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Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies
Institute of Social Studies
MPA 111 Thesis Master of Public Administration Program in Governance 2009-2010
‘Public- Community Partnership in energy supply’
Advantages of village electricity supply in the Interior of Suriname
By: Vyent Diana G.
Supervisor: Nicolas Awortwi Date : november 2011
This paper was submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the Master of Public Administration (MPA) in Governance degree at FHR Institute of Social Studies.
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Disclaimer and information
This Master‟s Thesis completes the Master of Public Administration in Governance 2008- 2010 (MPA Intake 111). The F.H.R. Lim A Po for Social Studies organizes the program in cooperation with the Institute of Social Studies (ISS) in Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. In this thesis the information describes the publiccommunity partnership in the interior of Suriname within service delivery. Community participation can have varying levels of involvement of the community in the interior or somewhere else, but it can range from several aspects like labour, behavior, involvement in administration, and most important, management and decision- making. Virtually, this form of participation involves joint decision- making rather than principal-agent relationships. Parties are early involved in developing joint outputs rather than the government. All parties together with the government defining both problem and solution for service delivery.
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This research marks the end of a well received learning experience, which made possible by the F.H.R Lim A Po Institute of Social Studies and the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation in Suriname, now the Ministry of Finance. It was a fulfilling journey which contributed to my growth on a professional and on a personal level. For making my participation in this Master Programme possible I am thankful to the Ministry of Natural Resources. I would like to thank everyone who contributed in one way or the other way to complete my thesis. However, I give a special thank to the Almighty Lord, who gave me the strength, courage and perseverance to go forward; Mr. Hans Lim A Po, director of F.H.R Lim A Po Institute of Social Studies, for his patience; my supervisor, Dr. Nicolas Awortwi, who guided me and my mother, family, friends and colleagues who never stopped supporting and encouraging me in the past two years. Bless you all! Sincerely Yours, Drs. Vyent Diana G. Paramaribo, Suriname 2011
Public- Community Partnership 4 Table of Contents
List of acronyms
1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Research Objectives 1.4 Research Questions 1.5 Research Methodology 1.6 Organizations of the thesis 2. Literature review on community management of service delivery 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Collective action 2.3 Factors promoting collective action 2.3.1 Community organization 2.3.2 Community participation 2.3.3 Community management 2.4 Public Community Participation 2.4.1 Definition and explanation of PCP 2.4.2 Organization and management of PCP 2.4.3 Factors promoting PCP 2.4.4 Advantages of PCP 2.5 Synthesis of community management of electricity supply 3. Rural electrification 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Profile of the villages 3.3 Review of rural electricity policy 3.4 Implementation of rural electricity 3.4.1 Source of rural electrification 3.4.2 Management of rural electrification 3.4.3 Operational arrangements of rural electrification 3.4.4 Maintenance of generators 3.5 Conclusions
8 10 11 11 11 12
14 14 15 15 16 17 19 19 20 21 21 22
25 25 26 28 29 29 30 32 33
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4. Community involvement 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Community participation in the villages/ village electricity 4.3 Strengths and weaknesses of community participation 4.3.1 Strengths of community participation 4.3.2 Weaknesses of community participation 4.4 Potentials for PCP in electricity supply 4.5 Conclusions 5. Conclusions and recommendations 5.1 Conclusions 5.2 Recommendations 35 35 36 36 37 38 41
Reference list Appendix: „Concessieverordening‟
Public- Community Partnership 6 List of acronyms
BFZ CDFS CO DEV EBS FOB MDG MOP NGO PCP Begroting en Financiële Zaken Community Development Fund Suriname Community Organization Dienst Energie Voorziening National Electricity Company Fund for the Development of the Interior (SFOB) Millennium Development Goal MultiAnnual Development Plan Non Governmental Organization Public Community Partnership
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Public- Community Partnership 8 1.1 Background
Electrification is an important contributing factor for the development of the economy. Everyone, including the interior communities, needs electrification. Energy is for everyone and every country a priority on the agenda of the government, because of its importance for daily life. Although it is a public good, it is not only essential for daily life and public welfare but it is also an important factor energy for by the 2015 the and that development as a of with an the part the economy. To Goal ensure to of (MDG) environmental indicates improving Knowing MDG. Also in the Multi Annual Development Plan (MOP) of Suriname (20062011) is stated that for electricity planning is of one long of the term important instruments sustainability priority sustaining Suriname is on sustainable Development international energy of supply the access level
community it is obligated to take measures to realize this
development. Focusing on the interior, the policy on rural electrification concentrates on several aspects: Energy There is is an an important increase of tool for sustainable demand due socioto the in economic development; of energy increasing life standards; Rehabilitation diesel generating station interior villages by Dienst Energievoorziening (DEV);
