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Lecture Grid Calculation Exercise Earth fault current in cable network

Goal of this exercise: to get an idea of the range of magnitude of earth fault current The following grid is given:

Figure 1: Single-line diagram

Cable parameter

R20 = 0,0967 /km X1 = 0,179 /km CE = 0,456 F/km Cb = CE

The earth fault current has to be calculated according to the method of symmetrical components: Calculation of impedances Definition of the symmetrical component networks Interconnection of the symmetrical component networks Calculation of the currents in 012-system Calculation of the earth fault current Calculation of the voltages in 012-system Calculation of the voltages in abc-system Calculation of earth fault factor Drawing of the phasor diagrams

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer

Technology for Decentralised Generation and Storage Part II Grid Assets

Project work

Solution First step: Calculation of impedances

110-kV-grid

Z1Q =

(110 kV )2
2000 MVA
Z1Q =

= 6 ,05
6,05 = 0,05 110

2 = 110

X1Q = 0,995 Z1Q = 0,0498 R1Q = 0,1 X1Q = 0,0049

Transformer

Correction factor for transformer impedance will be neglected


Z1T = 0,1

(10,5 kV )2
20 MVA

= 0,551

R1T = 0,01
2

(10,5 kV )2
20 MVA
2

= 0,055

X1T = Z1T R1T = 0,548

X 0T = 0,95 X1T = 0,521

(Z0m is there included)

Cable 1

R1K =
X1K =

1 0,0967 /km 10 km = 0,48 2


1 0,179 /km 10 km = 0,9 2

C1K = 2 0,456 F/km 10 km = 9,12 F

Cable 2

R1K = 0,0967 /km 5 km = 0,48 X1K = 0,179 /km 5 km = 0,9 C1K = 0,456 F/km 5 km = 2 ,28 F

Zero-sequence impedances of the cable: Because data for the zero-sequence impedance of the cable are not available, we use the following estimated values:

R0K = 4 R1K X 0K = 4 X1K

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer

Technology for Decentralised Generation and Storage Part II Grid Assets

Project work

Second step: Definition of the symmetrical component networks

Zero-sequence system

Positive-sequence system

Negative-sequence system

Calculation of the impedances (from capacitances)


ZC = ZC = 1 1 = = j 698 1 jC j 314s 4,56 F 1 1 = = j 2792 1 jC j 314s 1,14 F

ZC =

1 1 = = j 559 1 jC j 314s 5,7 F

Third step: Interconnection of the symmetrical component networks

From lecture EDS II we know:


I 0 = I1 = I 2

U 0 + U1 + U 2 = 3 Z F I 0
This means, the symmetrical component networks have to be connected in series at fault location.
Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer

Technology for Decentralised Generation and Storage Part II Grid Assets

Project work

In the next step we can simplify the three equivalent circuit diagrams. Zero-sequence system Due to the very large values of the impedances of the capacitances we can neglect the impedances of cable 1 and cable 4 and get the parallel connection of the four capacitances:

ZC =

1 1 = = j 279 jC j 314s 1 (2 4,56 F + 2 1,14 F )

Positive-sequence system

Negative-sequence system

The simplified equivalent component networks we can now interconnect:

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer

Technology for Decentralised Generation and Storage Part II Grid Assets

Project work

It is to be seen, that the impedance in the zero-sequence system is equivalent to the zero capacitance the shunt impedance in the positive sequence system is equivalent to the effective capacitance the positive current is not flowing over the effective capacitance, because the impedance in the parallel branch is smaller the impedance in the negative sequence system is very small and can therefore be neglected

Fourth step: Calculation of the currents in 012-system

Due to the fact, that the voltage in negative-sequence system is negligible we can assume, that U0 = U1
I0 = 10 kV = 0,02069 kA j21 A 3 ( j279 )

(completely capacitive current)

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer

Technology for Decentralised Generation and Storage Part II Grid Assets

Project work

Fifth step: Calculation of earth fault current

ICE = 3 I0 = j63 A
Verification: ICE = 3 CE UY = 3 314 s 1 11,4 F

10 kV = 62 A 3

Fifth step: Calculation of the voltages in 012-system

U0 U1

10 kV 3

10 kV 3

U2 0
Sixth step: Calculation of the voltages in abc-system

Ua = U0 + U1 + U2 =

10 kV 10 kV + +0 =0 3 3 10 kV 10 kV + a2 +0 3 3 10 kV = ja10 kV 3

U b = U0 + a 2U1 + aU2 = Ub = a2 1

)10 kV = ja 3

Uc = U0 + aU1 + a 2U2 = Uc = a 1

10 kV 10 kV +a +0 3 3 3 10 kV = ja210 kV 3

)10 kV = ja 3

Seventh step: Calculation of earth fault factor

10 kV = 3 10 kV 3

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer

Technology for Decentralised Generation and Storage Part II Grid Assets

Project work

Eighth step: Phasor diagrams

Brandenburg University of Technology Department of Power Distribution and High Voltage Technology

Pfeiffer