Seminar

:
“Renewable energy potential
and business opportunities in
Suriname”
Monday 1
st
February 2010
Banquet Hall - Hotel Torarica, Paramaribo
2 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
executive Summary
Humans are using energy to enhance their living conditions. The primary energy demand of a country
is a function of the number of inhabitants (capita), the activities of these inhabitants to create prosperity
(GDP in US$/capita.year) and the amount of energy necessary to support those activities per unit of
realized prosperity (energy intensities in J/US$). In Suriname, the number of inhabitants and more
over the prosperity increased significantly but the energy intensity decreased only slightly in the last
10 years, that’s the reason why the primary energy demand increased by approximately 7.4%/year
(calculated value).
Environmental limits:
Petroleum products are used as energy source in industry, in electricity generation and in the transport
sector. Combustion releases greenhouse gases (mainly CO
2
) in the atmosphere. Excessive emissions
cause global warming which can result in sea level rise, with possible catastrophic consequences
for Suriname. The Kyoto-protocol and more recently the big environmental meeting in Copenhagen
(Denmark) promote a reduction of CO
2
emissions. Energy savings and renewable energy are two
important pillars to help achieve emission reductions. Developing countries like Suriname can use the
Clean Development Mechanism or CDM (part of the Kyoto Protocol) to receive financial support for
projects reducing CO
2
emissions.
Facing demand growth:
This seminar highlights significant growth in energy demand in Suriname. The demand for electricity
grew 10% last year and the forecast is that growth rate will be in the order of 8% per year in the near
future. Additional electricity is now generated by heavy oil, and over the last 4 years 54,000 new cars
came on the roads, further increasing the growing demand for oil products. Nevertheless, the “official”
oil demand and imports have barely changed over the past years.
Given such high growth rate of oil demand, there is need to look first for ways to master demand
and to use energy in a more rational way (Rational Energy Use, REU) in order to limit investment
in expensive supply infrastructure. Examples of REG actions include: energy efficient lighting, more
energy efficient buildings and more efficient air conditioning, more energy efficient cars, combined
electricity and heat production in industry (or co-generation) etc. However, given the enormous
growth in energy demand, the savingpotential alone is not high enough to face growing demand.
Significant investment in more energy supply is therefore urgent. In this context EBS plans to
extend its generation capacity by a new electric power station of around 80 MW (first phase) and
the Staatsolie is working on the feasibility study (pre-feasibility) of the Tapa-Jai hydropower project.
In the oil sector, Staatsolie plans expansion of its oil refinery and prepares a bio-ethanol project in Wageningen.
Beside these large energy projects, there are several other initiatives in the interior of the country,
including a micro-hydro, a solar and a wind project at Galibi.
3 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Indicators:
Indicators are an important means of quantifying general information (see SBF / SBC seminar on June 26,
2009, “Good Statistics for Sustainable Development in Suriname”). Indicators are essential for transparent
energy policy and investment decisions. They help to substantiate and support funding applications. Several
government agencies, businesses and other institutions dispose of part of the quantitative information, but
a complete picture of the energy situation in Suriname requires that this data be compiled and processed.
What other indicators are still missing and who can ensure that these indicators become available?
Policy:
Due to the large spread and diversity of data, it is very difficult to coherently combine related information
in a manner that is useful to policymaking. The Ministry of Natural Resources (NH) is working on a
number of initiatives that will better support policymaking in the future. This includes the establishment
of an Energy Institute.
Financing projects:
Financing investments in the energy sector requires special attention. Access to capital is a particular
challenge for Suriname. In the past, Suriname looked to the Netherlands for financing resources in the
energy sector. In the future, a different approach should be followed. The government will have to put
in place a structured framework for financing energy supply with special attention to renewable and
sustainable energy sources. This framework will be based on policy choices and priorities in the energy
sector. There should be a clear statement about the desired energy supply mix: Fossil fuel and renewable
energy (hydro, bio-fuel, solar, wind), (nuclear). Government policy on price tariffs must be included in
the framework. Choices made must, on the one hand, aim to offer sufficient incentives for energy saving
and on the other hand the necessary incentives to stimulate financing for desirable new energy projects.
Such framework or strategic financial plan should be composed of at least three elements: (1) public
financing from the yield of energy savings, (2) international development financing through bilateral
cooperation agreements with international financial organizations (3) private venture capital.
Business opportunities:
The dynamic energy sector offers significant opportunities for the Surinamese businesses. Besides
the large investment projects (EBS and Staatsolie and their spin-off effects), there are opportunities in
specific markets. This seminar evoked opportunities for:
Energy conservation measures (small and large) •
Energy efficient cars •
Energy efficient air conditioning and construction measures •
Renewable energy in the oil industry (bio-ethanol) •
Renewable energy in the electricity sector (Tapa-Jai • hydro-power)
Financing. •
4 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Content
executive Summary 2
1 objective, target group and expected results 6
1.1 Objectives 6
1.2 Target group 6
1.3 Expected results 6
2 opening session 7
2.1 Introduction, Suriname Business Development Center Director, Mr. Ir. Ernie P.Isselt 7
2.2 Welcome words from Mr. Ing. Orlando dos Ramos, 8
Chairman Suriname Business Forum
2.3 Speech Chargee d’Affaires Delegation of the European Union 10
Mrs. Esmeralda Hernandez Aragones
2.4 Opening speech Minister of Natural Resources, Mr. Dr. Gregory Rusland 10
3 energy balance and energy indicators 13
3.1 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): Opportunity for Suriname?, 13
NIMOS, Ms. Farzia Hausil
3.2 (Oil) Energy balance of Suriname, Suriname State Oil Company, Mr. Annand Jagesar 14
3.2.1 The Oil Balance of Suriname 15
3.2.2 The oil payments balance 15
3.2.3 Oil reserves 16
3.2.4 One final remark on “Renewable Energy” 17
3.2.5 Share of renewable energy in global primary energy supply 18
3.3 Electricity: demand, supply and future perspectives, EBS, Mr. Ir. Samuel Mehairjan 18
3.3.1 Electricity demand 19
3.3.2 Electricity supply 20
3.3.3 Inter-connection Suriname – French Guyana 22
3.3.4 Additional Electricity Supply with Renewable Energy 23
3.3.5 Rational use of Energy and Energy Efficiency 23
3.3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 23
3.4 Questions: 24
4 Business opportunities for energy effciency and Renewable energy 27
4.1 Energy indicators and missing knowledge, AdeKUS, Mr. Ir. Cornel Wijngaarde 27
4.1.1 Basis Energy indicators 27
4.1.2 Other key indicators 27
4.1.3 Specific indicators for Renewable Energy 27
5 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
4.1.4 Missing Knowledge 29
4.1.5 Steps to take 29
4.2 Potential Energy savings and Renewable Energy Potential of Suriname: 30
basic concepts, Stichting Energie & Duurzame Ontwikkeling Suriname,
Mr. Ing. Johan Geeraert, MSc, MBA
4.2.1 Rational use of energy 30
4.2.2 Renewable Energy 35
4.3 Questions 37
5 Panel Discussion 1: Rational use of energy or demand management for energy 40
5.1 REG applications, Mr. Samuel Mehairjan (EBS/Director Transmission & Generation) 40
5.1.1 Energy saving lamps 40
5.1.2 Electronically controlled engines 40
5.2 Energy-efficient cars, Fernandes Automotive, Mr. Glenn Stekkel 41
5.3 Climate and construction measures, applications, New Tech, Mr. Werner van Geel 43
5.3.1 The residential air conditioning equipment 43
5.3.2 The commercial installations 44
5.3.3 Architectural measures 45
5.4 Questions: 46
6 Panel discussion 2: Renewable energy or additional energy supply? 48
6.1 Hydropower: Opportunities for Suriname, Mr. Eddy Frankel 48
(Staatsolie Suriname Company)
6.2 Bio-energy: Opportunities for Suriname, Mrs. Rosita Ramautar 48
(Staatsolie Suriname Company)
6.3 Funding Renewable Energy projects and Rational use of energy or Energy Efficiency, 50
Mr. Drs. Silvano Tjong-Ahin, consultant
6.4 Questions 53
7 Plenary discussion / Conclusions & Recommendations 55
8 Conclusion, Mr. Dr. ir. Viren ajodhia, Chairman seminar 59
9 Closing 61
Appendix 1: Acronymic 62
Appendix 2: Evaluation 63
Appendix 3: Agenda 69
Appendix 4: Participants 71
Appendix 5: Presentations 75
6 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
1. objective, target group and expected results
1.1 objectives
Give an overview of the current state of energy supply •
Explore challenges and opportunities for slowing climate change by reducing CO2 emissions •
through rational energy use and renewable energy
Emphasize a common vision on renewable energy and sustainable energy •
Identify renewable energy potential for entrepreneurs and opportunities to finance these projects •
Increase awareness within the public and private sectors •
1.2 Target group
This seminar is aimed at entrepreneurs, the relevant public sector, government, private organizations
and NGOs. The aim is to reach 80 to 100 participants
1.3 expected results
Convince the public and private sectors and especially entrepreneurs and government agencies of •
the importance of renewable energy sources (RES) and increased energy efficiency (EE), the op-
portunities they offer and the necessary policies to achieve sustainable development.
Reveal part of the missing information needed to make decisions that will lead to sustainable •
development.
Identify measures that could lead to greater energy efficiency and a higher share of renewable •
energy in Suriname
Opportunities for financial assistance through the “Clean Development Mechanism” »
Ways to improve balance of payments »
Highlight difficulties and challenges for achieving greater energy efficiency and to achieve more •
renewable energy projects in Suriname,
Increase the awareness of entrepreneurs, on energy efficiency and renewable energy. •
7 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
2 opening session
2.1 introduction, Suriname Business Development Center Director,
Mr. ir. ernie P.isselt
Ladies and Gentlemen, Good morning
Welcome, Minister of Natural Resources and Energy
It is an honor to welcome you to our seminar on “Renewable Energy Potential and Business Opportunities
in Suriname”.
My name is Ernie Isselt, Director of Suriname Business Development Center, an organ of the Suriname
Business Forum.
The SBF was established by law with a goal to stimulate the “sustainable development of the local
private sector and has presented the National Strategy for such development as received from its
Partners in order to deepen and implement it.
Partners in the Suriname Business Forum include the Private Sector (ASFA, KKF and VSB), the Public
Sector (Ministry of HI, Finance, Justice and Police, LVV) and civil society (the Labor Ravaksur, AdeK
University of Suriname, NGOs WBG).
One of the tasks of the SBC is to play a facilitating role and ensure that partners and the community are
provided with adequate information and data to assist them in policy formulation, policy implementation
measures, reforms, investment, efficiency-enhancing activities in the Private and Public Sectors, and
all this with a view to “sustainable development of the Local Private Sector”.
Today we will focus on “Renewable Energy” and in particular the potential of Suriname, but also the
need for energy and thereby open eyes to beneficial opportunities available for the Surinamese Private
Sector.
We are pleased with our choice and also the timing on this issue. Not long ago, namely last week, we
heard many world leaders, and leaders of the world’s largest economies state that “Providing incentives
for energy efficiency and clean energy are the right things to do for our future” and “ That the Nation
that leads the clean-energy economy will be the nation that leads the global economy”.
Ladies and gentlemen, the chair of the day’s program lies in the hands of the chairman, Dr. Ir. Viren
Ajodhia. Before passing the leadership to Dr. Ir. Viren Ajodhia, may I welcome Ms. Esmeralda Hernandez
Aragones, Chargee d’Affaires, Delegation of the European Union.
8 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
2.2 welcome words from Mr. ing. orlando dos Ramos, Chairman
Suriname Business Forum
Thank you chairman, Honorable Minister Gregory Rusland, Ms. Esmeralda Hernandez Aragones,
Director EBS Ir. Watson, other staff members of energy companies, Suriname Business Development
Center director, esteemed speakers. It gives me particular pleasure to welcome you here today on behalf
of the Suriname Business Forum, a warm welcome at this seminar where we look at the “Renewable
energy potential of Suriname and the business opportunities thereof”.
Suriname as a developing country finds itself in a fairly good position in terms of energy supply.
Although we may not all be satisfied, we must surely realize that we have our own oil production. A
lot of other developing countries cannot say that. We have a hydropower station at Afobaka and more
potential in western Suriname and elsewhere in the country. We have possibilities for use of biomass
in Suriname. We have had four wet years with lots of energy supply from Afobaka.
Part of our energy supply is still generated from crude oil. That we produce oil in Suriname is something
we should be happy about, yet oil is a reserve that will eventually run out. It is our duty to ensure
that we look at renewable energy opportunities, so our children and our grandchildren can also have
energy available for their needs. There has been, in recent years a huge growth in demand for energy.
Electrical energy has experienced growth in peak capacity of between 6% and 8% per annum and it
looks unlikely that this will quickly diminish. That means an additional capacity of 10MW per year, or
expressed differently, we will need to install big machines each year, such as the four EBS has ordered.
And if we keep installing such big machines, at some point Saramacca Street may be too small! In
the transport sector it is obvious to everyone that we have had a tremendous growth in the number of
vehicles, the number of motorized vehicles. I think there is now three times more vehicles than about
15 years ago and all use fuel. But also in industry there are companies involved in energy intensive
activities. We are all happy with the gold industry, which is a big income generator, but there alone 20
MW is used. It is therefore necessary that we start discussing the energy situation and that together we
consider how we can make this necessity of life last. For years, previous governments have not placed
the necessary level of focus on energy. The main focus has been on medical care, education, helping
poor people and the elderly. These are all very important things, but we all need energy supply. There
is clearly more attention being given to energy supply by the current government. There have been a
number of meetings in recent years where people have started to address the issue. Several options
and possibilities have been offered and these have given impetus to implementation of various projects.
I think of solar energy. We have a wonderful project at Kwamalasumutu. Unfortunately this is no longer
running due to lack of maintenance. We have at the Brownsberg site a long time power supply to the
Telesur communications station with a hybrid system largely fueled on solar power. Now there is a
cable installed to the site. We have had several small applications as well. We have the traffic lights and
for a long time now, road markers seen in the river powered by solar energy. We also have biomass. As
early as in the 60s, electric power in Wageningen in the district of Nickerie, has been generated using
9 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
chaff. In 1975 upgrades were done raising the output to 1,250 kW, nearly half of the supply needed
in Wageningen. That was all generated with the burning of chaff with a very special furnace used to
generate steam and a steam turbine electric generator powered by a left turn. Also, electric generation
and Victoria Mariënburg with steam which Bagase burned to generate steam. These forms of biomass
utilization are unfortunately lost. An attempt in the district of Nickerie to use rice for power generation
is unfortunately not off the ground. I think one of the later speakers will discuss them extensively. Also
attempts to use wood waste are never really seriously. But we have a lot of possibilities.
Today we will cover how we can work on the demand side. We have a growth of 6%- 8% or maybe
10% per year. Can we slow growth a bit? Can we without losing a bit of the enjoyment get our energy
consumption less? A few years ago, the Ministry of NH and the Government of Cuba implemented a
project to replace incandescent bulbs. This project should have a sequel, especially to consider the
possibilities of the LED lights that have become so popular. We can also help save us energy. But I
think that greater savings are possible through the application of more efficient electrical machines.
For example, air conditioners we import should conform to the Energy Efficiency Rate, or EEA, because
there are machines available working on half of the wattage for the same cooling capacity. We must
look at the way we build, that we utilize the sun energy to our gain and limit the energy used for cooling
to a minimum.
Ladies and gentlemen there is much to do. I thus conclude my welcome speech and wish you a fruitful
seminar. Thank you.
10 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
2.3 Speech Chargee d’affaires Delegation of the european union
Mrs. esmeralda Hernandez aragones
Good morning. From the 1
st
of December 2009 the treaty of Lisbon became into force and the delegation
of the European Commission, has become the European Union Delegation, or the Delegation of the
European Union. During this small introduction I want to thank you for inviting me today, to be here
on this new seminar organized by the Suriname Business Development Center. Thank you very much
Chairman of the Suriname Business Forum, Suriname Business Development Center and Minister and
also the ladies and gentlemen that are here today in this seminar. In 2006 the law was passed by the
Suriname assembly to put forward the dialogue between the public and the private sector in Suriname.
The Suriname Business Development Center is the operational arm, a platform for dialogue, of the
Suriname Business Forum and the European Union is supporting with a budget of 2.4 Million Euro in
order to assist this initiative and to put forward all dialogue initiatives in the public and business sector
in Suriname. Today the topic of your seminar “Renewable Energy Potential of Suriname and Business
opportunities” is very interesting. All day representatives, institutions, organizations, companies,
Ministries that will discuss today the different aspects of enabling energy and business in Suriname
will be a success. I liked really to mark my support, not only personal, but also the support of the
European community to this initiative and this seminar and that you are very successful in the outcome
of this seminar. Thank you.
2.4 opening speech Minister of natural Resources,
Mr. Dr. gregory Rusland
Chairman and Board of Suriname Business Forum Director, Ms. Esmeralda Hernandez Aragones,
Delegation of the European Union, Directors, Vice Directors, representatives of various organizations,
dignitaries, it is good to deepen a few things. Looking at the theme, title “Renewable energy potential
and business opportunities in Suriname” then you may wonder what is intended. Is the intention to
look at energy toward business community, or should you look for opportunities for the business
community to do business within the energy framework and of course gain profit from them. Whichever
way we look at it, is good to take a look at the current energy situation in Suriname. When we compare
ourselves with our fellow countries in the region, you will understand that we have done pretty well.
Sometimes with a bit of luck as we have sufficient water in the reservoir and sometimes a little less
luck (the current situation we now face). But in any case, if we look at energy in Suriname, we see that
EBS (the Energy Company Suriname) and Electrification Supply Department (DEV) of the Ministry of
Natural Resources have an important role. EBS is responsible for the coastal side and DEV is mainly
responsible for the villages in the interior. The largest amount of energy is still used in the coastal plain,
Paramaribo. If we look at the past year 2009, we have a peak power level of about 160 MW and an
average power of 140 MW. This has largely been handled from the Afobakadam through Suralco. We
note that, because of water problems we had in the lake during the last period (months), Alcoa has
11 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
indicated that the demand that can be covered by our dam is limited to 80 MW. The remainder must be
insured by ourselves and we do that with generators of EBS and NV State Oil Company Suriname. At
present, we can pretty well satisfy the energy out there, but we know there is still some sensitivity in the
system. Hence, we have recently taken the decision to increase capacity: SA EBS is currently an extra
generator to purchase with a capacity of 7 MW and State Oil is working on two generators to buy. Within
a few months (March, April 2010) we additionally will increase power by a further 21 MW. I always refer
to the energie top we had in 2008. They made a prognosis, and Mr. Orlando dos Ramos mentioned a
growth rate of 6% per year, 8% a year, but if the EBS figures are accurate we notice that we have had a
growth rate above 10% per year over the past eighteen years. The expectations we had in 2008 for the
next 15 years with a forecast for 2023, with the growth rate of 10% per year are underestimated and we
need much more energy than predicted by time (325 MW). That means we will have to consider how we
can respond to this demand. During the energy top it became clear that hydropower is one of the main
alternatives to fill this gap in Suriname. That is also good because it is one of the clean energy sources.
It will also require taking into account the necessary problems in the field of environment, social life
etc. We need to make every effort to realize the potential of our renewable resources to the maximum.
But we must not close our eyes to other forms of energy, including bioenergy, solar and wind energy.
We realize that in Suriname at the moment, the government, the Ministry of Natural Resources, can
use all the support of experts from outside the Department, or outside the government to ensure that
we are preparing and conducting a good policy. As responsible for the Ministry of NH we look at the
opportunities we have. We see a relatively weak structure within the government and so we make good
use of the influence of the EBS and State Oil. About three years ago, I asked Staatsolie to coordinate
a number of issues relating to renewable energy. Since then, there is a piece of close contact between
the State Oil and the Ministry of Natural Resources, even at international forums the Ministry of NH is
often represented by people from State Oil. You also notice that there are activities within the company
where we are going to maximize uptake and use of Renewable Energy Sources. Recently some areas
of the ex SML were purchased, with the intention of building pilot installations for biomass energy
generation. In that area, there is support from outside. When we talk about Bioenergy, Brazilians are
very far. At the highest level, the Presidents of both countries, the level of ministries and at the expert
level, agreements have been made. This technical exchange with experts and people including State Oil,
with support from Brazil will be provided. In the Caribbean, various initiatives have been undertaken by
others and I can cite that we are currently engaged, along with the University, in an inventory of issues
related to wind energy. More information on this issue will probably be provided later by experts. We
note that in the field of bio-ware there is an initiative to create an institute. This initiative was initiated
by business, with Phytotech (plant breeding) and the Ministry of NH, the University and Staatsolie
seeking how to respond to the issues which today are important and will be so in the future. I think
I should cite it as a concrete example of a connection between Renewable Resources and Business
Opportunities. If we look at your position in the energy supply in Suriname, you will not have to wait for
the government, but you have to take your own initiatives, to create your own place and respond to the
opportunities that exist within this sector. For me, there is ample room for the government. I think this
remark is clear, we are looking forward to all information, all support that can be given to the sector
12 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
of the Renewable Energy and Clean Energy, in order to position us well in the future. Suriname has the
potential and I think we then have to respond. We have also seen that our hydropower potential has
helped us well in the recent past compared with other countries in the region. Some of these countries
do not have the capital they need to invest in energy supply. We have the benefits of hydro Suriname
supported by oil.
Ladies and gentlemen, I think I should say that such comments are Wellcome, we again look for the
information you want to bring to us, so we can adapt our policies accordingly.
With these words I wish you every success as the Suriname Business Forum seminar and I declare
the seminar open.
13 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3. energy balance and energy indicators
3.1 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): opportunity for
Suriname?, niMoS, Ms. Farzia Hausil
Together we will go through the background of CDM.
Due to the effects of global warming, which is caused by emissions of greenhouse gases, countries
have decided to reach international agreements. These arrangements can be found in the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. In the Kyoto
Protocol is explicitly included that industrialized countries reduce their emissions of greenhouse
gases by an average 5% compared to 1990 levels, and this over the period 2008-2012. To meet this
reduction commitment several instruments are handed to these countries. One of these tools is the
Clean Development Mechanism or CDM. The point is that these countries, which have too high a goal
of limiting their emissions, embark on projects related to clean technology in developing countries,
including Suriname. The CDM has a commercial character, on the one hand it provides additional
investment in developing countries, and on the other hand it ensures that developed countries can
meet their reduction obligations in a cost effective way. Renewable energy projects are a good example
of CDM projects.
Here an overview of the sectors and their corresponding emissions of greenhouse gases in Suriname.
In the past, there have been a number of studies related to this issue. The latest study is that of 2003,
which can be found in our First National Communication. The energy sector is the largest source of CO
2

emissions through the use of fossil fuels.
Implementation of CDM in Suriname:
Suriname has ratified the UNFCCC in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol in 2006 and in March 2008, the Minister
of ATM signed with UNEP RISO Centre an agreement to implement the project CD4CDM. The aim of this
project is to increase the knowledge on CDM and its potential and strengthen the capacity to formulate
CDM projects and implementation. The project started in April 2008, workshops were organized, and
the CDM Committee was formally established in July 2009. An awareness website was constructed and
we have participated in Carbon Expo to promote Suriname as CDM destination.
There are several requirements to participate in the CDM: (1) ratify the Kyoto Protocol (realized),
(2) establishment of a CDM infrastructure (completed). The structure is as follows: the Minister of
ATM is the contact for the CDM and the Kyoto Protocol. The main task is to evaluate CDM projects.
The majority of CDM projects also interferes with other ministries, thus there is an interdepartmental
working group (NH Department, University).
14 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
UNFCCC has standard project documents.
What are the identified CDM projects? The Minister and Mr. dos Ramos have already talked about a
few of these. Some examples are: the use of solar energy, converting municipal waste into energy,
the diversion of the Tapanahoni River in Jaikreek and on to the reservoIr. Rice husk gassing electricity
generation in Nickerie. This project is in a very advanced stage because both the PIN and PDD are
completed. We are also approached by AdeKUS with the idea to plant mangroves along the coast. The
project may also qualify for CDM. We are awaiting the project proposal.
The progress of the project CD4CDM: We are now in the final phase. To conclude the project we will
carry out a feasibility study. It has already been indicated what the possibilities for Suriname are. If
we could pour into a CDM picture and post how much CO
2
we can effectively avoid and what such a
project would cost, the study will be complete. A new topic is the establishment of a CDM portfolio in
Suriname plus more work on awareness and training on CDM.
We will very briefly look at the results of the major climate conference in Copenhagen in December
2009. The negotiations did not result in a legally binding document. As developed, the Copenhagen
agreement, which I describe as an out-line or a “Future Framework to Address Climate Change” it is
more of a political document. Also with regard to progress after 2013, there are no binding agreements
between countries, i.e. that the negotiations within the Working Group under the Kyoto Protocol will
continue. Some elements included in the agreement: Efforts to limit the maximum temperature increase
to no more than 2oC will be continued; in order to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions for developed
countries, the Copenhagen agreement added an annex prompting emission targets until 2020. For
developing countries there are mitigating measures included, but Suriname was an exception (and on
voluntary basis). We decide when we want to perform and provided we get money from developed
countries. To finance what is included in the short term, a sum of U.S. $ 30 billion will be released for
“the most vulnerable countries”, but how all that will work has not been determined.
Finally: “the future of our business is being designed now, let us being organized”.
3.2 (oil) energy balance of Suriname, Suriname State oil Company,
Mr. annand Jagesar
First we talk about oil, then we will see how fast Suriname must look at other sources of energy and
we do this by checking how much reserves we have and how long we can continue with the current oil
reserves. Then we make a final remark on renewable energy. The organizers of this seminar asked me
to focus also on “Business Opportunities”.
15 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3.2.1 The oil Balance of Suriname

