School ofInformation and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300 Cheoncheondong, Suwon,Gyeonggido, 440746, Korea Address Including Country Name
bkleeskku@skku.edu
Abstract This paper proposes the advanced model of brushless dc motor drives considered behaviour of commutation and waveform of backEMF for dynamic simulation of automotive application under Matlab/Simulink environment. We need a model of BLDC motor drives that control algorithm and BLDC motor drive system can be designed and simulated as a point of
system level. The model has to consider commutation phenomenon. A waveform of backEMF of BLDC motor can be modified to depend on BLDC motor type. To satisfy above
design process. It makes possible to vary and optimize components and subsystems designs and to predict performance of the system for given goals and constraints [2]. Several simulation models have been proposed for the
BLDC motor drives are indispensable for the rapid prediction of the motor drive system during the evaluation of different BLDC motors and designing control algorithms early in the
factors need a cosimulation technique with other circuit level simulation tools. However, there are severe constraints, i.e. [35]. Even though the previous works made a great simulation speed and interface with tools. The advanced model contribution to simulate the BLDC motor drives, no models proposed in this paper considers behaviour of commutation and are appropriate for development and analysis of control waveform of backEMF for comprehensive analysis and algorithm of BLDC motor drives under Matlab/Simulink prediction of dynamic characteristics of BLDC motor drives. The environment, which is a de facto standard tool in control and commutation phenomenon is implemented by functional system engineering. One of the models, in [6], the authors behaviour description and backEMF is modelled by pattern of proposed model by means of the switching function concept
waveform. The developed model is split into few parts with objectoriented manner for reusability and scalability. It is easily
analysis ofuBLDGnmotoruries.rTese mod are bas on statespace equations, Fourier series, and the dq axis model
I. INTRODUCTION Electric motors have played a crucial role in the evolution of the automotive industry. Existing trends in more electrification of automobiles indicate a further increase in deployment of electromechanical energy devices in coming years. Due to historical, technical, and economical incentives dcbrushed machines have been the favourite choice for numerous automotive applications ranging from starters to auxiliary devices. Ease of control, capital investment, and relatively low cost of manufacturing compared to other energy machines, as advanced motor drive technologies emerge [1]. On the other hand, due to the brushes, dc motors suffer form a lower reliability, since the brushed wear down by operation and needtime to time maintenance or replacement. This dc motor's drawback can be eliminated by using a BLD motor. That's why BLDG motor drives are becoming widely used in industrial areas. Replacement of a DG motor by a BLDG motor places higher demands on a control algorithm. Simulation models Of
p alo wit the iertr. Howvrthe moelomenot properly reflect the electronically commutation phenomenon and a waveform of backEMF is trapezoidal. A torque ripple of BLDC motor is mainly influenced by the electronically commutation and backEMF. Hence it is needed to
compensate the existing model's precise commutation phenomenon and backEMF [4] [8]. The advanced model proposed in this paper takes into account the commutation phenomenon which is implemented functional behaviour and waveform of backEMF which is given pattern of backEMF. Therefore, it can be expected that the developed model can be an easytodesign tool for the design and analysis of BLDC motor drives as well as control
algorithms.
MODELLING OF BLDC MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM BLD DI SYS The developed model was modelled by objectoriented manner for reusability and scalability according to typical system partitioning and all behaviour of components is implemented by basic block of Matlab/Simulink. Fig. 1 shows the overall Simulink block diagram of developed model for BLDG motor drive system. As shown fig. 1, the proposed
The
II.
delLINGoF
moTOR
teM
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model largely consists of four components: 120degree conduction signal generator, Voltage Source Inverter, Electrical part of BLDC, and Mechanical part of BLDC. The folloingasumpton for implementation.m following assumption iiS fo ipentio. The motor is not saturated. Iron losses are negligible Stator resistances of all the windings are equal, and selfand mutual inductances are constant. Power semiconductor devices in the inverter are ideal
Udc* Udc
U6
Ucon
GateABC BC t
FreeABC
_
ED
~theta
SquareWave PWM
A.
BLDG motor model is composed of two parts. One is an electrical part which calculates electromagnetic torque and current of motor. The other is a mechanical part which generates revolution ofrotor. Under the above assumption, the electrical part of BLDG motor can be represented as [ 0 0a 1 M dt [ ^ [ b
where
[~ ~ ~ ~ Ua[O_Y1(Ua lb
m
(2)
where P iS the number of pole and co in1S angular velocity of rotor. The equation comes from point of energy between mechanical energy and electrical energy. The mechanical part of BLDC motor can be modelled as (3) Jm6 + Bmi = Tm where Jm is inertia and Bm is damping ratio.
B. Voltage Source Inverter
Moor_thneta
h
BLOC
ClUan
Uabcn Jabcn
6al
Eabc
bcS
TE
theta
theta
Te
onmega
labc
onm3a_ mi t Iomea_m
heta h
fig. 3 shows an equivalent circuit of the 3phases motor drive. Thethe current conduction states as shown BLDC according to inverter operation can be divided into six sectors
The
In14. fg.
