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SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee 30 April 2005

Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

Developed by: Hisham Abu-Adas Civil Engineering Unit/M&CED Consulting Services Department

Previous Issue: 31 July 2002 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 Page 1 of 41 Primary contact: Abu-Adas, Hisham on phone 874-6908

Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009

SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

VERTICAL VESSEL FOUNDATION DESIGN GUIDE Table of Contents 1 Page Introduction................................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 4 Purpose ............................................................................. 3 Scope ................................................................................ 3 Disclaimer .......................................................................... 3 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards .................................. 3 Process Industry Practices (PIP) ....................................... 4 Industry Guides And Standards ......................................... 4 Saudi Aramco Standards ................................................... 4 Saudi Aramco Best Practices ............................................ 4

References ................................................................................... 4

General......................................................................................... 5 Design Procedure......................................................................... 5 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Design Considerations....................................................... 5 Vertical Loads .................................................................... 6 Horizontal Loads................................................................ 7 Load Combinations.......................................................... 10 Pedestal........................................................................... 12 Anchor Bolts .................................................................... 14 Footing Design................................................................. 16

Attachments: Figures, Tables, and Example Figure A - Foundation Pressures for Square Bases ................................... 24 Figure B - Foundation Pressures for Octagon Bases ................................. 25 Table 1 - Octagon Properties...................................................................... 26 Table 2 - Foundation Pressures for Octagon Bases................................... 31 Table 3 - Basic Development Length.......................................................... 32 Example - Vertical Vessel Foundation Design............................................ 33

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009

SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

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Introduction 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this Practice is to establish guidelines and recommended procedures for the analysis and design of vertical vessel foundations for use by engineers working on Saudi Aramco projects and Saudi Aramco engineers. It shall be used where applicable unless otherwise specified. 1.2 Scope This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the analysis and design of vertical vessel foundations for Saudi Aramco plants. In the ensuing sections, pertinent references are given, and design loadings and general design consideration are presented and discussed. This Practice addresses isolated foundations supported directly on soil. Pile supported footings are not included in this practice. The Process Industry Practice STE03350 forms the basis for the development of this design guide. 1.3 Disclaimer The material in this Best Practices document provides the most correct and accurate design guidelines available to Saudi Aramco which comply with international industry practices. This material is being provided for the general guidance and benefit of the Designer. Use of the Best Practices in designing projects for Saudi Aramco, however, does not relieve the Designer from his responsibility to verify the accuracy of any information presented or from his contractual liability to provide safe and sound designs that conform to Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements. Use of the information or material contained herein is no guarantee that the resulting product will satisfy the applicable requirements of any project. Saudi Aramco assumes no responsibility or liability whatsoever for any reliance on the information presented herein or for designs prepared by Designers in accordance with the Best Practices. Use of the Best Practices by Designers is intended solely for, and shall be strictly limited to, Saudi Aramco projects. Saudi Aramco® is a registered trademark of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company. Copyright, Saudi Aramco, 2002. 1.4 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards In the event of a conflict between this Best Practice and other Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement, the Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement shall govern.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009

SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

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References This Best Practice is based on the latest edition of the references below, unless otherwise noted. 2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) PIP STE03350 2.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide

Industry Guides and Standards American Concrete Institute (ACI) ACI 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures

Wind Load and Anchor Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures 2.3 Saudi Aramco Standards Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES) SAES-A-112 SAES-A-204 SAES-M-001 SAES-Q-001 SAES-Q-005 2.4 Meteorological and Seismic Design Data Preparation of Structural Calculations Structural Design Criteria for Non-Building Structures Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures Concrete Foundations

Saudi Aramco Best Practices SABP-Q-001 SABP-Q-002 Anchor Bolt Design and Installation Spread Footings Design

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b) The structural calculations shall be prepared in accordance with the requirements of SAES-A-204. para.1.3 3.1. SAES-Q-005. 4. (Ref. (Ref. SAES-Q-005 and ACI 318-02. 4.2. A geotechnical investigation is required for all new structures and foundations as described in SAES-A-113. Vertical vessel foundation design shall be based on approved certified vendor drawing. Page 5 of 41 . The maximum soil pressure shall not exceed the applicable allowable value. Para.6 3.2 4.3) The design and construction of all concrete foundations shall comply with the requirements of SAES-Q-001. para. para. Soil pressures shall be calculated under the action of vertical and lateral loads using load combinations that result in the maximum soil pressures. 3. SAES-Q005. and a consideration of permissible total and differential settlements. 4.1.3.1.4 3.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide 3 General 3. SAES-Q-005. In the case of foundations supported on compacted fill.1 Design Considerations 4.1.5 3.1) The design concrete compressive strength of concrete shall be 27. the geotechnical investigation and/or SAES-A-114 shall govern the type of fill material and degree of compaction required.1 The design and specifications for construction of vertical vessel foundation shall be adequate for the structure intended use. para.1 4. (Ref. SAES-Q-005. refer to Saudi Aramco Best Practice SABP-Q-002 "Spread Footings Design". Saudi Aramco Standard SAES-Q-005 and this guideline. 4.3.1) The allowable soil bearing pressure shall be based on the results of the geotechnical investigation. in accordance with commonly accepted engineering practice. (Ref. For general foundation requirements and guidelines. 4. unless a detailed soils investigation indicated otherwise.7 4 Design Procedure 4. (Ref.3 Vertical vessel wind and seismic loads shall be in accordance with Saudi Aramco Enginering Standard SAES-A-112.6 MPa (4000 psi) at 28 days.2 3.2) Foundations shall be founded on either undisturbed soil or compact fill and at least 600 mm below the existing or finished grade surface.1. SAES-Q-005.

1 The following nominal loads shall be considered as dead loads when applying load factors used in strength design. Cleaning load shall be used for test dead load if cleaning fluid is heavier than test medium. agitators. 4. generally taken from the certified vessel drawing.1. Erection dead load (Df) – Fabricated weight of vessel. Unless otherwise specified. generally taken from the certified vessel drawing.2. Saudi Aramco Standard drawing and with the Vendor specific requirements. For very tall or heavy vessels. etc. internals. including all attachments. E. Page 6 of 41 . Empty dead load (De) – Empty weight of the vessel.2. Designing for test dead load is generally desirable because unforeseen circumstances may occur. Structure dead load (Ds) – Vessel’s foundation weight which is defined as the combined weight of footing.1 Dead Loads 4. A. Whether to test or clean in the field should be determined. and the overburden soil. type and size to ensure compliance with ACI 318-02 Code Appendix D. platforms.1. piping. Operating dead load (Do) – Empty dead load of the vessel plus the maximum weight of contents (including packing/catalyst) during normal operation.2 Eccentric vessel loads caused by large pipes or reboilers shall be considered for the applicable load cases. trays.0 shall be used for test medium. 4. The test medium shall be as specified in the contract documents.5 4.2. Test dead load (Dt) – Empty dead load of the vessel plus the weight of test medium contained in the system. Operating dead load shall be taken from the certified vessel drawing.4 The engineer shall verify anchor bolts design. D. ladders. B. generally taken from the certified vessel drawing.1. insulation. sufficient capacity cranes may not be available for erection.2 Vertical Loads 4. C.1. a minimum specific gravity of 1. The engineer shall determine whether additional loading may be imposed on the foundation during erection. fireproofing.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide 4. pedestal dead load (Dp).

and the guidelines of ASCE "Wind Load and Anchor Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures".3 Partial wind load (Wp) shall be based on the requirements of ASCE 37-02. the following Simplified Method may be used: a) For the projected width. 4. etc. platforms.4 will typically not control any part of the foundation design.3. This will account for platforms.3.1. nozzles and piping below the top tangent line.2.2 4.2.91 m) plus the diameter of the largest pipe to the diameter of the vessel.1.2.1 Wind Loads (W) 4.3.1.1.3. SAES-M-001 "Structural Design Criteria for Non-Bulding Structures".1 Wind loads shall be calculated in accordance with the requirements of SAES-A-112 “Meteorological and Seismic Design Data”.3 Horizontal Loads 4.4 4. for the specified test or erection duration. The design wind speed shall be 75% of the actual wind speed. 4. Comment: Loads from vendor or other engineering disciplines without verification shall not be accepted.2 Live loads (L) 4. Load combinations that include live load as listed in Tables 3 and 4 of Section 4.. add 5-ft (1. piping.52 m) to the diameter of the vessel. 4.5 Page 7 of 41 .2. due consideration shall be given to factors which may significantly affect total wind loads. The engineer is responsible for determing wind loads used for the foundation design. such as the application of dynamic gust factors or the presence of spoilers.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide 4.2 Live loads shall be calculated in accordance with SAES-M-001.1 4. or add 3-ft (0. ladders. platform size.1. etc.1.3. If detailed information (number of platforms. When calculating or checking wind loads. on the vessel. whichever is greater. Section 6.2.3.) is unkown at the time of foundation design.2. ladders.

the Detailed Method of the guidelines of ASCE 'Wind Load and Anchor Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures" shall be used. piping.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide b) The vessel height should be increased one (1) vessel diameter to account for a large diameter and platform attached above the top tangent. etc. c) d) e) Page 8 of 41 . ladders. Figure 6-19 shown below. The force coefficient (Cf) should be deermined from ASCE 7-02.) of the vessel are known. The increases in vessel height or diameter to account for wind on appurtenances shoul not be used in calculating the h/D ratio for force coefficients or flexibity. If most design detail items (platforms. as is the case with most tower arrangements.

Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Figure 6-19 – (Adapted from ASCE 7-02) Page 9 of 41 .

3 Other Loading 4.1 General A. and any other probable realistic combination of loads.3. The pipe stress engineer shall be consulted for any thermal loads that are to be considered. For skirt-supportrd vertical vessel classified as SUG III in accordace with ASCE 7-02.10. The use of a one-third stress increase for load combinations Page 10 of 41 B. the critical earthquake provisions and implied load combinations of ASCE 7-02.3. Dead load factors shall be applied to the resultants of piping thermal loadings. Consideration shall be given to process upset conditions that could occur and could increase loading on the foundation. Structure.5.3.3.3 4. 4. and foundations shall be designed for the appropriate load combinations from ASCE 7.3. 4.7.4 Load Combinations 4. shall be followed.3.1 Thrust forces caused by thermal expansion of piping shall be included in the operating load combinations. Load combintions for vertical vessels shall be as listed below. The load combinations shown below are the most common load combinations but may not cover all possible conditions.2 Earthquake Loads (E) 4.3.4. Seismic loads calculated by the Vessel Vendor shall be independently verified as appropriate by the Engineer prior to performing foundation design to ensure compliance with the project specifications and the applicable Saudi Aramco Standards.2.3.14. if deemed advisable. Section 9.3.1 Seismic forces shall be calculated in accordance with SAES-A112 “Meteorological and Seismic Design Data” and the requirements of SAES-M-001 "Structural Design Criteria for Non-Bulding Structures". equipment.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide 4.2.2. Section 9. this guideline.2 4. . This document shall be used for load combiantions for both strength design and allowable stress design. Any credible load combination that could produce the maximum stress or govern for stability should be considered in the calculations.2 4.3.

9 (Ds + Do) + 0. The non-comprehensive list of typical load combinations provided below shall be considered and used as applicable.7 Eo ) Ds + De + W 0. the critical earthquake provisions and implied load combination of SEI/ASCE 7 .00 1.00 1.00 1. Thrust forces caused by thermal expansion of piping should be included in the calculations for operating load combinations. For skirt supported vertical vessels and skirt-supported elevated tanks classified as SUG III per SEI/ASCE 7-02 Section 9.10.7.5. C. The pipe stress engineer should be consulted for any thermal loads that are to be considered.5 shall be followed. load factors are applied to the service load reactions and the pedestal is designed in accordance with Section 4.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide including wind or seismic loads shall not be allowed for design of foundation. Table 3 – Allowable Stress Design (Service Loads) Load Comb. b. Page 11 of 41 . the service loads are factored.00 1.14. c. In designing the pedestal.02 Section 9. Engineering judgment shall be used in establishing all appropriate load combinations. if deemed advisable.7 Eoa 0.9 (Ds + De) + 0.00 1. # 1 2 3 4a 4b 5 6 Load Combination Ds + Do + L Ds + Do + (W or 0. Service load combinations shall be used to check soil bearing pressures and foundation stability against overturning and sliding.3.7 Eea D s + Df + Wp D s + Dt + Wp a Allowable Stress Multiplier 1.00 1. Erection Weight + Partial Wind is only required when the erection weight of the vessel is significantly less than the empty weight of the vessel.20 Description Operating Weight + Live Load Operating Weight + Wind or Earthquake Empty Weight + Wind (Wind uplift case) Operating Weight + Earthquake (Earthquake uplift case) Empty Weight + Earthquake (Earthquake uplift case) Erection Weight + Partial Windb (Wind uplift case) Test Weight + Partial Wind a. In computing moments and shears for footing slab design.

# 1 2 3 4 5a 5b 6 7 8 Load Combination 1. The same load factor as used for dead load shall be used. 1c) (Eq. When form information is not available.10.6 Wp a Description Operating Weight Operating Weight + Live Load Operating Weight + Wind or Earthquake Empty Weight + Wind (Wind uplift case) Operating Weight + Earthquake (Earthquake uplift case) Empty Weight + Earthquake (Earthquake uplift case) Erection Weight + Partial Windb (Wind uplift case) Test Weight Test Weight + Partial Wind a.5.9 (Ds + Do) + 1. For skirt supported vertical vessels and skirt-supported elevated tanks classified as SUG III per SEI/ASCE 7 .14. 1a) BC + 8 (BD) (for Grade 36 or A307 anchor bolts) (Eq.1 Concrete pedestal dimensions shall be sized on the basis of standard available forms for the project. 4. if deemed advisable. octagon pedestal dimensions shall be sized with pedestal faces in 2-inch increments to allow use of standard manufactured forms.9 (Ds + De) + 1.7.2 (Ds + Do) + 1. The folloiwng criteria shall be used to determine the size and shape for the pedestal.4 (Ds + Do) 1.6 W 0. Erection Weight + Partial Wind is only required when the erection weight of the vessel is significantly less than the empty weight of the vessel. b.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Table 4 – Loading Combinations and Load Factors – Strength Design Load Comb.5.9 (Ds + Df) + 1.0 Eea 0. the critical earthquake provisions and implied load combination of SEI/ASCE 7 . Thrust forces caused by thermal expansion of piping should be included in the calculations for operating load combinations.5 Pedestal 4.3. The pipe stress engineer should be consulted for any thermal loads that are to be considered.1 Face-to-face pedestal size shall be no less than the largest of the following: • • • • BC + 9 inches (Eq. 1b) BC + 12 (BD) (for high-strength anchor bolts) BC + SD + 9 inches – (BD) (Eq.0 Eoa 0.4 (Ds + Dt) 1. c.2 (Ds + Do) + (1.6 Wp 1. 1d) Page 12 of 41 .6 L 1.9 (Ds + De) + 1.02 Section 9.0 Eo ) 0. 4.02 Section 9.1.2 (Ds + Dt) + 1.5 shall be followed.6 W or 1.

2) (De or Do) = nominal empty or operating vessel weight.9[(De or Do) + Dp]/Nd (Eq. 4. Development of reinforcing steel shall be checked.5. or round if forms are available. Pedestals smaller than 6 ft shall be square.5. Use empty weight for wind loads. Dowels – Dowels shall be sized by computing the maximum tension existing at the pedestal perimeter due to overturning moments. As required = tension / design stress = Fu / φfy where: Fu = maximum ultimate tension in reinforcing bar Page 13 of 41 4. Pedestal size may need to be increased to provide adequte AN (projected concrete area) for anchor bolts when additional reinforcement for anchor bolts is not used.3 4. 1f) where: BC = bolt circle.2 Anchorage – It is normally desirable to make the pedestal deep enough to contain the anchor bolts and keep them out of the footing.1. Tension Fu = 4(Muped)/[(Nd)(DC)] – 0. More exact tension loads may be obtained by using ACI 318 strength design methodology. Conservatively.1. Use empty or operating for for earthquake loads depending on which condition is used to calculate Muped.5.Dimensions for octagon pedestals are provided in Table 1. Octagons highlighted in gray in Table 1 have faces in 2-inch increments.2 Pedestals 6 ft and larger shall be octagonal. 1e) BC + SD + 11 (BD) (for high strength anchor bolts (Eq.3 4.5. inches 4. Pedestal reinforcement – The pedestal shall be tied to the footing with sufficient dowels around the pedestal perimeter to prevent seperation of the pedestal and footing. inches SD = sleve diameter.5. the following formula may be used.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 • • SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide BC + SD + 7 (BD) (Grade 36 or A307 anchor bolts) (Eq. inches BD = bolt diameter. 3) .4 (Eq. Consideration shall be given to anchor bolt development and foundation depth requirements.

