Research Hypothesis

Deedar Jaleel Raheem

Fourth Grade

2012

”  “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable. many hypotheses are stated exactly like this: "If a particular independent variable is changed. This educated guess about the answer to your question is called the hypothesis. then there is also a change in a certain dependent variable.”(Creswell." Definitions of hypothesis  “A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question. you should have some educated guess about how things work. yet.”(MacleodClark J and Hockey L 1981) . 1994)  “It is a tentative prediction about the nature of the relationship between two or more variables.”  “An hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested byknowledge or observation but has not. been proved or disproved. In fact. Do this by expressing the hypothesis using your independent variable (the variable you change during your experiment) and your dependent variable (the variable you observe-changes in the dependent variable depend on changes in the independent variable).Hypothesis After having thoroughly researched your question. The hypothesis must be worded so that it can be tested in your experiment.

" (Fill in the blanks with the appropriate information from your own experiment. In other words. then _____[this]_____ will happen. either because it is believed to be true or because it is to be used asa basis for argument.) Your hypothesis should be something that you can actually test. what's called a testable hypothesis.Key Info A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work.  Has serious outcome if incorrect decision is made! ." Nature of Hypothesis      It can be tested –verifiable or falsifiable Hypotheses are not moral or ethical questions It is neither too specific nor to general It is a prediction of consequences It is considered valuable even if proven false Types of Hypotheses NULL HYPOTHESES The null hypothesisrepresents a theory that has been put forward. you need to be able to measure both "what you do" and "what will happen. Most of the time a hypothesis is written like this: "If _____[I do this] _____. but has not been proved.

than the current drug. on average. The formulation of the hypothesis basically varies with the kind of research project conducted: QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE . The alternative hypothesismight be that: the new drug has a different effect.  Frequently “alternative”is actual desired conclusion of the researcher! EXAMPLE In a clinical trial of a new drug. We would write H1: the new drug is better than the current drug. compared to that of the current drug.ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES The alternative hypothesisis a statement of what a hypothesis test is set up to establish. the null hypothesismight be that the new drug is no better. We would write H1: the two drugs have different effects. Formulating a hypothesis Is important to narrow a question down to one that can reasonably be studied in a research project. We would write H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.  Only reached if H0is rejected. on average.  Opposite of Null Hypothesis. the new drug is better. on average. than the current drug. on average. on average.

All daisies have the same number of petals. let's say you have a bad breakout the morning after eating a lot of greasy food. Then Hypothesis   If you get at least 6 hours of sleep. that is evidence for a relationship between the variables you are examining. you may wish to revise your first hypothesis in order to make it easier to design an experiment to test it. Then. such as hormone levels. as a control. . You propose a hypothesis: Eating greasy food causes pimples. Let's say you decide to eat greasy food every day for a week and record the effect on your face. The null hypothesis sometimes is called the "no difference" hypothesis. Examples of an If. You may wonder if there is a correlation between eating greasy food and getting pimples.What Are Examples of a Hypothesis? A hypothesis is an explanation for a set of observations. this is not a very good experiment because it does not take into account other factors. For example: Examples of the Null Hypothesis   Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar. stress. Answer: Although you could state a scientific hypothesis in various ways. for the next week you'll avoid greasy food and see what happens. it will fall toward the ground. you will do better on tests than if you get less sleep. most hypothesis are either "If. For example. Improving a Hypothesis To Make It Testable While there are many ways to state a hypothesis. The null hypothesis is good for experimentation because it's simple to disprove. then" statements or else forms of the null hypothesis. If you drop a ball. Next you need to design an experiment to test this hypothesis. Here are examples of a scientific hypothesis. If you disprove a null hypothesis. Now.

if the rates of lung cancer are the same between smokers and non-smokers. Again. can you definitely say it was the grease in the food that caused it? Maybe it was the salt. . So. It's much easier to disprove a hypothesis. Disproven if you find a plant that doesn't need it. Maybe it was the potato. If your skin stays clear for the entire test. you didn't prove or disprove anything.sun exposure. might (or might not) express a preference. let's restate the hypothesis to make it easy to evaluate the data. you can be pretty sure something is up.     Hypothesis: All forks have three tines. you may decide to accept your hypothesis. Disproven if you find any fork with a different number of tines. Hypothesis: There is no relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Maybe it was unrelated to diet. Hypothesis: Plants require liquid water to survive. Getting pimples is unaffected by eating greasy food. on the whole. favor one paw over the other. you can apply statistics to data to discredit this hypothesis or to support it. However. which is fine. since it is so hard to assign cause and effect. If you eat french fries for a week and suffer a breakout. you can make a strong case that there is some relationship between diet and acne.You can't prove your hypothesis. like people. So. because individual cats. Hypothesis: Cats do not show a paw preference (cat equivalent to being rightor left-handed). Can you disprove the hypothesis? Probably not. if you eat fatty food every day for a week and suffer breakouts and then don't breakout the week that you avoid greasy food. Be careful here. The problem is that you cannot assign cause to your effect. exercise or any number of other variables which might conceivably affect your skin. While it is difficult to establish cause and effect in health issues. You could gather data about the number of times cats bat at a toy with either paw and analyze the data to determine whether cats.

shtml#checklist .sciencebuddies.org/science-fairprojects/project_hypothesis.about.References  http://examples.yourdictionary.about.com/b/2012/03/01/hypothesis-examples.com/od/scientificmethod/f/What-Are-ExamplesOf-A-Hypothesis.html  http://chemistry.com/examples/examples-ofhypothesis.htm  http://chemistry.htm  http://www.

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