Ea be
EE Ib
onmega
gF m< megI
t4
Inverter
BLDC
BLDC IR
7=
rUOl
;4UcU;
>
I 6
sector 1
.___
GCD
,i
Jtheta
rl
IK
I
interval
rinterval
Gain2A
Dot Product8
There are two types of stator windings variants: trapezoidal \1 and sinusoidal motors. The model proposed in this paper has / sinusoidal waveform of backEMF. But as modifying in theS1trf dotted rectangular, the model also has trapezoidal waveform S3 turnon of backEMF. Especially waveform of real backEMF can be used using lookup table. It iS very important property becauseFi.5Tpcluretwvfmofdincmuain distortion is occurred in the backEMF when motor revolves A sector is divided into two parts, commutation and normal in high speed. interval. The commutation interval is the initial freewheeling The electromagnetic torque is expressed as interval, just after switching, when both mesh current are non
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zero. During commutation interval, all three lines are conducting. The subsequent period when only phase B and phase A are conducting is called normal interval. Normal interval begins when freewheeling mesh current extinguishes. During commutation interval, ia is decaying and ib is increasing. Ideally dib/dt =di,jdt so that i, remains constant. It is shown in fig. 5 which is typical current waveform of during commutation. Each lineline voltage is calculated depending on the interval. The detailed switching states and conduction sequence are described in fig. 6. For example, the sector is changing from 6 to 1. In the normal phase of sector 6 the top switch of phase A and bottom switch of phase B are on state. There is then only one mesh for current to flow, i.e., the loop through phases A and B as shown in Fig. 6(a). In this context the phase voltages represent as
In a similar way, the commutation phenomenon of other sectors is analysed. The model was developed using Simulink basic block with functional behaviour description as shown in fig. 8. The inverter takes DC bus voltage, backEMF, and gate
~~~0
la
,
la
ETb
be
C
E13E
T [ _
4)
1
lajI
_ _ _
dt + eb +uno
(5)
'
IC
T (6) 1I
(7)
[
6JO9
T___
Uan U0 Uno
an o no
Ria + L dia dt
a
+e
(8)
(9)
lc
b
6
Corresponding rotor position sector is changing from 6 to 1. The bottom switch of phase B turnoff and the bottom switch of phase C simultaneous turnon. Ideally the current in line B should remain constant, while the line A current falls to zero and the line C current builds up to the setpoint value. There are two meshes for current to flow as shown in fig. 6(b). The phase voltages represent as
Uao =u0
lT3I
IC
+U
()
Ub0 Ri
dib
+ +(2dt
di
(13)
C. PWM 120degree conduction signal generator 120degree conduction signal generator model is implemented as shown fig. 7, and this model can generate exact square wave switching patterns. In order to simulate
detailed this
block put in front of this block. The frequency of carrier signal is 16KHz.
da +ea
dt+deib
d+e dt
dt
(16)
(17)
=uo uno
=Rib +L
(u2[]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~GateA
GateBt
(u[2]>u[1]) GateBb
4 [
Phase_Vb
([iu])GateCt
GateCb
~~~~~~~~~~~GateABC
Ucon
Uco
Uc Phase Vc~
1/(0 5*UdcNom
* ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~FreeABC
Udc
GateABO
[Eb]
[Uno]
Ubn)
[Eb]
[sector]
~LIIzIV*KComm
theta ++
[sector][ector
[Uo]~~~~~~~~~~n
Eabc
[thet]
Numberofpole
EA
Table 1 shows the BLDG motor specification to examine the performance of the proposed model. Simulation was performed two steps.
