PROFESSIONAL SKILLS DICTIONARY

MARKETING APPENDIX (2nd version)

Issued: November 2000

Marketing Appendix issued by Unilever in 1996. there are further skill descriptions available in a separate Market Research Professional Skills Addendum. Each page is headed with the Skill Area and its definition. A summary of the new Marketing Professional Skill Areas is provided on the following page. The Skill Sub Areas are then listed along with a more detailed breakdown of the activities involved in each case.Introduction This Appendix replaces the original Professional Skills Dictionary . . For those heavily involved in consumer understanding/market research. complete with definitions and a list of Skill Sub Areas. Skill profiles for key marketing roles and a resources guide to help in skill development are also available in separate documents. Subsequent pages of the Appendix provide more detail on each Skill Area.

a) b) c) Building holistic understanding of consumers Planning market research Interpreting market research d) e) f) Synthesising and sharing consumer learning Generating inspiring consumer insights Anticipating current and future consumer opportunities Marketing Strategy Development Using consumer insight and competitor analysis to anticipate market growth opportunities and to determine the markets. Generating and applying consumer insight to drive competitive advantage and business growth. a) b) c) Investigating communication channel opportunities Defining communication tasks. a) b) Assessing channel and customer developments and opportunities Interpreting trade partner marketing needs c) d) Contributing to Category Management Developing channel and customer-specific marketing plans Active Marketing Learning Building marketing knowledge and best practice through external scanning. working with other professional specialists to create or adopt consumer-relevant innovations that are rolled out fast. competitive distinctiveness and growth potential. Using the BrandKey to map current and future positioning objectives in a way that guides the brand’s mix development. profit margins and budgets Monitoring market developments and brand performance Channel and Customer Marketing Development Collaborating with Customer Management to develop channel and customer specific marketing plans and activities. targets and budgets Developing creative Communication Plans d) e) Implementing integrated communication campaigns Evaluating campaign cost efficiency and effectiveness Brand Communication Developing creative brand communication campaigns that achieve outstanding levels of effectiveness. Delivering brand growth by using all channel opportunities to connect with consumers and deepen their experiences and relationships with the brand. Demonstrating passion for and commitment to the brand. a) b) c) Analysing market trends and growth drivers Creating a vision of market and channel potential Anticipating competitor actions d) e) f) Constructing brand portfolio strategies Building required marketing capabilities Providing input into the business planning process Brand Equity Management Building a brand so it becomes and remains the preferred choice of consumers. a) b) c) Developing inspiring briefs Building successful agency team relationships Judging creative proposals d) e) f) Developing outstanding communication campaigns Guiding outstanding brand packaging design Evaluating communication effectiveness Brand Innovation With consumer insight as the inspiration. channels and segments to operate in. implementation and evaluation Brand Activation Bringing a brand to life in the local marketplace via creative implementation of its core mix.Marketing Professional Skills Areas Consumer Insight Using and interpreting consumer research to anticipate and define the motivating factors driving consumers’ brand choice and usage behaviour. which uses all available channels to communicate the brand’s messages to targeted consumers in the most cost effective way. Challenging the status quo with brand strategies that beat competitors and deliver outstanding levels of profitable growth. Translating and applying this knowledge and best practice to drive brand development and growth. a) b) c) Converting brand strategies into innovative activity plans Developing close marketplace connections with consumers Implementing consumer activation programmes d) e) f) Driving brand visibility and channel presence Managing prices. a) b) c) d) Creating a spirit of innovation Exploring consumer and technological opportunities Generating creative innovation ideas Designing winning innovation concepts e) f) g) Managing the innovation project portfolio Driving innovation projects through the funnel Launch planning. Ensuring that brand sales are maximised by addressing the current marketing needs and future opportunities of all trade business partners. a) b) c) Defining the Key Positioning Developing the Key Vision Formulating Key Extensions d) e) f) Aligning brand business plans with the BrandKey Strengthening the brand mix Assessing brand health Communication Channel Management Planning and implementing an integrated programme of brand communication. applying the principles and processes of ‘Advanced Brand Communication’. increasing its consumer appeal. a) b) Seeking and applying marketing best practice Analysing and capturing learning c) d) Promoting and communicating learning Experimenting to create new knowledge Marketing Professional Skills . both inside and outside the company. using the principles and practices of IPM. active experimentation and ongoing operational activities.