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Performing small social electrification projects in cooperation with Community Development Fund Suriname (CDFS) in rural and coastal areas (MOP, 2006- 2011). The Surinamese tool government for and is aware that energy is an is
development energy for
mentioned above and therefore wants to supply good quality, adequate everyone, including the interior communities. Options for renewable energy are taken into consideration. The Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for the energy services in Suriname. The EBS (National Electricity Company) is responsible for the urban areas in the coastal zone. This company falls directly under the department. The coastal zone and the interior fall directly under the department DEV of the Ministry of Natural resources. There is no tariff regime in place and the supply to the communities comes free of charge. Providing the villages of electricity it is very costly. Overall, the villages are not connected that to an electricity the grid and it is ago the to government took responsibility decennia
supply the villages with generators and diesel as fuel. The main reasons why it is insufficient are: The villages are in remote areas, Energy is distributed through a diesel generator
within a time span. Nevertheless, the supply of power is limited to about 5 to 6 hours per day. Maintenance
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of the diesel generators has become unfeasible and difficult. This system is very costly and technically not
feasible. In Suriname the energy supply services are funded by the government. In theory, these services (national utilities) can also be managed by communities but community management can also be ineffective, if they, the community, are doing it alone. Within this, the potential for improving energy supply services through more formal forms of partnerships is very necessary. in the It becomes can central manage how their communities own energy especially or COs. interior
supply services with the help of the government, NGOs and/
That in the interior of Suriname, not many villages
are connected to some sort of electricity grid, were in most cases the The electricity government, is generated the by a of dieselrural generator. within policy
electrification, supplies generators to villages as well as fuel. Maintenance of these generators and grid however are not well organized in many villages, resulting in overdue maintenance and some cases discontinuity of the electricity supply, simply because of fuel shortages and basic repairs to generators e.g. the replacement of parts.
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1.3 Research objective
The objective of this research is to analyze and to determine whether PublicCommunity Partnership of rural electrification will deliver effective and efficient rural electricity supply in the interior of Suriname.
The research questions of this research are: 1. How are community electricity promoted and managed? 2. Are they (promotion and management) conducted effectively and efficiently? 3. What are the operational challenges and how can they be improved?
To describe the development of energy services in the
interior a study will be conducted. This is necessary to construct a theoretical framework, to understand the different concepts and motives behinds the establishment of energy services. To complete the information, I will do interviews with members of the villages (the traditional leaders and village elders), different households, representatives of community organization and project
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institutions, such as the EBS and the Department for Rural Energy of the Ministry of Natural Resources (DEV), private officials in the energy sector and board of directors of the Fund for the Development of the Interior (FOB). Based on the findings of the research and the history of energy supply in the interior, the applicability of Public Private Partnership principles for the energy services will be presented, especially the Community Partnership aspect.
Organization of the thesis
Chapter 2 describes of the different management concepts and and community collective
action. Chapter 3 presents the rural electrification of the interior. The focus on community involvement is developed in chapter4. Chapter 5 rounds off with the findings and conclusions.
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Literature review on community management of service delivery
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In the following will be chapter the aspects on community help the to key management for discuss the It decision also which
decide whether collective action is an appropriate solution particular situation. describes concepts and characteristics of collective action and the promoting factors of collective action. Also the aspect on Public Community Participation will be explained. 2.2
The term Collective action has different meanings or
definitions. Collective action can be defined as voluntary action taken by a group to achieve common interest. Members can act directly on their own or through an organization (Ruth S. Meinzen- Dick, Monica Di Gregorio). In short the efforts of a group to reach and implement decisions. Taking another definition, collective action is as all activity involving two or more individuals contributing to a collective effort on the basis of mutual interest and the possibility of benefits from coordinated action (Marwell and Oliver, “…as 1993). a a set Melucci of social of (1996) defined (i) and Collective involving (ii) in action practices
simultaneously exhibiting of
morphological (iv) the
characteristics of the
contiguity of time and space, (iii) implying a social field relationships capacity people involved of making sense of what they are doing.” (Melucci,
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1996,p.20). Emphasis on the factors that promotes collective action is done in the following.