15

3.2 (Oil)EnergybalanceofSuriname,SurinameStateOilCompany,
Mr.AnnandJagesar
Firstwetalkaboutoil,thenwewillseehowfastSurinamemustlookatothersourcesofenergyandwe
dothisbycheckinghowmuchreserveswehaveandhowlongwecancontinuewiththecurrentoil
reserves.Thenwemakeafinalremarkonrenewableenergy.Theorganizersofthisseminaraskedmeto
focusalsoon"BusinessOpportunities".
3.2.1 TheOilBalanceofSuriname

Figure1:Demand&SupplyofOilProducts,Staatsolie,“Energybalancefossiloilproducts”,Mr.AnnandJagesar,1February
2010.
ItwasachallengetocompileFigure1.Thebarsrepresentenergydemandandthelinessupplydataand
estimatesofStateOil.Theneedforheavyoilisshowninorangebars(about3.2millionbarrels/year),
thedemandfordieselproductsingreenbarsandgasolinedemandinthebluebars.Itisunderstandable
thatyoumayhavequestionsaboutthedata.Weexpectaratherfastgrowthinoildemandbecauseof
theincreasingnumberofcarsontheroads,butwecouldnotdeducethateffectfromofficialfigures.We
workonlywithofficialdata,sothepresentedfiguresaretheofficialones.Someordersofdemandlevels:
thegasolineconsumptionisabout350,000liters/day,thedieselconsumptionisabout525,000liters/
dayandtheconsumptionofheavyoilismuchhigherduetoSuralcousingthisenergysourcetogenerate
processheat.
WhatcanwenowsupplyfromStaatsolie?Wemakealittlebitofdieselinthecurrentrefinery:350
barrels/dayandthemajormissing(larger)partisnowimported(i.e.thedifferencebetweenthegreen
barsandthegreenline).Wedonotproducegasolineatthemoment,soalldemandissatisfiedby
importedgasoline.Weproducealotofheavyoilandthesurplusbetweenthelocalsupply(redline)and
thelocaldemand(inorangebar)isexported.Whenournewrefinerywillbeoperational(in2014),the
situationswillchangeandwewillfullymeetthedieselneeds,andalmostallthegasolinedemand.
Insteadofbeingamajoroilexporterwewillbecomeamajoroilimporter.Wehavesufficientheavyoil
Domestic Diesel/ Gasoline/ Fuel oil Demand & Production
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1,000,000
2,000,000
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Staatsolie diesel production Staatsolie gasoline production Staatsolie Fuel Oil production
Realization
Figure 1: Demand & Supply of Oil Products, Staatsolie, “Energy balance fossil oil products”, Mr. Annand Jagesar, 1 February 2010.
It was a challenge to compile Figure 1. The bars represent energy demand and the lines supply data and
estimates of State Oil. The need for heavy oil is shown in orange bars (about 3.2 million barrels / year),
the demand for diesel products in green bars and gasoline demand in the blue bars. It is understandable
that you may have questions about the data. We expect a rather fast growth in oil demand because of the
increasing number of cars on the roads, but we could not deduce that effect from official figures. We work
only with official data, so the presented figuresare the official ones. Some orders of demand levels: the
gasoline consumption is about 350,000 liters / day, the diesel consumption is about 525,000 liters / day and
the consumption of heavy oil is much higher due to Suralco using this energy source to generate process
heat. What can we now supply from Staatsolie? We make a little bit of diesel in the current refinery: 350
barrels/day and the major missing (larger) part is now imported (i.e. the difference between the green bars
and the green line). We do not produce gasoline at the moment, so all demand is satisfied by imported
gasoline. We produce a lot of heavy oil and the surplus between the local supply (red line) and the local
demand (in orange bar) is exported. When our new refinery will be operational (in 2014), the situations will
change and we will fully meet the diesel needs, and almost all the gasoline demand. Instead of being a major
oil exporter we will become a major oil importer. We have sufficient heavy oil to meet the local need, but at
the moment we are not able to satisfy the demand of the much higher quality e gasoline and diesel products.
If we express total demand in barrels, it is about 14,500 barrels / day and production of State Oil is 16,000
barrels / day, we are an exporter in barrels.
3.2.2 The oil payments balance
In money terms the picture is very different because we import gasoline and diesel which are much
more expensive than heavy oil.
16 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”

16

tomeetthelocalneed,butatthemomentwearenotabletosatisfythedemandofthemuchhigher
qualityegasolineanddieselproducts.
Ifweexpresstotaldemandinbarrels,itisabout14,500barrels/dayandproductionofStateOilis
16,000barrels/day,weareanexporterinbarrels.
3.2.2 Theoilpaymentsbalance
Inmoneytermsthepictureisverydifferentbecauseweimportgasolineanddieselwhicharemuch
moreexpensivethanheavyoil.

Figure2:Estimatedeffectonthebalanceofpayment(MillionsUS$),Staatsolie,“Energybalancefueloilproducts”,Mr.
AnnandJagesar,1February2010.
Figure2showstheestimatedimpactonthebalanceofpayments.Actuallytheinternaldemandof
petroleumproductshasaseriousimpactonthecurrencymarketbecauseforgasolineanddiesel
importstheoilcompaniesaredependentontheforeignexchangemarket.Thiseffectexistsnow.
Despitethefactthatwearenetexportersinbarrels,weconsumequitealotofcurrencytomeet
demandinSuriname.Theyear2008isanoutlier,butFigure2showsthetrendthatisdominatedbythe
largeincreaseinrefinedproductionbyStateOilfrom2014on.Justbeforeandjustafterthatyearwe
seeaslightdeclinebytheincreaseindemandforgasolineanddiesel.Assoonastherefinerywillbe
operational,itwillcreateagreatrelieftotheforeignexchangemarket.
3.2.3 Oilreserves
Searchforresourcesisachallenge.Thecompanyfirstexploitstheknownreservesandwithtimegoing
onitbecomesincreasinglydifficulttodiscovernewresources.Staatsoliehasacomprehensiveprogram
designedtoprovideresources.Ittakesalotofmoneyandtimeandultimatelygeologicalstudiesneedto
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Net balance
Figure 2: Estimated effect on the balance of payment (Millions US $), Staatsolie, “Energy balance fuel oil products”, Mr. Annand
Jagesar, 1 February 2010.
Figure 2 shows the estimated impact on the balance of payments. Actually the internal demand of
petroleum products has a serious impact on the currency market because for gasoline and diesel
imports the oil companies are dependent on the foreign exchange market. This effect exists now.
Despite the fact that we are net exporters in barrels, we consume quite a lot of currency to meet
demand in Suriname. The year 2008 is an outlier, but Figure 2 shows the trend that is dominated by the
large increase in refined production by State Oil from 2014 on. Just before and just after that year we
see a slight decline by the increase in demand for gasoline and diesel. As soon as the refinery will be
operational, it will create a great relief to the foreign exchange market.
3.2.3 oil reserves
Search for resources is a challenge. The company first exploits the known reserves and with time
going on it becomes increasingly difficult to discover new resources. Staatsolie has a comprehensive
program designed to provide resources. It takes a lot of money and time and ultimately geological
studies need to be done: exploration, drilling and geological studies again and eventually you can add
a number of sources. Sometimes you do a lot of research and it delivers nothing. Two explored tracks
were useless and we are investigating two other tracks that could provide a lot more than expected.
This is related to the uncertainty we face in exploration. What does our exploration program look like?
We had a very large exploration campaign in 2007 -2008 and we did not yet explore much further than
the Tambaredjo field. We have tapped Nickerie, Coronie and been to Commewijne with our exploration
activities. It looks good and we expect that by 2013 approximately 64 million barrels may be credited
to our actual reserves (80 million barrels) or 13 years of production. Adding those 64 million barrels
17 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
we arrive at a total reserve a little over 20 years of production. If we follow that path, we must ensure
that after 20 years other energy sources become available. Also our offshore program looks very
interesting, but we think the likelihood of success is lower and the time to come to reserves is much
longer. As you know, Repsol in 2008 drilled a hole in a block and that has costed U.S. $ 100 million.
They have collected a lot of information but no oil, the risk of offshore exploration is a lot higher than
onshore. You can sometimes spend a lot of money and fail. We achieved our work program and there
are quite a few experts that stay convinced that sooner or later we will find additional reserves. But it
takes a lot of money. A new oil source actually costs U.S. $ 100 million. If you compare the required
investment with the sales figure of State Oil, it is clear that State Oil is not willing to finance that risk.
3.2.4 one fnal remark on “Renewable energy”
The story of the Hubert peak is basically the ultimate driving force behind the nervousness in the oil
market. The Hubert peak is the time corresponding to maximum oil production. The question is whether
we have already reached that peak. Experts say no, because there is still plenty of scope for higher
production, so the peak will move forward into the future. But oil will become more expensive. In our
case, approximately 80% of the oil stays (remains) in the soil (Recovery leak), that is simply inherent to
the oil industry. You can extract the oil in a much more intensive way out of the ground (Enhanced Oil
Recovery), but it costs a lot more money. To do it in a cost efficient manner, oil price should increase.
You need a higher oil price, and that will shift the peak to a later date. In 2008, the high oil price was a
market signal that there can be a shortage of cheap oil in the future. The financial crisis followed by an
economic crisis reduced oil demand so that the oil price returned to a more normal level.
18

Figure3:PeakOilestimationand‘oilͲrelated’mitigations,Staatsolie,“Energybalancefueloilproducts”,Mr.AnnandJagesar,
1February2010.
Becauseofthehighoilprices,themarketwaslookingatcheaperalternatives.Ithassignaledsupportfor
renewableenergy.Let’slookatrenewableenergy.
3.2.5 Shareofrenewableenergyinglobalprimaryenergysupply
Stillabitofreality.In1973,globalprimaryenergysupplywasaround6,000megatonnesofoil
equivalent.Thatamountofenergywassuppliedforabout89%byfossilfuel(SeeFigure4).In2007,the
primaryenergysupplyapproximatelydoubled,butitisstill82%fossilͲbased.Thepercentageof
renewableenergyevendecreased(notwithstandingthedevelopmentof"NewRenewables");the
differencewassuppliedbynuclearandhydro.Thereisstillaverybiggaptoclosebetweenfossilfuels
andrenewables.

Figure4:Shareofenergysourcesintheglobalprimaryenergysupply,Staatsolie,“Energybalancefueloilproducts”,Mr.
AnnandJagesar,1February2010.
Figure 3: Peak Oil estimation and ‘oil-related’ mitigations, Staatsolie, “Energy balance fuel oil products”, Mr. Annand Jagesar, 1 February 2010.
Because of the high oil prices, the market was looking at cheaper alternatives. It has signaled support
for renewable energy. Let’s look at renewable energy.
18 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3.2.5 Share of renewable energy in global primary energy supply
Still a bit of reality. In 1973, global primary energy supply was around 6,000 mega tonnes of oil
equivalent. That amount of energy was supplied for about 89% by fossil fuel (See Figure 4). In 2007,
the primary energy supply approximately doubled, but it is still 82% fossil-based. The percentage
of renewable energy even decreased (not withstanding the development of “New Renewables”); the
difference was supplied by nuclear and hydro. There is still a very big gap to close between fossil fuels
and renewables.

18

Figure3:PeakOilestimationand‘oilͲrelated’mitigations,Staatsolie,“Energybalancefueloilproducts”,Mr.AnnandJagesar,
1February2010.
Becauseofthehighoilprices,themarketwaslookingatcheaperalternatives.Ithassignaledsupportfor
renewableenergy.Let’slookatrenewableenergy.
3.2.5 Shareofrenewableenergyinglobalprimaryenergysupply
Stillabitofreality.In1973,globalprimaryenergysupplywasaround6,000megatonnesofoil
equivalent.Thatamountofenergywassuppliedforabout89%byfossilfuel(SeeFigure4).In2007,the
primaryenergysupplyapproximatelydoubled,butitisstill82%fossilͲbased.Thepercentageof
renewableenergyevendecreased(notwithstandingthedevelopmentof"NewRenewables");the
differencewassuppliedbynuclearandhydro.Thereisstillaverybiggaptoclosebetweenfossilfuels
andrenewables.

Figure4:Shareofenergysourcesintheglobalprimaryenergysupply,Staatsolie,“Energybalancefueloilproducts”,Mr.
AnnandJagesar,1February2010.
Figure 4: Share of energy sources in the global primary
energy supply, Staatsolie, “Energy balance fuel oil products”,
Mr. Annand Jagesar, 1 February 2010.
Business Opportunities:
Staatsolie will concentrate on its core business and we always try to do it incrementally. There are oil
provinces in the world (eg Houston) where you can get someone around the corner to drill for you 6 oil
sources and someone else to build a production plant. We did not have that luxury in Suriname. The oil
industry has developed slowly and we continue that way as far as the subcontractors follow. The scale
is also important; you need to have a critical size to do this job. We think we have a little tranquility in
the petroleum field and we will divest some activities. The experience is that a lot of subcontractors
have grown with State Oil and I think with success. In our international contracts, we have always
included an article that we want to maximize the contribution of the local component and that means
favorizing local business and attracting staff in Suriname. In many countries it is a dead intention,
because companies ultimately give priority to business. Staatsolie is still trying to force people to
adhere to this clause.
3.3 electricity: demand, supply and future perspectives, eBS,
Mr. ir. Samuel Mehairjan

A small summary: The EBS celebrates its 100
th
birthday and has 11 companies at different locations
with power plants in the Saramacca-street, Clara polder Nickerie, Wageningen, Apura, Coronie,
Brokopondo, Moengo and Albina, Ogane Livorno and Ogane Longmay Nickerie. The head office is at
the Noorderkerk-street, West Kanaal-street and Head office at Livorno. EBS employs 943 persons.
19 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3.3.1 electricity demand
The electricity demand in the EPAR zone is growing (EPAR is the environment of Paramaribo, Wanica,
Commewijne, Saramacca and part of Para district). From 1970 to 2009, peak load increased from 22
MW to 170 MW. This is due to the increasing demand in industry, trade and household’s (due to the
growth of population). Especially additional equipment such as air conditioners, hydropfores, washing
machines, TVs, computers and electric stoves provide additional demand. Recently demand is also
rising in the mining sector (gold and oil sectors).

20

Figure5:Historicalgrowthinpeakdemandforelectricpower(MW)oftheEPARnetwork1970ͲOctober2009,KEMA
forecastedthreescenariosfrom2007to2020,basedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),"Electricity:supply,demandandfuture
prospects",Slides4and5
KEMAprojectedannualgrowthinastudyoftheEPARnetworkbetween2007and2020.Inthisstudy,
threegrowthscenarioswereconsidered:(1)lowscenario,2.7%/year,(2)basescenario6.4%/year,(3)
highscenario10.0%/year.Thecurrenttrendindicatesahighscenarioanditisexpectedthatin2015,in
EPARalone,theloadof250MWwillbeexceeded,andin2020theloadwillgouptobetween300and
425MW.Thiscontinuedstronggrowthrequiresanumberofpreconditions,includingacertainstability
inthecountry.

Figure6:Growthandsectoraldistributionofelectricenergy,basedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),February1,2010,"Electricity:
supply,demandandfutureprospects",Slide6
Ͳ
100
200
300
400
500
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
P
o
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r

(
M
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Demandofelectricalpeakpower(MW),
historical(EPAR)andKEMAprognose(EPAR)
Iamgoldexcluded
HISTORICAlDEMAND
LOWSenario
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HIGHScenario
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Diversen
Rosebel
Industriele
Commerciele
Huishoudelijke
Figure 5: Historical growth in peak demand for electric power (MW) of the EPAR network 1970 - October 2009, KEMA forecasted
three scenarios from 2007 to 2020, based on S. Mehairjan (EBS), “Electricity: supply, demand and future prospects”, Slides 4 and 5
KEMA projected annual growth in a study of the EPAR network between 2007 and 2020. In this study,
three growth scenarios were considered: (1) low scenario, 2.7% / year, (2) base scenario 6.4% / year,
(3) high scenario 10.0% / year. The current trend indicates a high scenario and it is expected that in
2015, in EPAR alone, the load of 250 MW will be exceeded, and in 2020 the load will go up to between
300 and 425 MW. This continued strong growth requires a number of preconditions, including a certain
stability in the country.
20 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”

20

Figure5:Historicalgrowthinpeakdemandforelectricpower(MW)oftheEPARnetwork1970ͲOctober2009,KEMA
forecastedthreescenariosfrom2007to2020,basedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),"Electricity:supply,demandandfuture
prospects",Slides4and5
KEMAprojectedannualgrowthinastudyoftheEPARnetworkbetween2007and2020.Inthisstudy,
threegrowthscenarioswereconsidered:(1)lowscenario,2.7%/year,(2)basescenario6.4%/year,(3)
highscenario10.0%/year.Thecurrenttrendindicatesahighscenarioanditisexpectedthatin2015,in
EPARalone,theloadof250MWwillbeexceeded,andin2020theloadwillgouptobetween300and
425MW.Thiscontinuedstronggrowthrequiresanumberofpreconditions,includingacertainstability
inthecountry.

Figure6:Growthandsectoraldistributionofelectricenergy,basedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),February1,2010,"Electricity:
supply,demandandfutureprospects",Slide6
Ͳ
100
200
300
400
500
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
P
o
w
e
r

(
M
W
)
Demandofelectricalpeakpower(MW),
historical(EPAR)andKEMAprognose(EPAR)
Iamgoldexcluded
HISTORICAlDEMAND
LOWSenario
BASEScenario
HIGHScenario
Ͳ
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
2006 2007 2008 2009
E
l
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d
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(
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e
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Electricalenergydemand(GWh/year),EPAR+Rosebel
Diversen
Rosebel
Industriele
Commerciele
Huishoudelijke
Figure 6: Growth and sect oral distribution of electric energy, based on S. Mehairjan (EBS), February 1, 2010, “Electricity: supply,
demand and future prospects”, Slide 6

21

Figure7:GrowthinthenumberofEBScustomers(EPARRosebel+),basedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),February1,2010,
"Electricity:supply,demandandfutureprospects",Slide6
3.3.2 Electricitysupply
Figure8showsthegrowthintotalelectricitysupply(from914GWh/yearin2006to1179GWh/yearin
2009)thatwasrequiredtofulfilltheincreaseinEPARandIamgoldenergydemand.In2007and2008
additionalwatersupplyfromthehydropowerplantcoveredtheadditionaldemand,butin2009yousee
thesignificantcontributionofEBSandSPCintheenergysupply.

Figure8:ElectricitySupplytocoverthedemandofEPARandIamgold,2006Ͳ2009(GWh/year).BasedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),
February1,2010,"Electricity:supply,demandandfutureprospects",Slide7
WecandeducethatinthepasttwoyearstheKEMA"highgrowth"scenariowassurpassed(10Ͳ13%).
Thetotalpowerdemand(EPAR+RosebelGoldMines)hasaveraged148MW.Inthepastyearthe
averagesalebySuralcoofhydroelectricpowertotheGovernment(NVEBS)wasreviseddownwards
Ͳ
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
2006 2007 2008 2009
NumberEBScustomers(EPAR+Rosebel)
Diversen
Rosebel
Industriele
Commerciele
Huishoudelijke
Ͳ
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
2006 2007 2008 2009 S
u
p
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o
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E
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E
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(
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)
SupplyofElectricEnergy(GWh/year)tocovertheEPARand
Iamgolddemand,from2006to2009
OpwekkingEBS
InkoopSPCS
InkoopSuralco+Iamgold
Figure 7: Growth in the number of EBS customers (EPAR Rosebel +), based on S. Mehairjan (EBS), February 1, 2010, “Electricity:
supply, demand and future prospects”, Slide 6
3.3.2 electricity supply
Figure 8 shows the growth in total electricity supply (from 914 GWh/year in 2006 to 1179 GWh/year in
2009) that was required to fulfill the increase in EPAR and Iamgold energy demand. In 2007 and 2008
additional water supply from the hydro power plant covered the additional demand, but in 2009 you
see the significant contribution of EBS and SPC in the energy supply.
21 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”

21

Figure7:GrowthinthenumberofEBScustomers(EPARRosebel+),basedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),February1,2010,
"Electricity:supply,demandandfutureprospects",Slide6
3.3.2 Electricitysupply
Figure8showsthegrowthintotalelectricitysupply(from914GWh/yearin2006to1179GWh/yearin
2009)thatwasrequiredtofulfilltheincreaseinEPARandIamgoldenergydemand.In2007and2008
additionalwatersupplyfromthehydropowerplantcoveredtheadditionaldemand,butin2009yousee
thesignificantcontributionofEBSandSPCintheenergysupply.

Figure8:ElectricitySupplytocoverthedemandofEPARandIamgold,2006Ͳ2009(GWh/year).BasedonS.Mehairjan(EBS),
February1,2010,"Electricity:supply,demandandfutureprospects",Slide7
WecandeducethatinthepasttwoyearstheKEMA"highgrowth"scenariowassurpassed(10Ͳ13%).
Thetotalpowerdemand(EPAR+RosebelGoldMines)hasaveraged148MW.Inthepastyearthe
averagesalebySuralcoofhydroelectricpowertotheGovernment(NVEBS)wasreviseddownwards
Ͳ
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
2006 2007 2008 2009
NumberEBScustomers(EPAR+Rosebel)
Diversen
Rosebel
Industriele
Commerciele
Huishoudelijke
Ͳ
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
2006 2007 2008 2009 S
u
p
p
l
y

o
f

E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
G
W
h
/
y
e
a
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)
SupplyofElectricEnergy(GWh/year)tocovertheEPARand
Iamgolddemand,from2006to2009
OpwekkingEBS
InkoopSPCS
InkoopSuralco+Iamgold
Figure 8: Electricity Supply to cover the demand of EPAR and Iamgold, 2006 - 2009 (GWh/year). Based on S. Mehairjan (EBS),
February 1, 2010, “Electricity: supply, demand and future prospects”, Slide 7
We can deduce that in the past two years the KEMA “high growth” scenario was surpassed (10-13%).
The total power demand (EPAR + Rosebel Gold Mines) has averaged 148 MW. In the past year the
average sale by Suralco of hydroelectric power to the Government (NV EBS) was revised downwards
twice, first to 95 MW in the month of August 2009 and later to 80 MW in the month of September 2009.
The extreme drought last year led to a shortage of water in the reservoir and thus insufficient water for
power generation.
The missing power is now produced by the EBS and the SPCS plants. This forced the EBS and SPCS to
use all available resources, a total of 55-65 MW diesel generators. But the demand of Iamgold further
increased to 22 MW, so the production is still inadequate and Suralco needed to generate an additional
20 MW by thermal power.
The red line in Figure 9 shows the demand for electrical power and the evolution in the short term.
There are solutions to meet the demand: EBS 9 MW, 14 MW SPCS, EBS Bruynzeel power plant 60-90
MW, development of Tapa-Jai, Bruynzeel II with 120 MW and development of alternative energy. These
are all business opportunities in Suriname. The average generation of Saramaccastraat is around 50
MW. At this time, all production is at its maximum. Reason enough to continue looking for solutions.
22 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”

22

twice,firstto95MWinthemonthofAugust2009andlaterto80MWinthemonthofSeptember2009.
Theextremedroughtlastyearledtoashortageofwaterinthereservoirandthusinsufficientwaterfor
powergeneration.
ThemissingpowerisnowproducedbytheEBSandtheSPCSplants.ThisforcedtheEBSandSPCStouse
allavailableresources,atotalof55Ͳ65MWdieselgenerators.ButthedemandofIamgoldfurther
increasedto22MW,sotheproductionisstillinadequateandSuralconeededtogenerateanadditional
20MWbythermalpower.
TheredlineinFigure9showsthedemandforelectricalpowerandtheevolutionintheshortterm.
Therearesolutionstomeetthedemand:EBS9MW,14MWSPCS,EBSBruynzeelpowerplant60Ͳ90
MW,developmentofTapaͲJai,BruynzeelIIwith120MWanddevelopmentofalternativeenergy.These
areallbusinessopportunitiesinSuriname.TheaveragegenerationofSaramaccastraatisaround50
MW.Atthistime,allproductionisatitsmaximum.Reasonenoughtocontinuelookingforsolutions.