e. identifying and anticipating consumer need gaps. seeking innovative market research methodologies and analytical techniques. meeting and interacting with consumers face to face. appreciating the implications of the internet revolution. understanding the statistical significance of quantitative research results and how to get the most from the data. listening for unexpected findings in research debriefs.g. b) Planning market research identifying knowledge gaps that can be addressed by market research. making consumer learning readily accessible. . interpreting consumer mapping and segmentation studies. Generating and applying consumer insight to drive competitive advantage and business growth. planning a portfolio of strategic and tactical market research projects. e) Generating inspiring consumer insights understanding the meaning of consumer insight and how it links with other marketing and development processes. using ‘foresight’ to obtain future-relevant consumer insights. arranging debrief sessions to capture insights following direct contact with consumers. mining quantitative market research data for new insights.Consumer Insight Using and interpreting consumer research to anticipate and define the motivating factors driving consumers’ brand choice and usage behaviour. defining marketing problems and action standards as a basis for specific project briefing. observing and experiencing consumer product usage behaviour. sharing stories and anecdotes with other team members about interesting ideas and experiences . working with “out of the box” research techniques to challenge conventional wisdom. understanding important social and cultural consumer drivers. working with expert and leading edge consumers to predict future mainstream needs. opening many different windows to the world of the consumer. identifying discontinuities that will affect consumer behaviour. seeking unconventional perspectives on the consumer. the brand and the product category. time and situations. experiences and expectations. methodology. contributing towards design of market research studies ( e. f) Anticipating current and future consumer opportunities building a sense of emerging social and economic trends (i. defining opportunity areas to act as springboards for brand-building ideas. understanding the consumer as a shopper. comparing and combining consumer insights to find relevant common themes. seeing how the brand and product category fit consumers’ needs. entering the consumer’s world to appreciate their living conditions. developing stimulus materials for market research activities. building relationships with consumers as individuals. d) Synthesising and sharing consumer learning recording and cataloguing market research findings and insights. distilling market research findings into key learning points and actions. appreciating the different need states of consumers across different locations. using research findings to challenge management judgement. integrating findings from different studies to build a comprehensive overall picture. expressing consumer insights in exciting ways. assessing agency market research proposals. appreciating the role and limitations of market research techniques. applying lessons from past studies. ensuring brand activities remain true to their original consumer vision or rationale. ‘foresight’). c) Interpreting market research knowing how to get the most out of attending market research fieldwork. sample). spreading and championing consumer learning throughout the business. writing market research briefs in partnership with other project team members. a) Building holistic understanding of consumers reviewing and absorbing existing consumer information.

identifying key growth opportunities and competitor threats. identifying opportunities for profitable growth and market entry. reviewing implications of each brand’s existing BrandKey. . partnerships and new channels. advertising.. evaluating strategic hypotheses and options. agreeing business targets and milestones. assessing required capabilities against existing capabilities. developing marketing strategies and tactics to forestall competitor actions. determining the portfolio of brands for each market. f) Providing input into the business planning process contributing towards formal business planning exercises (e. analysing market segmentation. examining ways to leverage existing capabilities.g. promotion etc. c) Anticipating competitor actions identifying both current and potential competitors ( e. defining key capabilities needed to implement market/ portfolio strategy.. generating alternative portfolio scenarios to anticipate potential market developments. identifying means of developing new capabilities. determining relative investment levels for each brand. defining the future market and its parameters. ensuring marketing plans are consistent with company and category strategies. championing marketing opportunities with high business potential. determining competitor market strategies and capabilities. identifying market and industry dynamics and trends. reshaping market understanding with mould breaking thinking. b) Creating a vision of market and channel potential imagining how markets could look in the future. defining the Research agenda. e-commerce. Category Strategies). d) Constructing brand portfolio strategies taking risks with new ideas. assessing potential to create new markets through alliances. Annual Contract. e) Building required marketing capabilities. promotion etc. addressing issues of sustainability and environmental concerns and pressures. Challenging the status quo with brand strategies that beat competitors and deliver outstanding levels of profitable growth. building appropriate contingencies and responses. communicating strategy and explaining implications. private label). channels and segments to operate in. creating stretch (“big hairy audacious goals”). leading change and challenging the status quo. assessing relative strength of business against key competitors across value chain. modelling responses in consumer demand to price. conducting internal scrutiny. defining the market from the consumer’s perspective. assessing potential brand roles in context of market segmentation and dynamics. modelling demand and competitor responses to changes in price. establishing pricing and value points within the portfolio. judging cross-category potential of brands.g. advertising. assessing implications of potential competitor reactions. a) Analysing market trends and growth drivers conducting environmental scans based on ‘foresight’. deriving an inspiring business mission and strategic thrusts. allocating company resources to enable strategy implementation.Marketing Professional Skills Marketing Strategy Development Using consumer insight and competitor analysis to anticipate market growth opportunities and to determine the markets.