2.3 Factors promoting Collective action
There are factors which promote Collective action. In the following subparagraphs the emphasis will be on three main factors, namely community organization, community participation and community management. 2.3.1 The community Community organization first factor promoting This Collective is action is the organization. factor virtually
organization of the community; but in theory it depends on more on that. In all these three the community is central. So, the term community can be defined as a system of bringing people together. In practice, community is a group of users of a service who live in the same area and have access to, use the same service. To organize a community peoples are needed this because with the organization the objective is to support them to participate in different process and kind/sort of participations projects. Hereby, important components are needed. These components are as follows: The preparation of the activity The development of leadership Mobilization activity Evaluation and monitoring of the community organization in the
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In the preparation phase, the identification of the groups and leaders; but the also conditions the of the and village the have to of be the analyzed vision mission
organization has to be determine. The development of the leadership. A leader is a sort of a role model in a village and is popular by the community. He also had certain characteristics. Is consulted during different phases of a project and has a facilitating role. Such person is the highest authority in a village and is able to make decisions. When there are problems, concerns or complains regarding the services the community can ask him to mediate and try to find a solution. In the mobilization Within part, support of have had the to to community organize ensure is to by
discuss the vision and the mission of the organization. And sustainability organization focusing on the membership and finance resource. Evaluating and monitoring is needed to measure the success and/ or failure of the organization, in achieving its goals and objectivities. 2.3.2 a certain Community participation goal, in a whereby certain be in the involvement is very any of the local and
In fact, participation is needed every time to achieve community whole. It village cash important other
crucial. This can deliver a specific contribution to the can and relevant contribution, which can provide effectiveness, efficiency
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and empowerment. In general, the contribution of the community can be manpower, materials, transportation and assisting in projects with the upgrading of activities. A simple definition of community participation is the reference to the involvement of the people in a community in development projects (UNCHS, 1991; Sheng, 1992; Korten, 1987; Garilao, 1987). The involvement can help communities to solve their aspect own in problems. the Management In is the mostly a principle participation. following
paragraph community management will be explored. Typically within community partnerships the features and merits of both public in and the private public is sectors the are the essence. and form The the of strength in some responsibilities This
accountabilities, but in the private more competitiveness, instances, more efficiency. partnership (community partnership) does not involve the principal-agent principal but joint decision- making. And well in an early stage in developing joints outputs and arrangements in service delivery (Aulich, 2002). 2.3.3 Community management
Like is already mentioned in the previous paragraphs is that management a principle aspect in the participation of the community. This is important for the involvement in decisionmaking. Community management is defined as a situation, in which a community takes the responsibility for, and gets authority over and carries out control on operations, management and maintenance of service benefitting its members (Justine Anschutz, 1996). Thus, key persons are taking the responsibilities on their shoulders
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so that they (the local community) can feel that they are and also responsible for sustaining and improving the service delivery supply. The people or actors, who play a very crucial role in management aspects, looking at the community as a whole, are the community members and local leaders of the community in a certain village. The roles of these persons are very different and linked with the participation. With regards to the community members and leaders, there are rules which adapt daily habits in every system, like rules, schedules etc. But within all this it is worthy to ask whether community management is successful. Successful community management in energy supply systems is when the provision consists of fully sustainable service that provides an equitable energy supply to the community. Meaning that once a community has been provided with a certain level of service it must never have to run-down to a structurally lower level of energy. The key factors to make community management in place are: 1. An enabling environment -Policy environment -Effective legislation -Support systems 2. Management capacities of the community 3. Appropriate service level of technology 4. Finances: capital and recurrent These above mentioned key factors are linked with each
other. In the last paragraph (2.5) the diagram illustrates its complexity and the efforts which show that all factors will lead to a sustainable management of the system.
Public- Community Partnership 19 2.4 Public Community Participation
To sustain community management is participation an part. Participation between requires the sharing the responsibilities local community, important different
organizations if there is any, leaders and the public and/ or the private sector. It has the different levels in the tasks and responsibilities between the actors. These allow the different actors or their representatives to take an agreement on what they will decide and also the responsibilities. Within this decision- making by community members is important. Participation can have several parts. In the paragraph below, Public community partnership is explained and defined. 2.4.1 Why Public Community Partnership
Why? Because community partnership is basically involve joint decision making of partners together. Whereby, mutual actions different are taken of to bring any in kind of solution in kind problems service delivery (Hodge
2002:4; Langford 2002: 69). Further more, the relationships which are in the interest of community development through working together to achieve mutual goals and with joint decision 2000). making and in sharing projects of risk and goals (Boase, the Important like service delivery,
essential criteria why partnership, are as follows: Services can be provided more cheaply There is an intrinsic value in participation More will be accomplished
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There is a guarantee that a felt need is involved Ensure that „things are done the right way‟ A sense of responsibility is encouraged People are more conscious of the causes of their
poverty and what they can do about it (Naraya, 1996)
Organizing Partnership mentioned and is in paragraph 2.3.1 what community When a in
participation is, the organizing itself is different. The management community organization mobilized, becomes central. is partnership essential
development of it. The structures and processes are very important factors in the organizational part. But before all of that, goals and objectives must be in place. Different roles and responsibilities of peoples and groups should be clearly defined.