Figure9:SolutionforshortͲtermproblemsofenergysupply,S.Mehairjan(EBS),February1,2010,"Electricity:supply,
demandandfutureprospects",Slide8
Theaverageannualgrowthofelectricityis8Ͳ13%.Theinvestmentsforadditionalgenerationof9+14
MWaredirectlyrequiredandanadditionalpowerof60MWwithintwoyears.TheNVEBSplansto
buildathermalpowerplantinthreephasesatBeekhuizenwithatotalcapacityof200MW.The
investmentofoverU.S.$200millionconsistsof:(1)Civilengineeringworkssuchasfoundations,
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Figure 9: Solution for short-term problems of energy supply, S. Mehairjan (EBS), February 1, 2010, “Electricity: supply, demand and
future prospects”, Slide 8
The average annual growth of electricity is 8-13%. The investments for additional generation of 9 +
14 MW are directly required and an additional power of 60 MW within two years. The NV EBS plans
to build a thermal power plant in three phases at Beekhuizen with a total capacity of 200 MW. The
investment of over U.S. $ 200 million consists of: (1) Civil engineering works such as foundations,
buildings, steel structures, access roads, (2) mechanical work such as: transport oil, water, machinery,
tanks, piping, (3) electrical works such as transmission, substation, SCADA, cabling, control.
3.3.3 inter-connection Suriname – French guyana
The distance between Paramaribo and Albina is 139 km. On the Surinamese side is the voltage is 161
KV with a frequency of 60Hz. The French system is 90 kV with a frequency of 50Hz. Asynchronous
systems cannot be connected together that is why a DC interconnection is necessary. In Albina comes
a frequency transformation that connects both systems. The 161 kV line Menckendam - Albina will
have an approximate cost of $ 30 million and the Albina conversion station will cost approximately $
20 million. This project does not have high priority.
Benefits for Suriname: (1) dynamic stability can improve, in case of rural disturbances we can help each
other, (2) the sale of energy from the Jay-Tapa project. EBS has a large and comprehensive study carried out
by Tractebel. Why is this project not a priority for EBS? At present there is not enough energy available.
23 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3.3.4 additional electricity Supply with Renewable energy
Definition of: “Sustainable power generation”: a form of power generation, which can be maintained
economically without depleting or damaging the resources. “Renewable power generation”: a form of
power generation, in which the required resources are normally replenished through natural processes.
Renewable Biomass: planning of a rice husks power plant in Nickerie (4 MW), planning of a sugar •
cane bagase power plant in Wageningen (MW), planning of a waste burning power plant (10 MW),
research on gasification of wood waste to generate electricity.
Biofuels: ethanol Wageningen and possibly elsewhere. •
Hydropower projects: Jai-Tapa and Marowijne, Kabalebo, Micro-hydro development in many rivers. •
3.3.5 Rational use of energy and energy effciency
Reduction of network losses: •
With higher transmission voltages used in transmission and distribution of electricity, the loss »
will fall from 10% to 5%.
Ensuring voltage- and power households using advanced computer applications that currently exist in »
Network Manager, including Energy Management Systems (EMS) and Distribution Management Sys-
tems (DMS). Using these tools enables business managers to proactively monitor the network simu-
lation, knowledge of Optimal Power Flow, Contingency Analysis and for example State Estimators.
Quality of Supply, Power Quality: devices work in the right voltage waveform (sinus) and voltage. »
Energy Efficient •
Efficient Lighting »
Economical Devices »
Stand-by power savings »
In the energy sector there are large investments expected in the coming years, due to growth and
replacement investments.
3.3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations
Renewable energy should be applied more often and higher voltages should be implemented to reduce
losses in transmission, and reduce losses in distribution. Solar energy and energy efficient equipment
need a high priority for use in households and innovative techniques in the indust.
Recommendations:
Suriname will also have to go along with the new techniques of sustainability and renewable energy •
in order to conserve the environment.
Educational institutions should adapt their curriculum including sustainable energy. •
Create awareness of the society in sustainable energy. •
Companies should deploy trained technical staff about the rapid developments and savings. •
24 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3.4 Questions
energy balance and energy indicators
1.Q. Mr. V. Huseini.
What is being done to reduce the CO2 and how do we use the waste material?
1.A. Ms. F. Hausil, NIMOS
For example the rice husk in the district of Nickerie, currently we have a project proposal for
that project. The rice husk will be used to generate electricity.
With regard to waste in Paramaribo, the Ministry of Public Work is looking at waste disposal
at this moment. They are also looking at the opportunity to make a CDM project.
We advice companies to use energy efficient equipment in their operations.
Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
The only waste product that EBS generates is sludge from lubrication oil. This is all burned.
Long time ago we used to burn it at Beekhuizen (Bruynzeel). As Bruynzeel is closed we
bought a special high temperature burner, this is one of the best ways to get rid of it.
2.Q. Mr. V. Huseini
Is anybody thinking of nuclear as an option in the energy mix?
2.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
Nuclear energy is clean. Why don’t we invest in it? We have to know the boundaries of our
capabilities. If Nuclear would be an option, it’s my opinion that French Guyana or Brazil
should do it and that Suriname could buy the power from them.
3.Q. Mr. I. Sno, ABS
The demand for electric power is increasing. What is the increase in supply of electrical
energy?
3.A. EBS
The delays that have existed in new connections are now eliminated, so the demand for
electricity grows faster than in the period when no new customers were connected.
4.Q. Mr. I. Sno, ABS
If we all pull the plug and start saving energy, this is probably good for the country, but how
good is it for EBS? Will the income from EBS reduce and resulting to even more subsidies
and more tax money?
4.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
All energy that can be saved will become available to cover a part of the major growth.
These savings will not happen until you feel them financially in your pocket.
5.Q. Mr. Man A Hing, KKF.
There is no legislation to support investors who can generate electricity and to distribute it
through the EBS network. EBS is the only company that can distribute electricity. In the past
this has been a problem between State Oil and EBS.
If we are not working to draft a legal work, we can not expect the private sector to invest in
generation of solar energy or wind power, etc.
What is the current situation regarding the law in Suriname?
25 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
I fully agree with Mr. A Man Hing. You need legislation, if you want people to install power
generation on their roof tops and supply this energy to the network. Regarding distribution,
we see that in many other countries there are multiple providers, customers can choose
where to buy energy.
Mr. A. Jagesar, State Oil
The Ministry of NH is working on legislation and I think that in that process the parties will
be heard and that you probably will have the opportunity to get your voice heard.
6.Q. Mr. Thalea, ABS,
How can we (ABS) get the data in a structured way?
6.A. Mr. A. Jagesar, Staatsolie,
If you need data, you can always send a request for data to State Oil.
Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
You can also submit a request to the EBS and we will respond.
7.Q. Mrs. J. Simons,
If you speak about energy, you should first look to energy efficiency. How much energy
can be saved? Is there any data available? What would be the meaning of legislation in this
part?
7.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
There is no data on energy efficiency (it is not measured at this moment). The EBS generates
and buys electricity, and distributes it to meet customer demand. EBS did not yet deal with
the devices the customer uses and how he deals with electricity. The question now is: who
should do this? Is it the task of EBS, State Oil, the consumer association, NH, KKF, etc? If
we want to have lower emissions and greater energy efficiency, it will have to come from
somewhere.
8.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
We discussed funding. One of the questions dealt with small energy generation, such
as solar energy on the rooftops of houses. This is only possible if sufficient funding is
available.
Is there funding available?
8.A. Ms. F. Hausil, NIMOS
In my presentation I tried to clarify the possibilities for financing renewable energy
projects.
The Clean Development Mechanism or CDM could play a role.
9.Q. Mr. D. Lachman
What are the performances of our two semi-governmental companies: EBS and State Oil
company, concerning the emission of greenhouse gases?
26 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
9.A. Mr. A. Jagesar, Staatsolie
As far as I know there is only limited emission of methane in the operations of State Oil.
Although the final product cause CO2 emissions. State Oil is currently not looking to this
area. I ‘am amazed with your statement that emissions of Suriname per capita are one of
the highest. I don’t have the figures yet but I would be very amazed.
Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
When EBS purchases we chose for modern techniques during the last 10 years. For
example, the inefficient generators of Nickerie were all replaced.
Fortunately we have good oil with low NOx. The auxiliary engines are of good quality.
In Suriname we are aware of the importance of energy efficient transformers (98%, 99%).
The distribution is the biggest problem.
10 Mrs. J. Simons
I’m glad to hear that EBS is making an effort to work correctly and in an efficient manner,
but maybe the previous question is more linked to our very inefficient transport and public
transport than on EBS and State Oil. According to my information it would be possible to
get 30% to 40% of energy savings when you specifically invest in energy efficiency.
27 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
4 Business opportunities for energy effciency and
Renewable energy
4.1 energy indicators and missing knowledge, adeKuS,
Mr. ir. Cornel wijngaarde
We will see an overview of basic energy indicators and more specifically those for renewable energy
and for missing knowledge. The presentation will end with a proposition.
4.1.1 Basis energy indicators
The NV EBS knows well the basic energy indicators while this is less the case for the “Dienst Energie
Voorziening” (DEV).
Table 1: Basic electricity indicators
Generation, Network installed capacity •
characteristics of power stations (thermal, renewable, nuclear) •
transmission- and distribution network characteristics •
Load base and peak power •
Daily, monthly and annual load curves •
average load per day, month and year; (kWh / capita) •
growth rate estimation •
4.1.2 other key indicators
The statistical agency “ABS” has also demographic indicators. Legal indicators are very important in
the energy field:
Economic / Financial (ex. Pricing System, average income per capita by region, GDP, ‘Rating’ of •
the country)
Geographic and Demographic (ex. location and composition of residential communities) •
Legal (ex. Electricity). •
4.1.3 Specifc indicators for Renewable energy
You will find the key Renewable Energy Indicators in the left side of Table 2, and the source for this
information is represented in the right side of this table. Notice that it is very diverse, but if you look
well you will find this information. It would be better to consolidate the available data at one central
place.
28 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Table 2: Renewable energy indicators
Renewable
Energy
Sources
Indicator:
most important indicators
Information sources:
technical and practical
Water Hydrological (flow, fall) •
Energy demand, network •
Geographical location •
Min. NH,
Min. OW&V (waterloopkundige dienst),
AdeKUS (Infra),
NGO’s (DRES),
UNDP,
Min. RO/FOB.
Sun Solar intensity and duration •
Power, network •
Community. Geographical location •
Min. NH, Min. OW&V (meteorologische dienst),
AdeKUS (Elektro, WB, Nat), UNDP, NGO’s (PAS,
METS, Rotary), NASA website
Biomass What’s Bio-Energy Crops’, •
Soil. Biomass per day, month, year. •
Energy demand, network. Geographi- •
cal location
Min. NH (EBS, Staatsolie),
Min. LVV,
AdeKUS (IGSR, FTeW),
NGO’s (Rotary e.a.)
Wind Wind Speed Profile •
Power, network •
Geographical location •
AdeKUS(FTeW),
Min. NH,
Min. OW&V (meteorologische dienst), NASA
website(atmosferisch research data)
“The solar irradiation” is an example of a specific renewable energy indicator. A number of •
measurements shows that there is about 5 kWh/m
2
.day or 18 MJ/m
2
.day global horizontal so-
lar irradiance in Paramaribo. This averages approximately 500 W/m
2
of solar radiation 10
hours a day. A practical example of the use of PV solar panels is the holiday resort: Palumeu
from the METS. Since the electricity is used for a projector and a DVD player. Many of the en-
ergy needed for the resort is provided by PV panels. There are many examples of PV sys-
tems in Suriname, but I’ve cited this example because it is a system that is working very well.
The Energy laboratory of the Faculty of Technological Sciences recently received a PV system for
research purposes, through cooperation with a Flemish university.
Wind: The Electrical Engineering Department of the Technological Faculty has set up two wind tow- •
ers to measure wind speed at Nickerie and Galibi. This project is executed in cooperation with the
Ministry of Natural Resources and the CARICOM Secretariat through a project of the Caribbean Re-
newable Energy Development Program, CREDEP. This project has been closed and the CARICOM
Energy secretariat does a follow-up.
At Galibi, Christian Kondre and Krutu-oso a 34 m long wind measurement tower is installed. »
We measure the wind speed and direction at 30 and 20 meter height. The data is logged and
is collected every two months.
At New Nickerie, the wind measurement tower is located near the airport. Probably, the mast »
should be moved, because of expansion of the airport.
Wind: during the day 9-18 h (± 9 hours long) measured wind speeds between 6 and 8 m/s.
What are the possibilities through biomass? •
In Nickerie, there is enough rice husk for a power station of 4 MWe. The construction would »
provide an immediate solution to an acute environmental problem.
29 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
At Wageningen, State Oil has a project to make ethanol from sugar cane. »
At Goejaba there is a pilot project to make Biofuel from Jatropha Curcas. »
Hydropower Projects: •
Jaikreek-Tapanahony river hydropower project. Estimated 400 MW. »
Gran Holo mini-hydro project. Estimated 100 kW. »
Gran Kriki small-hydro project. Estimated 15 MW. »
Puketi Micro-Hydroelectric power plant 40 kW. »
Micro-Hydro Panato central (20 kW?) Unfortunately, this plant is not operational. »
Specific information of Renewable Energy is very dispersed in Suriname. We have many organizations
that are engaged and it sometimes happens that the Ministry of Natural Resources does not know that
certain electricity projects have been launched. That should change. Energy policy is the responsibility
of the Ministry of Natural Resources and some projects are executed by other Ministries in cooperation
with an NGO. Then you get the problem of the operation of this power station after the completion of
the project.
4.1.4 Missing Knowledge
Hydrological data measured over a longer period (several years) is missing. Due to the internal war •
a lot of stations have been lost.
AdeKUS is now measuring the solar intensity and the duration. Measurement in the forest is very •
different than in the city due to shadows of trees.
Biomass: what kind of energy crops •
For wind The east side of the Brokopondo Reservoir could be an interesting place to install small •
wind turbines. The reservoir can act like a big open space similar to an ocean, with higher wind
speeds.
Other missing knowledge has to do with ways to operate such power generation plants in a social,
economic and politically correct way. Problems exist for all our micro hydro power plants. Cases are
initiated and implemented, but in one way or another we are not able to maintain and operate the Hydro
Electric Power Plant in a sustainable way. This is a very big problem.
4.1.5 Steps to take
Implementation of the KEMA Report (2008): “SURINAME POWER SECTOR ASSESSMENT AND
ALTERNATIVES FOR ITS MODERNIZATION”. This report is known to many, but others are not aware.
The establishment of a National Energy Institute •
Setting Electricity Commission Rates •
30 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Focus areas:
Incentives for renewable energy (subsidies and introduction of ‘feed-in tariffs’) •
National Energy fund (funding scientific research in the field of renewable energy sources) •
Adaptation legislation. •
4.2 Potential energy savings and Renewable energy Potential
of Suriname: basic concepts, Stichting energie & Duurzame
ontwikkeling Suriname, Mr. ing. Johan geeraert, MSc, MBa
The presentation covers two subjects: Rational use of Energy and Renewable Energy Potential of
Suriname.
4.2.1 Rational use of energy
Who uses energy? Why? How much do we consume?
Energy to maintain the life functions => 109 W / capita. •
Energy to improve the living conditions: •
Global primary energy use per capita »
=> 2353 W/capita = 2007 robots, or 22 energy robots / capita
Suriname, Primary energy consumption per capita »
=> 3160 W/capita = 1999 robots, or 29 energy robots/ capita.
Drivers of energy consumption
The primary energy TPED (Total Primary Energy Demand) is driven by the size of the population (N
capita), the activity of this population (for nations, the activity is usually expressed in monetary value
of the Gross National Product or GNP or Gross Domestic Product GDP) and the energy intensity of
this activity (EI):
TPED
(J/jaar)
= N
(capita)
*BNP
(US$/capita.jaar)
*EI
(J/US$)
Each of the three terms (N, BNP and EI) changes over time, so that the primary energy consumption
will also change from year to year. However we can discover a trend in these changes.
In 1950, Suriname had almost 180,000 inhabitants and 50 years later it was 2.6 times as much and the
Surinamese population reached the milestone of 500,000 residents probably around the end of 2005.
At a continued growth rate of 1.4%/year, we will reach the milestone of 1 million residents within 45
years and at a growth rate of 1.2%/year within 54 years.
31 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”

32

Figure10:Thepopulationgrowthasdriverfortheenergyconsumption,J.Geeraert,February1,2010
TheGrossNationalProduct
PPP
ofSurinamegrewonaverageby7.5%orslightlymorethanadoublingin
thelast10years,whilelastyear(2009)thisgrowthreducedto3%.

Figure11:TheGrossNationalProductasdriversfortheenergyconsumption,J.Geeraert,1February2010
Ͳ
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1950 2000 2050
PopulationofSuriname,(countedandprojected)
Source:ABS,2008,2009
Geprojecteerdegroeivoet1,2% Geprojecteerdegroeivoet1,4%
Geteld Expon.(Geteld)
0
1
2
3
4
5
1980 1990 2000 2010
G
D
P
P
P
P

(
G

U
S

$
)
Grossdomesticproduct
purchasingͲpowerͲparity(PPP)
ofSuriname(BillionUS$)
source:http://www.indexmundi.com/suriname/gdp_(purchasing_power_parity).html
Figure 10: The population growth as driver for the energy consumption, J. Geeraert, February 1, 2010
The Gross National Product
PPP
of Suriname grew on average by 7.5% or slightly more than a doubling
in the last 10 years, while last year (2009) this growth reduced to 3%.

32

Figure10:Thepopulationgrowthasdriverfortheenergyconsumption,J.Geeraert,February1,2010
TheGrossNationalProduct
PPP
ofSurinamegrewonaverageby7.5%orslightlymorethanadoublingin
thelast10years,whilelastyear(2009)thisgrowthreducedto3%.

Figure11:TheGrossNationalProductasdriversfortheenergyconsumption,J.Geeraert,1February2010
Ͳ
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1950 2000 2050
PopulationofSuriname,(countedandprojected)
Source:ABS,2008,2009
Geprojecteerdegroeivoet1,2% Geprojecteerdegroeivoet1,4%
Geteld Expon.(Geteld)
0
1
2
3
4
5
1980 1990 2000 2010
G
D
P
P
P
P

(
G

U
S

$
)
Grossdomesticproduct
purchasingͲpowerͲparity(PPP)
ofSuriname(BillionUS$)
source:http://www.indexmundi.com/suriname/gdp_(purchasing_power_parity).html
Figure 11: The Gross National Product as drivers for the energy consumption, J. Geeraert, 1 February 2010
32 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
The energy intensity of the GDP may as well increase as decrease, depending on the stage of
development of the population or the state of the society.

33

TheenergyintensityoftheGDPmayaswellincreaseasdecrease,dependingonthestageof
developmentofthepopulationorthestateofthesociety.

Figure12:Theenergyintensityasadriverofenergyconsumption,J.Geeraert,February1,2010
Noexponentialgrowthrateisultimatelysustainable.Apositivegrowthraterunsalwaysoutofhand(if
wewaitlongenough).
Table1:GrowthofTotalPrimaryEnergydemand(TPED),asafunctionofincreasingpopulation,increasingprosperityand
reducingtheenergyintensity(firstapproachbyaggregatingindicatorsfromdifferentperiods).
Growthrate(%/year) Double/Halftime
Increaseofpopulation 1,2%…1,4%/year у50year
Increaseofprosperity(ȴGDP2000Ͳ2009)
1
7,5%/year 9,3year
Reductionofenergyintensity
2000Ͳ2007
Ͳ1,6%/year 44,6year
TPED(J/year) 7,3%/year 9,6year

Definition:RationalUseofEnergyREG:
x Consciouslyrefrainfromenergyuse
x IncreasetheEnergyefficiencyinthechain:PrimaryEnergy=>Finalenergy=>Energyservices

1
BasedontheGDP
2000
ͲGDP
2009
innominalterms,disregardingtheinflation.Thecalculatedexponentialgrowth
rateisoverestimated.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1980 1990 2000
E
n
e
r
g
y

I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
(
M
J
/
U
S
0
5
$

(
P
P
P
)

Energyintensity:
TotalPrimaryEnergyConsumptionperrealisedUS$GDP
Bron:EIA/DOE,http://tonto.eia.doe.gov
Brazil FrenchGuiana Guyana Suriname
Figure 12: The energy intensity as a driver of energy consumption, J. Geeraert, February 1, 2010
No exponential growth rate is ultimately sustainable. A positive growth rate runs always out of hand (if
we wait long enough).
Table 3: growth of Total Primary energy demand (TPeD), as a function of increasing population,
increasing prosperity and reducing the energy intensity (frst approach by aggregating indicators
from different periods).
growth rate (%/year) Double /Half time
Increase of population 1,2% … 1,4%/year ≈ 50 year
Increase of prosperity (ΔGDP 2000-
2009)
1
7,5%/year 9,3 year
Reduction of energy intensity
2000-2007
-1,6%/year 44,6 year
TPeD (J/year) 7,3%/year 9,6 year
Definition: Rational Use of Energy REG:
Consciously refrain from energy use •
Increase the Energy efficiency in the chain: Primary Energy => Final energy => Energy services •
1 Based on the GDP2000 - GDP2009 in nominal terms, disregarding the inflation. The calculated exponential growth rate is overestimated.
33 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Primary energy is transformed into Final Energy, usually electricity, and this is further transformed into
energy services such as: air conditioning, radio, TV, etc. In this whole chain of transformation about 2/3
of the energy is theoretically lost. Only half of this amount can be recovered economically.
Paradoxes
Not always, both the consumer and society benefit from Energy Efficiency measures.
The Rebound Effect: is the phenomenon that occurs for example if a more energy efficient car is bought
and more mileages are driven per year, so that eventually savings in energy consumption is less than
expected at constant mileage.
Classifying Energy Efficiency (EE) measures
Each EE measure represents a saving in energy consumed, but also represents a specific investment
cost. How can the various measures being compared with each other? As a teaching model and
indicative, seven different EE measures are reviewed and classified according to various criteria: cost
of the EE measures as % of GDP (abscissa) and costs per kWh saved energy EE (US $ / kWh) (ordinate
scale).
34 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”

34

PrimaryenergyistransformedintoFinalEnergy,usuallyelectricity,andthisisfurthertransformedinto
energyservicessuchas:airconditioning,radio,TV,etc.Inthiswholechainoftransformationabout2/3
oftheenergyistheoreticallylost.Onlyhalfofthisamountcanberecoveredeconomically.
Paradoxes
Notalways,boththeconsumerandsocietybenefitfromEnergyEfficiencymeasures.
TheReboundEffect:isthephenomenonthatoccursforexampleifamoreenergyefficientcarisbought
andmoremileagesaredrivenperyear,sothateventuallysavingsinenergyconsumptionislessthan
expectedatconstantmileage.
ClassifyingEnergyEfficiency(EE)measures
EachEEmeasurerepresentsasavinginenergyconsumed,butalsorepresentsaspecificinvestment
cost.Howcanthevariousmeasuresbeingcomparedwitheachother?Asateachingmodeland
indicative,sevendifferentEEmeasuresarereviewedandclassifiedaccordingtovariouscriteria:costof
theEEmeasuresas%ofGDP(abscissa)andcostsperkWhsavedenergyEE(US$/kWh)(ordinate
scale).