7 4.5. More exact tension loads may be obtained by using ACI 318 strength design methodology.5 = strength reduction factor = 0.6. this Guideline. Nd DC = number of dowels (assumed). the maximum tension on an anchor bolt may be determined using the following formula. 4. #5 verticals at 18" maximum spacing with #4 ties at 15" max. shall be a multiple of 8 = dowel circle diameter (assume pedestal size minus 6 inches) De+Dp = nominal empty weight of vessel and pedestal weight Do+Dp = nominal operating weight of vessel and pedestal weight Φ fy 4. Section 4.90 = yield strength of reinforcing steel Minimum pedestal reinforcing shall be as follows: Octagons 6'-0" to 8'-6": Octagons larger than 12'-0": 16-#4 verticals with #3 ties at 15" max.8 of SAES-Q-005 "Concrete Foundations" and SABP-Q-001 “Anchor Bolt Design and Installation”.6 Top Reinforcement – A mat of reinforcing steel at top of pedestal shall be provided. Octagons larger than 8'-6" to 12'-0": 24-#5 vert.5.5. 4) .5.See minimum pedestal reinforcemnt.1 Conservatively. with #4 ties at 15" max. Minimum steel shall be #4 bars at 12-inch maximum spacing across the flats in two directions only. 4. Nu = 4Mu/[(Nb)(BC)] – 0. 4.5.6 Anchor Bolts Anchor bolts shall conform to the requirements of Para.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Muped = maximum factored overturning moment at base of pedestal.9(De or Do)/Nb where: Nu = factored maximum tensile load on an anchor bolt Page 14 of 41 (Eq. calculated by using load factors in load combinations for uplift cases in Table 4 (“Loading Combinations and Load Factors – Strength Design”). 4. Ties .

6) LA = lever arm between centroid of tension loads on bolts and centroid of the compression load on the pedestal. = number of anchor bolts = bolt circle diameter nominal empty or operating vessel weight.9(De or Do) Vf = µ Pu where: Pu = factored compression force at top of pedestal (Eq. The friction resistance can be calcualated using the following formulas: Pu = Mu/LA + 0. the bolts shall be designed to resist the entire shear load. If friction cannot resist the load. frictional resisting force (factored) (Eq.55. Nb BC (De or Do) = 4. 7) To have no shear load on the bolts: Vu ≤ φ Vf Page 15 of 41 . Use empty or operating for for earthquake loads depending on which condition is used to calculate Mu. µ= Vf = coefficient of friction. or other methods may be used to resist the shear load. For the normal case of grout at the surface of pedestal. calculated using load factors in load combinations for uplift cases in Table 4 (“Loading Combinations and Load Factors – Strength Design”).6. µ = 0.2 For most cases. there is no shear on the anchor bolts because the load is resisted by friction caused primarily by the overturning moment. A conservative approximation is to use 2/3 of the bolt circle diameter as the lever arm. 5) (Eq. This is a complicated distance to determine exactly. Use empty weight for wind loads.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Mu = factored moment at the base of vessel.

8) Page 16 of 41 . Footings for vertical vessels shall be octagonal or squre and sized based on standard available form sizes. Note that increasing the footing thickness is typically more cost effective for construction than adding a top mat of reinforcing steel except where seismic effects create tensile stresses requiring top reinforcement. sliding. For the first trial.5). The footing thickness shall also be checked for top tension without top reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318.75 Φ= For anchor bolt design procedure and guidelines.The footing thickness shall be adequate to develop pedestal reinforcement and satisfy the shear requirements of ACI 318. When form information is not available. Where a footing is required. either a thicker footing or top reinforcing steel is required (see Section 4. the diameter of an octagonal footing may be approximated by the following formula: Diameter D = 2. (Octagons highlighted in gray in Table 1 are those having faces in 2-inch increemts).6 (Mftg/SB)1/3 (Eq. Footings smaller than 7 ft – 0 inch in diameter shall be square. the footing thickness shall be a minimum of 12 inches.7 Footing Design 4. or settlement. 4. If the thickness is not adequate.7. refer to Saudi Aramco Best Practice SABP-Q-001 “Anchor Bolt Design and Installation”. calculated using load factors in load combinations for uplift cases in Table 4 (“Loading Combinations and Load Factors – Strength Design”). soil bearing pressure. strength reduction factor = 0. the pedestal may be adequate without a fooitng.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide where: Vu = factored shear load at base of vessel.1 Sizing The size of spread footings may be governed by stability requirements.7. footing dimensions shall be sized with footing faces in 2-inch increments to allow use of standard manufactured forms. If extended to the recommended depth specified in the geotechncial report.

kips Page 17 of 41 (Eq. 10a) (Eq.7. The maximum allowable amount of total settlement and differential settlement is typically set by the Project Structural Engineer based on the sensitivity of the equipment or structure being supported. 10a) (Eq.132 on the flat). Soil bearing pressure used for footing design shall be computed on the flat.2. ksf A common assumption in the design of soil bearing footings is that the footing behaves as a rigid unit.2 4.7. ksf P = nominal total vertical load including soil and foundation.3 Soil bearing pressure shall be checked for maximum allowable on the diagonal. 10b) . the soil pressure beneath a footing is assumed to vary linearly when the footing is subjected to axial load and moment.7. ft f = toe pressure.7.2. 9) (Eq.2. Where the total octagonal footing area is in compression (e/D ≤ 0.57e/D)] where: D = distance between parallel sides. Footings shall be designed so that under sustained loads (operating loads) the total settlement and the differential settlement between footings do not exceed the established limits. The ensuing footing formulas are based on the linear pressure assumption. 4. the soil bearing pressure shall be computed using the following formulas: f = (P/A) ± Mftg/S f(diagonal) = P/A ± Mftg/SDiagonal f(diagonal) = P/A [1± (8. 10b) (Eq. Hence.1 4. kip-ft SB = allowable gross soil bearing.2 Soil Bearing – Octagon Footing 4.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide where: Mftg = nominal overturning moment at base of footing.19e/D)] f (flat) = P/A ± Mftg/SFlat f (flat) = P/A [1± (7.122 on the diagonal and e/D ≤ 0.

7. ft Where the total octagonal footing area is not in compression (e/D > 0. ft² Mftg= nominal overturning moment at base of footing.3.132 on the flat). ft3 (Eq.1095 D³ = eccentricity (Mftg/P). These values shall be used for calculating moments and shears in the footing.5 The e/D ratios for octagon footings may go above the limits of the chart in Figure B because of the load factors in strength design L and K values for these conditions are tabulated in Table 2 for lateral loads perpendicular to a face.7. They shall not be used to check soil-bearing pressures. 4.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide A = bearing area of octagonal footing (0.1 Where the total footing is in compression (e/D ≤ 0.122 on the diagonal and e/D > 0.7. ft3 SDiagonal = 0. the soil bearing pressure shall be computed using Figure B and the following formula: f = L P/A where the value of L is obtained from Figure B (Eq. 11) 4. ft = bearing area of square footing. 12a) (Eq.1011 D³ SFlat e 4. 12) (Eq. kip-ft S = section modulus.2. ft2 = section modulus. ft3 Page 18 of 41 . 12b) SDiagonal = 0.828D2).2.167).3 Soil Bearing – Square Footing 4.4 = 0. the soil bearing pressure shall be computed using the following formula: f = P/A ± M/S f (Diagonal) = P/A ± M/SDiagonal f (Flat) = P/A ± M/SFlat where: D A S = footing width.7.1179 D3.

