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Goal of this exercise: to get an idea of the range of magnitude of earth fault current The following grid is given:

Cable parameter

The earth fault current has to be calculated according to the method of symmetrical components: Calculation of impedances Definition of the symmetrical component networks Interconnection of the symmetrical component networks Calculation of the currents in 012-system Calculation of the earth fault current Calculation of the voltages in 012-system Calculation of the voltages in abc-system Calculation of earth fault factor Drawing of the phasor diagrams

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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110-kV-grid

Z1Q =

(110 kV )2

2000 MVA

Z1Q =

= 6 ,05

6,05 = 0,05 110

2 = 110

Transformer

Z1T = 0,1

(10,5 kV )2

20 MVA

= 0,551

R1T = 0,01

2

(10,5 kV )2

20 MVA

2

= 0,055

Cable 1

R1K =

X1K =

1 0,179 /km 10 km = 0,9 2

Cable 2

R1K = 0,0967 /km 5 km = 0,48 X1K = 0,179 /km 5 km = 0,9 C1K = 0,456 F/km 5 km = 2 ,28 F

Zero-sequence impedances of the cable: Because data for the zero-sequence impedance of the cable are not available, we use the following estimated values:

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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Zero-sequence system

Positive-sequence system

Negative-sequence system

ZC = ZC = 1 1 = = j 698 1 jC j 314s 4,56 F 1 1 = = j 2792 1 jC j 314s 1,14 F

ZC =

I 0 = I1 = I 2

U 0 + U1 + U 2 = 3 Z F I 0

This means, the symmetrical component networks have to be connected in series at fault location.

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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In the next step we can simplify the three equivalent circuit diagrams. Zero-sequence system Due to the very large values of the impedances of the capacitances we can neglect the impedances of cable 1 and cable 4 and get the parallel connection of the four capacitances:

ZC =

Positive-sequence system

Negative-sequence system

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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It is to be seen, that the impedance in the zero-sequence system is equivalent to the zero capacitance the shunt impedance in the positive sequence system is equivalent to the effective capacitance the positive current is not flowing over the effective capacitance, because the impedance in the parallel branch is smaller the impedance in the negative sequence system is very small and can therefore be neglected

Due to the fact, that the voltage in negative-sequence system is negligible we can assume, that U0 = U1

I0 = 10 kV = 0,02069 kA j21 A 3 ( j279 )

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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ICE = 3 I0 = j63 A

Verification: ICE = 3 CE UY = 3 314 s 1 11,4 F

10 kV = 62 A 3

U0 U1

10 kV 3

10 kV 3

U2 0

Sixth step: Calculation of the voltages in abc-system

Ua = U0 + U1 + U2 =

10 kV 10 kV + +0 =0 3 3 10 kV 10 kV + a2 +0 3 3 10 kV = ja10 kV 3

U b = U0 + a 2U1 + aU2 = Ub = a2 1

)10 kV = ja 3

Uc = U0 + aU1 + a 2U2 = Uc = a 1

10 kV 10 kV +a +0 3 3 3 10 kV = ja210 kV 3

)10 kV = ja 3

10 kV = 3 10 kV 3

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

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