Figure13:EstimationofthenetEEgainperkWhsavedenergyasafunctionofthetotalcostsavingforSuriname,J.Geeraert,
February1,2010
The(asanexample)incompleteidentifiedeconomicEEpotentialofSurinameisalready~18%ofthe
energyconsumption.ThereisadditionalresearchneededtocompletetheEEpotentialofSurinameand
itshouldbecheckediftheenergypricesinSurinameencourageEnergyEfficientmeasures.
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0 1 2 3 4 5
C
o
s
t

s
a
v
i
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g
s

E
E

p
e
r

k
W
h

s
a
v
e
d

e
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r
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(
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S

$
/
k
W
h
)
SumcostsavingsEE(%BNP2008)
WKKLM6000extrapolatienaar
Suralco
Nieuweenergiezuinigeauto's
(100000)
Distributietransfo'smetlage
nullastverliezen
EnergiezuinigekoelkastenA+++
(150000)
Spaarlampenipvgloeilampen
(500000)
WKKStaatsolie
Figure 13: Estimation of the net EE gain per kWh saved energy as a function of the total cost saving for Suriname, J. Geeraert,
February 1, 2010
The (as an example) incomplete identified economic EE potential of Suriname is already ~ 18% of the
energy consumption. There is additional research needed to complete the EE potential of Suriname and
it should be checked if the energy prices in Suriname encourage Energy Efficient measures.
35

Figure14:yieldfromsevenEEmeasures.ThenetcostsavingperkWhofenergysavedbytheEEaction(US$/kWh)onthe
rightscale.Relativeyield(%)ofthemeasureagainsttheenergyofSurinamein1999ontheLeftHandScale,J.Geeraert,
February1,2010
4.2.2 RenewableEnergy
Ifthesavingspotentialislessthanthegrowthinenergydemand,asisthecase,additionalpower
generationcapacitywillbeneeded,preferablyrenewableenergy.
WhyRenewableEnergy?
RenewableEnergyisaglobalresponseto:(1)safeguardingthenationalenergysupplyandindustrial
productionand(2)lowcarbonenergy.
InthespecificsituationofSuriname:
• Renewableenergyproductionaffectsourenergybalanceinapositivewayorthedifference
betweentheenergyexportsͲimportbecomeslessnegativeandmayevenbecomepositive.
• Renewableenergyproductionaffectsourbalanceofpayments.Energyproducts(mainlyoil)are
expressedinUS$.IfweuselessoilwewillneedlessUS$currencytopayforthatproduct,orifwe
canexportelectricity(eg,FrenchGuiana)wewillreceiveUS$(orEuro).
Howeveritislikelythattheinitialinvestmentinrenewableenergywillbefinancedpartlyby
borrowedcapital,andthisborrowedcapitalandtheinterestthereonmustberepaidinUS$tothe
financinginstitutionabroad.

0.19 0.12
3.51 3.51
0.35
13.68
0.12
0.23
0.18
Ͳ0.23
0.06
0.11
0.05
0.03
Ͳ0.30
Ͳ0.20
Ͳ0.10
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0.10
0.20
0.30
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
OpbrengstvandeREGmaatregel
(%vanhetenergieverbruikin1999van
Suriname)
Kostenbesparingvoorklantensamenleving
(US$/kWh)
Figure 14: yield from seven EE measures. The net cost saving per kWh of energy saved by the EE action (US $/kWh) on the right scale.
Relative yield (%) of the measure against the energy of Suriname in 1999 on the Left Hand Scale, J. Geeraert, February 1, 2010
35 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
4.2.2 Renewable energy
If the savings potential is less than the growth in energy demand, as is the case, additional power
generation capacity will be needed, preferably renewable energy.
Why Renewable Energy?
Renewable Energy is a global response to: (1) safeguarding the national energy supply and industrial
production and (2) low carbon energy.
In the specific situation of Suriname:
Renewable energy production affects our energy balance in a positive way or the difference be- •
tween the energy exports - import becomes less negative and may even become positive.
Renewable energy production affects our balance of payments. Energy products (mainly •
oil) are expressed in US $. If we use less oil we will need less US $ currency to pay for that
product, or if we can export electricity (eg, French Guiana) we will receive US $ (or Euro).
However it is likely that the initial investment in renewable energy will be financed partly by bor-
rowed capital, and this borrowed capital and the interest thereon must be repaid in US $ to the
financing institution abroad.
The Kyoto Protocol supports renewable energy projects through funding with the Clean Devel- »
opment Mechanism (see presentation Ms. Farzia Hausil, NIMOS).
Renewable Energy fully supports the “green strategy” that Suriname currently develops. »
Some basic concepts
Energy occurs in the form of:
stocks (expressed in Joules) •
Flows (expressed in watts). •
A stock can be used when you need it (example: oil) and a flow can only be used when it is present (if
the sun shines, if wind is available, if there is water, biomass is an exception that is temporarily stored
as stock). The inherent variability of renewable energy increases the investment cost and is one of the
weaknesses of that energy source.
The energy stocks are further divided into:
Energy sources •
Energy reserves that can economically be exploited at the prevailing market prices and with the •
technology that is available at this moment.
36 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
The challenges and threats:
Not so much the exhaustion of fossil fuel reserves •
The climate challenge obliges to low carbon energy supply •
Rough estimates of the Renewable Energy Potential of Suriname
A distinction must be made between theoretical potential (which is maximum physically possible),
technical potential (which is technically feasible on the available implantation sites and taking into
account the efficiency to transform into electricity or final energy) and economic potential (taking into
account the capital costs and market prices). Not all potential may already be estimated on the basis of
currently available partial information.
Tabel 4: Rough estimates of the national share of renewable energy potential of Suriname, J.
geeraert, 2009
Theoretical Technical economical
Mw
gwh
year
Mw
gwh
year
Mw
gwh
year
Hydro power 7.987 2.419 120
180
450...650
~900
1577
3350...4350
Biomass: Waste
of 150.000 m³/
jaar lumber
exploitation
16,5 144
Biomass:
Rice husks
Solar - energy 34.129.167 100 100
Wind 12,5 25
37 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
4.3 Questions
Business opportunities in demand side management and additional production from renewable energy
1.Q. Mr. S. Tjong-Ahin
A question following the introduction presentation of Mr. Wijngaarde regarding statistics,
a source of annoyance to a lot of people. We see in his statement that the information
on energy is everywhere and that if you really want to make a good overview, five to ten
sources should be consulted and often you will find no aggregate data on the energy sector.
I would like to know your opinion about this. I would like to add that one of the officers of
ABS asked a question to someone from State Oil Company. But the problem I have and I do
not want to pick a quarrel with Mr. Sno, if the ABS would have access to figures, I would
not get those figures from the ABS because the ABS has (rightly) a non-disclosure policy. In
other words, if there are only two or three sources then you don’t get the number because
then you could deduce that the data comes from State Oil.
1.A. Mr. C. Wijngaarde, AdeKUS
Of course you could state that the Department of Natural Resources and Energy should
have access to the data. We all know how it goes, lack of executives, etc.
That is why in the study by KEMA is proposed to set up an energy institute where all data
flows.
2.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
What is the situation of small hydropower plants in the interior? Is it true that some no
longer work? Is there information about what exactly happened, both with the people
involved from the beginning and those who have built it and the local population, because
you need that if you want to formulate a policy
2.A. Mr. C. Wijngaarde. AdeKUS
Regarding experiences on hydropower, this information is also spread. If I’m not mistaken,
the builder of the first mini-hydroelectric power at Poketi, Mr. Del Prado, is here with us today,
he obviously has a lot of information. At NH you will have to search for information. Another
hydroelectric station is being built at Gran Holo Sula by the Ministry of Regional Development.
Another one at Panato, was built by the University, Mets and the UNDP. You have to figure out
who built all these things and where to look for information. Then there is a thesis of Mr. Van
Els. His conclusion is that we haven’t managed it on social, socially and political level.
Mr. A. Del Prado
In the late 70, I had the opportunity to install a small hydroelectric station in the interior
of Suriname. There are several reasons why there is no data available. One of the reasons
is that, after operations of the mini-hydroelectric power at Poketie on August 28, 1981
(energy was being delivered) three weeks after, I received a letter saying I can’t go to Poketie
anymore. I still have the original letter, signed on behalf of the Minister. The minister knew
nothing about this letter. Where do these dark forces against hydropower come from?
Although there were all kind of problems: poor accessibility, infrastructure difficulty, the
project reached its goal within two years time to generate power of around 50 kW. I haven’t
heard anything since I left Poketi in September 1981, except that holes have been plugged
with concrete, things that needed to be finalized were never executed. Today we all realize
that it worked for 4 years. Sometimes 4 or 5 weeks without anyone doing maintenance. So
it was maintenance free and you did not have to operate it. There are still problems but from
the other mini hydroelectric stations, I hear nothing and they are still not in operation.
38 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
I’ve missed some topics in bio-fuels such as coconut oil. Are people aware of the positive
characteristics of coconut? Is there anything known here?
3.A. Mr. C. Wijngaarde
Regarding the bio-energy crops, there is still a lot of research done. Coconut beside, you
also have elephant grass. That was one of my recommendations for a fund for Renewable
Energy Research.
Mr. Ing. J. Geeraert
In renewable energy, each energy flow has its specific characteristics and parameter (s). For
the sun you have the solar irradiance or only one parameter, with wind you have the wind
speed or one parameter, with hydropower you have the relative height difference (the “fall”)
and the amount of precipitation (water flow) or two parameters, but with biomass you have
a whole range of different parameters and many possibilities and types of crops.
That’s why there are two different approaches for Biomass: either you work pragmatically
and choose a feed stock under certain criteria, or you choose an approach where you
identify all potential biomass.
With a pragmatic approach you look which biomass is exploited profitably and whether this
is applicable in Suriname. We can have a look at our big neighbour Brazil and identify where
they are successful. I would classify the bio-ethanol project from sugar cane of Staatsolie
in this approach. Another alternative is to map all biomass options and rank what is most
interesting for Suriname.
The specific benefits of coconut may emerge. You can start with the use of the classification
from the EPOBIO project.
I have no specific data on coconut. Often the choice is made for an integrated approach
involving all benefits for Suriname (e.g. including the risk of erosion, and possibly nutritional
value of crop and eventually by-products), and not only the use of biomass for energy.
4.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
Storage: We haven’t seen any technical presentations, although there are technical people
here and renewable energy plays an enormously important role in energy storage. There
are a number of developments in storage, but I’m not technical, I think in policy and then I
think “flow batteries”.
4.A. Mr. Ing. J. Geeraert
Renewable energy flows are variable and some of them fluctuate, therefore there must
always be storage or other guaranteed generation capacity available. This can be done by:
(1) thermal power station, (2) buffering, e.g., via battery or other temporary storage, and
(3) interconnection of networks.
• TodayIwillnotanalyzethecostsofanadditionalthermalpowerstationtoguarantee
capacity, but these costs can weigh heavily on the overall cost of renewable energy.
• Bufferingisasecondoption.Bufferingorstorageofenergyinbatteries,compressedair
in underground spaces, flywheels, two water pools at different heights, etc.
In batteries an electrolyte is used to transform temporarily electrical power into chemical
energy. If the battery is discharged, the electrolyte will be charged again, which is time-
and energy consuming.
In a “flow battery”, the electrolyte of the battery is being circulated allowing components
to be stored in separate tanks. The storage capacity compared to a static battery can
thus be greatly increased. In some cases of car batteries, the empty battery itself is
being replaced by a charged battery so that you, as in the refueling of a car, can leave
immediately.
39 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
4.A. Buffering of large quantities of energy can be done by compressed air or water storage
in a basin or pool situated at a higher level than the discharge. In the last option water
is pumped from a lower tank with excess energy (e.g. at night) and discharged through
the water turbine during periods of high energy demand (e.g. at peak times), the water
goes back to bottom just like in a normal hydro station. These are the most effective
solutions for high capacities. Specific to Suriname, I think we have a big advantage
with the buffering of the Afobaka reservoir which covers the different seasons (dry /
rainy season). Even French Guiana is interested in our system. During the dry time their
reservoir doesn’t have enough water and they have to use diesel generators. Via the
interconnection with Suriname they should be able to get green power.
• In general, interconnection or linking networks of suppliers is an alternative to cope
with the variability and the fluctuations of renewable energy. The best known initiative
is from GENI, to build a global electric interconnection.
Storage or buffering is a difficult problem, technically and economically. Research is
going on. The person who finds the most economic reliable solution will become a
millionaire, if his system survives the initial infancy (childhood) problems.
I haven’t got any specific information about flow batteries but: “The Foundation for Energy
and Sustainable Development” will , focus on storage technology, including “flow batteries”
in a later issue of its magazine.
40 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5 Panel Discussion 1: Rational use of energy or
demand management for energy
5.1 Reg applications, Mr. Samuel Mehairjan (eBS/Director
Transmission & generation)
5.1.1 energy saving lamps
The traditional bulbs use a filament that heats up so much that it emits light. However the heat is
wasted. Fluorescent lamps are a lot more economical and efficient than filament lamps. Nowadays
the traditional ballast of a fluorescent lamp is replaced by an electronic ballast, in order to increase
efficiency. In some of the EBS offices all the traditional ballasts were replaced by electronic ballasts.
Energy consumption can thus decrease from 100% to 70%.
The color of fluorescent lamps is different from that of traditional lamps and not everyone tolerates the
flicker and color of fluorescent lamps.
New reflectors or mirrors also provide a better and more dispersed light in the space. The LED lamps
are the most efficient lights and they are still in evolution.

41

5 PanelDiscussion1:Rationaluseofenergyordemandmanagement
forenergy
5.1 REGapplications,Mr.SamuelMehairjan(EBS/DirectorTransmission&
Generation)
5.1.1 Energysavinglamps
Thetraditionalbulbsuseafilamentthatheatsupsomuchthatitemitslight.Howevertheheatis
wasted.Fluorescentlampsarealotmoreeconomicalandefficientthanfilamentlamps.Nowadaysthe
traditionalballastofafluorescentlampisreplacedbyanelectronicballast,inordertoincrease
efficiency.InsomeoftheEBSofficesallthetraditionalballastswerereplacedbyelectronicballasts.
Energyconsumptioncanthusdecreasefrom100%to70%.
Thecoloroffluorescentlampsisdifferentfromthatoftraditionallampsandnoteveryonetoleratesthe
flickerandcoloroffluorescentlamps.
Newreflectorsormirrorsalsoprovideabetterandmoredispersedlightinthespace.TheLEDlampsare
themostefficientlightsandtheyarestillinevolution.

Figure15:Evolutionofsavingsthrougheconomicalenergylamps,S.Mehairjan(EBS),1February2010,“Electricity:demand,
supplyandfutureperspectives”,Slide22
5.1.2 Electronicallycontrolledengines
Previously,thespeedofanelectricmotorwascontrolledbyanelectricalresistance,whichtransformed
theexcessenergyintoheat.Nowadayweusefrequencyconverterswhichactonthesinewaveand
thuscontroltheenginemoreefficiently.
5.2 EnergyǦefficientcars,Fernandescarcenter,Mr.GlennStekkel
Howbigistheproblemthatwearediscussingheretoday?
FuelischeaperhereinSurinamecomparedtoWesterncountries.Wecancomparethepriceperliterin
EuropetowhatwepayperliterinSuriname.Importofusedcarsisgrowingandalmosteveryhousehold
hasnowtwoormorevehicles.
Figure 15: Evolution of savings through economical energy lamps, S. Mehairjan (EBS), 1 February 2010, “Electricity: demand, supply
and future perspectives”, Slide 22
5.1.2 electronically controlled engines
Previously, the speed of an electric motor was controlled by an electrical resistance, which transformed
the excess energy into heat. Now a day we use frequency converters which act on the sine wave and
thus control the engine more efficiently.
41 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5.2 energy-effcient cars, Fernandes automotive, Mr. glenn Stekkel
How big is the problem that we are discussing here today?
Fuel is cheaper here in Suriname compared to Western countries. We can compare the price per liter
in Europe to what we pay per liter in Suriname. Import of used cars is growing and almost every
household has now two or more vehicles.

