Diesel fuel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Page semi-protected Diesel oil

redirects here. Sometimes "diesel oil" is used to mean lubricatin g oil for diesel engines. Diesel fuel (pron.: /ˈdiːzəl/) in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. T he most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but al ternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to li quid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and a dopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly cal led petrodiesel.[1] Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining di esel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost all die sel fuel available in the United States of America, Canada and Europe is the ULS D type. In the UK, diesel fuel for on-road use is commonly abbreviated DERV, standing fo r Diesel Engined Road Vehicle, which carries a tax premium over equivalent fuel for non-road use (see Taxation).[2] Contents 1 History 1.1 Etymology 1.2 Diesel engine 2 Sources 2.1 Petroleum diesel 2.1.1 Refining 2.1.2 Cetane number 2.1.3 Fuel value and price 2.1.4 Use as vehicle fuel 2.1.5 Use as car fuel 2.1.6 Reduction of sulfur emissions 2.1.7 Environment hazards of sulfur 2.1.8 Chemical composition 2.1.9 Algae, microbes, and water contamination 2.1.10 Road hazard 2.2 Synthetic diesel 2.3 FAME 2.4 Hydrogenated oils and fats 2.5 DME 3 Transportation and storage 3.1 Railroad 3.2 Aircraft 3.3 Storage 4 Other uses 5 Emissions 6 Taxation 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History Etymology The word "diesel" is derived from the family name of German inventor Rudolf Dies el who in 1892 invented the diesel engine.[3] Diesel engine Main article: Diesel engine

1 MJ/kg as opposed to 43.2 MJ/kg for gasoline. which should be considered when compari ng the fuel efficiency by volume. Use as vehicle fuel Unlike petroleum ether and liquefied petroleum gas engines.832 kg/l (6.1% of the fuel mass is carbon. 32.[7] Cetane number The principal measure of diesel fuel quality is its cetane number. The high temperatures inside the cylinder cause the diesel fuel to react with the o . [11] In Sweden. Because of recent changes in fuel quality regulations. and contains hydrocarbons having a b oiling point in the range of 180-360°C (360-680°F). Fuel value and price Further information: Gasoline and diesel usage and pricing As of 2010.[5] Sources Diesel fuel is produced from petroleum and from various other sources.[6] or fossil diesel is produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C (392 °F) and 350 °C (662 °F) at atmospheric pressure. due to the higher density.745 kg/l (6. also called petrodiesel. this is a ULSD that also has a lower aromatics content. the engine g enerally injects the diesel fuel directly into the cylinder. Fuels with higher cetane numbers. and a recent transfe r to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD). European (EN 590 standard) road diesel has a minimum cetane number of 51. addi tional refining is required to remove sulfur. However. and wh en burned. diversion of mass refining capacity to gasoline production. normally "premium" diesel fuels with ad ditional cleaning agents and some synthetic content. The price of diesel traditionall y rises during colder months as demand for heating oil rises.[10] Reasons for high er-priced diesel include the shutdown of some refineries in the Gulf of Mexico. are available in some marke ts. Petroleum diesel A modern diesel dispenser Refining Petroleum diesel.Diesel engines are a type of internal combustion engine. including some vegetable oils. it offers a net heating value of 43. which was used to power the engines which he exhibited at the 1900 Paris Exposition and t he 1911 World's Fair in Paris.[8] Diesel is generally simp ler to refine from petroleum than gasoline. about 12% more than ethanol-free petrol (gasoline).[9] diesel may be priced higher than petrol. resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically con tain between 8 and 21 carbon atoms per molecule.[4] such as peanut oil. The CO2 emissions from diesel are 73.38 g/MJ. which has a density of ab out 0. the density of petroleum diesel is about 0. just slightly lower than for gasoline at 73. In many parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom and Australia. some 11% higher. He also experimented wi th various oils.[12] This fuel is slightly more expensive to produce than regular ULSD. Rudolf Diesel originall y designed the diesel engine to use coal dust as a fuel. An engine running on diesel com presses the air inside the cylinder to high pressures and temperatures (compress ion ratios from 14:1 to 18:1 are common in current diesel engines).25 g/MJ. diesel engines do no t use high-voltage spark ignition (spark plugs). starting a few degr ees before top dead center (TDC) and continuing during the combustion event. diesel offers a higher volumet ric energy density at 35. About 86.86 MJ/L (128 700 BTU/US gal) vs. A higher ceta ne number indicates that the fuel ignites more readily when sprayed into hot com pressed air. which contributes to a sometimes h igher cost. a diesel fuel designated as MK-1 (class 1 environmental diesel) is also being sold. which is refined i n much the same way.18 MJ/L (115 500 BT U/US gal) for gasoline.943 lb/US gal ).217 lb/US gal). with a limit of 5%. which causes infrastructural complications.