= ΣMR/Σ MO. SAES-Q-005. The moment and loads shall be factored in accordance with load combinations in Table 3 – Loading Combinations – Alllowable Stress Design (Service Loads).Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide SFlat = D3 /6 . considering the highest anticipated water level. (Eq.3 Page 19 of 41 . Para.2 (Eq.7. (Ref.1) Compute the Stability Ratio (S.) using the following formula: S.1 All foundations subject to buoyant forces shall be designed to resist a uniformly distributed uplift equal to the full hydrostatic pressure. ft3 e = eccentricity (M/P). ft.2. SAES-Q-005.7. e = eccentricity (ft)= overturning moment at the base of the footing divided by the total vertical load. Para. 4.167). 15a) 4. 13) Maximum soil-bearing pressure (on diagonal) shall be calculated using the design aid for soil pressure for biaxial loaded foortings as shown in Figure A (See Attachments).3.R. The minimum safety factor against floatation shall be 1. 15) (Eq.4 Stability/Sliding 4. the soil bearing pressure shall be computed using the following formula: fflat = 2P / 3D(D/2 – e) 4.7) The Stability Ratio shall be defined as "The ratio of the resisting moment to overturning moment about the edge of rotation'. The minimum safety factor “Stability Ratio” against overturning for service laods other than earthquake shall be 1.7. = D/2e or S.R. ft. ft When the total square footing is not in compression (e/D > 0.T where D = dimension of footing in the direction of the overturning moment. 4.5 (Ref.7.R.7.4.4.20.2.4.2 4. 4.

each way. Page 20 of 41 .4.3). In addition./ΣP Resisting Moment MR = ΣP x D/2 4.2.14.6.7. (Ref.7. The mimimum overturning “stability ratio” and the minimum factor of safety against sliding for earthquake service loads shall be 1.10. 4.5. Passive earth pressure from backfill shall not be considered in computing these safety factors. 4.2.5. the minimum bottom reinforcement being #5 bars at 12 inches on-center. Section 9.7.5. 4. Para. The resulting reinforcing steel shall be placed continuously across the entire footing in a grid pattern. SAES-Q-005.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Eccentricity e = ΣMO. Moment shall be checked at the face of the equivalent square. Section 9. Punching shear may need to be checked in some situations in accordance with with ACI 318.0.5.5 Reinforcement 4. the minimum overturning “stability ratio” for the anchorage and foundations of skirt-supported vertical vessels classified as SUG III in accordance with ASCE 7-02. For foundations designed using seismic load combinations from Table 3.T. shall be 1.4 Foundation Sliding The minimum safety factor against sliding for service loads other than earthquake shall be 1.1 Standard Factored Design Reinforced concrete design using factored strength design loads shall be in accordance with ACI 318. Para.40. “Overturning” shall not be used (Ref. Section 9. unless specified otherwise in a detailed soil investigation. SAES-Q-005.7.5.6). The coefficient of friction used in computing the safety factor against sliding for cast-inplace foundations shall be 0. the reduction in the foundation overturning moment permitted in ASCE 7.3. The critical section for moment shall be taken with respect to the face of a square with an area equivalent to that of the pedestal. Moment shall be calculated for a 1 foot-wide strip as a simple cantilever from the edge of the equivalent square.2 for the critical earthquake loads specified in ASCE 7-02. Chapter 9.

4: As (min) = 0. Section R22. If the factored tensile stress exceeds the flexural strength of structural plain concrete.55 The effective thickness of the footing for tensile stress calculations should be 2 inches less than the actual thickness for footings cast against soil (ACI 318-02.0018 b h Where: b = width of footing d = distance from top of footing to center of bottom bars h = depth of footing 4. top reinforcement should be used if an increase in the footing thickness is not feasible.5. 16) where: f’t = flexural strength of structural plain concrete.7. the actual thickness of the footing may be used for the effective thickness. See the following formulas for footing thicknesses that do not require top reinforcing steel: For footings cast against soil: treqd = teff + 2 inches (Eq. For footings cast against a seal slab. top reinforcement in the footing is not necessary if the factored tensile stress at the upper face of the footing does not exceed the flexural strength of structural plain concrete. 10. as follows: f’t = 5φ(f’c)1/2 (Eq.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide The minimum amount of bottom steel (grade 60 ksi) shall not be less than the mimimum shrinkage reinforcement as required by ACI Code Sect.2 Top Reinforcement Except where seismic effects create tensile stresses.7. 17a) Page 21 of 41 . psi f’c = compressive strength of concrete. psi φ = strength reduction factor for structural plain concrete = 0.5.4).

Two-way action (at a distance d/2 from the face of the equivalent square) for the footing checks "punching" shear strength.12. For footing design.3. shall be checked at the critical section specified in ACI 318-02. inch-pounds per inch. psi (from Eq. Punching shear may need to be checked in some situations in accordance with with ACI 318-02.7.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide For footings cast against a seal slab: treqd = teff with teff calculated as follows: teff = (6Mu/f’t)1/2 where: treqd = required footing thickness with no top reinforcing steel. Section 11.1. inches teff Mu = effective footing thickness. 11. 18) (Eq. The critical section for punching shear is a perimeter bo around the supported member with the shear strength computed in accordance with ACI Code Sect. Beam action assumes that the footing acts as a wide beam with a critical section across its entire width. The shear strength equations may be summarized as follows: Page 22 of 41 . the thickness of the footing must be increased. Shear. as a measure of diagonal tension.4 = flexural strength of structural plain concrete.1 (at a distance d from the face of the equivalent square).2. calculated using a load factor of 1.6 Shear Consideration Both wide-beam action and two-way action (punching shear) must be checked to determine the required footing depth. The shear shall be calculated for a 1 foot-wide strip as a simple cantilever from the edge of the equivalent square. If either permissible shear is exceeded. 17b) f’t 4. inches = factored moment caused by the weight of soil and concrete acting on a 1-inch strip in the footing at the face of the equivalent square pedestal. the depth must be selected so that shear reinforcement is not required. 18) (Eq.

New revision to comply with revised ACI 318-02 Code. 3 in SABP-Q-002 31 July 2002 30 April 2005 Revision Summary New Saudi Aramco Best Design Practice SABP-003. Page 23 of 41 . ASCE 7-02 and revised Saudi Aramco Standards. refer to Fig.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Shear Strength of Concrete in Footings Note: For beam shear & punchinG shear sketch.

Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Attachments Figure A – Foundation Pressures for Square Bases Page 24 of 41 .

828 D 2 = LP / A = TOE PRESSURE = 0.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Attachments Figure B Foundation Pressures for Octagon Bases = DIRECT LOAD =Pe = A = 0.0547 D 4 = D / 2e P MOMENT AREA f f I FS AGAINST OVERTURNING Page 25 of 41 .

Mod.0823922 D Ze = Sec.8284272 D2 B = C x Sin 45○ = 0. Mod.4142136 D E = Length of Diameter = 1. Diameter = 0.2928932 D C = Length of Side = 0.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Table 1 . E A = Area (SF) = 0.1011422 D3 Zd = Sec.Octagon Properties D B C B 22. Flat = ZeE/D I = Moment of Inertia = ZeE/2 (Table 1 continues on following pages.) Page 26 of 41 .5 Deg.