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Figure 16: Amount of sold cars in Suriname, G. Stekkel (Fernandes Autohandel), 1 February 2010, Energy Economic cars.
This chart shows the car sales over the past three years in Suriname. In the first 4 or 5 months of
2009 almost 6,200 cars were sold. A message appeared in the news this morning that, XP license
plates for vehicles were no longer available. This means there are 10,000 more vehicles on the road.
We have estimated that in 2009 in all categories a total of approximately 13,000 vehicles were added.
Approximately 15,000 vehicles were sold in 2008. Over the past 3 to 4 years there were more than
54,000 vehicles on the roads.
The solution to this problem on the mobility needs of people depends on certain aspects: culture &
change in attitudes (Do we want that change?), Government intervention (Does the government wants
to be involved?), Legislation (which laws should be used?), technology.
Culture & change in attitudes: people should be encouraged to use their bike again (general hilarity •
in the room). Of course, you’ll say: “I do not take the risk to ride a bicycle in traffic”. The govern-
ment will have to make decent bike paths and to make it sure that cyclists are well protected within
the law. Professional public transportation could be a solution. Is the bus on time? If the bus leaves
at 6:00, are you assured that you will arrive at work at 7:30? We have to teach people how to drive
fuel engines economically. Choose the right car for the purpose you need it. It does not make sense
to buy a car with a 3.5 liter engine when you know you only drive 20 km / day.
42 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Government intervention: increase duty on environmentally unfriendly vehicles, that requires se- •
vere inspection of environmental issues. Emission standards are still not applicable in Suriname.
Subsidy of public transport, reducing import duties on ecocars, higher taxation on the second
vehicle in the family.
Legislation: Excise duties on fuel, import duties on used cars, subsidies for purchase of fuel- •
efficient cars, law on testing and inspection of vehicles (less or no import duties should be paid for
fuel-efficient cars), and income tax should be higher for the second vehicle.
Technology: car manufacturers have been working a long time on fuel-efficient vehicles. Already •
in 1900 they were busy with these energy issues. The alternatives are: full electric cars, hydrogen
cars, hybrid cars and cars on LPG.
The technology ready exists to manufacture full electric cars. However, the purchase price »
plays is high and mainly the infrastructure lacks to recharge the batteries . These cars have a
limited range. You start it from home and can travel a certain distance and then you need to
recharge. This is one of the characteristics of a full electric car with only an electric motor and
a battery. The advantages of such a car are: zero emissions, it’s economic in use and noiseless.
Disadvantages: Top speed is low (60 and 80 km/h), limited range (65 km), lack of infrastructure
to recharge and you don’t hear it coming.
A car on hydrogen: Hydrogen is a gas which needs to be produced. Through electrolysis, water »
can be decomposed into its components hydrogen and oxygen. Electricity is needed to do this.
That electricity can be generated in a sustainable way, e.g. with hydro, wind turbines or solar
panels. Some advantages of the hydrogen atom: no air pollution, no carbon dioxide (CO
2
).
The only emission of a hydrogen car is steam. Hydrogen is inexhaustible and can always be
made again. This car is low noise. Some disadvantages: insufficient fuel storage capacity for
small cars, no infrastructure for refueling and there is electricity needed to generate the fuel.
There are already running tests with hydrogen cars, mainly buses and coaches. The range of a
hydrogen tank is 386 km (240 miles) before refueling.
Hybrid cars: »
On the dashboard there is both a charging indicator and a fuel meter. Drive with two inverters,
a battery, an electric motor and an engine fuel. At high speed the vehicle drives on motor
fuel and at low speed on the electric engine, e.g., traffic jam, when reversing and parking.
Advantages: lower emissions in city traffic, relatively low consumption (1 liter per 20 km to 23
km, depending on model). Abroad these vehicles are being subsidized. Disadvantages: a lot of
complexity in manufacturing, the demolition is environmentally unfriendly. The large batteries
must be disposed and demolished in a responsible way. The batteries are heavy and take a lot
of space in the trunk. With such a car you could save 6 full tanks of fuel per year. Obstacles:
investment in charging points (there is no network). Can EBS handle the demand if this will be
applied on a large scale? High investment costs. Limited number of garages that can support
this technology. High acquisition cost of these new vehicles. Environmentally friendly disposal
of batteries is not possible in Suriname.
43 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Cars on LPG »
LPG stands for “Liquefied Petrol Gas”, a clean gas and a cheap fuel. In 2005 LPG became
known in Europe as a result of rising fuel prices. The installation cost to convert a vehicle
to LPG fuel vary from 1200 to 3000 Euros. If you drive more than 10,000 km a year, an LPG
vehicle is cheaper than gasoline and diesel. An LPG car has as a fuel tank as well as a gas
cylinder and there are questions about the safety (explosion). In cars, we can say that it is safe.
The LPG tanks are strong .The purchase cost of a spare tank is high.
Conclusion: If natural gas would be found, LPG vehicles would be easily and immediately implementable.
Conditions need to be set before the introduction of hybrid vehicles.
5.3 Climate and construction measures, applications, new Tech,
Mr. werner van geel
Air conditioning and construction measures are two parts. Both offer different challenges and
“opportunities”. First we will talk about the air-conditioning equipment, and then we’ll go through the
different ways how to build energy efficiently.
5.3.1 The residential air conditioning equipment
What to look for when you go to the store to buy a small split unit? The most important parameter is
“SEER” or Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. This is a big word to indicate how economical or efficient
the air conditioning is. It gives the ratio between the cooling over one season, in Suriname this is a full
year (BTU), and it compares it with the electric energy (Wh) you put into it. The SEER parameter varies
between 8 to 21. A unit with a SEER 20 is twice as efficient as a SEER 10 or in other words a SEER 10
consumes twice as much as a SEER20. The SEER is an important parameter if you invest in a split air
conditioning unit for your home.
Here a small clarification about refrigerant in order to avoid a common misunderstanding. The high
SEER is not achieved because of the new environmentally friendly R410. This new refrigerant is not
the cause of higher efficiency and R22 appliances are as efficient as the devices with R410. Most
new appliances are built differently than the older ones. They have a larger condenser, making them
easier to release all the heat at lower pressures. The compressors are more efficient. It uses variable
speed compressors and variable speed fans. Measures that reduce energy use throughout the cooling
season: a simple split system can be turned on and off and always runs on a kind of full load and
therefore less efficiently than the modulating modern systems.
44 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5.3.2 The commercial installations
In commercial installation, the range of opportunities for energy savings is much larger. The systems
are more complicated.
1. VRF - systems with multiple units on 1 condensing unit (Marriot - McDonalds).Commercial
installations nowadays are switched to “VRF” systems or “Variable Refrigerant Flow”. This is
actually a kind of multi-split system, with one outdoor unit or one condensing unit linked to several
indoor units. Variable Refrigerant Flow, the coolant (refrigerant) flows to the unit that needs it, no
more or less is common. These systems are equipped with highly energy-efficient compressors
and modulated fans.
2. Chiller systems:
a. Attention to right design of the cold water circuit. Also in chiller systems, for example here at
Hotel Torarica, there are a number of opportunities for savings. Good design of the chiller pipes
is the basis for achieving a high return. Worldwide, there are enough examples of improperly
designed systems that do not reach their full performance because they are constantly
switching on and off (“cycling”). Often the reaction is to install an extra chiller, but this usually
makes the situation even worse. A good design of your installation is important.
b. VFD pumps instead of “continuous flow” A second trend in chiller installations is working
with “variable flow” of chilled water. Previously there was a constant flow of chilled water and
if cooling was not required, the water in the bypass was fed back to the chiller. That means
that your pump should work on full capacity year after year. The new trend is to reduce the
flow according to demand. The pump will run slower when there is less demand. This has a
big influence which is understandable from the fact that the power of a pump is proportional
to the cube of speed. If the flow is reduced by half, you have an eight-fold reduction in power
demand.
3. Design (not too much over dimensioning) A very important factor is the sizing or capacity you install.
Installations are often over-dimensioned. Why? The engineer designs a system and computes a
certain cooling capacity. He doesn’t want the customer complaining and therefore adds 10%. Then
a written specification is made and in that contract the 10% is stated. Then the installer has to
choose a chiller. He does not want a chiller that’s 5% less powerful (even the customer doesn’t
accepts this) and he also adds 5%. Eventually you come to an installation that is X% too big which
makes the system very inefficient.
4. Air side.
Along the air side, we also work preferably with a variable flow than with a constant flow. Just the
same principle as the pumps. Do not provide constant air flow to rooms when not needed. Again
the third power rule for power demand.
5. Under floor system.
Then there are a number of new systems. It is quite common or known to have the inflow of cold air
at the top of the room. New systems include the “Under floor systems” supplying the cold air inflow
45 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
through a raised floor at the bottom. The biggest advantage here is that the cold air does not mix
with warm air. Here in this example, you got cold air blowing, but it blows into the warmest air at
the top and then you get a mixture of cold air and warm air. The result is that the cold air has to be
colder to regenerate the desired cooling effect. If you have an “under floor system” the temperature
of the cooled air inflow can be a bit higher, which in turn can lead to energy savings.
6. “Dedicated outside air systems” or DOAS.
It is common practice to mix a quantity of vicious (used) air with fresh outside air in the return of
the air conditioning system. It is better to have a separate air conditioning system to provide for
the supply of fresh air, you can achieve better air quality with less energy.
5.3.3 architectural measures
In a tropical climate it is not easy to design and install a good air conditioning system, not so much because
of the temperature but mainly because of the humidity. To master the humidity is not a simple problem.
General architectural tips:
1. Minimizing the amount of windows
Construct in the tropics with minimal amount of windows. Architects love glass, but this is really
out of the question.
2. Windows placed near the ceiling with “overhang” for daylight, with occasionally a narrow vertical
glass batch.
3. Do not put windows on the west side. For example: without such windows you would install a 10
Ton air-conditioner, but with those windows you will need additional cooling capacity to cool the
additional solar gain (radiation) that is coming in through the windows.
4. Add solar shadow screens (Persian blinds) on the outside of the house. Inside the house it is
already too late, you can only reflect part of the solar radiation that came in.
5. Insulate your building. Choose the correct side for the installation of the vapor barrier. The insulation
has a damp-proof screen that should be on the warm (wet) side. If you place the vapor barrier in
the wrong way, the insulating effect will quickly degrade.
6. No hot unventilated shafts / partitions.
7. Preferably no plenum retours for the air. Plenum retour is used for example to recirculate the air
from the ceiling, it works like an aspirator. You don’t duct the air flow (without channels).
8. Maintain a slight overpressure in the building. This avoids e infiltration of unconditioned humid air
in the building. Moisture requires a lot of energy to condense it.
Depending on the building physics, the cooling loads could range from 70 W/m2 to 250 W/m2. Example:
National Archives 70 W/m2, shading outside, good insulation, with DOAS enthalpy wheel. Result: 2 x
40 ton
2
installed, running on average at about 1/6th of its capacity (approximately 13 tons).
2 The “ton” is a U.S. unit of cooling capacity. It reflects the heat of fusion of 1 ton of ice (at 0 ° C) spread over 24h time. The heat of fusion of ice is 334
kJ / kg. The cooling power released by melting a ton of ice = 1000kg / (24h * 3600s / h) * 334 kJ / kg = 3866 W. A calculator on the Internet mentions
3517 W cooling capacity as the equivalent of melting 1 ton ice. That’s only 91% of the theoretical value.
46 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5.4 Vragen
Demand Side Management, Rational use of energy and energy effciency
1.Q. Ms. R. Ramautar, Staatsolie
Why didn’t you mention Flex Fuel cars in your list? (A flexible-fuel vehicle is a vehicle with
a combustion engine that is designed to work with more than one fuel, usually a mixture of
gasoline and ethanol or methanol)
1.A. Mr. G. Stekkel, Fernandes
We left the information on flex-fuel cars out of the list, but that doesn’t mean that it is not
an opportunity to be looked further at.
2.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
I think the government has an important role in all this. I used to send my child on his or
her bike on the streets and without worrying about their safety but nowadays that is not
anymore possible.
2.A. Mr. G. Stekkel, Fernandes
As bicyclist, you are quite right, it’s a government matter. If we want to encourage cycling,
facilities should be constructed to ensure people can safely go to their destination. Only for
a few roads in Paramaribo, it is still possible to to adapt them for cyclism: Hogerhuysstraat,
Indira Gandhiweg, Highway Wanicastraat. The government will take the necessary measures
to ensure it becomes safe for cycling.
3.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
What is the advice from the business community to the government? How can we adapt
the building regulations?
3.A. Mr. W. Van Geel, NewTech
NewTech is an installer and we are trying to exchange views and ideas with the architects to
contribute to establish energy efficient buildings that are easy to cool.
I did not directly answer the question of where the link for advice to government should
come from. There is a lot of knowledge from the installers and architects, some architects
use these tips more than others.
4.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
The lighting is interesting. Is it not the case that Suriname needs more lighting in the
evenings? I heard about a fiber optic lighting. Is this an option for Suriname?
4.A. W. Van Geel, NewTech
High windows are meant not to get too much sunlight, but just to have light enough so
that can be saved on artificial lighting. These high windows must be combined with vertical
glass windows. People do not like to have just windows without a visual contact with the
outside ground. It is not always possible to let daylight falling in, especially in specific
areas there would be a possibility that glass fibers could play a role, but they are likely an
expensive technology.
5.Q. Mrs. J. Simons,
A question about the building regulations:
In our country there is a question concerning adapters. Do you not lose a lot of heat and
energy in those adapters?
47 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
I fully agree with you, the adapter is an absurdity. Most fires are caused by bad contacts.
If you have an iron of 1,000 watts with a U.S. plug adapter you better install a separate
American socket (outlet). Another option is to change the plug, but then warranty expires.
An adapter provides a voltage drop so you can get flickering and the unit can be damaged.
A lot of houses have taken the step to switch to U.S. sockets. I have 30 adapters at home
because I do not know which of them is good or not. We do not have legislation that
forces the installation of the European or American outlets. But we have to import electrical
equipment from America, Europe and China.
6.Q. Mr. …, from Fernandes
I recently heard from someone who is building a house that EBS has rejected because the
electrical installation was build with U.S. plug-sockets. Why?
6.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
EBS has no specific regulation to reject or prohibit U.S. plug-sockets in the electrical
installation of a house. The plug-sockets (and plugs) must however comply to a specified
test standard. If they meet that standard, the electrical installation should be approved.
7.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
Does EBS has figures on peak power and energy consumption of water pumps used to
generate pressure on the house hold water supply (hydrophores)?
7.A. Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
If the water company (SWM) could assure a constant water pressure, with new electronically
controlled pumps, we would not need water pumps at each house hold (hydrophores).
It takes about an additional peak power of 15 to 20 MW if all pumps in the city would
simultaneously work in the city and a peak power of 2 to 3 MW in the districts. Actual
investment in so many pumps and water tanks is destruction of capital, but the trade has
earned a lot of money.
48 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
6 Panel discussion 2: Renewable energy or additional
energy supply?
6.1 Hydropower: opportunities for Suriname,
Mr. eddy Frankel (Staatsolie Suriname Company)
As an example of a Business Opportunity, we will see very briefly the Tapa-Jai hydropower project that
Staatsolie develops. We made an assessment to evaluate the opportunities of hydropower in a broader
context. We looked at the longer-term opportunities for the development of hydropower: Kabalebo
hydropower project (West Suriname), Gran kriki (a tributary of the Marowijne River) and the Tapa-Jai
project. The Tapa-Jai project is simply a diversion of the water from the Tapanahony River towards the
Jai creek and further to the Marowijne creek to finally flow in the Van Blommenstein reservoir. That
requires: (1) one dam in the Tapanahony River, (2) a channel to connect the Tapanahony River and the
Jai creek, (3) a channel to connect the Jai and the Marowijne creek, and finally (4) the water flows into
the van Blommenstein Reservoir.
The schedule: we are devoted to some studies and project developments in the next two years, and
around 2014 the first drop of water will flow from the Tapanahony to the Van Blommenstein reservoir.
Dams will be constructed, so the area will be developed and a road is projected to Stoelmans Island.
The project will be implemented in phases. In Phase 1, only the amount of water from the Tapanahony
to the reservoir will be increased while no additional generation capacity will be installed. The installed
power at the Afobaka hydroelectric power plant is 189 MW while an average of only 105 to 110 MW
is currently used. Basically 60 MW of hydroelectric power generation is not used, as the current water
flow is insufficient to use this capacity. Apart from this 60 MW, additional generating capacity could
be build at dams in the diversion flow of the water. In that case an additional transmission line would
be needed.
6.2 Bio-energy: opportunities for Suriname,
Mrs. Rosita Ramautar (Staatsolie Suriname Company)
Staatsolie is an oil company but we are in a transition to an energy company. We are aware that oil will
stay the most important energy source in world in the coming decades, but we see also opportunities
to do business in bioenergy. Therefore we chose to be active in the bioenergy sector. Suriname is a
country that has enormous potential for the generation of bio-energy: we have land, sun, water, and in
Suriname a lot of crops are growing. Staatsolie will not be involved in fundamental research into what
crop is best suited. We have chosen for (1) proven technology, it must be shown that this technology
works and is economically viable and (2) it must be 100% mechanical, both planting and harvesting
must be mechanical. Therefore we decided to start producing ethanol from sugar cane.
49 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
As the minister quoted this morning, Staatsolie purchased land at Wageningen (12,600 acres), in order
to plant sugar cane for ethanol bio-fuel production. Why have we chosen sugar cane? Sugar cane is
a proven technology. Our Southern neighbors, the Brazilians have demonstrated that this works fine,
over a period of 40 years. Sugar cane is a product that has a very good energy balance. For every unit
of energy you put into it for production you have a profit of 8 units. It is very important that we can plant
and harvest sugar cane in a mechanical way. That is why we opted for sugar cane.
By covering our own energy needs we can improve our energy security that’s why we need to produce
bio-fuels. You should never depend 100% on foreign fuels. We are going to use a part of the fuels
locally (20%), but Suriname is small market and, from the fuel we produce in Wageningen, 80% will
be exported. The market demand for sugar cane ethanol is growing, partly because of energy security
reasons and partly due to CO2 reduction targets of several countries. There is an increasing demand
for ethanol and Staatsolie sees market potential.
We are going to plant 10,000 hectares of sugar cane, and on the other 2,000 acres we will build the
factory and roads, etc. In these 10,000 acres, we want a yield of approximately 1 million tons of cane
per harvest and per year. The cane goes to the factory, it is pressed, and juice is going to the plant
where the alcohol is distilled. We have the intention to make 90 million liters of ethanol each year. There
is still residual material, bagas that can be used to generate energy. A power capacity of 10 MW or 80
GWh/year of energy could be supplied to EBS. This is in addition of the energy we use for our own
factory. The whole power plant, will be fed with bagas. Residual waste, the vinasse (thick liquid) which
still contains many nutrients to plants, namely potassium, will be used to fertilize the land.
Macro-economic impact:
The return will be about U.S. $ 173 million over 10 years. In the beginning we have to invest a lot of
money. Only for the pilot project, we need US $ 150 million, and in total US $ 600 million. We will have
150 persons in permanent employment and of course the project will have a huge industrial spin-off effect.
Next steps and timeline:
We have negotiated and purchased Wageningen. We will start a pilot project in Wageningen this year.
The sugar cane culture is already known in Suriname: Marienburg, Waterloo. Brazil has tested varieties
with better yields during 40 years. They have varieties with a yield of approximately 9000 liters per
hectare per year. What we want to do is to start a pilot with the best varieties they plant, and check it the
yield in Suriname is as high as in Brazil. If so, then we plan large-scale production. The pilot will last for
up to 2 years. Meanwhile, we begin with the environmental studies (environmental and social impact
assessment). We are going to study at the same time drying the bio-ethanol that we will commercialise.
We are also looking for partners, especially for the agricultural area. Staatsolie is an oil company, we
know nothing of agriculture. We look for people who have know-how of mechanized planting and
harvesting sugar cane. The process part will stay under our own control and we expect that an ethanol
plant will be operational in Wageningen by the end of 2013.
50 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
6.3 Funding Renewable energy projects and Rational use of energy
or energy effciency, Mr. Drs. Silvano Tjong-ahin, consultant
I think that financing is one of the biggest challenges for us in Suriname. The financing of Renewable
Energy initiatives is an important issue that could fit even in a comprehensive introduction of a follow-
up seminar. The fundings for alternative energy sources in the world, are actually increasing in the
light of awareness and ‘commitment’ of rich industrial countries. Also because of the fact that one is
looking for ways to offset the pollution caused by emissions in industrial countries. Many international
organizations and also individual countries have today sufficient resources, although we may not have
received so much (look at Copenhagen). It is certain that sooner or later the world will have to look for
alternative energy sources and also to fund financing for these sources.
Despite the increased supply of funding, we are already observing, the accessibility to those funds
for Suriname is currently difficult and limited because our country does not adequately responds to
what notably Washington has to offer. This is mainly due to the relentless focus on the Dutch bilateral
donation resources. It should be clear that the policy of our development finance actually should, now
more than ever, come out of the isolation. We should focus, like all other countries that do not have
the privilege of bilateral donation funding, on the more common sources of funding and institutes.
When we look at our national planning, we see that for this particular section, the funding mechanism
is little or not at all planned. Often very little attention is given to a financing plan. We do have very nice
technical plans, but what is missing is a good financial plan. That is why our plans disappear often in a
drawer, because we are not able to conclude the financing.
Our development funding for alternative energy will, initially, be based on own savings. This is important
because if we want to talk seriously about renewable energy sources, a prime signal of commitment
must be shown. We need to prove the world that we are committed and that it is not a temporary fashion.
The government obviously plays a crucial role. First of all, I think the government should create a clear
financial framework to support its renewable energy plan. This framework will be based on a policy
regarding the priorities established in relation to supply. A clear statement will be required about the
extent of the energy mix: sun, wind, hydro, bio-fuel (nuclear) or a combination of these. The framework,
or the strategic financial plan, will have to break-down into three main pillars of funding: (1) the public
funding will have to come from savings, (2) international development financing consisting of bilateral
cooperation agreements with international financial organizations (3) the ‘private venture’ capital.
Regarding the “government financing”, it must offer a balanced program, which may include the •
various tax incentives we all know. If we look at other countries this source of funding is common,
mainly for alternative energy sources for households. Especially in the USA you have some funds
available for households, rather than business, but even more for ordinary family households to
fund or subsidise alternative energy sources. On the other hand, you also make room for tax incen-
tives for companies that decide to fit renewable energy sources into their business management.
51 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
“Venture capital”: •
Private capital is more complicated and Suriname has relatively little experience with the private
financing market. We know that Staatsolie tried to mobilize international capital (money), not so
long ago, and if I remember well it was partially successful. But it is so complex and we often think
that it’s easy. We are often told that everything is possible and that we could mobilize US $ 300
million on the international capital market. If we look at countries like Jamaica and Trinidad and we
look at how they operate on international capital markets, we know that it requires an enormous
capacity of your country to operate. Until now we do not have that capacity, I would recommend to
hold off until we master the know-how.
Does that mean that we should focus our attention mainly on funding from International Organi- •
zations? Here too we need a certain capacity to manage this process and the current capacity of
Suriname to deal with international financial institutions is not what it should be. We have focused
all those years on the bilateral donation fund from the Netherlands and there is nothing wrong
with that. This bilateral donation fund is now finished. This means that we need to work more with
organizations like the IDB and the World Bank and with all international organizations that have re-
sources available to fund our business. Briefly it is focussing where we can make claims regarding
international funding institutions.
In 2008, some nations and organizations collected US $ 6.1 billion in a Climate Investment »
Fund, which is further divided into two separate funds: (1) Clean Technology Fund and (2)
Strategic Climate Fund. These funds supplie donations for funding. Within the Strategic Cli-
mate Fund, we have a program called “Scaling of Renewable Energy program in low income
countries” abbreviated SREP. This program was approved in May 2009, so relatively recently.
The aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of economic, social and environmentally friendly low-
carbon development in low income countries. It helps poor countries to understand and in-
crease economic opportunities for using renewables. It is accessible for governments but also
for the private sector. Unfortunately we see that Suriname is not on the list of countries eligible
for funding from SREP. I do not think it’s because we do not meet the conditions for it, as they
are quite simple, but because we fall short in lobbying. If we look around us: Guyana, Bolivia,
Nicaragua, Haiti, all of them are on the list and are eligible for this fund.
At the IDB there is a program called “Sustainable Energy Climate Change Initiative” or SECCI. »
This initiative has created a fund and the purpose of the fund is to finance activities primarily
intended to increase investments in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Today we heard
speeches on a number of initiatives, and a few things about savings, etc. I think that, with
regard to these initiatives, the SECCI fund supplies some opportunities. The SECCI fund offers
technical assistance for project preparation, feasibility studies, demonstration projects, but
also outright investment programs and training partnerships. The SECCI fund is in principle
open to both public and private sector and to semi-governmental companies. However, there
are a number of conditions that should be fulfilled to comply: the project needs to be simple
and profitable, we cannot submit fantasy projects, they should have a degree of innovation
and added value, and they must not conflict with governmental policy. The resources made
52 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
available by SECCI are free resources (or Grants). For technical assistance we can proceed to
US $ 1 million, while investment grants (for projects) can go up-to an amount of US $ 1.5 mil-
lion. These two tools t are actually quite accessible to a lot of countries, especially for all IDB
member countries and there are many. The other fund that I mentioned is housed at the World
Bank and is open to all members of the World Bank. But you know we have a difference with
the World Bank and therefore no result will come out.
The United Nations make also instruments available: the GEF funds. I think something has been »
said on the UN funding this morning.
The European Union has undoubtedly also instruments available. »
Let me conclude by saying that I think (technical) plans without a serious financial plan doesn’t make
sense. You should not allow the donor to drive the mobilization of financing. I think we still need to play
a more proactive role in mobilizing resources also in terms of development of our Renewable Energy
potential.
53 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
6.4 Questions
Renewable energy and additional energy Supply
1.Q. Ms. Theresa, ATM
Has an environmental impact assessment and social analysis been carried out on the Tapa-
Jai project (rise of the Suriname River water level, size of the area submerged, methane
emissions, biological impacts, social impacts, etc)?
1.A. Mr. E. Frankel, Staatsolie
The next 2 years we will spend on studies. In my presentation I was not specific about what
research will be executed exactly, but the social and environmental impact studies actually
define the project.
2.Q. Mr. M. Tirtotaroeno, Environmental and Safety consultant
Staatsolie bought about 12,600 hectares of ground at Wageningen to cultivate Sugar cane.
Is this not going to interfere with the traditional rice cultivation? The whole infrastructure
there is designed for wet cultivation. Did Staatsolie also look at the former sugar company
Mariënburg with an area of 8,000 hectares? There the infrastructure is especially designed
for sugarcane and there is an entire city of people who live there who understand sugarcane
and also some technical people who are unemployed. Furthermore, I think of the failed
agricultural development in Commewijne for dry crops and for rice
2.A. Ms. R. Ramautar (Staatsolie)
The SML site at Wageningen was originally prepared for rice cultivation, and it was not
used for many years. We have not seen that this situation in one way or another had any
impact on the rice sector in Suriname. Staatsolie and Suriname plans to start in the bio-fuel
business. There have been discussions between President Lula and President Venetiaan
(Brazil). To produce biofuels in an economic way, you need large contiguous areas of land
and this is scarce in the world and also in Suriname. This land was a great opportunity
for Staatsolie. Wageningen was there and the creditors insisted, there was no longer rice
cultivation, and Staatsolie has purchased the land. In Marienburg sugar was made, but
Staatsolie wanted to make biofuels. We also learned that the land has been salinized (which
is not good for sugar cane ethanol) and the area is too small: only 8,000 hectares. Maybe
we will look back later. Before Wageningen came into the picture, we also looked at other
options such as: Tibiti, Koebiti, Commewijne, SCL and other areas.
3.Q. Mr. M. Tirtotaroeno, Environment and Safety consultant
With such large projects in the pipeline, a lot of devices will be purchased. Is the government
also looking at the impacts of these devices throughout a life cycle analyses?
3.A. A life cycle analysis is a very interesting tool, but requires time, resources and knowledge.
4.Q. Mr. Man A Hing
What will be the impact on rice cultivation and fertilization?
4.A Ms. R. Ramautar, Staatsolie
Experiments were conducted at the time of SCL. Staatsolie has also investigated the
possibility to use that land for biofuels, but all this land has already been issued. Everything
is already issued! (Complete hilarity).
54 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
Is the possible substantial reduction of rainfall in the Tapa-Jai project taken into account?
5.A. Mr. E. Frankel, Staatsolie
The next 2 years we will spend on studies. In my presentation I was not specific about
which study exactly, but analysis of long-term evolution of the rainfall will be included.
6.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
The issue of Staatsolie and the entire drama to come to buy land of SML at Wageningen, we
will omit. Staatsolie itself is state owned, which makes it good for me that the land ended
up there. So far, Staatsolie executed always successful projects. Have you ever thought that
salinity in Wageningen/Nickerie could be a possible treat in the near future?
The last argument, Commewijne, I find a clear argument: “there is no land any more in
Commewijne” all land is issued and everything is gone.
6.A. Ms. R. Ramautar, Staatsolie
You can do something about salinity, but you should fix it in time and you can halt it. I don’t
know the details but there are not enough technical people in Suriname who can solve
this.
7.Q. Mrs. J. Simons
The issue of storage has come back. I asked, “does someone know flow batteries?” There
has been a discussion on ordinary batteries but there are experiments with different types
of storage. They call it the batteries but the description may not be 100% a battery but a
very important development.
The issue of the Energy Institute has been discussed here. Is the energy council not an
important condition, so we will have not only a financial plan but first of all a common
energy plan? Is there not a clear link between these two?
7.A. Mr. S. Tjong-Ahin,
An energy institute is one way to do certain things.
Donors are mainly looking at the existence of a “clear policy”. When we talk about numbers
that are not available, you can ask the question: how good is your policy if you really do not
have the numbers? The Energy Institute would probably be able to provide figures and thus
help with a good policy, at least one well designed policy.
Of course one of the things, which clearly must be involved in funding by international
institutions, is to prove that there is sufficient commitment and that’s not a fad of a country.
So we as a country must prove that there is sufficient commitment. It is a coincidence that I
participate in the editorial committee of “green development” and again, these discussions
addressed, you must draft a document that is not just a piece of paper but a document that
demonstrates that there is a clear commitment to it. Of course, I think this should be a clear
direction. You cannot just have a policy and say “I’m committed” while all the other things
that you undertake show that you’re not really committed to that policy. These are issues
that all international institutions impose, and if they should be placed within an energy
institute, fine, but I would prefer the Institute is at a Ministry.
55 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
7 Plenary discussion / Conclusions & Recommendations
Plenary discussion / Conclusions & Recommendations
1.Q. Mr. S. Mungra.
On the one hand it is very interesting when I hear the big investment amounts, but I fear that
we are moving into a financial tsunami, because the demand is there, of course. Yesterday
we read in the newspaper that the largest project that can be funded locally by the three big
banks is 3 million US dollars. Staatsolie is working on a plan of US $ 400 million, EBS is
involved in a ‘plant’ of US $ 200 million and we want to establish a sugarcane plant set up
of US $ 600 million over several years. This is all along US $ 1.2 billion investments.
The question is “debt sustainability”. You should forget the government! I can predict that
the high economic growth in Suriname is over. I do not think we can grow after 2013 with
more than 3 to 4% per year (maximum). Public finances is the same story, the cessation
of the development is both funny and very constraining, because it forces the creation of a
national development fund, and the Public Sector Investment Program, PSIP, is approaching
the limit of 0. The government can no longer cover its ongoing expenses. Think of FISO 1
and certainly not FISO 2, and FISO 2 does not concern inflation, but the treasury can’t afford
it. How do we acquire these investment funds? The only way according to Mr. Tjong-Ahin
“Foreign Direct Investment” (FDI), to ask for financing by China and India that have been
traders for 2000 years and “there is not something like a free meal” (no thing is free of
charge). If the debt to China will be 0.5 or 0.75 billion, they will take the major decisions in
Suriname. In the financial institutions it is indeed so that you have to write such thick books
to apply for 1 or 2 million US $ project funding and that you stay in competition with other
Caricom countries. So we have financing problems. The question at company level is: “how
much debt, given the capital structure and balance sheet structure of Staatsolie can still be
added here?” The state has nothing; they can borrow maximum US $ 400 million, because
we have repaid with development aid our debt to Brazil. You might borrow maybe two times
a US $ 200 million loan, but the third time you will borrow to repay the debt and interest on
the loan. Then you have the problem of the SRD if the State will borrow for these projects
(Tapa-Jai), the state will have difficult access to these financial resources and to mobilize
the required SRD to buy US dollars.
There is a major financing problem, so we really have to think about it. In the last multiple
year plan that was not a problem, because we got free money, but those days are over and
there is no more free funding in the future. As economists say: “even the death takes us
life”. For the new planning period and for the following long-term plan we need to study
carefully how we can get funding.
56 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
1.A. Mr. S. Tjong-Ahin
It is of course true what Mr. Mungra says. We need to think about financing for our entire
development. I can imagine that local banks are limited as regard to the supply of funds for
large projects. Yet in my 10 years experience with international banks such as the World
Bank, IDB, Islamic Development Bank, etc., one thing strikes me. We handle actually in
a quite calm and gentle way with those international organizations. We allow that they
decide on the policy. That’s not meant bad, because I do not think their interventions have
been excessive in the past, but it is a fact that we still get too little out of these financial
institutions. In other Caribbean countries the game is very different. We should not wait
for those institutions to come to us whisping: “you know what you can finance?”. It must
go the other way around. We must go into their kitchen, and examine what is available.
We have to explain them what the rules are, because we are the governors of these banks.
Often we forget that. In Suriname we behave as if these people come to visit us and as if
they are very sweet to lend us some money, and afterwards we curse. When do we curse?
When people ask for certain procedures. That is exactly where you would not need to
curse because it should be like that! Often it are very simple things you normally as a self-
respecting company would do as well. Regarding Debt Sustainability: There is currently
an investigation underway into Debt Sustainability. I have seen the preliminary figures. It
is not yet published and I can not divulge figures, but I can say that with regard to Debt
Sustainability Suriname is in very good shape. Probably one of the best in the Caribbean. It
is nice if you could say it’s not so bad, but in the USA they have a principle that if you do not
borrow, they don’t lend you money. And that is the case for Suriname. We have borrowed
little, our Debt Sustainability looks good, the macroeconomic indicators look good and
basically if you make an analysis (that analysis is in preparation and will be ready within 1
to 2 months) , then you find that Suriname is in a very good shape. The only thing is that if
we decide to borrow more, we must realize that we need much more know-how than just an
administrator keeping the loans inventory. You need financial experts who know very well
what happens in the capital markets, when you pay with a given currency, if you pay, etc. All
those things we can learn from other Caribbean countries.
Mr. A. Jagesar, Staatsolie,
It is indeed a challenge. Since a few years we are debt free and we made some savings
which will be invested in the refinery. For other projects we try to reduce or remove risks
with a minimum of preliminary investments. Hence we want to execute a pilot project in
Wageningen so that we can reduce the project risks.
What would also help in that project is to close a long term contract with a buyer, so the
bank is guaranteed of the receipts for at least the loan period. In general, the energy sector
is ready to go very far to supply debt financing because in that sector there exist fixed price
agreements and fixed tariffs. But I admit that it is a challenge to put everything together.
This means that progress of the country of Suriname on the international ratings would
help, but we are still not “investment grade”. This means that we pay a penalty to get the
loan interest. That is something that we must learn to deal with, it may be an increase of 2%
to 3% compared to counties with the best ratings. For example, if the best can borrow at
6% loan, it becomes at the moment 9% for us, due to the lower rating of the country.
Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
You make me look ridiculous. Who expects from me that I know how EBS should get those
60 to 80 million US $ that is needed to invest in the first step. The plans are there for those
stations, but I cannot tell you at the moment how we will finance it. We are now making
installation plans, but in time we will have the money to finance execution because you
need the power. EBS has to find a solution together with funding organizations and the
government.
57 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
2.Q. Mr. I. Sno, ABS
A question for Mr. S. Tjong-Ahin. May I first begin by saying that he was a little too hard
when stating that Suriname had a quarrel with the World Bank. They say it nicely, we are
a non-BMC. The same problem we have with Caribbean Development Bank (CDB). But the
World Bank at least friendly looked at us last year. What I mean to say is that in the past, the
argument was “you do not borrow, so you cannot get anything from me”. For the first time
we (statisticians), watched the World Bank, last year, and they have not ruled out certain
funds that are parked in the CARICOM. Does Mr. S. Tjong-Ahin have some advice on how
the relationship with the World Bank and CDB can be improved?
2.A. Mr. S. Tjong-Ahin
Let’s start with CDB. As far as I know (I can make mistakes because I was away for a year),
Suriname is not a member of CDB. The question is: whether you should be member of
CDB? But we need to look into this issue and make a decision. If you are not a member you
cannot withdraw funds from CDB. I know that many resources of the IDB and World Bank
go to CDB, so actually they are also a bit “needy”. It has become a bit of my mission, and
I hope I once would be able to realize it, to bring Suriname back to the World Bank. Yes,
it is probably true that they have an opening. They have kept a number of funds that are
sleeping here and there. It does not mean we cannot make use of their facilities. We are
“not engaged” they call it, but we must come up with a “re-engagement” (as it is called).
But Suriname is not on the radar of the World Bank. I am glad that this question comes
from you and I have often spoken with people from the World Bank, even more frequently.
There is a misunderstanding. I will not go into that, politicians will arrange themselves.
But it is really like I say, “I’m not talking to you and I think you don’t want to talk to me”.
This refers to nowhere! We underestimate the role of the World Bank. I can tell you that
three-quarters of all rankings that we achieve in the World (we are bad when it comes to
investments, bad with this, ... etc.). Believe me, it has nothing to do with a bad situation here
in Suriname, it has more to do with the fact that we are so far away from the World bank
and I can substantiate it myself because I have studied it. Almost all ranking organizations
look directly at the World Bank, to their database, it is the most comprehensive database
in the World. Suriname is “not available”, “n.a.”, 99% is not available, and if something
is available then it are data from 1996. Big Error! Because that means that when these
rankings take place as it is about investments or whatever, then the youngest employee
becomes in charge of Suriname, for an inquiry. He answers “boss, I have no figures of
Suriname”, and Suriname will dangle next to Haiti. You can explore it yourself, that’s the
main reason why we often score poorly. That means, if we want to reverse this situation,
we need as soon as possible to do business with the World Bank. Do not be in a hurry to
borrow from the World Bank, but make sure you use all the facilities. It’s like a financial
institution here (locally) would say I am not concerned with the Central Bank of Suriname.
Then you’re not so crazy. I advocate that we reflect profoundly on our attitude. You should
not get into bed with the World Bank, but remember not interfering with the World Bank is
the biggest mistake you can make.
58 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Rem1:
Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
Recently one Surinamese PhD student graduated at TU Delft with a thesis on the use of
wind energy without the use of a windmill, but by using the friction of the wind. His name is
Dr. Jayram. There are many Surinamese who follow now a course at TU Delft. The course
is called “Solar Power” and since last year given to the chair of Prof. Zeeman. Surinamese
boys and girls have been following this course. This is a good sign that I just wanted to
pass.
Rem2:
Mr. S. Mehairjan, EBS
Another thing I would add to the story of Jai-Tapa hydropower project. It will be called the
“all-weather lake”. This will generate you all over the year a power of 150 MW, if you build
it right. At other moments when it rains hard, you will generate energy on the other dams.
It could even be doubling the amount of energy. We must of course consider whether
the current generators are sufficient for the coming years, or if they must be replaced. It
includes all the components, including the transformers at Paranam, while they are the
ownership of Suralco, how do we deal with it? We’re going to reach agreements. The cause
of major blackouts in recent years (2008 and 2009), was due to ageing of insulators at
Afobaka. These matters will be renewed. There are solutions to all problems, including
financial problems.
59 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
8 Conclusion,
Mr. Dr. ir. Viren ajodhia
The seminar suggested that the energy sector is a dynamic sector with significant growth. According to
figures from the EBS, the electricity growth was more than 10% over the past year and a growth rate of
8% is expected for the coming years.
This boom requires significant investment in new production capacity. In this context, EBS plans the
development of a new thermal power station of around 80 MW (in the first phase) and Staatsolie is
developing plans for the Tapanahony-Jai creek project.
Rational Use of Energy and Energy Efficiency can play an important role in the management of the Energy
Demand. Examples are: energy saving lamps, efficiency in construction, efficient air conditioning, the use
of energy efficient cars.
There are several initiatives on Renewable Energy. In the interior, for example, they engaged in micro-
hydro and solar power while in Galibi a wind farm project is under way. The energy sector offers significant
opportunities for the Surinamese business. Besides the spin-offs on the large investments by EBS and
Staatsolie, there is also a role in the development of smaller scale Renewable Energy Sources.
The presence of a sound energy policy plays an important role. In this area improvements can be gained.
• Thereiscurrentlynoauthorityorinstitutionwherealldataandinformationontheenergysectoris
unambiguously available and centralized. Much data is scattered and often not comparable. This
complicates the planning of new projects, determining the profitability, new initiatives.
• There are several initiatives in the field of energy, but they are all scattered. There is no central
coordinating body. For example: certain initiatives in the energy sector are unknown at the Ministry
of Natural Resources.
• There is no clear energy policy at this moment. The Ministry of Natural Resources discussed
the initiation of a number of initiatives, but the implementation has yet to take place. The Energy
Institute is such an initiative that could play a very important role in the future.
• The tariff policy of the government does nothing to promote energy conservation. Because the
rates are too low, energy saving measures are not attractive.
• Access to capital for the energy sector (and also for other sectors) should be focusing less on
traditional sources such as development aid from the Netherlands. Joining international financial
institutions like the World Bank may open the door to provide Suriname and Surinamese
entrepreneurs with easier access to capital in larger volumes.
60 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
The identification of these problems has been an important outcome of this seminar. The various speakers
framed a good picture of the various energy initiatives and energy opportunities in Suriname. In addition
the obstacles were identified the industry faces in order to be able to stimulate entrepreneurship in the
energy sector.
What is the next step? There are many business opportunities in the energy sector. At the same time it
is important that the Government will create the necessary frameworks to accommodate this process of
cooperation with the industry. Availability of data and information is crucial. An effective energy policy can
help to shape the coordinating role of government and realize the opportunities in the energy sector.
This seminar can supply an important contribution to the further growth of the energy sector and the
creation of opportunities for the business. It is therefore important that the results of this seminar are
brought together and that they are presented to the various stakeholders. This will contribute to a good
energy supply for Suriname in the future and will create opportunities for entrepreneurs.
61 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
9 Closing
Ladies and Gentlemen, first of all we are very grateful to the people that made this seminar to a
success: our speakers, a range of experts, professionals who presented here and who gave us a lot of
information.
The result is that we received homework. The Minister of Natural Resources requested explicitly, to do
everything to report this homework in the correct way.
What we have learned is that a sequel is necessary for project financing. This is the indication we have
heard today. We shall return very soon and come with a financial seminar to follow-up what is brought
forward.
But I do not want to take much of your time. I must thank you for your attendance, participation, lively
discussion on professional level. I’ve heard little disruption of phones going off, so thank you for that.
Again, we will do our best to make the summary as mentioned by Mr. Ajodhia visible for all.
Chairman: “Thank you for the job. Well-Done!”
It was great!
Herewith I close the seminar and would like to thank you all.
62 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
appendix 1: acronymic
AdeKUS Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname
BNP Bruto Nationaal Product
CDB Caribbean Development Bank
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
EE Energie Efficiëntie
EER Energy Efficiency Rate
EPAR Elektriciteitsvoorziening omgeving Paramaribo,
(Paramaribo, Wanica, Commewijne Saramacca en een deel van Para)
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
FISO Nieuwe schaalverdeling van de lonen bij de Overheid
GEF (United Nations) Global Environment Fund
N.A. Not Available
NGO Non Governmental Organisation
REG Rationeel Energie Gebruik
SECCI Sustainable Energy Climate and Change Initiative
TOE Ton Olie Equivalenten
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
63 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
appendix 2: evaluation
a. logistics
On-time Ample on time Late
Was the invitation/announcement of the
seminar on time?
68% 14% 18%
Yes No
Was the scheduled time of the seminar
adequate?
93% 7%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How was the quality of the refreshments
and food provided?
17% 57% 21% 5%
Good Not good
Were the venue and accommodation of
the seminar good chosen?
100% 0%
B. Presentation/content
Clear Moderate Poor
1. Was the purpose of the seminar
clear?
86,4% 11,4% 2,3%
2. Presentation by Ms. Farzia Hausil:
Yes No
Was the presentation clear? 90% 10%
Was the info useful? 93% 7%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How do you rate the presentations/
material as presented?
9% 65% 26% 0%
Easy to
understand
Normal to understand Difficult to
understand
How do you rate the quality of the
content of the presentation?
24% 74% 2%
Clear and
Correct
Correct Moderate Poor
How was the feedback given by the
audience?
7% 46% 37% 10%
64 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
3. Presentation by Mr. Annand Jagesar
Yes No
Was the presentation clear? 88% 12%
Was the info useful? 95% 5%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How do you rate the presentations/
material as presented?
7.1% 64.3% 26.2% 2.4%
Easy to
understand
Normal to understand Difficult to
understand
How do you rate the quality of the
content of the presentation?
24% 74% 2%
Clear and
Correct
Correct Moderate Poor
How was the feedback given by the
audience?
13% 50% 30% 8%
4. Presentation by Mr. Samuel Mehairjan
Yes No
Was the presentation clear? 98% 2%
Was the info useful? 97% 3%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How do you rate the presentations/
material as presented?
23% 54% 21% 2%
Easy to
understand
Normal to understand Difficult to
understand
How do you rate the quality of the
content of the presentation?
24.4% 73.2% 2.4%
Clear and
Correct
Correct Moderate Poor
How was the feedback given by the
audience?
21% 45% 26% 8%
65 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
5. Presentation by Mr. Cornel Wijngaarde:
Yes No
Was the presentation clear? 83% 17%
Was the info useful? 90% 10%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How do you rate the presentations/
material as presented?
2% 61% 32% 5%
Easy to
understand
Normal to understand Difficult to
understand
How do you rate the quality of the
content of the presentation?
20.5% 76.9% 2.6%
Clear and
Correct
Correct Moderate Poor
How was the feedback given by the
audience?
22% 44% 31% 3%
6. Presentation by Mr. Johan Geeraert:
Yes No
Was the presentation clear? 95% 5%
Was the info useful? 92,5% 7,5%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How do you rate the presentations/
material as presented?
0% 63% 34% 2%
Easy to
understand
Normal to understand Difficult to
understand
How do you rate the quality of the
content of the presentation?
12% 83% 5%
Clear and
Correct
Correct Moderate Poor
How was the feedback given by the
audience?
26% 44% 29% 0%
66 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
7. How did you find the contributions of the panel?
Yes No
Where these clear? 100% 0%
Was the info useful? 95% 5%
Excellent Good Fair Poor
How do you rate the presentations/
material as presented?
11% 55% 34% 0%
Easy to
understand
Normal to understand Difficult to
understand
How do you rate the quality of the
content of the presentation?
14% 86% 0%
Clear and
Correct
Correct Moderate Poor
How was the feedback given by the
audience?
11% 59% 27% 3%
Yes No
8. In your opinion does the private
sector provide enough consideration
to the issue of renewable energy to
obtain benefits?
34% 66%
Yes No
9. In your opinion does the
government provide enough
consideration to the issue of
renewable energy to obtain benefits
for the development of Suriname?
23% 77%
Yes No
10. Do you think that the SBF/SBC
should give a follow up to this
seminar?
93% 7%
Yes No
12. Overall do you find this seminar
informative and useful?
100% 0%
Yes No
13. Is there a need for such kind
seminars/ workshops?
100% 0%
Learning: Allowing 30% overtime on the one hand and compensating by reducing the planned
presentation time with up-to 50% on the other hand influences respectively the delay that will
accumulate during the day and the quality of the compressed presentation.
67 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Participants were able to supply also qualitative feed-back in addition to the quantitative information.
Apart from the pre-defined answers, open questions were used to collect qualitative data. This data was
grouped but the individual groups were not valued for importance or ranked. As a first approach the
amount of remarks in a group could supply an indication of the relative importance.
11. What kind of follow up do you expect /propose?
Project Analyze / in-depth- or detailed projects  synthesis
Less topics •
Studies etc. •
Detailed opportunities and threats. Foreign /regional examples of RE initiatives … •
Detailed one, for every subdivision such as hydro power, biomass, finance etc. •
A more detailed one •
Two/three renewable projects in depth •
Subtheme depth analyses •
Implementation identified viable Energy projects •
Launch of a project for energy efficiency •
CDM proposal done by private sector •
Initiate action •
Communication & follow-up
A follow up seminar on this subject •
A follow up of where/which institutes have data available about energy. And the impacts/effects •
of the environment for Suriname
Next time they must show the results of that what they have spoken about •
Project status after 1 or 2 years •
Discussion on alternatives in all sectors •
From assessment->vision->strategy->implementation •
Economic impact and project financing
Outcome and status investment support(info) •
More details in the financial framework •
Financing discussion. Which companies can already invest? Which projects will be realized •
now or in the future?
Seminar-> economic impact of new energy possibilities •
Support to generate and communicate a common vision
I would say a forum in which business can say what they are doing •
What is the position of the business community ASFA/KKF/VSB with regard to the energy •
discussion and what is the vision of the government towards the energy policy?
A forum on renewable energy •
The role of the government/policy •
68 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
14. What kind of topic(s) do you propose?*
Rational use of Energy
Rational use of energy. Energy reductions after the construction phase •
Renewable energy and • awareness on energy consumption
New technology in daily live •
Energy management •
Energy Generation
Energy generation methods. Financing options/methods •
Renewable energy •
Solar films (cheaper) »
Biofuels: - Biomass opportunity etc »
- The SML project of Staatsolie and all the effects when it will be realized.
- The use of biocars
Business opportunity »
Environment and Energy
Renewable • / environmental issues/financing/opportunities
Environment aspects •
Waste and its solutions •
Financing energy projects
Renewable/ environmental issues/ financing/opportunities •
How to finance and implement •
Energy generation methods. Financing options/methods •
Market analyze, Strategy and Policy
Niche market sector analysis •
Tourism development in Suriname. Infrastructure and development •
IT/energy •
Scenario planning-> Energy scenarios->test investments against various scenarios .Juridical •
frame work. Concrete expected actions from the government (strategy, policy, plans, actions)
What does work in the Suriname experience? •
Food security. Developments in the agro sector (example: process possibilities) •
* The participant’s feedback is repeated in multiple sections. Information not relevant for the section
has been represented with a strike through.
15. Do you have any suggestion(s) and/or idea(s) that will assist us in future seminars workshops on
this or other topics?
Create more room for comments from the audience •
Increase the room temperature •
Water quality •
Clearly communicate expectations of seminar •
Align each presentation with goals -> explain /communicate. •
Promote cooperation!!! •
Distribute all PowerPoint slides to the attendance so that they follow the speaker better •
present case studies •
69 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
appendix 3: agenda
PROGRAMM: Seminar: “Renewable energy potential and Business Opportunities in Suriname”, Date:
Monday 1st February 2010, Time: 08h30 – 14h30, Location: Banquet Hall - Hotel Torarica, Paramaribo,
Chairmen: Dr. Ir. Viren Ajodhia
Session 1: opening
08.30 – 09.00: Registration (Coffee / juice / snack)
09.00 – 09.05: Ir. Ernie P. Isselt – Director Suriname Business Development Centre: Introduction
09.05 – 09.10: Ing. Orlando dos Ramos – Chairman Suriname Business Forum: Welcome
09.10 – 09.15: Ms. Esmeralda Hernandez Aragones - Chargée d’Affaires European Commission:
Speech
09.15 – 09.30: Dr. Gregory Rusland - Minister of Natural Resources (NH): Opening Speech
Session 2: energy balance and energy indicators
09.30 – 09.50: Presentation NIMOS - Ms. Farzia Hausil: ‘Clean Development Mechanism (CDM):
Opportunity for Suriname?’
09.50 – 10.10: Presentation Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname – Annand Jagesar:
‘Energy balance Suriname’
10.10 – 10.30: Presentation EBS - Samuel Mehairjan: ‘Electricity: demand,
supply and future perspectives
10.30 – 11.00: Questions
11.00 – 11.15: Coffee break
Session 3: Business opportunities to manage the demand – and additional production
through Renewable energy.
11.15 – 11.25: Presentation ADEKUS - Cornel Wijngaarde:
‘Energy-indicators and missing knowledge’
11.25 – 11.50: Presentation Foundation of Energy & Sustainable Development Suriname – Johan Geeraert:
‘The potential of rational use of energy, management of the Demand Side and
Renewable Energy Potential of Suriname: some basic concepts
11.50 – 12.00: Questions
12.00 – 13.45: Pannel discussion
70 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Session 3: Business opportunities to manage the demand – and additional production
through Renewable energy.
Part 1: Rational Use of Energy / Energy Efficiency or Demand Side Management
- EE applications (spaarlampen i.p.v. gloeilampen; Energy Efficiency Transformers) –
Samuel Mehairjan (EBS/Director Transmission & Generation)
- Energiezuinige auto’s – Glenn Stekkel (Fernandes Autohandel)
- Klimatisatie en bouwmaatregelen toepassingen - Werner van Geel (New Tech)
Part 2: Hernieuwbare energie of bijkomend energieaanbod
- Waterkracht: kansen voor Suriname – Eddy Frankel (Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname)
- Bio-energie: kansen voor Suriname - Rosita Ramautar (Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname)
- Financiering voor hernieuwbare energie en rationeel energiegebruik of energie-efficiëntie –
Silvano Tjong-Ahin (consultant)
13.45 – 14.15: Plenaire discussie / Conclusies & aanbevelingen
Sessie 4: afsluiting
14.15 - 14.25: Samenvatting
14.25 – 14.30: Directeur SBC – Ir. E.P. Isselt: Dankwoord / Sluiting
14.30: Snacks
71 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
appendix 4: Participants
# name Surname Vertegenwoordigende instantie
1 Alleyne Albert De Consumentenkring Suriname
2 Anderson Erik US. Embassy
3 Anijs Roel EBS
4 Amirullah-Moeniralam Afirah SBF
5 Aroma Haidy Environmental Services & Support (ESS)
6 Baidjoe Vishal ADEK
7 Bajnath Rufin
8 Bajnath -Khoenkhoen Min. ATM
9 Bhaggoe D. Hi-Telcom
10 Bhairo -Marhé Sheila AP&G Consulting
11 Bihari Sandra Nederlandse Ambassade
12 Bipat Armand EBS
13 Bishesar Nilesch Johec International
14 Boedhoe Wonnie VES /NOB NV
15 Boedhoe - Hemai Ashwinie Min.Plos
16 Bogor Donovan NIMOS
17 Boschman Cindy Het Vocational Business Institute
18 Bram Stephanie Kabinet van de President van de Republiek Suriname
19 Bruce E. Stg. Planbureau
20 Burnet S. Aanmelding
21 Castillion - Elder Min. ATM
22 Charan Shakuntala ADEK
23 Coffeng Ad Consultant
24 Cotin Astrando Het Vocational Business Institute
25 Cromwelc Crawford IICA
26 Delprado A. Stichting Groene energie
27 De Randami De West
28 Dijks Judith US. Embassy
29 Djanam M. Haukes NV
30 Dos. Ramos Orlando Suriname Business Forum
31 Drakenstein Bryan UNDP
32 Eerenstein Hans
33 Eindhoven Marcel EBS
34 Elbert F. De West
35 Evers Ivo De Ware Tijd
36 Fernandes Min. van H.I.
37 Foe A Man Kenneth Suriname Business Forum
72 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
# name Surname Vertegenwoordigende instantie
38 Friperson O. Radiola
39 Gangaram Panday Artie General Consulting
40 Geeraert Johan Stichting Energie & Duurzame Ontwikkeling Suriname
41 Girdhari Swami IBMS NV
42 Goedschalk J. Kersten
43 Gouptar Anurodha Qualogy Suriname N.V.
44 Graanoogst Eline SBC
45 Grauwde Remy SSB
46 Griffith G. NIMOS
47 Heckers Robert Johec International
48 Hernandez Aragones Esmeralda the Delegation of the European Union
49 Hoever S. Consumentenkring
50 Hussein Victor DGSA
51 Isselt Ernie Suriname Business Forum
52 Kalka Ratan SBC
53 Kanit V SCTV
54 Kasban Ernesto Qualogy Suriname N.V.
55 Kerkhoffs - Zerp Margret Min. Handel en Industrie
56 Khodabaks Zevoera Nederlandse Ambassade
57 King John ICCA
58 Kisoensingh Anjali ABS
59 Klinghammer W. CREDP
60 Koeba Samantha Het Vocational Business Institute
61 Kopinsky Michael Sustainable Technical Solutions N.V.
62 Kortram Hillery Het Vocational Business Institute
63 Lachman Danny Applied Intellect
64 Lau Gerard EBS
65 Lee Lucia SCTV
66 Man a Hing Max Duncan KKF
67 Mohan Karuna Het Vocational Business Institute
68 Mozermo Het Vocational Business Institute
69 Olivieira Cornelly WBG/SBF
70 Panka H. ATV
71 Park P. N.V. EBS
72 Peiter Consuela Het Vocational Business Institute
73 Piqué O. Min. van H.I.
74 Plet Nataly Min. ATM
75 Power-Moernisa Ashni PTC
76 Premchand A. EBS
77 Rahan Lesly EBS
73 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
# name Surname Vertegenwoordigende instantie
78 Ramantan R. Min. Handel en Industrie
79 Ramautarsing Winston Proplan Consultancy
80 Ramdutt Ashwin EBS
81 Ramhit Hemkaran Process Consultancy
82 Ramlochan Maike Het Vocational Business Institute
83 Rapprecht B. Stichting Planbureau Suriname
84 Rodriquez G
85 Rusland Gregory Minister van N.H.
86 Rusland Emojano CBvS
87 Sairras Glenn Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname
88 Setrowidjojo - Karijodrono P. Min.ATM
89 Shankuntala Charan AdeKUS
90 Sharize Het Vocational Business Institute
91 Silos-Gangadin Sita van CELOS Crelos
92 Geerlings-Simons Jenny DNA
93 Sital Jaikishan EBS
94 Sno Gladys Fernandes Botteing Co.
95 Sno Iwan A. ABS
96 Stekkel - Vroom Marion WBG
97 Talea Andreas ABS
98 Tilakdharie S. Min. van Openbare Werken en Verkeer
99 Titrotaroeno Moedio Ilustration Consultancy
100 Tjon A Hung Roy EBS
101 Tjon Pian Gi R. Fernandes Concern beheer
102 Tsai A Woei Astrid Consumentenkring
103 Varsenburg Thessa Qualogy Suriname N.V.
104 Wanner Jerry EBS
105 Watson Fred EBS
106 Wesenhagen P.G. Hi-Telcom N.V.
107 Willems M. WTC N.V.
108 Wijngaarde Cornel AdeKUS
109 Yang Ruben Mitra NV
74 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
75 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
appendix 5: Presentations
Clean Development Mechanism: •
opportunity voor Suriname? (Farzia Hausil)
Energie balans aardolie produkten (Annand Jagesar) •
Elektriciteit: Vraag, Aanbod en Toekomstvoruitzichten •
(Samuel Mchairjan M.Sc.)
Energie Indicatoren en Ontbrekende Kennis (Data) (Cornel •
Wijngaarde M.Sc.)
De beheersing van de energievraag & hernieuwbaar ener- •
giepotentieel van Suriname (Johan Geeraert)
76 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Presentaties
Clean Development Mechanism:
opportunity voor Suriname?
Farzia Hausil
77
I h d Inhoudsopgave
{ Achtergrond informatie { Achtergrond informatie
{ Implementatie CDM (structuur, { Implementatie CDM (structuur,
approval procedure
{ Potentiële projecten/ projecten in
de pijplijn
{ CoP 15
2
Clean Development Mechanism:
i S i ? opportunity voor Suriname?
F i H il Farzia Hausil
NIMOS
1 februari 2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
78
GHG inventory
4
CDM CDM
3
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
79
O t t Output
W k h t i i { Workshops en trainingen
{ Vereisten: ontwikkelen criteria,
goedkeuringsprocedure PIN/PDD g g p /
{ Instelling CDM Commissie
{ Awareness: www.cdmsuriname.com,
b och es In esto G ide etc brochures, Investor Guide etc.
{ Participatie Carbon Expo 2009
6
I l t ti CDM i S i Implementatie CDM in Suriname
Project Capacity Development for { Project Capacity Development for
Clean Development Mechanism
(CD4CDM);
z Maart 2008
z Ministerie ATM, NIMOS
{ Doel CD4CDM project: { Doel CD4CDM project:
z Verhogen kennisniveau/begrip t.a.v.
het CDM en de mogelijkheden
z Versterken van de capaciteit om CDM
projecten te formuleren en te
implementeren
5
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
80
Pi P d Pin Procedure
Projectontwikkelaar dient PIN in bij Minister ATM
CDM Commissie Interdepartementale Werkgroep
NIMOS & Milieu Sectie NIMOS, Milieu Sectie & relevante actoren
Beoordeling & formulering opinie
I di di h i PIN
Meeting met projectontwikkelaar
CDM Commissie stelt LoNo voor
Indien nodig, herzien PIN
8
Minister tekent LoNo
CDM Structuur Suriname
MinisterieATM
Taken:
ͲProcedures&criteria
ͲEvaluereningediendeprojecten
PermanenteCDM
Commissie
(MilieuSectie &
NIMOS)
ͲAdviserenMinisterATM
ͲVoorstellenCDMbeleid&
wetgeving
Informatie verschaffing en
)
Interdepartementale
ͲInformatieverschaffingen
bewustzijnbevordering
ͲMonitoringgoedgekeurde
projecten
B l idi j t t ikk l
Taken:
ͲEvalueren PIN’s
&PDD’s
ͲOndersteunen
p
Werkgroep
ͲBegeleidingprojectontwikkelaars
Ondersteunen
PermanenteCie
7
NIMOS MilieuSectie Relevante actoren
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
81
Potentiële CDM projecten
{ Houtwinning Brokopondo Stuwmeer { Houtwinning Brokopondo Stuwmeer
{ Zonnepanelen op grote gebouwen en
hotels in Paramaribo;
f { Houtafval (woodpellets, vergassen);
{ Omzetten van huishoudelijk afval in
energie; g ;
{ Energy efficiency verbetering in
bedrijven;
{ Jaykreek/Tapanahony hydro-energie { Jaykreek/Tapanahony hydro energie
project
{ Stadsverlichting op zonne-energie
10
PDD d PDD procedure
Projectontwikkelaar dient PDD in bij Minister ATM
CDM Commissie Interdepartementale Werkgroep
NIMOS & Milieu Sectie NIMOS, Milieu Sectie & relevante actoren
Meeting met projectontwikkelaar
Beoordeling Nationaal & Internationaal (DOE)
Indien nodig herzien PDD
Meeting met projectontwikkelaar
Project wordt goedgekeurd
Projectontwikkelaar dient validatierapport in
9
Minister geeft LoNo
Project wordt goedgekeurd
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
82
VVoortgang
H lb h id di iël CDM { Haalbaarheidstudie potentiële CDM
projecten
{ CDM project portfolio
{ Awareness www.cdmsuriname.com
{ Verdere training
12
P j t i d ij lij Projecten in de pijplijn
{ Bio-energie Plant Suriname:
kafvergassing in Nickerie
{ Mangrove project:
f i / f i aforestation/reforestation
kuststrook
11
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
83
Sl t Slot
“The future of our business is
being decided now, let us get
i d!” organized!”
Verdere informatie: www.cdmsuriname.com
14
Verdere informatie: www.cdmsuriname.com
C P 15 K h CoP 15: Kopenhagen
{ Kopenhagen akkoord: “An outline of a p g
future framework to address climate
change”.
G bi d d f k K t { Geen bindende afspraken Kyoto
Protocol
{ Streven internationale { Streven internationale
temperatuurstijging van niet meer
dan 2.0 ºC
{ Stabiliseren uitstoot broeikasgassen
{ Mitigatie Ontwikkelingslanden
Financie ing { Financiering
13
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
84 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Presentaties
energie balans aardolie produkten
annand Jagesar
85
Inhoud
1 Energie balans (aardolie produkten) 1. Energie balans (aardolie produkten)
2. Reserves outlook
3. Slot opmerking over renewables
4. Business opportunities pp
________________________________________
Totaal aantal slides 10 Totaal aantal slides 10
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
2
Energie balans aardolie produkten Energie balans aardolie produkten
Annand Jagesar
Manager Corporate Planning
Staatsolie Maatschappij Suriname N.V
December 1 februari 2010
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
86
Geschat effect op de balance of payment
150
200
l
i
o
n
s
50
100
150
M
i
l
-100
-50
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
2
0
1
2
2
0
1
3
2
0
1
4
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
6
2
0
1
7
2
0
1
8
2
0
1
9
2
0
2
0
W
a
a
r
d
e
-200
-150
100
Net balance
-300
-250
Jaren
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
4
Vraag & aanbod olie producten
Domestic Diesel/ Gasoline/ Fuel oil Demand & Production
5,000,000
6,000,000
Realization
2 000 000
3,000,000
4,000,000
b
b
l
s
/

