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The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, [11][12] and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the"health triangle". The WHO's 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion further stated that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and peGenetics, or inherited traits from parents, also play a role in determining the health status of individuals and populations. This can encompass both the predisposition to certain diseases and health conditions, as well as the habits and behaviors individuals develop through the lifestyle of their families. For example, genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with stress, either mental, emotional or physical. (One difficulty is the issue raised by the debate over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions between genetics and environment may be of particular importance.)rsonal [13] resources, as well as physical capacities."

Why do we fall ill

Diseases may be infectious or non-infectious. Infectious diseases are caused by microbes or other infectious agents (e.g. Malaria) whereas non-infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are called communicable diseases since they can. Communicable diseases can spread through air, water, food, sexual contact ve internal, non-infectious causes (e.g. High blood pressure).

There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological diseaare clinically evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms, and aberrant proteins known as prions. An infection that does not and will not produce clinically evident impairment of normal functioning, such as the presence of the normal bacteria and yeasts in the gut, is not considered a disease; by contrast, an infection that is asymptomatic during its incubation period, but expected to produce symptoms later, is usually considered a disease. Non-infectious diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancer, heart disease, and genetic

Infectious dieases
Infectious diseases are sometimes called "contagious" when they are easily transmitted by contact with an ill person or their secretions (e.g., influenza). Thus, acontagious disease is a subset of infectious disease that is especially infective or easily transmitted. Other types of infectious/transmissible/communicable diseases with more specialized routes of infection, such as vector transmission or sexual transmission, are usually not regarded as "contagious," and often do not require me. The term infectivity describes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is [2] transmitted to other hosts. Transmission of pathogen can occur in various ways including physical [1] contact, contaminated food, body fluids, objects, airborne inhalation, or through vector organisms. dical isolation

Autoimmune dieases
In both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases the condition arises through aberrant reactions of the human adaptive or innate immune systems. In autoimmunity, the patients immune system is activated against the body's own proteins. In inflammatory diseases, it is the overreaction of the immune system, and its subsequent downstream signaling (TNF, IFN, etc.), which causes problems. Mitigation of inflammation by activation of anti-inflammatory genes and the suppression of inflammatory genes in [83][84][85] immune cells is a promising way of novel therapies. A substantial minority of the population suffers from these diseases, which are often chronic, debilitating, [86] and life-threatening. There are more than eighty illnesses caused by autoimmunity. It has been estimated that autoimmune diseases are among the ten leading causes of death among women in all age [87] groups up to 65 years.


Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms aremicroscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, [4] like Thiomargarita namibiensis, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye. Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microbes may [5] play a role in precipitation and weather. Escherichia coli encompasses an enormous population of bacteria that exhibit a very high degree of both genetic and phenotypic diversity.

Bacteria may also contain plasmids, which are small extra-chromosomal DNAs that may contain genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors.Bacteria, as asexual organisms, inherit identical copies of their parent's genes (i.e., they are clonal). However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or mutations. Mutations come from errors made during the replication of DNA or from exposure to mutagens. Mutation rates vary widely among [116] different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria. Genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from either random mutation during replication or "stress-directed mutation", where genes involved in a particular growth-limiting process have an increased mutation [117] rate.

Asexual reproduction via vegetative spores (conidia) or through mycelial fragmentation is common; it maintains clonal populations adapted to a specific niche, and allows more rapid dispersal than sexual [70] reproduction. The "Fungi imperfecti" (fungi lacking the perfect or [71] sexualStageor Deuteromycota comprise all the species which lack an observable sexual cycle.

, Virus
common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecaloral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water. HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The range of host cells that a virus can infect is called its "host range". This can be narrow or, as when a virus is capable of infecting many species, broViral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Antibiotics have no effect on [8] viruses, but several antiviral drugs have been

The pellicle is a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in various protozoa, protecting them and allowing them to retain their shape, especially during locomotion, allowing the organism to be morehydrodynamic. They vary from flexible and elastic to rigid. Although somewhat stiff, the pellicle is also flexible and allows the protist to fit into tighter spaces. In ciliates and Apicomplexa, it is formed from closely packed vesicles called alveoli. In euglenids, it is formed from protein strips arranged spirally along the length of the body. Examples of protists with a pellicle are the euglenoids and the paramecium, a ciliate.