Engines runni ng on diesel also provide more torque. Since diesel engines do not require spark igni tion. If the pump breaks down in an "open" position. and are less likely to stall.2 °F) or -15 °C (5 °F). heating and expanding the burning mixture to convert the thermal/pressure difference into mechanical work. while retaining most of the fuel e conomy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.[citation needed] Reduction of sulfur emissions In the past. diesel engines are more efficient than many spark-ignited engines[clarification needed][citation needed]. dies el fuel typically also has a lower cetane number (a measure of ignition quality) . Fuel is typ ically supplied via a fuel pump. which cannot be pumped by regular fuel pumps. The y thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which use a Stoichiom etric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to react with the fuel). and a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 perc ent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles. more stringen t emission standards have been adopted with the transition to ULSD starting in 2 006. they can sustain operation as long as diesel fuel is supplied. Special low-temperature diesel contains additives to keep it in a more liquid state at lower temperatures. Diesel engines are lean burn engines.xygen in the mix (burn or oxidize). This efficiency[14] and its lower flammability than gasoline[15] are the two mai n reasons for military use of diesel in armored fighting vehicles. to move the piston. and the engine will runaway and risk te rminal failure. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-litre content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficie ncy of the diesel engine. a gas leak into the engine room could also provide fuel for a ru naway. This is compounded by biological nitrogen in bio diesel to make NOx emissions the main drawback of diesel versus gasoline engines . While petrodiesel's higher density results in higher g reenhouse gas emissions per litre compared to gasoline.e. as can some o ther types of internal combustion. the supply of fuel will be unrestricted.Gelling) at temperatures as high as -19 °C (-2.S. compared to gasolin e or other petroleum-derived fuels. Because they have high compression ratios and no throttle.[18] the 20–40% better fuel economy achieved by modern diesel-engined automobiles offsets the higher per-li tre emissions of greenhouse gases. A disadvantage of diesel as a vehicle fuel in cold climates. via the engine air intake. Another disadvantage of diesel engines compared to petrol/gasoline engines is th e possibility of runaway failure. Engines have glow plugs to help start the engine by preheating the cyli nders to a minimum operating temperature. and becoming mandatory on June 1.[16] (In vehicles or installations that use both diesel engines a nd bottled gas. 2010 (see also diesel exhaust). but starting a diesel engine in very cold weather may still pose considerable difficulties. U. is that its viscosity increases quickly as t he fuel's temperature decreases. However. diesel fuel contained higher quantities of sulfur. turning into a non-flowing gel (see Compression Ignition .[17]) Use as car fuel Diesel-powered cars generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasolin e engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission.. i. European emissio n standards and preferential taxation have forced oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels.[ 13] burning the fuel in more air than is required for the chemical reaction. In the United States. as they are controlled by a mechanical or electronic governor[citation needed]. External combustion engines can easily use di esel fuel as well. Gas turbine internal combustion engines can also take diesel fuel. the i ncreased compression ratios mean there are increased emissions of oxides of nitr ogen (NOx) from diesel engines.[19][20][21] Biodiesel -powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compare d to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines.