y
e
a
r
Realization
-
1,000,000
2,000,000
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
2
0
1
2
2
0
1
3
2
0
1
4
2
0
1
5
2
0
1
6
2
0
1
7
2
0
1
8
2
0
1
9
2
0
2
0
Diesel demand Gasoline demand Fuel Oil demand
Staatsolie diesel production Staatsolie gasoline production Staatsolie Fuel Oil production
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
3
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
87
Reserves
Resources
A i l
Economics & Dev. Plan
Appraisal
Evaluation
Traditional Exploration
Drilling
Geological Evaluation & Ranking
Drilling of Leads and Prospects
Detailed 2D grid on Prospects
Exploration
Portfolio
Regional 2D Data & Wells
Historical data
Evaluation
Exploration Programs
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
6
Time (in yrs)
2008 2010 2011 2009 2012 2013
Reserves
Resources
A i l
Economics & Dev. Plan
Appraisal
Evaluation
Traditional Exploration
Drilling
Geological Evaluation & Ranking
Drilling of Leads and Prospects
Detailed 2D grid on Prospects
Exploration
Portfolio
Regional 2D Data & Wells
Historical data
Evaluation
Exploration Programs
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
5
Time (in yrs)
2008 2010 2011 2009 2012 2013
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
88
41
35
32
46
9° 0' 0" N
9° 0' 0" N
58° 0' 0" W 57° 0' 0" W 56° 0' 0" W 55° 0' 0" W 54° 0' 0" W 53° 0' 0" W 52° 0' 0" W
32
3
0
N
40
34
30N
42
49
EXXON