72 120.8 4.15 75.7 4.80 116.8-1/8 12.876 13.06 8.0-1/2 7.042 7.8-9/16 3.5-1/4 6.89 11.059 10.37 35.4-15/16 3.6 5.62 129.82 87.72 45.18 32.0-13/16 4.5-3/8 8.1 3.9-15/16 1.444 7.065 11.036 6.2-7/8 6.3-9/16 2.5 3.51 83.00 64.9 5.10-11/16 3.474 12.0-3/4 11.0-1/2 6.11 3.48 70.840 7.10-3/8 12.15 14.3 4.19 12.3 9.99 29.7-3/4 7.54 26.071 12.9-1/4 1.36 9.1 5.4-5/16 2.71 8.0-1/16 3.80 15.68 Page 27 of 41 .60 32.10 3.97 12.3 3.58 14.10-5/8 1.71 169.62 152.1 4.51 155.8-1/8 13.7-5/8 6.75 6.31 205.6 3.91 48.03 15.24 24.3 8.2-7/8 3.5-11/16 3.21 90.28 13.0-3/4 3.01 10.42 51.858 10.0-3/4 2.6-7/16 3.49 8.0-7/8 13.3-1/8 10.58 282.46 15.5-5/8 11.54 11.5-3/4 13.9 4.243 7.32 38.11 6.681 13.864 11.67 94.10 5.5-5/8 12.8-1/2 2.40 7.62 7.4 5.67 10.23 34.3-1/4 11.9 3.93 9.91 226.96 215.0-5/8 8.852 9.0-7/8 12.9-1/4 2.43 41.39 E ft 6.18 236.15 9.5 5.639 6.67 146.93 196.43 105.19 97.0-3/4 10.24 15.77 307.70 56.675 12.2 3.89 186.657 9.5 4.30 169.645 7.34 36.06 159.6-7/16 2.053 9.15 108.76 41.50 294.4 3.6 2.62 12.09 96.26 80.77 61.8 11.3-1/4 12.82 122.69 258.5-7/8 D ft 6.2-3/16 2.462 10.00 53.266 11.11-3/8 3.2 4.7 5.10-1/8 7.11 4.0 3.11 5.882 14.32 11.95 112.27 8.6 4.2 5.10-1/2 13.37 14.3-5/8 3. continued) SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide D ft – inch 6.15 177.485 C ft – inch 2.7 2.7-1/8 3.2-3/16 3.047 8.0-1/16 4.5-3/8 7.76 11.8 5.438 6.5-1/2 10.19 7.10 11.07 77.0-5/8 9.0 4.08 43.05 85.7 3.3-3/8 14.278 13.1-7/16 2.03 173.468 11.97 7.76 128.64 56.651 8.58 9.7-13/16 3.2-7/8 7.5 2.077 13.0 5.9 2.5 3.84 8.272 12.85 52.456 9.35 141.99 270.19 48.2-15/16 A ft2 30.45 10.53 6.846 8.450 8.3 5.80 10.62 Ze ft3 22.94 109.663 10.284 14.7-7/8 9.10-5/8 14.06 150.0-1/16 2.77 247.72 13.85 13.0 B ft – inch 1.479 13.2-7/8 2.91 67.5-11/16 2.51 38.1-1/2 4.249 8.10-1/8 8.71 124.46 45.9-1/4 3.69 137.54 160.11-3/8 4.7-13/16 2.1-1/2 3.10-3/8 10.78 101.870 12.8 2.09 137.02 65.7-1/8 2.90 70.90 133.666 11.11-5/8 2.89 102.7-7/8 8.02 144.65 164.24 115.2-3/16 4.8 3.10-11/16 2.15 62.250 9.5-1/2 9.237 6.8 10.37 59.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 (Table 1.04 80.10-1/4 9.06 13.4 4.52 91.260 10.88 74.9-5/16 2.3-3/8 13.10 4.24 10.41 12.9-15/16 3.10 2.083 14.49 13.93 14.10-3/8 11.1 14.

509 18.54 848.3-5/8 17.10 6.302 17.31 1157.888 15.3 8.70 454.8-1/4 14.2 8.74 23.10 8.77 16.73 383.17 459.6-1/2 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide B ft – inch 4.63 309.8-9/16 5.8-1/2 18.290 15.90 488.66 376.10-5/8 15.1-1/4 18.66 641.0-1/8 6.5-3/4 5.48 Page 28 of 41 .57 1096.911 19.686 14.59 193.42 17.78 21.710 18.33 662.66 369.10-11/16 5.34 561.98 17.2-15/16 5.5 8.7 8.3-5/8 5.11 7.10-3/4 16.3 9.2-1/4 5.83 25.539 C ft – inch 6.41 953.124 21.1 6.10 5.107 18.98 236.30 23.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 D ft – inch 14.3-5/8 16.10 4.10-3/4 D ft 14.69 20.6 17.67 183.7-7/8 4.77 347.4-3/8 5.2 6.716 19.10 470.34 21.46 230.03 706.6-7/16 4.704 17.52 23.60 874.06 348.4 9.728 21.11 20.65 22.11-7/16 6.80 203.8-1/4 15.917 20.4 6.1-1/8 16.5-13/16 6.6-1/2 6.893 16.00 225.905 18.10-3/4 17.37 405.10 398.8 9.6 9.11 8.99 390.19 1252.58 271.72 362.33 16.25 20.38 19.67 283.00 315.9 8.00 296.130 22.84 1008.095 16.3-5/8 6.1-9/16 6.3 7.0-7/8 6.11 9.4 22.05 23.7 7.2 7.54 375.70 437.722 20.24 580.81 406.04 25.3-7/8 20.8-9/16 4.72 18.9 7.0 8.1-3/8 19.6-1/4 20.21 22.101 17.5-1/16 5.11-1/4 22.99 22.03 328.7-3/16 5.9 6.9-5/16 6.3-5/8 4.8 6.533 22.02 421.136 23.515 19.90 21.11-1/4 23.9 A ft2 178.5-3/4 4.5-1/16 4.1-1/4 17.39 24.60 19.8-3/4 20.929 22.57 600.86 355.325 21.45 683.39 1220.6 16.4 8.90 391.7 9.59 751.62 428.113 19.296 16.8-5/8 19.7-15/16 6.16 799.4-5/16 4.50 1067.6-1/4 21.7 6.95 24.10-7/8 18.82 20.10-11/16 4.99 209.17 420.11 505.118 20.6 7.9-5/16 4.6-3/8 22.79 259.30 342.8-7/8 22.87 542.16 E ft 15.3-1/2 15.1-3/8 20.5 6.899 17.26 25.11 823.23 18.85 18.97 926.698 16.03 899.8 8.12 21.521 20.64 17.27 302.11-1/8 21.0 7.8-5/8 6.67 195.40 361.1 9.503 17.5-1/16 6.088 15.3-3/4 19.03 20.60 220.69 775.1-1/2 5.56 1285.63 335.86 23.734 22.62 188.1-1/2 21.66 265.1-5/8 22.6 8.51 18.02 Ze ft3 320.1-1/8 15.0 9.81 290.7-7/8 5.6 6.337 23.17 24.49 1319.98 1037.10 7.9-5/16 5.8-3/8 16.692 15.44 620.7-1/8 4.2-15/16 6.10-7/8 19.55 16.58 242.4 23.61 24.70 413.331 22.3-3/4 18.5 9.49 322.4-3/8 6.308 18.3-7/8 21.27 248.2-1/4 6.6-1/8 19.11 16.25 214.10 6.8-3/4 21.11-3/8 5.7-3/16 6.5 7.8-1/2 17.1 8.56 21.76 443.2 9.20 17.61 277.44 451.6-7/16 5.43 22.37 980.0-13/16 5.1 7.5-7/8 15.16 19.36 333.527 21.3 6.1-5/8 23.935 23.923 21.313 19.6-1/8 18.0-1/8 5.16 435.8 7.320 20.19 728.95 19.491 15.4 7.47 20.07 18.90 16.82 523.497 16.15 1188.22 1126.00 253.