Unlike predators, parasites are generally much smaller than their host; both are special cases [2] of consumer-resource interactions. Parasites show a high degree ofspecialization, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms, flukes, the Plasmodium species, and fleas.Schistosomes are atypical trematodes in that the adult stages have two sexes (dioecious) and are located in blood vessels of the definitive host. Most other trematodes are hermaphroditic and are found in the intestinal tract or in organs, such as the liver. The lifecycle of schistosomes includes two hosts: a definitive host (i.e. human) where the parasite undergoes sexual reproduction, and a single intermediate snail host where there are a number of asexual reproductive stages. S. mansoni is named after Sir Patrick Manson, who first identified [2] it in Formosa (Taiwan).

A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Vaccines may be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated; see cancer vaccine).

nactivated or Killed Vaccine

Certain organisms when killed by heat or chemicals and then introduced into the body induce immunity. Killed vaccines are not as effective as live vaccines. For instance the pertussis vaccine, after three doses is about 80% effective in the first three years and after 12 years not at all. Inactivated vaccines may require two or three doses. These are administered by injections. Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, cholera, rabies, and hepatitis B are some diseases that are combated with killed vaccines.

Certain organisms when killed by heat or chemicals and then introduced into the body induce immunity. Killed vaccines are not as effective as live vaccines. For instance the pertussis vaccine, after three doses is about 80% effective in the first three years and after 12 years not at all. Inactivated vaccines may require two or three doses. These are administered by injections.

Cellular fractions
Some vaccines are prepared from fractions of the cell. The meningococcal vaccine is produced from the polysaccharide antigen on the cell wall. These vaccines are safe and effective but for a limited duration.

Combination Vaccines
This is a mix of two or more types of vaccines. This enables easier administration, reduces cost and avoids repeated contact with the patient. DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus) vaccine is given in a single shot. Some vaccines combine two strains of the same species. Polio and influenza vaccines are prepared this way.

Immunoglobulins are specific protein substances that are produced by certain cells in the body to help in fighting infection. They are also referred to as antibodies and are a vital part of the body's defence mechanism. Immunoglobulins are of five different types - Immunoglobulin G, A, M, D and E. These are classified based upon the speed with which they are formed in response to the infection, as well as their mechanism and site of action. The invading organisms or vaccines promote the production of immunoglobulins (antibodies) against that particular disease-causing organism which is then destroyed. The body also retains in its memory the template of the diseasecausing organism so that the next time it attacks, the antibodies are quick to counter any threat to the body and the person does not develop the disease.

Antisera, antitoxins
Materials prepared in animals are called antisera. Since human immunoglobulin preparations are not available for all diseases, we rely on antitoxins produced from animal sources. These are used to fight tetanus, diphtheria, gas gangrene, snakebite and botulism. Antisera can produce serum sickness due to the recipient's sensitivity. So, today the preference is toward immunoglobulins. Some Processes associated with preparation of Vaccines

To "attenuate" is to weaken a live micro-organism by ageing it or altering its growth conditions. This is accomplished by serial passage, that is, passing the live micro-organism through animal tissue several times to reduce its potency.

For example, measles virus is passed through chick embryos, poliovirus through monkey kidneys, and the rubella virus through human diploid cells - the dissected organs of an aborted foetus. Vaccines made in this way are often the most successful vaccines, probably because they multiply in the body thereby causing a large immune response. However, these live, attenuated vaccines also carry the greatest risk because they can mutate back to the virulent form at any time.

Some vaccines are made from toxins. In these cases, the toxin is often treated with aluminium or adsorbed onto aluminium salts to decrease the toxin's harmful effects. After the treatment, the toxin is called a "toxoid". Examples of toxoids are the diphtheria and the tetanus vaccines. Vaccines made from toxoids often induce low-level immune responses and are therefore sometimes administered with an "adjuvant", an agent that increases the immune response. For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are often combined with the pertussis vaccine and administered together as a DPT vaccination. The pertussis acts as an adjuvant in this vaccine.