75 %

SHELL


25%

CGX


100%

St abr oek

Concessi on
Cor ent yne

Annex
48
47
46
8° 0' 0" N
8° 0' 0" N
2D seismic (2004)
3D seismic (2005)
Well (2008)
B
lo
c
k
3
0
Block 30S
38
39
33
42
30N
38
B
o
r
d
e
r
Repsol YPF
Noble Energy
Petro-Hunt
South
Murphy Oil
TULLOW


30%

Geor get own
REPSOL


45%

CGX


25%

45
8° 0' 0" N
3D seismic: 2008 - 09
2 Wells : 2010 - 11
2D seismic (2005)
3D seismic ( 2009)
Block 37
Block 31
13 14 15
36
44
43
G
u
ia
n
a
M
a
r
it
im
e
B
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r
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r
S
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in
a
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e
-
G
u
y
a
n
a
M
a
r
itim
e
B Murphy Oil
Inpex
Geor get own

Concessi on
CGX (100%)
Corentyne Concession
7° 0' 0" N
7° 0' 0" N
1 Well (2011
1
2 3
4 5
6
7
Paramaribo
S
u
r
in
a
m
e
-
F
r
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n
c
h
G
Nickerie Block Coronie Block
C
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B
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ijk
B
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W
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r
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B
lo
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k
Commewijne Block
Tullow Oil
POC
Tull ow

97. 5%
Excl usi ve

Expl or ati on

Li cence
6° 0' 0" N
6° 0' 0" N
Guyana
Suri name
Fr ench

Gui ana
5° 0' 0" N
5° 0' 0" N
58° 0' 0" W 57° 0' 0" W 56° 0' 0" W 55° 0' 0" W 54° 0' 0" W 53° 0' 0" W 52° 0' 0" W
0 40 80 120 160 km
Tambaredjo Oil Field
Calcutta Oil Field
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
8
Contractors:
USGS 2000: 15 billion barrels potential
Long – Medium Term Plans
5
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
K/4-1S
K/6-2
L/10-1X
L/3-1S
L/6-1S
L/7-2S
L/8-1
5 6 7
2D/3D/wells
k
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r
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B
l
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c
k
b
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Tambaredjo
Field
6
3
a
c
r
e
s
2
4
a
c
r
e
s
2,043 sq.km/ 504,736 acres
Tambaredjo NWField
Calcutta Field
Paramaribo
B/34-1X
K/4 1S L/3 1S
JKS-1
NIC-1 SK-1
SMS-1
TA-2
TA-3
TN-1
TPS-1
WA-1
WA-2
WA-3
N
i
c
k
T
a
m
b
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o
C
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r
o
n
W
e
g

N
a
a
r
W
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o
C
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c
2,677 sq.km/ 661,535 acres 2,593 sq.km / 640,641 acres 1,616 sq.km/ 399,328 acres 8
0
8
s
q
.k
m
/ 1
9
9
,5
6
7
5
8
s
q
.k
m
/ 1
8
7
,3
2
901 sq.km / 222,799 acres
DP
WA-4
WY-1 600000 600000
15 0 15 30 45 km
5 wells
10 & 2 test wells
5
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
10/5 wells 3 appraisal wells
3 appraisal wells
8 & 1 test wells
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
7
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
89
USGC No. 6 Fuel Oil 3% S Price development
120
CurrentEconCrisis
D d d t ti
100
Demanddestruction
fromUSA
&China
80
l
OPEC10%quotaincrease
AsianEconCrisis
PDVSAStrike
Iraqwar
AsianGrowth
40
60
$
/
b
b
SeriesofOPECcuts
4.2MillionBarrels
20
40
9/11
-
Jan-95 Jan-96 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
10
Jan-95 Jan-96 Jan-97 Jan-98 Jan-99 Jan-00 Jan-01 Jan-02 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08
Confidence in our own abilities
Peak Oil estimation and ‘oil Peak Oil estimation and ‘oil--related’ mitigations related’ mitigations
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
9
Confidence in our own abilities
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
90
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
12
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
11
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
91
End of Presentation
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
14
Business opportunities
• Staatsolie concentreert zich op haar core business en
streeft ernaar om niet strategische delen van de g
werkzaamheden uit te besteden. Dit zal in de toekomst in
toenemende mate plaatsvinden.
• In alle internationale contracten wordt altijd opgenomen
de eis dat het lokale bedrijfsleven betrokken wordt en dat j
er voorkeur wordt gegeven aan lokale werknemers.
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
13
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
92
World supply of energy in GTOE World supply of energy in GTOE
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
16
Government budget contribution Government budget contribution
IMF country report May 2008 IMF country report May 2008
Table 7. Suriname: Central Government Operations
(In millions of Suriname dollars)
2005 2006 Est.2007
Revenue and grants 1,352.1 1,601.0 2,002.0
Revenue 1,270.8 1,520.0 1,902.5
Direct taxes 540.7 610.4 778.8
Indirect taxes 507.0 674.7 804.0
N t 223 1 234 9 319 7 Nontax revenue 223.1 234.9 319.7
Grants 81.3 81.0 99.5
Relation SOM contribution to total Government budget
2008 2009 2008 2009
Contribution SOM 826 154
Ref 2007 Gov budget 2002 2002
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
15
Confidence in our own abilities
Percentage SOM contribution 41% 8%
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
93
Staatsolie Crude Production
5 8 MM
5.40 0.4 Staatsolie Fuel Oil
5,8 MM
Staatsolie LVGO
0.20 0.1
5.60 0.50
2.46 0.23
2 15 0 10
Import Fuel Oil
Local
* Suralco * EBS
Total
Import LVGO by Staatsolie
Total
Local
2.15 0.10
0.27 0.02
0.00 0.08
0.02 * SPCS 0.00
0 02 0 03
Suralco EBS
* EBS
* SPCS
* Other
* Staatsolie
* Staatsolie
* Bunkering (Fishery)
* Other 0.02 0.03
Export 2.90 Export 0.29
0.60 0.08
2.30 0.21
* Other
* Bunkering
* Regio
* Bunkering
* Regio
* Other
“Hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel en business opportunities in Suriname”
17
0.24 -0.02
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
94 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Presentaties
elektriciteit:
Vraag, aanbod en Toekomstvoruitzichten
Samuel Mchairjan M.Sc.
95
Agenda
2
g
• Vraag
Ł N V Energie Bedrijven Suriname gegevens N.V. Energie Bedrijven Suriname gegevens
Ł Groei van de Elektriciteit in Suriname
Ł Groei Prognose
Ł kWh verbruik
• Aanbod
Ł Elektriciteits Opwekking
Ł Korte Termijn Problemen en Oplossingen Korte Termijn Problemen en Oplossingen
Ł Afobaka Lake Level
• Toekomstvooruitzichten
Ł Vraag & Aanbod
Ł Suriname – Frans Guyana Inter-connectie
Ł Hernieuwbare Energie Potentie en Energiebesparing
• Conclusies en Aanbevelingen…
Elektriciteit: Elektriciteit:
1
Elektriciteit: Elektriciteit:
Vraag, Aanbod en Toekomstvooruitzichten
Samuel Mehairjan M.Sc.
Director Generation & Transmission
N.V. Energie Bedrijven Suriname (EBS)
Maandag 1 februari 2010
Seminar:
Hernieuwbare energie potentieel en business opportunities in Hernieuwbare energie potentieel en business opportunities in
Suriname
Samenstellers: S Mehairjan MSc Electr Power Eng Samenstellers: S. Mehairjan MSc, Electr Power Eng,
A. Bipat BSc, Mech Eng,
R. Mehairjan BSc (Power Eng student TU Delft).
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
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VraagnaarElektriciteit:
G i d l k i i i (i ) k
4
Groeivandeelektriciteit(inMW)EPARNetwerk
1966Ͳ okt 2009
160
180
100
120
140
W
60
80
M
W
Ͳ
20
40
6
6
6
8
7
0
7
2
7
4
7
6
7
8
8
0
8
2
8
4
8
6
8
8
9
0
9
2
9
4
9
6
9
8
0
0
0
2
0
4
0
6
0
8
year
D EBS 2008
3
DeEBSgegevens2008
Personeels leden 943 943
Omzet 274 miljoen SRD 274 miljoen SRD
Bezittingen 649 miljoen SRD 649 miljoen SRD
Investeringen 182 miljoen SRD 182 miljoen SRD g jj
Stroomverkopen 927 GWh (EPAR) 927 GWh (EPAR)
Piek vermogen 175 175 – – 180 MW 180 MW
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Vraag naar Electriciteit EPAR + Rosebel:
6
VraagnaarElectriciteitEPAR+Rosebel:
2006Ͳ2009kWhVerbuik
Jaar Jaar
2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009
aantal aantal GWh GWh aantal aantal GWh GWh aantal aantal GWh GWh aantal aantal GWh GWh
Huishou
66 283 283 69 2 2 69 2 2 28 28 399 399 308 308
Huishou
delijke
67.457 67.457 283.1 283.1 69.252 69.252 285.1 285.1 71.399 71.399 308.1 308.1 73.450 335.8
Commer
-ciele
6.915 6.915 155.1 155.1 7.703 7.703 169.5 169.5 8.115 8.115 183.9 183.9 8.650 205.5
-ciele
Indus-
triele
694 694 118.9 118.9 697 697 164.9 164.9 700 700 181.5 181.5 710 225.8
Rose-bel 1 108.1 1 109.9 1 117.7 1 163.2
Diver-
sen
91 91 149.9 149.9 99 99 159.5 159.5 99 99 181.5 181.5 105 200.9
sen
Totaal Totaal 75.531 75.531 815.1 815.1 77.751 77.751 888.7 888.7 80.313 80.313 927.7 927.7 82.920 82.920 1131.2 1131.2
Groeiscenariov.dvraagnaarElektriciteit:
5
EPARPeak Demand
JaarlijkseGroei
450
500
EPARPeakDemand
300
350
400
450
(
M
W
)
150
200
250
P
e
a
k

L
o
a
d

(
'07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 '15 '16 '17 '18 '19 '20
Ͳ
50
100
LOW2.7% 130 134 137 141 145 149 153 157 161 165 170 175 179 184
BASE6.4% 130 139 148 157 167 178 189 201 214 228 243 259 275 293
HIGH10.0% 130 143 158 174 191 210 231 255 280 309 340 374 412 453
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Aanbod:
8
300
KorteTermijnProblemenenOplossingen…….
8%groeigemiddeldperjaar!! 8%groeigemiddeldperjaar!!
250
EBS Bruynzeel II
150
200
EBSBruynzeelII
EBSBruynzeelI
Staatsolie
EBSMachine#20
100
EmergencyUnits
SuralcoTG2
ExistingSupply
50
Demand
OptimalSupply Level
0
Sep
09
Oct
09
Nov
09
Dec
09
Jan
10
Feb
10
Mar
10
Apr
10
May
10
Jun
10
Jul
10
Aug
10
Sep
10
Oct
10
Nov
10
Dec
10
Jan
11
Feb
11
Mar
11
Apr
11
May
11
Jun
11
Jul
11
Aug
11
Sep
11
Oct
11
Nov
11
Dec
11
Aanbod:EPAR+Iamgold
7
g
ElektriciteitOpwekkersjaar2006Ͳ 2009
Jaar Jaar 2006 2006 2007 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009
Inkoop Inkoop Suralco Suralco
++Iamgold Iamgold ((GWh GWh) )
753,7 753,7 890,6 890,6 1000 1000 1009,2 1009,2
Inkoop Inkoop SPCS ( SPCS (GWh GWh) ) 28,2 28,2 26,3 26,3 3,1 3,1 38,2 38,2
Opwekking EBS (GWh) Opwekking EBS (GWh) 132 1 132 1 31 2 31 2 31 8 31 8 131 6 131 6 Opwekking EBS (GWh) Opwekking EBS (GWh) 132,1 132,1 31,2 31,2 31,8 31,8 131,6 131,6
Totaal (GWh) Totaal (GWh) 914 914 948,1 948,1 1034,9 1034,9 1179 1179
G i G i 3 8 % 3 8 % 9 2 % 9 2 % 13 9% 13 9% Groei Groei 3,8 % 3,8 % 9.2 % 9.2 % 13,9% 13,9%
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
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Aanbod:
10
Afobaka LakeElevation Trends2009
Afobaka Lake Elevation Trends
266
2009
258
260
262
264
T
250
252
254
256
A
T
I
O
N

I
N

F
E
E
T
rule
curve
260
2009
242
244
246
248
L
A
K
E

E
L
E
V
A
238
240
242
dec jan f eb mar apr may june july aug sep oct nov dec
Aanbod:
9
Aanbod:
MWTrends
2009 EBS, RGM, NH MW actual and NH remaining
120,0
130,0
140,0
16,0
18,0
20,0
22,0
80 0
90,0
100,0
110,0
E
B
S
,