4-3/8 27.2 13.07 1387.50 3373.95 714.6-5/8 26.9 10.148 25.0 11.757 26.10 33.91 499.2 11.580 30.6-1/2 24.4-1/8 24.373 29.53 28.78 27.3-1/8 8.0 13.3-11/16 7.91 795.09 507.46 1686.79 32.5-7/8 9.21 3501.32 1608.739 23.2 28.51 1981.592 C ft – inch 9.970 29.71 30.44 27.0-3/16 7.11 11.62 34.8-11/16 7.1-9/16 8.2-1/8 30.355 26.3 13.8-7/8 23.33 638.556 26.10 12.10 602.8 12.775 29.3 7.80 549.56 734.9-1/4 28.91 2408.70 2164.90 1423.3 12.66 32.781 30.4-3/8 7.4 11.30 3437.4-1/2 28.171 29.550 25.2-5/16 9.763 27.5 11.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 D ft – inch 23.8 11.11-7/16 7.45 837.54 647.4-7/16 9.1-7/8 27.83 30.18 1937.11-1/2 9.10-3/4 8.11-3/8 25.6-9/16 8.6-7/8 29.1-7/8 26.953 26.79 3186.29 1768.11-1/2 27.92 31.19 34.1 10.385 31.45 3310.3 9.4-1/2 29.154 26.1-5/8 9.7 30.9-3/8 8.01 32.3 10.32 33.10-3/4 7.62 29.36 2510.91 26.769 28.71 2117.184 31.05 675.752 25.10 11.574 29.86 657.31 28.6-5/8 25.6-3/4 27.75 33.88 3067.83 482.1-3/4 25.16 2816.14 26.84 490.09 611.568 28.4-3/8 26.7-1/8 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide B ft – inch 6.10 3126.49 30.142 24.2-1/4 31.22 27.00 2310.93 2356.0 10.30 515.941 24.9-3/8 30.982 31.5-13/16 7.57 31.30 2949.6-3/4 28.40 29.41 34.28 Page 29 of 41 .00 27.37 2217.99 566.9-1/4 29.86 685.0-7/8 7.5 12.562 27.88 33.45 764.84 35.69 784.18 29.4 12.72 3007.18 629.06 35.6 12.73 2835.947 25.11-3/4 31.0-7/8 8.65 2563.9-1/8 26.189 32.60 816.7 11.160 27.11-5/8 29.9-1/8 27.5 10-6 10.9 11.7 10.988 32.2-1/4 7.9-1/2 31.4-1/2 30.05 30.4 13.65 695.05 847.11-1/2 26.87 28.1 11.376 28.9-5/16 7.67 1570.8-5/8 8.2-5/16 8.49 1894.31 704.4-3/8 8.7-1/4 8.44 744.3-3/4 8.349 25.343 24.96 2260.11-7/16 8.2 10.57 523.66 27.3 11.58 1647.0 12.21 667.11-3/8 24.29 2459.10 9.1 12.3-3/4 9.11-7/8 32.15 2669.11 13.54 774.38 557.32 540.72 25.787 31.0-7/8 9.45 1851.1 13.27 30.391 32.4-3/4 32.7 31.14 31.977 30.6-1/2 7.6 11.23 32.67 575.2-1/8 29.379 30.9 24.45 32.00 1495.35 26.99 34.586 31.36 31.11 10.0-3/16 9.95 3248.7-1/4 7.01 826.959 27.10 10.9 12.67 858.92 532.35 869.11-5/8 28.10-3/16 7.7-15/16 8.44 754.4 10.96 29.15 1459.7 12.2 12.56 26.5-13/16 8.6-9/16 D ft 23.361 27.746 24.965 28.74 28.4-5/8 31.19 805.98 Ze ft3 1353.10 620.74 724.5 13.178 30.90 1727.56 2779.10-1/16 8.3 8.85 2724.38 2071.4-1/4 25.05 1809.41 584.6 A ft2 466.11 12.1-3/4 24.165 28.09 28.17 879.73 2026.7-15/16 7.5-1/8 7.1-9/16 7.9 25.85 474.8 10.5-1/8 9.65 2892.11-3/4 30.53 33.545 24.0-3/16 8.22 593.59 E ft 25.2-1/4 32.62 1532.

0-15/16 11.89 38.37 41.11-1/2 10.0-1/4 11.34 5921.5-3/16 11.409 35.5 15.03 42.11 16.82 912.65 1050.8 14.8 9.45 1223.0-1/4 10.2-3/4 37.94 41.18 1026.81 4264.420 37.7-1/2 37.07 40.432 39.231 39.799 34.67 5299.33 38.4-3/4 33.93 36.5-1/8 37.7-5/16 10.7-15/16 11.51 5130.93 1135.22 1236.21 3978.5-7/8 10.3-3/4 10.195 33.2-7/8 39.4-1/2 10.38 1074.17 969.74 3699.793 32.15 36.45 4046.10-7/8 10.9-7/16 10.397 33.54 Ze ft3 3566.11 1301.10 15.6 15.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 D ft – inch 32.9 13.5 35.11-9/16 11.0 34.414 36.18 4644.51 3835.02 980.47 5472.46 42.006 35.10 39.27 1314.02 37.012 36.74 4413.87 901.0 15.2-1/2 35.15 5047.817 37.0-1/4 37.24 37.01 1288.86 1038.4 15.58 5214.9 15.23 4883.48 1110.1-5/8 10.97 1003.72 40.25 42.6-5/8 10.78 3632.56 6393.5-15/16 11.0 14.58 36.610 35.10 13.0-3/4 36.89 4490.3 16.009 34.3 14.4 16.45 6106.81 42.0-3/8 38.09 946.12 Page 30 of 41 .627 38.63 5829.9-3/4 36.2 14.09 E ft 35.8-11/16 9.219 37.10-1/8 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide B ft – inch 9.11 4567.10-1/16 9-10-13/16 9.597 33.41 39.9-7/8 38.51 1185.76 38.5-1/4 39.6 A ft2 890.20 39.4-1/2 11.85 40.835 C ft – inch 13.57 4965.40 5649.829 39.9-1/2 33.403 34.16 41.994 33.39 4338.68 1122.08 1249.0 16.90 43.7 15.5-3/16 10.0-1/8 35.86 4723.10 14.5-1/8 38.2 15.621 37.58 1160.2 16.12 1197.8 15.1-11/16 11.225 38.7-1/4 34.49 35.7-5/8 38.3-13/16 11.37 958.1 16.3 15.03 5738.3-1/16 10.03 1172.3-1/16 11.55 1015.2-3/8 10.28 6296.213 36.030 39.51 1062.99 935.63 39.201 34.9-5/8 34.7-5/8 39.21 1147.50 991.2-3/8 11.0 33.6-5/8 11.5 16.61 3905.01 1261.4 14.9-7/8 37.37 36.11 38.0-15/16 10.85 923.2-1/2 34.2-5/8 36.59 41.40 1098.8-1/16 D ft 32.018 37.21 4118.603 34.7 14.68 42.76 1210.1 14.08 6013.426 38.7-3/8 35.024 38.207 35.7-1/8 33.29 40.822 38.811 36.5 14.2-3/8 32.8 10.45 37.67 37.61 4803.0-3/8 39.7-1/4 9.9-3/4 35.36 1086.98 39.9 14.2-3/4 38.7-1/2 36.1 15.7 13.50 40.11 14.8-3/4 10.805 35.90 6201.97 1275.10-1/8 10.56 3767.81 37.633 39.54 38.33 4190.71 35.9-3/8 9.616 36.6 14.58 5560.74 5385.11 15.8 13.5 36.4-7/8 34.

032 6.9424 0.Load Perpendicular to Face) e/D 0.500 See Note L 19.8496 0.470 0.421 23.8119 0.355 0.450 0.395 0.5828 0.991 5.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Table 2 .500 See Note > 0.490 0.6912 0.812 26.844 8.6196 0.7749 0.450 12.385 0.7267 0.080 16.345 0.284 6.192 263.420 0.8244 L 7.405 0.500.9707 0.7872 0.9151 0.487 See Note See Note For e/D values greater or equal to 0.440 0.6438 0.233 8.330 0.300 0.7628 0. assume soil bearing as a line load with a length equal to the face dimension of the octagon footing applied at a distance of e from the centerline of the footing.310 0.425 0.400 0.335 0.365 Note: K 0.203 13.455 0.601 85.174 5.138 41.9852 0.370 0.9564 0.742 30.480 0.797 6.485 0.320 17.360 0.304 63.5577 0.315 0.485 e/D 0.305 0.7995 0.375 0.152 7.5450 0.8754 0.430 0. Page 31 of 41 .553 6.495 0.7149 0.615 10.452 50.754 e/D K 0.113 9.410 0.8885 0.445 0.411 35.6074 0.775 11.6557 L 4.8369 0.340 0.5951 0.654 9.4935 0.369 5.576 5.435 K 0.415 0.380 0.432 21.656 4.475 0.9017 0.460 0.Foundation Pressures for Octagon Bases (Large Eccentricities .5323 0.6317 0.7507 0.046 13.842 7.465 0.390 0.9287 0.8625 0.7387 0.320 0.5065 0.7030 0.6794 0.6676 0.998 15.167 10.350 0.5195 0.785 130.5703 0.503 4.819 4.325 0.

1) Development length ldh = α x β x lhb > 8 db > 6 in.9 13. alpha α = 0.0 12.5 Bar Size Bar Dia.4 20.0 20.270 1.2 1.1 .8 Alpha Beta *ldh in.410 *ldh can be further reduced by the ratio alpha α = As required / As provided db T B ldh 4.000) / √f'c in. 7.0 8.7 β = 1.2 1.7 0.7 0.7 0. 6. Reinf.750 0.5 22.000 psi & Fy = 60.5 8 db in.7 27.5 16.1 26.2 16. FOOTING ELEVATION Page 32 of 41 .875 1.625 0.0 21.2 1.0 18.3 Ref.9 14.2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 0.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide TABLE 3 -Basic Development Length lhb of Standard 90o Hooks in Tension Ref. ACI Design Handbook Publ.7 0. 6 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 B in.5.0 11. 12. 6 8 10 12 14 16 19 21.7 0.2 1.2 1.9 16. (Ref. ACI Code 318-02 Sections 12.in. SP-17(97) F'c = 4.500 0.128 1. ACI Handbook.5 24.4 24. lhb in.4 18.2 for Epoxy coated bars Tmin = ldh + 3"(cover) + 1.7 0.7 β 1.0 α 0.000 1.1 9.2 1.2 22.5 24 TMin in. (db) .7 0.5 11.6 19.12. 18.2 1.000 psi lhb = 1200 db(fy/60.5 in.375 0.2 1.0 10.5 14.7 0.5.

Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Example .1 /2 inch φ BSL -1 P = 1 ft .) 5 -# 5 #5's #6 @ 9 inches each way SECTIO N 2 ties per set 1 inch 5 spacing Page 33 of 41 .Vertical Vessel Foundation Design 21 ft -8 3/4 inches 9 ft -0 inches 24 .1 /2 inch 4 0-1 dia.2 inches L = 4 ft -5 inches on a 1 ft . bolt circle # 4 ties 1 ft -8 1 inches 7 /2 7 ft -4 inches # 4 @ 1 inches 2 each way #4's 1 ft -6 inches 4 ft -6 inches 1 1 inch clear /2 4 inch 3 inch #4 tie sets 1 inch grout PLA N e (4 ach 0 re fac qd e .

(Dt) = 624. wt. 1-1/2-inch ∅ type ASTM F1554.2-inch projection on a 14-ft .1 kip Structural Data (Nominal loads) V = 44.5 4.2 kip Test wt.000 psi WIND/EARTHQUAKE LOAD VERIFICATION 24.5 ft G rade elevation 1 feet 00 1 ft -8 1 inches 7 /2 21 ft -8 3/4 inches DESIGN DATA Wind Load From Wind Load Analysis In accordance with SEI/ASCE 7-02 (V = 115 mph) Vessel Data Empty wt. Page 34 of 41 .10-1/2-inch ∅ bolt circle (non-pretensioned) Note: Wind/earthquake load calculations are not shown because they are beyond the scope of this Design Guideline.000 psi fy = 60.25 ksf (net) γ = 110 pcf f'c = 4. (De) = 170. (Do) = 345.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 4 inch diameter with 1 1 inch insulation /2 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Platform # 3 ( 1 foot diameter ) 2 Platform # 2 ( 60 degrees ) 1 ft diameter 4 1 4.3 kip Oper. Grade 36.42 ft diameter 67 ft 49 ft Insulation 9/1 inch thick 6 Platform # 1 ( 90 degrees ) 23 ft 1 ft 1 ft .902 kip-ft (at top of grout) Anchor Bolts Allowable soil bearing = 3.75 kip M = 1. with a 4-inch ∅ x 15-inch-long sleeve and 1-ft .

5 inches + 8(1. 1a) (Eq. at pedestal base = (1. 3) 2 Use 40 #5 bars (As = 0.22 inch (Eq.78 kip (Eq.7 ft2 Pedestal weight (Dp) = (259.BD = 178.9)(60 ksi) = 0.71-ft pedestal) .15 kcf) = 175.3 kip + 175.5 inches) = 190. 1e) Note: Pedestal “diameter” had to be increased to 17-ft .1-1/8-inch octagon.9(De)/Nb Nu = 4[(1.31 inch ) with #4 ties at 15 inches c/c (minimum reinforcement controls) Maximum Tension on Anchor Bolt: 2 Anchor Bolt Check Nu = 4Mu/[(Nb)(BC)] .5 inches + 9 inches = 187.0.5 ft)(44.5 inches BC + 8(BD) = 178. Alternatively.8-1/2-inches to provide a sufficiently large projected concrete failure area to resist the tensile load in the anchor bolts.104 kip-ft Muped = 1.5 inches (Eq.083 ft (Eq.5 inches = 190. additional reinforcing steel may be used to transfer anchor bolt forces to concrete.902 kip-ft) + (4. Pedestal Reinforcement Pedestal area = 259.75 kip) = 2.366 kip-ft (Load Factors shall be in accordance with Table 4. 1d) Controls = 16. Load Comb.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide PEDESTAL DESIGN Pedestal Dimensions and Weight BC + 9 inches = 178. 2) • Asreq’d = Fu/φfy = (11.1. 4) Nd = number of dowels = assume 40 DC = (17.7 kips (Load factors shall be in accordance with Table 4.6 kip Fu = 4(Muped)/[(Nd)(DC)] .0.366 kip-ft)/[(40)(17.5 ft)(0. 1b) BC + SD + 9 inches . (Eq.9(345.0.78 kip)/(0.6 kip)/40 = 11.3 kip = 345. Table 1) Mped = O.T.902 kip-ft)]/[(24)(14.3 kips)/24 = 27.5 inches) = 193 inches • Use 16-ft .6Mped = 1.88 ft)] .0.6(2.9(De + Dp)/Nd= 4(3.0 inches BC + SD + 7(BD) = 178.M.21 ft De + Dp = empty weight of vessel + pedestal weight = 170.3 kip 2 (Ref.6)(1.5 + 4 + 7(1.(say 0. 4) (Eq.7 ft )(4.21 ft)] .5 inches + 4 inches + 9 inches .5 ft) = 17.9(170. Load Comb.104 kip-ft) = 3. 4) Page 35 of 41 .

9(De) Conservatively.02)(1. Try increasing D to 17 ft .3 kips) = 307 kips + 153 kips = 460 kips Vf = µPu = (0.80 ksf Trial diameter = (2.31 inch ) = 0. To save space.75 kip) = 71. the anchor bolts are not required to resist shear.1-1/8 inches would not provide enough projected concrete failure area to resist the maximum tensile load Nu = 27.80 ksf)]1/3 = 21. Table 1) Check Required Thickness for Pedestal Reinforcing Embedment: For #5 hooked bar.6)(Mftg/SB)1/3 = (2.875 ft) = 9.75 kip) = 2.9 inches = [(0.6(1902 kip-ft)/(9.22 inch )/(0.55)(460 kips) = 253 kips φVf = (0.02βλfy)/ f 'c ](db) 4. Section 12. take LA as 2/3 of BC diameter = (2/3)(14. Projected Concrete Failure Area: (Eq.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 Maximum Shear on Anchor Bolt: SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Vu at base top of grout = 1.92 ft) + 0.171 kip-ft SB = allowable gross soil bearing = (3.0)(1.6 kips Check whether shear load can be taken by friction between base of vessel and top of grout.57 ft (Eq.75)(253 kips) = 190 kips > 71. 8) Try a 21-ft . was used.6(44.6 kips • Therefore. Reinforcing steel either should be added to transfer the tensile load from the anchor bolts to the pedestal or the pedestal “diameter” should be increased. hef. regardless of what embedment depth.2) inches) = 11.000 psi)/ Asreq'd / Asprov = (0.92 ft Pu = 1.11 kcf) = 3.5.171 kip-ft)/(3. Area = 391.6)[(2. 7) Note: Several iterations were required to determine that D = 16 ft . at footing base = (1.71 Page 36 of 41 .M. ldh = [(0.0)(60. these trial calculations are not shown here. 6) (Eq.T. 5) (Eq.9(170.902 kip-ft) + (6.8-1/2 inches (17.704 ft) FOOTING DESIGN Select a Trial Octagon Size: Mftg = O. This second alternative is shown here.625 2 2 (ACI 318-02.7 kips. Pu = Mu/LA + 0.8-3/4-inch octagon.25 ksf) + (5 ft)(0.0 ft)(44.000 psi ](0.1 ft 2 (Ref.