Factors promoting Public Community Participation are factors that promote Public Community
partnership. These factors are: Constantly feedback with partners involved Trust and confidence Very clear defined rights, responsibilities and
obligations Coherence with the local government programme Modalities of every goal
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Participation of partners (community etc.) and in
decision-making Time span for achieving goals
Advantages of Public Community Participation
Partnerships overall has advantages and disadvantages. In this paragraph only the advantages are listed. In principle partnership is a strategy for promoting and delivering the public needs. The advantages are: Come together (bring people together) and work on
joint projects Bring improvement/ change the way communities work Increasing competition Bring levels Contribute to interest in collaboration Sharing resources Transformation in government function, for example: of decision making, responsibilities and innovations at administrative and technical
from provider to supervisor On-time completed projects Improve efficiency of the joint projects (saving cost, sharing risks, more efficiency in project implementation etc.) Improvement of service quality and public social
Public- Community Partnership 22 2.5 Synthesis of Community management
In order to get a synthesis (an analytical framework), it is necessary to put community management and public community participation on the one side and on the other side the results or outcome. In the diagram below it is illustrated how its complexity and the efforts of all factors lead to a sustainable management of the system.
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Diagram 1: Synthesis of Community Management
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In this chapter the rural electrification will be discuss. A short look at the villages, the policy environment, the way the villages get electricity and the agencies that are involved or responsible. Thus the policies and regulations regarding energy supply services in general and in practice the provision for the interior will be analyzed.
3.2 Profile of the villages
For the analysis the main focus will be on four villages that have been selected at random, namely Pokigron, Atjoni, Gen-Genston and Pambooko 1 and 2. A brief sketch of these villages is given below. All of these villages are located around the Suriname river, East and South-East Suriname. The villages are primarily populated by Marron communities who live in tribal organization structures. Most of them live in tribal societies. Pokigron and Atjoni are situated on a distance of 183 kilometers from the capital of Suriname, Paramaribo. The estimated population of these two villages is about 415 with a unit size of 120 Kw (of DEV). The population of Gen-Genston is not available, but it has a unit size of 61 Kw(of DEV). Village Pambooko has a population of 165 and a unit size of 55 Kw(of DEV).
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In all these villages except Gen-Genston, are public schools (primary school), church and medical centers. In Pokigron and Atjoni there are more activities like a „little‟ service station, Chinese shops or stores, bakeries, wood crafters and other different jobs. Every village has a rural council. This council consists of a leader (captain) and four „basjas‟ (two women and two men).
3.3 Review of the Rural electricity policy
Before looking at the rural electrification, the Suriname power sector will be analyzed. The Suriname power sector consists of a number of individual power systems and mostly interconnected with each other. An analysis of the main energy regulations gives the owner the following picture: 1. Article 41 of the Constitution states that the State is the owner of all natural resources including energy 2. Decree of 1991 no. 58, amended in 2002. in this Decree the tasks of the ministry of Natural Resources are contained and include the following: Develop, coordinate, implement, monitor and evaluate the national policy for the sectors mining, energy and water. Prepare and amend the legislation regarding the use of natural resources including energy.
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Ensures the provision of information to the various stakeholders, sector partners (national and international) and civil society. 3. „Concessieverordening‟ of January 1, 1972 G.B. 1944 No.129 The importance of this law for the energy supply is that concession should be granted to use of domain for the construction and operation of public utility works. The concession is granted for a specific geographical area, namely the whole Suriname and for a maximum of 50 years. The Suriname Power Company (EBS) operations are based on this law. Looking now at the rural electrification, the Multi Annual Development Plan (2006-2010) and Government Statement Policy becomes central. In the Multi Annual Development Plan (MOP) of Suriname is stated that electricity is one of the important instruments for planning of long term development and adapted by the law. Focusing on the interior, the policy on rural electrification concentrates on several aspects: Energy is an important tool for sustainable socioeconomic development There is an increase of energy demand due to the increasing life standards Rehabilitation of diesel generating station in interior villages by Dienst Energievoorziening (DEV)
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Performing small social electrification projects in cooperation with partners in rural and coastal areas. The Surinamese government is aware that energy is an important tool for socio-economic development like is mentioned above and therefore wants to supply good quality, safe, adequate and affordable energy for everyone, including the interior. With regard to the Government Statement Policy, it is a policy implementation plan of the Government presented to the Parliament yearly. In context to the rural electrification, the primary responsibility for the energy supply services in Suriname falls under the Ministry of Natural Resources. The Suriname Power Company (EBS) is responsible for the urban areas in the coastal zone. This company falls directly under the Ministry. The coastal zone and the interior fall directly under the department DEV of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The resources are limited, so the Ministry can undertake the regulatory tasks effectively, for example the tariff policy. Providing is done very costly, also because of their (the people) low standard of living. In total, 126 villages in the interior are installed by DEV with diesel unit.
