITUATION IN ASSAM

Head 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007
(30.6. (30.6.
06) 07)

Incidents 358 267 398 413 181 277
SFs killed 12 17 7 32 9 15
Civilians 182 194 173 164 61 156
killed
Extremists 207 104 74 46 17 75
killed
SECURITY SITUATION IN MANIPUR

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

50
SECURITY SITUATION IN MANIPUR

Head 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007
(30.6.0 (30.6.07
6) )
Incidents 243 478 554 498 243 299
SFs killed 27 36 50 28 15 25
Civilians 50 88 158 96 40 72
killed
Extremists 128 134 202 187 117 87
killed
SECURITY SITUATION IN NAGALAND

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

52
SECURITY SITUATION IN NAGALAND

Head 2003 2 2005 2 2006 2007
004 006 (30.6.0 (30.6.0
6) 7)
Incidents 199 186 192 309 133 155
SFs killed 03 00 01 02 0 1
Civilians 13 42 28 29 17 24
killed
Extremists 70 55 70 116 52 60
killed
SECURITY SITUATION IN TRIPURA

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

54
SECURITY SITUATION IN TRIPURA

Head 2003 2004 2005 2 2006 2007
006 (30.6.0 (30.6.
6) 07)
Incidents 394 212 115 87 35 54
SFs killed 39 46 11 14 5 4
Civilians 207 67 28 14 6 8
killed
Extremists 50 51 21 22 8 10
killed
SECURITY SITUATION IN MEGHALAYA

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

56
SECURITY SITUATION IN MEGHALAYA

Head 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007
(30.6. (30.6.
06) 07)
Incidents 85 47 37 38 28 8
SFs killed 07 08 00 00 0 0
Civilians 35 17 01 06 6 5
killed
Extremists 37 22 23 20 12 3
killed
Northeast India J&K
1600 4000
1400 3500

1200 3000

1000 2500

800 2000

600 1500

400 1000

200 500

0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006
2003 2004 2005 2006
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Terrorists killed
Incidents SFs killed Civilians killed Extremists killed

1800 2500
1600
1400 2000
1200
1000 1500
800
600
1000
400
500
200
0
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
2003 2004 2005 2006
No. of Incidents Police personnel killed Civilians killed Naxalites killed
No. of Incidents Persons killed Persons injured

Naxal violence Communal
Solution

Three point solution

 Negotiations with extremist outfits
 Socio-economic development
 Strong political will with national interest
Mutual Survival
Politician & Terrorist
 CONGRESS - NSCN(K)
 CONGRESS - TNV
 CPI(M) - ATTF

 Bangladeshi infiltration
Solution : assimilation
 Political
Mainstream politics
Negotiation talks
 Social – within northeast /with rest of India
KEY INITIATIVES IN NORTH EAST
• The Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme revised to make it more
beneficial to the States

• The Surrender cum Rehabilitation Scheme also improved and brought on par
with that in J&K. 100% expenditure on this scheme reimbursed by the
Central Government

• All the North Eastern States except Sikkim, are now being given 100% central
assistance for Modernisation of Police Forces

• Reimbursement of the cost of raising of new India Reserve Battalion has been
increased from Rs. 13 crores to Rs. 20.75 crores.

• Special Development packages announced by the Prime Minister for the States
of Assam (November, 2004 & January, 2006), Manipur (November, 2004), and
Tripura (October, 2005). The progress of implementation of these packages is
being monitored by the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region
62