71)(0.75 inch bar) + (0.1 ft ) = 3.2 kip Po = Do + Ds = 345.K.5 ∴ e/D = (4.73 ft) = 0.6 kip Total (Ds) = 175.79 ksf < 3. Figure B) O. (Eq.171 kip-ft)/(659.9 kip = 938.80 ksf ∴ Operating + Wind (Ref.85)(484. Table 3.2 kip e = Mftg/P = (2. (controlling case) Test + Partial Wind P = Pt = 938.3 kip + 313.5 ft)(0.7 ft )[(4. Table 3.0 kips Weight of soil = (391.171 kip-ft)/(484.206 > 0.5 ft)(0.5 ft)(0. Table 3.171 kip-ft O.29 ft (Ref. 3): Mftg = 2.25 2 P = Po = 659.9 kip Pe = De + Ds = 170.1 kip Pt = Dt + Ds = 624.9 kip = 659.K.7)(11.80 ksf ∴ O.171 kip-ft ∴ Ldiag = 2.1 kip)/(391. Figure B) (Eq.1 ft -259.73 ft)/[2(4.1 kip) = 3. Load Comb.11 kcf)] = 50.2 kip + 313. 15) (Ref.4 inches Tmin = 12 inches Try footing thickness = 18 inches Footing Weights (Ref. 2): Mftg = 2.25)(659.K.1 kip e/D = (3.2 kip) = 4.73 ft) = 0.1) Weight of pedestal Dp = (259.29 ft)/(21.43 > 1.3 kip + 88.3 kip 2 Weight of footing = (391.1 ft )[(1.1 ft ) = 3.15 kcf)] = 88.152 > 0.7 ft2)(3.7. 11) f = LP/A = (2. Load Comb.48 ft)] = 2. Section 4.122 2 e = Mftg/P = (2.0 + 50.0 kip Partial wind velocity = 68 mph (Ref.9 inches) = 10.6 kip = 313. Load Comb.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Treq'd = (3 inch clear) + (2 layers)(0.48 ft)/(21.2 kip)/(391.15 kcf)] = 175.1 kip + 313.122 ∴ Ldiag = 2.48 ft Stability ratio = D/2e = (21.53 ksf < 3. 6): Page 37 of 41 .0 kip Check Soil Bearing and Stability 2 2 Empty + Wind (Ref.85 f = LP/A = (2. P = Pe = 484.9 kip = 484.

3 controls): Bottom Reinforcement 2 (Eq.73 ft) = 0.037)] = 3.81 ft.81 ft e/D = (0.13 ksf < 3.89 ft.81 ft)/(21.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Mftg = (68 mph/115 mph)2(2. Load Comb.1 ft-kip e = Mftg/P = (759. 0.19)(e/D)] = [(938.6W] 2.8-3/4-inch octagon.73 soil + concrete 4. Check Operating + Wind [1.55 5.1 ft-kip)/(938. 10a) O.2(Ds + Do) + 1.80 ksf ∴ • Use 21-ft .K.1 ft )][1 + (8.122 f = P/A [1 + (8.037 < 0.84 ft.82 0.19)(0. Page 38 of 41 . 4.91 16.0 kip)/(391.171 ft-kip) = 759. (Ref. Table 4.0 kip) = 0.46 3.

23 4.1 ft2) = 0.81 ft)/(16.9(484.84 ft) = 4.55 ksf .6W] (Ref.73 ksf Mu = (4.70 (flat) K = 0.2(659.73 ft) = 0.8 kip) = 7.6(2.171 kip-ft) = 3.97 ft)/(21. Pu = 0.225 (flat) (Ref.16.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Pu = 1.39 ft.84 ft .9(De + Ds) + 1.12 ft)/2 = 2.81 ft.81 ft)2/2 + (5.2 kip) = 435.73 ft) = 4.474 kip-ft)/(435. controls): 2.474 kip-ft e = Mu/Pu = (3.202 > 0.8 kip Mu = 1.2.132 (flat) L = 2.55 ksf Soil + concrete = 1.132 (flat) Page 39 of 41 .0. 0.7 ft2 side = 16.70)(790.46 ksf Find equivalent square for pedestal: side2 = 259.89 ft SB = LP/A = (2.39 ft)/(21.81 ft SB at face of equivalent square: = 5.474 kip-ft)/(790.34 ft.1 kip) = 790.171 kip-ft) = 3.9 kip Mu = 1. 14. Table 4.2(238.73 ft) = 0.12-ft projection = (21.97 ft e/D = (7.55 ksf )(2.1 ft2) = 5.6(2.4.81 ft)2/3 = 17.474 kip-ft e = Mu /Pu = (3.55 soil + concrete 5.46 ksf(16.367 > 0.6 kip)/(391.73 ksf)(2.73 ft .48 kip-ft Check Empty + Wind [0.39 ft e/D = (4. Load Comb.72 7.225)(21. Figure B) KD = (0.9 kip)/(391.27 8. 4.46 ksf .9 kip) = 4.50 3.

14 kip-ft)/(0. As = 0.63 (flat) K = 0.3 inches .73 ft) = 14.12-ft projection = (21.193) = 140.81 ft)2/2 + (8.39 ft .8 kip)/(391.14 kip-ft Controls d = 18 inches .39 ft) = 5.1.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide L = 7.55 ksf Mu = (5.27 ksf Soil + concrete = 0.39 inch2/ft < 0.W.45 inch2/ft As min = (0.50 ksf .1 ft2) = 8. (bottom). Table 2) KD = (0.000 = (12 inches)(13.125 inches = 13.390)(13.45 O.14 kip-ft)/[(4.660 (flat) (Ref.16.0018)(12 inches)(18.81 ft)2/3 = 27.45 inch2/ft • Use #6 at 9 inches E.K.875 inches = 1.63)(435.16 ft F = bd2/12.193 Ku = Mu/F = (27.1 ft2) = 0.660)(21.73 ft .6 kip)/(391.7 ft2 side = 16.81 ft)/(7.55 ksf)(2.875 inches)] = 0.27 ksf)(2.59 inch2/ft.875 inches )2/12.50 ksf Find equivalent square for pedestal: side2 = 259.50 ksf)(7.390 Controls As = Mu/(aud) = (27.2.0. Page 40 of 41 .27 ksf .6 au = 4.34 ft SB = LPu/A = (7. > 0.000 = 0.5.12 ft)/2 = 2.9(238.81 ft SB at face of equivalent square: = (8.00 inches) = 0.

4 psi < 2 φ f ' c = 94. 11-34 or 11-35 vc (allowable) = φ (αsd/bo + 2)(f’c)1/2 = 0. Mu = (1. 17a and 18) Wind loads (rather than earthquake) govern footing design.16 ft)/(69. Eq.81 ft)2/2 = 3.81ft .12 ft + 1. Therefore. Load Comb.73 ksf)][391.Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Issue Date: 30 April 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 May 2009 SABP-Q-003 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Guide Shear Check Beam Shear – Empty + Wind Case: SB (at distance d from face): = (8.16 ft)2] = (2.36 ksf (Ref.16 ft)/2 = 9.51 ksf)(92.000 lb/kip) /[(13.4.4(938.81 ft + 1. (ACI 318-02.1 ft)(12 inches/ft)] = 20 psi vc (allowable) = the smaller of ACI 318-02.1.9 psi Punching Shear – Test Load Case 2 O.50 ksf)(7.81 ft .875 inches)(69.9 psi treqd = teff + 2 inches = (6Mu/ f’t)1/2 + 2 inches = [6(3.2)(0. 16) (Eq.000 lb/kip)/[(12 inches/ft)(13.60 ksf)(2.12 ft + 1.36 kip-ft = 3.360 inch-lb/inch f’t = 5φ(f’c)1/2 = 5(0. Pu/A = 1.K. 7) Vu (total at d/2 away from equivalent square) = [3.16 ft) = 69.4/1.6.9 psi)]1/2 + 2 inches = 12.1 ft vu = Vu/(dbo) = (232 kip)(1.2.36 ksf .75[(40)(1.57 kip/ft = 11.39 ft) = 6.16 ft)/(7.55 kip/ft)(1.K.8 inches < 18 inches (Eq.55 kip/ft vu = (11.60 ksf .60 ksf Vu (at distance d from face): = (6.73 ksf)(2.2)(0.5 ft2) = 232 kip bo = 4(16.875 inches)] = 69.000 psi)1/2 = 173.39 ft . Table 4.000 psi)1/2 = 127 psi > 20 psi O.98 kip/ft + 1.4/1. 11-35) Check to see if concrete can take weight of concrete plus soil above footing without top reinforcement.(1.16 ft) + (8.75(4)(4. vc (allowable) = φ (4)(f’c)1/2 = 0. 11-34) O. no top reinforcement is required.55 ksf)(2.0 kip)/(391.K.1 ft) + 2](4.360 inch-lb/inch)/(173.(16. Eq. Eq.55)(4.1 ft ) = 3.1. Use load factor of 1. Page 41 of 41 .1 ft2 .000 psi)1/2 = 190 psi > 20 psi Top Reinforcement (ACI 318-02.0.50 ksf .

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