N
H

M
W
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
R
G
M

M
W
50,0
60,0
70,0
80,0
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
Jan-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09 May-09 Jun-09 Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09
NH MW remaining
EBS MW actual 102,2 105,9 106,6 106,1 110,4 111,7 111,6 107,7 71,7 63,7 72,1 69,3
Jan-09 Feb-09 Mar-09 Apr-09 May-09 Jun-09 Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09
EBS MW actual , , , , , , , , , , , ,
NH MW actual 117,2 121,6 123,8 124,6 130,4 131,6 131,7 129,3 93,0 85,2 93,1 90,3
RGM MW actual 14,3 14,9 16,4 17,8 19,2 19,0 19,4 20,9 20,5 20,8 20,1 20,2
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ProposednewEBSPowerplant
12
p p
(200MW)
T k t it i ht
11
Toekomstvooruitzichten
D j lijk i l t i it it i idd ld 8 • De jaarlijkse groei van electriciteit is gemiddeld 8-
13%
• De investeringen voor additionele opwekking is
direkt noodzakelijk (direct 9 +14 MW en 60 MW in
) twee jaren)
• De N V EBS gaat in drie fasen een powerplant • De N.V. EBS gaat in drie fasen een powerplant
neerzetten op Beekhuizen met een totale capaciteit
van 200 MW. ( geschatte kosten op meer dan Euro
200 miljoen)
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14
HernieuwbareEnergievs.
S stainable po er generation
DuurzameEnergie:
• Sustainable power generation:
A form of power generation, which can be
maintained economically without depleting or maintained economically without depleting or
damaging the resources
• Renewable power generation:
A form of power generation, in which the required p g , q
resources are normally replenished through natural
processes
Suriname – Fr. Guyana Interconnection
13
Suriname Fr.GuyanaInterconnection
Menckendam
Albina – St.Laurent
161 kV – 60 Hz
90 kV- 50 Hz
Paranam
90 kV- 50 Hz
Brokopondo Brokopondo
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HernieuwbareEnergie:
16
Potentie
• Biomass Biomass
Ł Planning of a Rice husk PowerStation in Nickerie (4 MW)
Ł Planning sugarcane begasse PowerStation Wageningen (…
MW) MW)
Ł Planning domestic waste Power Station (10 MW)
Ł Investigation of waste wood gasifiers to generate power
• Biofuel
Ł Ethanol Wagenigen en elders
• Hydro power projects
Ł Jai-Tapa en Marowijne
K b l b Ł Kabalebo
Ł Micro hydro in vele rivieren ontwikkelen.
15
HernieuwbareEnergie:
• Micro Hydro Project in the rural areas
Potentie
Ł Puketi 1979-1981 (40 kW)
Ł Gran Holo Sula 3 * 150 kW in sept 2010 in operation
and Palumeu 5 kW asynchr gen.
Ł And other rivers (future investigations) And other rivers (future investigations)
• Wind Energy Projects
Ł Galibi Research Location for Wind Potential
Ł Private Owned Wind turbines (Lely Hills)
Ł Hertenrits and Zeedijk in Nickerie (future investigations)
• Solar Energy Projects
Ł Kwamala Samutu solar project
(4 years no funds anymore)
Ł PV Raleighvallen
PV j t C ij (500 kW) 2010 Ł PV project Commewijne (500 kW) 2010
Ł Solar thermal project (future investigations)
Ł And other locations (future investigations)
Bron: The Implementation Possibilities of Renewable Energy
In the rural areas of Suriname - Maarten Mangnus
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18
Energie Efficiëntie:
• TU Delft, Prof. B. Fereira
EnergieEfficiëntie:
VoorbeeldEnergiezuinigeApparatuur
Bron: TU Delft, College Sustainable Power Engineering
Prof. Fereira
17
EnergieEfficiëntie:
DuurzameEnergieGebruik
• Reduceren netverliezen
Ł Transmissie Spanning (33kV -> 161 kV)
V li i 12 3 3 6 3 kV Ł Verliezen in 12,3 3n 6,3 kV netten
Ł LS netten en trafo verliezen reduceren
• Efficiënte Energie verbruik • Efficiënte Energie verbruik
Ł Spaar lampen……of LED
Ł Energie zuinige apparatuur Energie zuinige apparatuur
Ł Standby Power uitschakelen
Ł Zuinig en slim omgaan met energie gebruik g g g g
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20
Energie Efficiëntie:
• TU Delft, Prof. B. Fereira
EnergieEfficiëntie:
VoorbeeldEnergiezuinigeApparatuur
Bron: TU Delft, College Sustainable Power Engineering
Prof. Fereira
19
Energie Efficiëntie:
• TU Delft, Prof. B. Fereira
EnergieEfficiëntie:
VoorbeeldEnergiezuinigeApparatuur
Bron: TU Delft, College Sustainable Power Engineering
Prof. Fereira
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
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Energie Efficiëntie:
22
EnergieEfficiëntie:
VoorbeeldVerlichting
Bron: Osram GmbH; evg-spot 1/2007
21
Energie Efficiëntie:
• TU Delft, Prof. B. Fereira
EnergieEfficiëntie:
VoorbeeldEnergiezuinigeApparatuur
+ Eigen Opwekking g p g
Bron: TU Delft, College Sustainable Power Engineering
Prof. Fereira
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
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Energie Efficiëntie:
24
EnergieEfficiëntie:
InnovatieindeTechnologie
Energie Efficiëntie:
23
EnergieEfficiëntie:
VoorbeeldGloeilampvs.LEDlamp
40 Watt
8 Watt
6 Watt
Bron: www.vron.nl
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Voorbeeldenergiezuinigetrafo
26
g g
Rated Capacity
(kVA)
Efficiency
15 97
30 97.5
45 97.7
75 98
112.5 98.2
150 98.3
225 98.5
300 98.6
500 98.7
750 98.8 750 98.8
1000 98.9
1500 -
2000 -
2500 - 2500 -
EnergieEfficiëntie:
25
VoorbeeldStandby Power
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28
Aanbevelingen
• Suriname zal ook mee moeten gaan met de nieuwe
technieken van sustainable en renewable power ivm
g
milieubehoud .
O d ij i t lli t h i l • Onderwijs instellingen moeten hun curriculum
aanpassen m.b.t. duurzame energievoorziening.
• Bewustwording van de samenleving in duurzame
energie energie.
• Bedrijven moeten opgeleide technische Bedrijven moeten opgeleide technische
medewerkers inzetten ivm de snelle ontwikkelingen
en besparingen.
27
Conclusies
• In de energie voorzienings-sector zijn er grote
investeringen te verwachten in de komende jaren, g j
vanwege groei en vervanging.miljoenen dollars.
• Er zal meer toepassing moeten plaatsvinden van
duurzame energie opwekkingen, implementatie van
hogere spanningen in transmissie om verliezen te hogere spanningen in transmissie om verliezen te
reduceren. Ook reductie van verlies in distributie.
• Zonne energie en energie zuinige apparatuur
genieten hoge prioriteit in de toepassing huishoudens genieten hoge prioriteit in de toepassing huishoudens
en industrie door innovatie technieken..
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
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Energie Efficiëntie:
30
Energie Efficiëntie:
Voorbeeld Verlichting
29
Samuel Mehairjan M.Sc. Samuel Mehairjan M.Sc.
Director Generation & Transmission Director Generation & Transmission
N V N V Energie Energie Bedrijven Bedrijven Suriname Suriname N.V. N.V. Energie Energie Bedrijven Bedrijven Suriname Suriname
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
110 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Presentaties
energie indicatoren en
ontbrekende Kennis (Data)
Cornel wijngaarde M.Sc.
111
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
• OPBOUW PRESENTATIE
1. Basis Energie Indicatoren
2. Andere Belangrijke Indicatoren
3. Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren
4. Ontbrekende Kennis/Data
5. Te Ondernemen Acties (voor ‘Business Opportunities’) ( pp )
6. Stelling
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 2 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Energie Indicatoren en Energie Indicatoren en
Ontbrekende Kennis(Data)
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
112
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
• Andere belangrijke indicatoren
-Economische/Financiële (bv. Tarieven en inkomsten, gemiddeld inkomen per
inwoner per gebied, BNP, ‘Rating’ van het land)
-Geografische en Demografische (bv. Locatie en samenstelling
woongemeenschappen.
-Juridische (bv. Electriciteitswet)
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 4 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
• Basis Energie indicatoren
Opwekking,
Netwerk
-Opgesteld vermogen,
-Karakteristieken centrales (thermisch, hernieuwbaar,
l i ) nucleair),
-Karakteristieken Transmissie en distributie netwerk.
Belasting -Basis en Piek vermogen
-Dag/Maand/Jaarbelastingskrommen.
-Gemiddeld verbruik
in kWh per inwoner
-Vaststelling en Schatting groeipercentage
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 3 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
113
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
•• Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren (2)
Zonne –energie: ± 5 kWh/m
2
/dag oftewel 18 MJoule/m
2
/dag.
Slide 12, Slide 13,Slide 14,Slide 17
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 6 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
•• Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren (1) Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren (1)
Technisch (belangrijkste). Informatiebronnen
(T h i h P kti h)
INDICATOR
ENERGIEBRON
(Technisch en Praktisch).
WATER
Hydrologische (debiet, snelheid,verval).
Energieverbruik,netwerk
G fi h li i
Min. NH, Min. OW&V
(waterloopkundige dienst), AdeKUS
(FTeW) NGO’s(DRES) UNDP Min
Geografische ligging
(FTeW), NGO s(DRES),UNDP, Min.
RO/FOB.
ZON
Zonne -intensiteit en duur
.Energieverbruik, netwerk
.Geografische ligging.
Min. NH, Min. OW&V
(meteorologische dienst),
AdeKUS(FTeW), UNDP, NGO’s (PAS,
METS R t ) NASA b it METS, Rotary), NASA website
BIOMASSA
Welke ‘Bio-Energie Gewas’, veeteelt,
bodemgesteldheid. Biomassa opbrengst
Energieverbruik, netwerk.Geografische
Min. NH(EBS, Staatsolie), Min. LVV,
AdeKUS(IGSR, FTeW),
NGO’s.(Rotary e.a.).
ligging
NGO s.(Rotary e.a.).
WIND
Windsnelheidsprofiel
Energieverbruik, netwerk
Geografische ligging.
AdeKUS(FTeW), Min. NH, Min.
OW&V (meteorologische dienst),
NASA website(atmosferic research
data)
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 5 1-02-2010
data)
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
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Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
BRON Ontbrekende Technische en Practische
Data (belangrijkste).
Overige
• Ontbrekende Kennis(Data)
WATER
Hydrologische (debiet, watersnelheid, verval) over
enkele jaren gemeten. Bouwen en technisch managen
van kleine waterkrachtcentrales onder specifieke
omstandigheden.
Energieverbruik gemeenschappen binnenland.
Bouwkosten en kWh prijs
Sociaal, economisch en
politieke managen .
Milieu effecten.
Wetgeving
g g pp
Wetgeving
ZON
Gedetaileerde info Zonne -intensiteit en duur. Gedrag
zonne-energie installaties (PV, thermisch) in het bos.
Energieverbruik gemeenschappen binnenland.
Idem. (kostprijs en kWh prijs
voor klein vermogen te
achterhalen via privé
gebruikers ) gebruikers.)
BIOMASSA
Opbrengst ‘Energie Gewas’ of biomassa (landbouw,
veeteelt) voor gebruik op grote schaal.
Energieverbruik gemeenschappen binnenland
Idem.
WIND
Windsnelheidsprofiel aan de kust(mn. Galibi en Nw.
Nickerie), Oostzijde Brokopondo stuwmeer e.a.
relevante plaatsen.
Energieverbruik gemeenschappen kuststreek buiten
EBS verzorgingsgebied
Idem
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 8 1-02-2010
EBS verzorgingsgebied.
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
•• Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren Specifieke Hernieuwbare Energie Indicatoren (3)
Wind: Periode 9-18 u.(± 9 uren lang) windsnelheden gemeten tussen
6-8 m/s.
Galibi (okt.-dec. 2009) Slide 16, ook metingen te Nw. Nickerie Slide 15 Galibi (okt. dec. 2009) Slide 16, ook metingen te Nw. Nickerie Slide 15
Biomassa: -Rijstkaf in Nickerie voldoende voor El. Centrale van
4 MWe. (Directe oplossing acuut milieu probleem)
S ik i t l Bi f l St t li W i j t lit /h /j -Suikerriet als Biofuel –Staatsolie Wageningen project: liter/ha/jr.
-Jatropha Curcas als Biofuel, pilot projekt te Goejaba: liter/ha/jr
Water: Jaikreek-Tapanahony rivier waterkracht projekt. Schatting 400 MW. p y p j g
Gran Holo micro-waterkrachtprojekt. Schatting 100 kW. Slide 16
Gran kriki small-waterkrachtprojekt. Schatting 15 MW.
Puketi micro-Waterkrachtcentrale 40 kW. Slide 18
Panato micro Waterkracht centrale( 20 kW?)Slide 21
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 7 1-02-2010
Panato micro-Waterkracht centrale( 20 kW?)Slide 21
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
115
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
STELLING
Gebruik hernieuwbare energiebronnen als
‘Energy Security’ en niet zozeer als reductie
‘GHG’ in Suriname
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 10 1-02-2010
GHG in Suriname.
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Te Ondernemen Stappen.
Uitvoering geven aan aanbevelingen KEMA rapport (2008): Uitvoering geven aan aanbevelingen KEMA rapport (2008):
‘SURINAME POWER SECTOR ASSESSMENT AND ALTERNATIVES FOR ITS
MODERNIZATION’ t.w.:
1. Instellen Nationaal Energie Instituut
2. Instellen Electriciteits Tarieven Commissie
Aandachtsgebieden: -Stimulerings maatregelen voor gebruik herwinbare energie
m.n. introduceren van subsidies en ‘Feed-in’
tarieven,
-Nationaal Energiefonds oprichten voor o.a.
financiering wetenschappelijk onderzoek op het
gebied van gebruik hernieuwbare energiebronnen.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 9 1-02-2010
-Aanpassing wetgeving.
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116
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 12 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 11 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
117
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 14 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 13 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
118
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 16 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 15 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
119
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 18 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 17 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
120
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 20 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 19 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
121
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 22 1-02-2010
Seminar: Seminar: Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel Hernieuwbaar Energiepotentieel en en
‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname. ‘Business Opportunities’ in Suriname.
PUKETI
Cornel Wijngaarde MSc. 21 1-02-2010
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
122 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
Presentaties
De beheersing van de energievraag
& hernieuwbaar energiepotentieel
van Suriname
Johan geeraert
123
Inhoud Inhoud
• Rationeel gebruik van energie Rationeelgebruikvanenergie
• Hernieuwbareenergie
Debeheersingvandeenergievraag& Debeheersingvandeenergievraag&
hernieuwbaarenergiepotentieelvan hernieuwbaarenergiepotentieelvan g p g p
Suriname Suriname
JohanGeeraert,1feb2010, JohanGeeraert,1feb2010,
Stichtingenergie&duurzameontwikkelingSuriname Stichtingenergie&duurzameontwikkelingSuriname
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
124
Wiegebruiktenergie?
Waarom?Hoeveelverbruikenze?
• Energiegebruik om de levensfuncties te onderhouden Energiegebruikomdelevensfuncties teonderhouden
=>109w/capita
• Energiegebruikomdelevensvoorwaarden teverbeteren
– Globale primaireenergiegebruikpercapita p g g p p
=>2353W/capita
2007
of22energierobots/capita
– PrimaireenergieverbruikpercapitavanSuriname
=>3160W/capita
1999
of29energierobots/capita
Inhoud Inhoud
• Rationeel gebruik van energie Rationeelgebruikvanenergie
• Hernieuwbareenergie
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
125
Drijvers van het energieverbruik Drijversvanhetenergieverbruik
TPED = N(capita)*BNP(US$/capita.jaar)*EI(J/US$) TPED N(capita) BNP(US$/capita.jaar) EI(J/US$)
BevolkingvanSuriname
( t ld j t d )
800,000
1,000,000
(geteldeengeprojecteerde)
400,000
600,000
Ͳ
200,000
,
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060
Geprojecteerdegroeivoet1,2% Geprojecteerdegroeivoet1,4% Geteld Expon.(Geteld)
Bron: ABS, 2008, 2009
Drijvers van het energieverbruik Drijversvanhetenergieverbruik
TPED(J/jaar) = N(capita)*BNP(US$/capita.jaar)*EI(J/US$) TPED(J/jaar) N(capita) BNP(US$/capita.jaar) EI(J/US$)
• TPED: Totale Primaire Energie vraag TPED:TotalePrimaireEnergievraag
• N:Bevolking
• BNP: Bruto Nationaal Product BNP:BrutoNationaalProduct
• EI:EnergieIntensiteit
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
126
Drijvers van het energieverbruik Drijversvanhetenergieverbruik
TPED(J/jaar) = N(capita)*BNP(US$/capita.jaar)*EI(J/US$) TPED(J/jaar) N(capita) BNP(US$/capita.jaar) EI(J/US$)
t

Energieintensiteit:
Totaal primair energieverbruik per gerealiseerde US$ BNP
25
30
35
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
e
i
t
5
$

(
P
P
P
)

TotaalprimairenergieverbruikpergerealiseerdeUS$BNP
15
20
25
n
e
r
g
i
e
Ͳ
i
n
M
J
/
U
S
0
5
0
5
10
E
n
(
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Brazil FrenchGuiana Guyana Suriname
Bron: EIA/DOE, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov
Drijvers van het energieverbruik Drijversvanhetenergieverbruik
TPED(J/jaar) = N(capita)*BNP(US$/capita.jaar)*EI(J/US$) TPED(J/jaar) N(capita) BNP(US$/capita.jaar) EI(J/US$)
BrutoNationaalProduct
purchasingͲpowerͲparity(PPP)
van Suriname (Miljard US $)
4
5
$
)
vanSuriname(MiljardUS$)
2
3
P
P
(
G

U
S

$
1
2
G
D
P
P
0
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Bron: http://www.indexmundi.com/suriname/gdp_(purchasing_power_parity).html
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
127
Definitie:
RationeelEnergieGebruikofREG
• Bewust afzien van energiediensten Bewustafzienvanenergiediensten
• Energieefficiëntieverhogen
– Primaire energie Primaireenergie
– Eindenergie
– Energiediensten
Drijvers van het energieverbruik Drijversvanhetenergieverbruik
TPED= N * BNP * EI TPED N BNP EI
• Geenenkeleexponentiëlegroeivoetisoptermijn
duurzaam duurzaam
• Positievegroeivoetlooptaltijduitdehand
G i d T t l P i i E i (TPED) • GroeivandeTotalePrimaireEnergievraag(TPED)
isfunctievande:
Groeivoet Verdubbel/ Groeivoet Verdubbel/
halveertijd
Toenamebevolking 1,2%...1,4% у50jaar
T l t 7 5% 9 3 j Toenamewelvaart
2000Ͳ2009
7,5% 9,3jaar
Verminderingenergieintensiteit
2000Ͳ2007
Ͳ1,57% 44,6jaar
TPED(J/jaar) 7,3% 9,6jaar
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
128
REG Potentieel REGPotentieel
• WereldREGpotentieel:
> Technisch: ~2/3
e
primaire energie =>Technisch:~2/3
e
primaireenergie
• =>Economisch:~1/3
e
primaireenergie
• REGpotentieelvanSuriname:
=>slechtszevenvoorbeeldenwerden
uitgewerkt(spaarlampen,koelkastenA++,
energiezuinigeauto’s,transfo’s metlagere
verliezen,WKK,…)
=>verderonderzoekvereist
REG paradoxen REGparadoxen
• Niet altijd hebben zowel de verbruiker als de Nietaltijdhebbenzoweldeverbruikeralsde
samenlevingvoordeelbijREGmaatregelen
• ReboundEffect
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
129
OpbrengstenvanzevenREG
maatregelen
13 68
0.23
0.30 16
13.68
0.18
0.06
0.11
0.05
0.03
0 00
0.10
0.20
8
10
12
14
0.19 0.12
3.51 3.51
0.35
0.12
Ͳ0.23
Ͳ0.20
Ͳ0.10
0.00
2
4
6
8
0.19 0.12 0.12
Ͳ0.30 0
OpbrengstvandeREGmaatregel
(%vanhetenergieverbruikin1999van
Suriname) Suriname)
Kostenbesparingvoorklantensamenleving
(US$/kWh)
NettoREGopbrengstperbespaardekWh
energiealsfunctievandetotale
kostenbesparingvoorSuriname
0.25
WKKLM6000extrapolatie
0.20
e
r

k
W
h

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/
k
W
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)
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Nieuweenergiezuinige
'
0.15
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p
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(
U
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$
auto's
(100000)
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lage nullastverliezen
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A+++
0.00
0.05
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o
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t
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e
s
p
(150000)
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(500 000)
0 2 4 6
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(500000)
WKKStaatsolie
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
130
Inhoud Inhoud
• Rationeel gebruik van energie Rationeelgebruikvanenergie
• Hernieuwbareenergie
REG Besluiten REGBesluiten
• Het (als voorbeeld) onvolledig Het(alsvoorbeeld)onvolledig
geïdentificeerdeeconomischREGpotentieel
van Suriname bedraagt al ~18% van het vanSurinamebedraagtal 18%vanhet
energieverbruik.
• Er is bijkomend onderzoek nodig om het REG • ErisbijkomendonderzoeknodigomhetREG
potentieelvanSurinametevervolledigen.
E d f d • Ermoetnagegaanwordenofde
energieprijzeninSurinameaanzettentotREG
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
131
Enkele basisconcepten Enkelebasisconcepten
• Energiekomtvoorondervormvan: g
– voorraden ofstocks(uitgedruktinJoule)
– stromen (uitgedruktinWatt)
• Deenergievoorradenwordenverderonderverdeeldin:
– energiebronnen
– energiereserves die economisch uitbaatbaar zijn aan de – energiereserves dieeconomischuitbaatbaarzijnaande
thansgeldendemarktprijzenenmetdenubeschikbare
technologie.
D i d i d i i • Deuitdagingendreiging:
– nietzozeerdeuitputtingvandereservesaanfossiele
brandstof
– weldeklimaatuitdagingdieverplichttotkoolstofarme
energiebevoorrading
Hernieuwbare energie Hernieuwbareenergie
• een antwoord op: eenantwoordop:
– veiligstellenvandenationaleenergiebevoorrading
enindustri̘leproductie
– Koolstofarmeenergieopwekking
• specifiekeSurinaamsesituatie
– Energiebalans: inportÙexport
– Betalingsbalans: $
uit
Ù$
in
– Milieu:financieringviaCDM
– Merk:groenestrategie
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
132
Energiebalans van onze aarde Energiebalansvanonzeaarde
Energiebalans van onze aarde (TW)
(op basis van Stoy 1980; FfE) (op basis van Stoy, 1980; FfE)
175000
125000
150000
175000
82775
57225
25025
35 11 6 3 5 350
25000
50000
75000
100000
-54250
-30450
-7525
-30975
-21525
-4725 -5075
-9275 -10675
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InstitutodePesquisaAmbientaldaAmazônia
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
133
WindͲenergie Wind energie
Vermogensdichtheidalsfunctievande
d lh d
600
700
(
W
/
m
2
)
windsnelheid
400
500
600
c
h
t
h
e
i
d

(
Vermogensdichtheid
200
300
400
o
g
e
n
s
d
i
c
(W/m2)
Theoretischmaximum
0
100
V
e
r
m
o
omvormbaar
vermogen
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Windsnelheid(m/s)
Toepassingen van zonneͲenergie Toepassingenvanzonne energie
• ElektriciteitsproductiemetzonneͲenergie e t c te tsp oduct e et o e e e g e
– Thermodynamisch(stoom)
(effici̘ntieу...25%)
– PhotoVoltaic
(effici̘ntieу15%) ( %)
• Thermischetoepassingen p g
– Warmwatermeteen“zonneboiler”
– Absorptiekoeling
– Droogprocessen
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
134
Biomassa Biomassa
• Zonnestraling wordt door fotosynthese Zonnestralingwordtdoorfotosynthese
gedeeltelijkomgezetnaarchemischeenergie
die in biomassa vastgelegd wordt dieinbiomassavastgelegdwordt
(effici̘ntie0,2%)
• Theoretisch koolstofneutraal • Theoretischkoolstofneutraal
• Verschillendesoorten“feedstock”
• Hout(afval)alsbrandstof
• Rijstkafalsbrandstof
Waterkracht Waterkracht
Parametersdiehetpotentieelbe̟nvloeden: a a ete s d e et pote t ee be oede :
• Relatiefhoogteverschil
– inSurinameeerderklein
• Volumewater
– Suriname=regenrijkgebied
– Degrensrivieren=>grootstedebiet(m
3
/s)
– Deafvoerongelijkmatigverdeeldoverhetjaar
• 3maanden=>50%
• 6maanden=>80%
Waterkrachtcentrales omvormrendement Waterkrachtcentralesomvormrendement
mini:60Ͳ80%,grote:80Ͳ90%
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
135
Ruweraming Hernieuwbaar
l EnergiepotentieelvanSuriname
Theoretisch Technisch Economisch
MW GWh
jaar
MW GWh
jaar
MW GWh
jaar
Waterkracht 7.987 2.419 120 ~900
180
450..650
1577
3350..4350
Biomassa:Afvalvan
16,5 144
150.000m³/jaar
houtexploitatie
,
Bi Af l Biomassa:Afval
500.000m³/jaar
houtexploitatie
50 432
Biomassa: Rijstkaf
6 7 59
Biomassa:Rijstkaf
6,7 59
ZonneͲenergie 34.129.167 100 100
Wind 12,5 25
Zwakkepunten
h b vanhernieuwbareenergie
• de hoge investeringskosten dehogeinvesteringskosten
• deinherentevariabiliteit=>
sterk veranderend aanbod => sterkveranderendaanbod=>
beperktebeschikbaarheidsduur
verschilt naargelang de soort: verschiltnaargelangdesoort:
– tussen1.300h/jaarvoorPV
– en4.000h/jaarvoorwaterkrachtmetdam
(Itaipu:8.000h/jaar!)
=>VerhoogtdekapitaalskostenperkW
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
136
StichtingEnergie&Duurzame
OntwikkelingSuriname
Doel: een bijdrage leveren aan de duurzame Doel:eenbijdrageleverenaandeduurzame
ontwikkelingvanSuriname
Door: o a wetenschappelijke publicaties Door:o.a.wetenschappelijkepublicaties
“HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”
137 “HeRnieuwBaaR eneRgiePoTenTieel en BuSineSS oPPoRTuniTieS in SuRinaMe”