3.4 Implementation of rural electrification
Overall many villages are foreseen by the department of Ministry, the DEV. They have not an adequate energy supply. It is insufficient or no energy supply. The villages are connected to an electricity grid and like is already
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mentioned the government took the responsibility decennia ago to supply the villages with generators and diesel as fuel. Why an insufficiency? Because: o The villages are in remote areas. o Energy is distributed through a diesel generator within a time span. Nevertheless, the supply of power is limited to about 5 to 6 hours per day. Maintenance of the diesel generators has become unfeasible and difficult. o Is very costly and technically not feasible. The fuel has to be transported by means of truck, boat, and some cases by small aircraft.
Source of rural electrification
In the villages the availability of supply is very limited. As is mentioned the power supply is for 5 to 6 hours per day and it is the ministry of Natural Resources that takes the responsibility with the Suriname Power Company. In each village the DEV has installed generation units in over 129 villages in the interior. But even the capacity is in place the availability of electric energy is very limited. Just a number of hours per day. The so-called recreation energy.
Management of rural electrification
The management of the rural electrification lies in the hands of the department DEV. Every generator of the villages is controlled by the department. Transportation of the diesel/ fuel (for the maintenance of the generators)
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from the beginning on until the destination is in the hands of DEV. This, the delivery, is done by land, water and by aircraft. In short, the management of the DEV regarding the energy supply is to deliver fuel on regular basis for the villages in the interior so that the energy services/ supplying are guaranteed. The administrative part for the arrangements of such delivery services is as follows: a request for fuel and lubricants is arrange by the DEV and sent for the managing director to approve the request. Then the financial section called Begroting en Financiele Zaken (BFZ) takes this request/ order in process and then it goes to the supplier. And out of the supplier the delivery took place to the several villages. The frequency of the delivery services are once per month.
Operational arrangements of rural electrification
In the area of operational arrangements the coordination seems to be limited between departments of the two ministries, the ministry of Natural Resources, the DEV and the ministry of Regional Development, the SFOB. The DEV is the official department that belongs to the ministry of Natural Resources. The responsibilities of this department are to manage the transport and supply of diesel to generators in the several villages in the interior. Another responsibility is to perform maintenance and to provide spare parts for these generators. All the 126 villages have been provided with a diesel generator.
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The provision of the electricity supply to the villages is a very costly affair. Every month about more than 150.000 liters of diesel are transported to the villages. Transportation costs are almost half of the costs of fuel. The people in the villages see the supply of electricity as a very attractive manifestation for modernization. In many countries, Suriname not except, politicians makes eagerly abuse of this interpretation (mostly barely before the election) by promising them diesel generators for nothing. This sort of political obstacles makes the electricity supply in the interior very difficult. For example: Sometimes wrong orders of generators or other devices are done which totally not are not in use and became rusty. Also the aspect of fuel destined for the different villages, partially reach the villages because of the so called „leakage‟ of the barrels on the way. The SFOB, Stichting Fonds Ontwikkeling Binnenland is a semi- government foundation that resorts under the ministry of Regional Development. This foundation helps to eliminate socio- economic problems in the interior, in order to strengthen the national economy. The SFOB consist of a bureau and a board. The board has seven members divided in four members of the government, one Amerindian, one Maroon and one member of the NGO. Further has the bureau one manager, a community development expert, three regioncoordinators a finance manager, a financial assistant and a logistic assistant. The SFOB has done different electrification and water projects in rural areas. All
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realized electrification projects are connected to the EBS network.