depending on the raw material used. are increasingly being utilized as an al ternative. The raw material is gasified into synthesis gas.[22] Environment hazards of sulfur High levels of sulfur in diesel are harmful for the environment because they pre vent the use of catalytic diesel particulate filters to control diesel particula te emissions. Diesel slicks are especially dangerous for two-wheeled vehicles su ch as motorcycles. iso. which after purification is converted by the Fischer-Tropsch pro cess to a synthetic diesel. as well as more advanced technologies. Moreover. whereas gasoline will quickly evaporate. ni trous oxides and PM. but some microbes can survive and feed on th e diesel fuel. Road hazard Petrodiesel spilled on a road will stay there until washed away by sufficiently heavy rain. They quite fast in warmer temperatures. a greasy slick is left on the road which can destabilize moving vehicles. including bioma ss. some diesel fuel filters also tr ap water. the process for lowering sul fur also reduces the lubricity of the fuel. microbes.[26] The process is typically referred to as biomass-to-liquid (BTL). Biodiesel and biodiesel/petrodiesel blen ds. Water in fuel can damage a fuel injection pump. resulting in worse cold weather performance and some incr ease in emissions. with their higher lubricity levels. and 25% aromatic hydrocarbo ns (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). producing sulfur dioxide and sulfur trio xide.than European diesel. to reduce emissions. sulfur in the fuel is oxidized during combustion. biogas. reducing unregulated emissions of toxic hydrocarbons. such as nitrogen oxide (NOx ) adsorbers (still under development). that in presence of water rapidly convert to sulfuric acid. and water contamination There has been much discussion and misunderstanding of algae in diesel fuel. and cycloparaffins). Parts of the colony can break off and clog the lines and fuel filters. The loss of traction is similar to that encountered on black ice.[24] The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23. Paraffinic synthetic diesel generally has a near-zero content of sulfur and very low aromatics content.[23] Chemical composition Diesel does not mix with water. and have been im plicated in many accidents. The U.[27] . Algae. ranging approximately from C10H20 to C15H28. coal and many others. Synthetic diesel Main article: Synthetic fuel Synthetic diesel can be produced from any carbonaceous material. However. As there is no sunlight in a clos ed fuel tank. no algae can survive.S. meaning that additives must be put i nto the fuel to help lubricate engines.[25] [dead link] Algae need light to live and grow. They can even grow in cold weather when tank heaters are installed. These grow fuel fuel microbes form a colony that lives at the interface of fuel and water. one of the che mical processes that results in acid rain. After the light fractions h ave evaporated. Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primar ily paraffins including n. gas-to-liquid ( GTL) or coal-to-liquid (CTL). natural gas. Diesel spills severely reduce tire grip and traction. annual consumption of diesel fuel in 2006 was about 190 bill ion litres (42 billion imperial gallons or 50 billion US gallons).

which was reduced by roughly 50 percent.[33] Unsaturated fatty acids are the source for the lower oxidation stability. FAME also ha s lower oxidation stability than diesel. free fatty acids. mono and diglyceri des. which will need to be removed from the fuel along with m ethanol traces. they r eact with oxygen and form peroxides and result in degradation byproducts. It also can have highe r levels of NOx emissions. total solid impurity levels. It can be produced from many types of oils.[31] FAME has a lower energy content than diesel due to its oxygen content. perhaps more widely known as biodiesel. dissolved and free water. major components of acid rain. which can cause sludge and lacquer in the fuel system. Biodiesel also may reduce health risks associated with petroleum diesel. e xcept for benz(a)anthracene. and it offers favorable conditions for bacterial growth. on the order of 50% comp ared to most petrodiesel fuels. the most common bei ng rapeseed oil (rapeseed methyl ester. RME) in Europe and soybean oil (soy meth yl ester.[32] The loss in power when using pure biodiesel is 5 to 7%.[34] As FAME contains low levels of sulfur. possibly even exceeding the legal limit. and the rest of the nPAH compoun ds reduced to only trace levels. Use of biodiesel also results in red uctions of unburned hydrocarbons. to convert vegetable oil and methanol into FAME and the undesirable byproduc ts glycerine and water.FAME Main article: Biodiesel Biodiesel made from soybean oil Fatty-acid methyl ester (FAME). pump seizures due to high fuel viscosity at low temperature. are low. so applications which have a low fuel turnover should not use FAME. alkaline metal compounds in solution and oxidation and thermal stability. elastomeric seal failures and fuel injector spray blo ckage. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel have been found to be 30 percent lower than overall particulate matte r emissions from petrodiesel.[28][29] FAME as a fuel is regulated under DIN EN 14214[30] and ASTM D6751. PAH compounds were reduced by 75 to 85 percent. low-pressure fuel system blockage. CO emissions using biodiesel are substantially reduced. the emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfat es.[35] Hydrogenated oils and fats . Methanol can also be replaced with ethanol for the tr ansesterification process. Biodies el emissions showed decreased levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) an d nitrited PAH compounds. and particulate matter. BXX where XX i s the biodiesel content in percent. which have been identified as potential cancer-causing compounds. inc reased injection pressure. They have also identified FAME as being the cause of the following problems: corrosion of fuel injection component s. increased dilution and polymerization of e ngine sump oil. SME) in the USA. FAME can be used pure (B100) in engines where the manufacturer a pproves such use. In recent testing. Targeted n PAH compounds were also reduced dramatically with biodiesel fuel. is obtai ned from vegetable oil or animal fats (biolipids) which have been transesterifie d with methanol. and as a result. performance and fuel consumption can be affected. free glycerin. such as sodium or potassium hydroxi de.[29] Fuel equipment manufacturers (FIE) have raised several concerns regarding FAME f uels: free methanol. The exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons (a con tributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are up to 93 perc ent lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. but it is more often used as a mix with diesel. with 2-nitrofl uorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90 percent. carbon monoxide (CO). The transesterification processes use catalysts. which results in the production of ethyl esters.