First step is to examine implementation of functions which are commutation phenomenon and waveform of backEMF. Fig. 9 show results of first step simulation that 80V dc bus voltage and 0.2Nm load torque are applied to the system. Table 1. Motor specification Modulation index is 80%. The voltage which is applied to Description Value Unit BLDG motor depends on the modulation Index. If modulation Symbol Phase resistance 988.9 mQ index is high, applied voltage should be high. Fig. 9(a), (b) Rs Phase inductance L 2.7236 mH are a simulation result that commutation phenomenon is added Magnitude of flux 56.235e 3 Wb to the BLDG motor drive and o.nly (a)'s backEMF waveform v linkage miS trapezoidal and (b) iS sinusoidal. Fig. 9(c) iS the Friction coefficient Bm le3 Nm /(rad Is) experimental result that the BLDG motor has sinusoidal waveform of backEMF. To know effects of commutation and NmFm waveform of backEMF compares with each current of phase. ertiaeofmoment e15.p17e6
1 380
The current has gradient because of effects of inductance. If backEMF is trapezoidal, the gradient is fixed. However, if backEMF is sinusoidal, the gradient is not fixed as shown in fig. (a) and (b). Current is made by subtracting backEMF from applied voltage. Therefore, current distortion, which is dotted circle in fig. 9(b), is occurred in the normal interval, when BLDC motor has sinusoidal waveform of backEMF. The line circle regions mean commutation interval. On the commutation interval sparks of the current of phase A is represented. Two figures, (a) and (b), show that the developed model well reflects commutation phenomenon, even though the interval of commutation of both figures is a little different, experimental about 0.2msec and simulation about 0.15msec. As shown in fig 9(b), (c), the shape is same. However, the speed of developed model is a little faster than experiment. The reasons are that components are ideal and losses are ignored. Finally of the first step simulation current ripple of phase A is compared. The developed model and experiment were just compared to know how much the model well reflect real phenomenon. A torque ripple is inferred from the current ripple because current ripple directly affects torque ripple. Table 2 shows a result of comparison of simulation and experiment. It is enough to analyze torque ripple considering
2 1.5
Current [A]
1
0.5
x '1_
If Tv 1
V
=
0=
0 .5
1
2 0.05
0.055
0.08
0.085
0.09
1.5
0.5
=
0.5 
0.5
2
0.05
0.055
l
0.06
LliL
0.065
0.07 time[s]
0.075
0.08
0.085
0.09
.5 0 0.5

2
0.05
0.055
lL
0.06
0.065
0.07 time[s]
0.075
0.08
0.085
0.09
(c) Experiment
Fig. 9 Result of simulation and experiment
measurement error. As shown in figure 10, simply a ripple factor was defined the following as
R.F.= PPx1OO
Rave
(18)
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where, R is relative difference between maximum value and minimum value of current ripple and Rave is average value of current ripple.
Table 2. Comp arison of ripple factor Simulation Experiment
Load torque: 0.2 Nm 70.030o 67.75o
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7

3000
2000
Second step is validation of dynamic characteristic of BLDC motor drive. Fig. 11 shows the results of second step simulation that 80V DC bus voltage and 0.2Nm of load torque are applied to the system with openloop control. Modulation index is 80%. Transient state is examined through this simulation. Fig. l1 (a) shows the speed of the motor. Fig. 1 1(b) is electromagnetic torque and (c) is current of phase A. Ripple of the current exactly due to the commutation as shown in Fig. l l(c). The current ripple directly affects the electromagnetic torque. In addition to backEMF waveform is sinusoidal thus a distortion of current is occurred.
25
1000 0
0.02
2.5 l7 2
1.5 X

0.06 0.08 time[s] (a) Speed of the motor Electromagnetic Torque [Nm]
0.04
0.1
1.5
t;
0 0.5

0.5
c
0.5
RLave
'l*ll
e
R0.
AX
X0
,j len
+
0.02
0.04 tm[]0.06
0.08
0.
12
1001502002503003504004505005506000.
10
This paper presented an improved model of BLDC motor drives considered behaviour of commutation in case of dynamic simulation. The feasibility and performance of the model is examined by simulation. Comprehensive analysis of the BLDC motor drives is allowed and dynamic characteristic can be effectively monitored and predicted. This model was model of BLDC motorDrv inthis paerelopmente an impove implemented under Simulink environment with modular manner. Thus the proposed model can be used very effectively in analysis and design of control algorithms of the BLDC
motor dri
m.
4 2_
0 2
fX>l
ul
0.02
lH
u:l
0.04
Al
lM
gll
0.08
u
0.1
What has been presented in this paper is only the first step
behaviours of BLDC Motor Drive System. In the future, we will be trying to increase accuracy of the model for quantity
~ ~ ~ ~[1]
[2]
[3]
A.
Emadi,
REFERENCES
Electronics
And Motor
W.T. Lee and J.P. Hong, "Object oriented modelling of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives for Dynamic Simulation
P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling, simulation, and analysis of permanentmagnet motor drives, part II: the brushless DC motor drive," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 274279, March/April 1989.
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[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
R. Carlson, M. LajoieMazenc, and C. dos S. Fagundes, "Analysis of torque ripple due to phase commutation in brushless DC machines," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 632638, May/June 1992. P. D. Evans and D. Brown, "Simulation of brushless DC drives," Proc. of the IEE, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 299308, September 1990.. B.K. Lee and M. Ehsani, "Advanced Simulation Model for Brushless DC Motor Drives", EMP 31(9) #6709, Electric Power Components and System, 31:000000, 2003. J.R. Hendershot Jr and The Miller, "Design of Brushless PermanentMagnet Motors" Oxford Univ. Press, 1944. Y.S.vJeon, H.S. Mok, G.H. Choe, D.K. Kim, and J.S. Ryu,"A new simulation model of BLDC motor with real back EMF waveform", IEEE CNF. On Computers in Power Electronics, 2000. COMPEL 2000. pp.217  220, July 2000.
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