Maintenance of generator
The maintenance of the several generators and distribution nets are in hands of department of the ministry, the DEV. Also the delivery of fuel, several lubricants and other devices. And all this is done under the responsibility of the manager/ administrator and his assistant. The activities are very limited. The manager must make up monthly the periods with the consumption/ use of the fuel, the services of the generators and trace little malfunctions on the net. This department, if there is an announcement, for example if the one of the generator is broken, or some components or parts must be replaced etc, is the only one who is responsible for and coordinates. Not even the managers or assistants in the villages can fix the problems; because they only received the fuel if it is delivered (like is mentioned above) and makes contacts (with the department in the city) if they are in need. Technical personal from the city Paramaribo has to travel to fix the different problems. Taking into account, the given political- executive context is the DEV in her existing/ current form unable to perform her activities or duties in an adequate way. At least, the managers and assistants have to trained or instructed on-the-job, in short term. In the long term, is qualified personal required, minimal technical personal
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that can work on generators et cetera. This asks for a multi- disciplinarily approach.
In conclusion, although the government is aware that
energy is an important tool for sustainability socioeconomic development, the availability of supply is very limited. The department can foresee many villages. An adequate energy supply is missing. This all because that the villages are in remote areas, unfeasibility and difficulty of the maintenance and the very costly transportation of the fuel. All this problems can be well structured if the management, organization assessment and maintenance of the rural electrification. So, the whole management, organization assessment and maintenance of the rural electrification are not well structured.
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Chapter 4 Community involvement
Public- Community Partnership 35 4.1 Introduction
It is not possible to manage services in the many small villages without participation of the communities. In this chapter the community involvement in the particular villages is developed. 4.2 Community participation in rural electrification The involvement of the communities to manage services is very important. Mainly to assure effective projects execution, it is important to have a strong support from the local communities. Involvement in the villages is mostly the traditional authority; the Kapitein or the Basja. This involvement can be classified as more than social control with idea that the fellow workers or collaborators of the ministry knows that the traditional authorities kept an eye on them in the performance of their activities. Looking at the four villages, the involvement differs from village to village. Giving an assessment, there is no or least involvement. Community development is much more effective if the communities themselves are also eager to develop. The existing energy generators installed by the DEV, the conditions needs technical solutions for setting up a more adequate energy system. For example; when a filter or a „little‟ reparation (service) has to be done on an installation, assistant from Paramaribo is needed. This cost money, because the Ministry has to pay for the transportation and so on (available materials).
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The men in the different villages give totality their support especially when there is a need for identifying, cutting and transporting wooden (electrification) masts/ posts. The representatives of the several organizations worked also with the communities, thus the coordination is not very good.
Strengths and weaknesses of Community participation Within the Community participation there are some
strengths and weaknesses. Here under, the strengths and weaknesses are listed. 4.3.1 Strengths of Community participation
The participation of the several communities in the interior is varying (in range of working together, performing and in different tasks). Besides identification, preparation and implementation of activities, the community has to be involved. This stimulates participation and works further on the improvement of togetherness. It underlines the importance of an integral approach in these villages. In short, the general contribution of the community is manpower, materials, transportation and assisting the consultant (if there is any) with the upgrading activities. The sociocultural aspects are the main one that plays an important role. Most of the women are grouped in communal organizations and -councils. Further, about a proper participation according to the habitants there is no
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direct involvement. The selection according to the DEV to work directly with the traditional authorities is done deliberate because not everyone in the villages can be charge with the fuel aspect and also to prevent favoritism.
Weaknesses of Community participation
In contrast to the strengths the weaknesses shows the problems or inefficiency of community participation. Participation of the community in every development process is very important. In this subparagraph the main weaknesses are listed and leveled. There is, - Low technical capacity: training require for the local communities in the villages (technical assistant). - Low managerial capacity: mobilizing communities. - Low organizational coordination: the several organizations in the villages are not working very closely with each other. - Willingness to pay: every household wants to get 24 hours per day electricity, but they willingness to pay is a crucial aspect. - Low potentials for investors: it is unattractive for potential investors because of the high initial costs they have to make. The selection according to the DEV to work directly with the traditional authorities is done deliberate because not everyone in the villages can be charge with the fuel aspect and also to prevent favoritism.