[36] Transportation and storage Diesel fuel is widely used in most types of transportation. The Hindenburg rigid airship was powered by four 16-cylinder diesel engin es.[citation needed] which. it was flown 621 miles (999 km) nonstop from Detroit to Langley Field. Later that year. USA. 1928. DME Dimethyl ether. Storage In the US. leaded petrol (which was stored in a red container). Virginia.[38] . and the aircraft was a Stinson SM1B. and 8 50 horsepower (630 kW) available for cruising. The gasoline-powered passenger automobile is the major exception. In this system of solvent extraction . rhodium or ruthenium from nuclear wastes created by the use of nuclear fu el. gaseous diesel fuel that results in clean c ombustion with very little soot and reduced NOx emissions.[37] In the UK. twostroke design power plant built in the 1930s leading into World War II in German y. with Captain Lionel M. in the p ast. Other uses Poor quality (high sulfur) diesel fuel has been used as an extraction agent for liquid-liquid extraction of palladium from nitric acid mixtures. In 1929. to differentiate it f rom unleaded petrol (which is commonly stored in a green container) or. diesel is recommended to be stored in a yellow container to different iate it from kerosene and gasoline. along with its similar developments from the Junkers Motorenwerke.This category of diesel fuels involves converting the triglycerides in vegetable oil and animal fats into alkanes by refining and hydrogenation. which are typically kept in blue and red con tainers. So far. at the Packard Motor Company proving grounds at Utica. Walter Lees and Fredrick Brossy set the nonstop fl ight record flying a Bellanca powered by a Packard diesel for 84 hours and 32 mi nutes.[citation needed] The most-produced aviation diesel engine in history has been the Junkers Jumo 20 5. near Norfolk.200 horsepower (890 kW) available in bursts. This extraction operates by a solvation mechanism. and are free from t he many disadvantages of FAME. diesel is normally stored in a black container. The engine was designed for Packard by Woolson. This aircraft is now owned by Greg Herrick. each with approximately 1. The produced fu el has many properties that are similar to synthetic diesel. had approximately 1000 examples of the unique opposed piston. In 1931. and is now used almost exclusively for the combustion engi nes of self-powered rail vehicles (locomotives and railcars). Minnesota. neither a pilot plant nor full scale plant has been constructed to recover pall adium. Aircraft Main article: Aircraft diesel engine The first diesel-powered flight of a fixed-wing aircraft took place on the eveni ng of September 18. X7654. and is at the Golden Wings Flying Museum near Min neapolis. Such use has be en proposed as a means of separating the fission product palladium from PUREX ra ffinate which comes from used nuclear fuel. Railroad See also: Dieselization and Diesel locomotive Diesel displaced coal and fuel oil for steam-powered vehicles in the latter half of the 20th century. is a synthetic. the hydrocarbons of the diesel act as the diluent while the dialkyl sulfides a ct as the extractant. respectively. DME. Charles Lindbergh flew the same aircraft. Woolson and Walter Lees at the controls (the first "official" test flight was taken the next morning).

Diesel fuel is also often used as the main ingredient in oil-base mud drilling f luid. Diesel-oil mud is often replaced with vegetable. Due to health. or synthetic food-grade oil-base drilling flu ids. although diesel-oil mud is still in widespread use in certain regions. sal t and gypsum formations.[39] . mineral. safety and environmental concerns. Diesel-oil mud is typically mixed with up to 40% brine water. The advantage of using diesel is its low cost and that it delivers excelle nt results when drilling a wide variety of difficult strata including shale.

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