Public- Community Partnership 38 4.4 Potentials for Public Community Participation
Taking into account the potentials in those villages it is important to look at the serious steps which can be very essential in the development process, if the communities make use of them. The potentials the people over there identified were natural resources, social-, physical-, and human capital. All those activities need electricity. To make all this work very essential, there is a need to look at different things. Some are the contract, the formal organization, the community organization and management, management set up and a new role for government. This all can be place in a new design of an organizational structure. Regulatory Framework To start, the regulatory framework has to be in place first. Within this framework the regulatory authorities, technical regulation and the tariff regulation plays a crucial role. Currently there is no separate entity that can play a central role in the Suriname power sector. This absence seems to be primarily explained by political unwillingness. As is already been told the primary responsibility falls under the Ministry of Natural Resources. The Ministry however has very limited resources to effectively undertake the regulatory tasks. The power sector has traditionally been considered a natural monopoly. The presence of a monopolist, however, is generally undesired for reasons of price, efficiency, and
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quality. The definition of regulation can be when actions are taken by the government in order to achieve socially desirable outcomes in the power sector. That is, to arrive at prices that reflect an efficient level costs, but also is sufficiently high to make it economic for the utility to operate. Connected to this is a sufficiently high level of quality. In fact the absence of the separate regulatory entity can be seen as political reservedness. In order to allow the regulatory functions to be carried out properly, most governments have established a separate authority. If there is a separate authority, advantages can be as follows: The presence of an authority signals to the general public and the power sector stakeholders the importance that government attaches to the proper management and development of the power sector. This is particularly important for private investors who are used to dealing with a regulatory body when it comes to pricing and technical issues. Unlinking the authority from day-to-day political influence takes into account the long-term nature of the power sector. Investments in the power sector are large and need to be earned back during a very long period of time. The planning cycle is also long. Increases in demand need to be anticipated long time before they materialize as there is a considerable lag between the procurement and actual installation of new capacity.
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There is concentration of expertise and knowledge within the authority which provides better capabilities to deal with often complex technical matters. This also provides a professional environment that is better able to attract highly qualified staff required for conducting the regulatory functions. Separate regulatory authorities are common in practically all countries in the world where some degree of power sector reform has taken place. Generally, countries where there exists a regulator, this tends to be correlated with higher performance. Indeed, the idea of installing a formal regulatory usually comes from the wish to improve the efficiency in the power sector. Technical regulation is currently not institutionalized in the Suriname power sector. The absence of technical regulation does not have substantial impact as the power sector is still monopolistic. Most of the technical regulatory is embedded within the EBS. About the tariff regulation the objectives are set electricity prices for the utility at a level such that provided for efficient operations. The tariff regulation is currently being carried out by the government. But the problem in Suriname is that at present there is no accepted tariff methodology. The absence of an effective regulatory policy and implementation of this policy form serious bottlenecks for attaining a secure and reliable power supply in Suriname. There is no tariff policy in the interior, due to the low demand it is difficult to achieve any scale economies in generation.
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Organizational assessment In this area of organization, there seems to be limited coordination between the Ministry of Natural Resources/ DEV and the various actors. Some projects are carried out in isolation and do not fall under the responsibility of a single authority. Such coordination would help to implement a uniform and coherent policy.
To manage services in the interior it is not possible, not only with the government alone but also with the participation of the communities. Community involvement is required to develop these services. Their support is very important. Weaknesses of community participation show the inefficiency of their participation in this chapter, although there are much potential in those villages. But all activities need adequate electricity.
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Findings (Conclusions) and recommendations
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5.1 Findings (Conclusions)
How are community electricity promoted and managed? Community electricity is not very well promoted and managed. Although energy an important tool is for sustainable socio- economic development and one of the important tools for planning of long term development, the policy on rural electrification is still very weak. The government knows that there is an increase of energy demand due the increasing life standards and also aware that energy is an important tool, but the supply is inadequate and not affordable for everyone. The promotion (stimulation) and management lays in the hands of the ministry of Natural Resources, in this the department DEV. It is shown that the resources are limited and namely the regulatory ineffective. Providing electricity is done very costly, hence the people stay in low standard of living.
(promotion and the
management) are not
conducted very well
effectively and efficiently? promotion management conducted effectively and efficiently. On the side of the community, their ample space is very restricted because of the supply of power is limited to about 5 to 6 hours per day which is not economic profitable. The community did not have the management capacities and knowledge to bring the service system sustainable. On the other side, the ministry of Natural Resources is unable to satisfy (not very
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optimal) their, the community, demand in energy service delivery. It seems like the ministry can manage these
services. The energy supply services can be promote and managed nor by the community and the ministry effectively and efficiently. What are the operational challenges and how can they be improved? The present conditions of the remote villages are not profitable to supply with diesel generators. It becomes very unfeasible and too expensive owing the cost of fuel transportation and to difficult to maintenance. In this case clustering villages together and renewable energy options can be taken into consideration. The implementation of these options can be suited for individual households or for the community. It is necessary to start a program for education and the training of the people living in remote areas on the use of such equipments. Another operational challenge is the enabling environment. An enabling environment includes policy environment, effective legislation and support systems, has to be in place. A new legal framework for Suriname‟s energy sector has to be developed consistent with international standards in order to guarantee a better legal security to investors and to sustain the sector development. Therefore, different actions must be taken at different levels; namely, at the law level, the regulatory level and the contractual level.
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Also a tariff study and action plan for a gradual increase of tariffs must be set up. The tariff policy and tariff increases are under the responsibility of the ministry of Natural Resources. Classically, like in many development countries and emerging economies, the politicization of this type of decision prevents the public authority to adjust the tariffs according to the cost evolution, and causes important losses to the state-owned company in charge of electricity distribution. In Suriname there is no regulatory body in charge of the operator control, tariff approval and sectorial regulation. These tasks are taken care of by the State. Restructuring of the NV EBS under a new concession contract would be carried out, in parallel with the tariffs increase and with the establishment of the new legal framework. The new concession contract can be privatization. Institutional and organizational reforms are needed. The community is aware of the importance and advantages of partnerships but the interrelationship has to be improved. More supporting power and understanding for development and economic activities are very weak. To realize the use (advantage) of the development it can be in advance for the communities.
Public- Community Partnership 46 5.2 Recommendations
The ministry must maintain and update a rural electrification plan to co-ordinate rural the electrification. This will encourage and support the creation of a network of private enterprises that will be capable of supplying, erecting, and providing and maintenance advice, of installations that supply electricity to rural population. To develop such rural electrification the ministry should authorize rural communities that are not serviced under a Concession contract to build and operate electricity generation and distribution installation for satisfying their own electricity needs. Within this the community shall have improved standards of living and work; employment of labour; accelerated, co-ordinated and sustained economic development and enhanced levels of national competitiveness. Another operational challenge is that there is „no strike‟ (stoppage) on side of the supplier of the fuel and lubricants. Years ago the suppliers often stops the delivery because the government does not fulfill their financial commitments on time. The government has to commit an evaluation or an assessment regarding the financialsystem, especially the guarantee in continuity of the energy supply in the interior.
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Regarding the leakage of the fuel and other lubricants, an unit „Fuel Inspection‟ that‟s engage in controlling the fuel delivery, the status of the different generators, the infrastructural of the department DEV in the interior, keep an eye on the managers and assistants, report the executive manager (chief), abolish malfunction on the spot which needs a direct solution, and especially to communicate with and held contacts with the traditional authorities in the interior.
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Awortwi N. (2004) Theoretical explanation of partnership development: In Getting the fundamentals Wrong. Awortwi N. (2006) Technology and institutional arrangements in the delivery of public sanitation and solid waste services in Ghanaian cities. International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development Volume 5(3) Intellect Ltd. Pp 221-239. Awortwi N. (2007) Course material on „Governance and the Private sector, Public- Private Partnership. Batley R. (1996) Public- Private Relationships and Performance in Service Provision. Urban Studies, Volume 33 (4-5) 723-751. Beleidsnota 2006-2010 van het Ministerie van Natuurlijke Hulpbronnen BV Industrieel Adviesbureau De Baay (1989) Studie naar het rationeel gebruik van energie in de industriële, transport en commerciële sectoren in Suriname. Algemene inleidende studie. 3012LG Rotterdam, Nederland. Garilao E. (1987) Indigenous NGOs as strategic institutions: Managing the relationship with
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Government and Resource Agencies. World Development. 15, pp. 113-121. Kema Report, (2008) Suriname Power sector Assessment and Alternatives for its Modernization (ATN/SF-9038-SU), Ministry of Natural Resources of the Republic of Suriname Korten D. (1987) Third Generation NGO Strategies: A Key to People-Centered Development. World Development. 15 pp. 147150. Krishna A. (2003) Partnerships between local governments and community-based organizations: Exploring the scope for synergy. Public Administration and Development. Marwell G. and Oliver P. (1993) The Critical Mass in Collective Action. A Micro- Social Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press. McQuaid R. W. (2000) The Theory of Partnership: why have partnerships? In: Public –Private Partnerships. Theory and Practice in International Perspective; Edited by Stephen Osborne. New York: pp. 9-36. Melucci A. (1996) Challenging Codes- Collective Action in the Information Age. Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press.
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Regering van de Republiek Suriname (2006) Meerjarenontwikkelingsplan 2006-2011 Strategie voor duurzame ontwikkeling. Sheng Y.K. (1992) Community participation in Low-income housing projects: problems and prospects. Community Development Journal. 25, (1), pp. 56-65.
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements- UNHCS-(1993) The Theory of Public-Private Partnerships. In: PublicPrivate Partnerships in Enabling Shelter Strategies. Nairobi: UNHCS pp. 11-27.
Surinamese periodicals (in Dutch) Times of Suriname, „Brandstof Binnenland verduisterd‟ 16 maart 2011, daily newspaper
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