Marketing Professional Skills Brand Equity Management Building a brand so it becomes and remains the preferred choice of consumers. words. c) Formulating Key Extensions appreciating potential line extension possibilities within the brand portfolio. capturing the reality of the brand . identifying the brand’s strengths and weaknesses. . trade marks). translating brand equity development plans in to viable financial targets and business plans. developing integrated mix development plans. consumer involving Discriminator. Using the BrandKey to map current and future positioning objectives in a way that guides the brand’s mix development. e) Strengthening the brand mix ensuring all brand activities build rather than dilute its equity. defining benchmarks for brand performance and consumer perceptions. f) Assessing brand health recognising the drivers and indicators of brand health. assessing the extent a line extension builds or borrows from the brand’s equity. understanding the brand’s historical development. evaluating the risks of cannibalisation. defining brand equity drivers. deciding which elements of today’s Key Positioning should change in the future. determining a powerful. anticipating the direction of competitive brand development. communicating the brand’s positioning across the company. championing the brand within the company. a) Defining the Key Positioning appreciating the role of brand positioning as the key to growth.g. aligning brand mix with stage of market development.g. defining a clear structure for a brand’s product portfolio. ensuring consumer brand perceptions are developing in line with the Key Vision. competitive. creating Key Extensions for each major extension. tuning the vision to future market trends and strategies. competitive distinctiveness and growth potential. exploiting new communication technologies to build stronger consumer relationships and brand loyalty. protecting intellectual properties of the brand (e. both inside and outside the company. constructing guidelines and toolkits to support brand activation. ensuring individual brand development plans are consistent with portfolio strategies. recognising negative consequences of uncontrolled extensions. using market research to build the Key Positioning. constructing BrandKeys for competitor brands.where it is today in the hearts and minds of its consumers. assessing how planned activities will contribute to the brand’s Key Vision. expressing the brand’s positioning in an accurate and inspiring way (e. b) Developing the Key Vision building a deep sense of the brand’s true meaning. taking action to respond to emerging brand health issues. determining the key issues the brand must address. defining the vision with other professions and countries. increasing its consumer appeal. Demonstrating passion for and commitment to the brand. constructing imaginative development plans to achieve the vision. managing the brand’s essence over time. using consumer input to guide brand mix development. visual imagery). d) Aligning brand business plans with the BrandKey establishing financial and marketing objectives for the brand. obtaining adequate resources to translate the brand strategy into action. monitoring all aspects of brand and competitor brand performance. clarifying the role of the master brand and its extensions in the overall category portfolio.

feeding back campaign results to agency team. qualitative fit.). exploiting opportunities for local media deals.g. reach. using BrandKey to stimulate ideas on use of communication channels. developing a vision of longer term communication activities. assessing return on investment. effect. e) Evaluating campaign cost efficiency and effectiveness identifying relevant measures of campaign efficiency and effectiveness. co-ordinating plans with those of other brands in the category. b) Defining communication tasks. searching for opportunities to achieve ‘breakthrough’ in media cost effectiveness. . internet). optimising timing and integration of communication activities.g.g. recognising changes in the communication environment. cost. integrating the efforts of different agencies. attitudes and sociodemographics. sponsorship. depth etc. evaluating plans prior to implementation. benchmarking spend levels and cost effectiveness. participating in agency negotiations and understanding the implications. exploring all potential ‘meeting points’ between the brand and the consumer. building models of campaign effectiveness. formulating the brand’s mandatory annual Communications Plan. assessing qualitatively and quantitatively the role of all potential channels in delivering communication objectives (e. c) Developing creative Communication Plans compiling draft plans which pull together all brand communication tasks. deciding budget parameters using AIM methodology and Minimum Effective Weights. ensuring monitoring systems are in place to measure media delivery. exploring the possibilities created by new communication channels (e. selecting and managing the team of agencies and the specialists involved. targets and budgets working with brand and channel planning agency teams. developing measurement tools for campaigns that use emerging and alternative media. attitudes and socio-demographics. responding to channel opportunities inspired by creative campaign ideas. responding to new ideas as they emerge during the implementation process. which uses all available channels to communicate the brand’s messages to targeted consumers in the most cost effective way. building in experiments with new communication channels (e. distinguishing cost effectiveness and efficiency by channel and creative treatment. interactive). d) Implementing integrated communication campaigns developing implementation briefs for each specific channel. agreeing the brand’s business priorities.Marketing Professional Skills Communication Channel Management Planning and implementing an integrated programme of brand communication. reviewing the role of current research techniques in measuring effectiveness. PR). evaluating alternative communication channels for each task. examining channels’ delivery of audiences in terms of lifestyle. a) Investigating communication channel opportunities understanding how and when consumers use media and receive communication messages. defining target audiences in terms of volumetrics. defining specific marketing and communication objectives. evaluating channel performance (e.g. marketing activities and tasks.

exploiting the communication potential of both graphic and structural design. Branding. keeping the focus on developing strong simple ideas. understanding the core idea. judging the campaignability of the idea. focusing the brief on the Discriminator. managing agency meetings. maintaining the excitement and ‘spark’ when working with agencies. assessing the strength of final creative proposals using quantitative research. writing clear actionable responses to proposals. e) Guiding outstanding brand packaging design defining the role of packaging design in the Key Vision and Communication Plan. providing agencies with clear and realistic time plans. a) Developing inspiring briefs using the Brand Key and Communication Plan as the starting point. analysing production quotes to optimise cost/quality trade-offs. how they make money. generating stimulating. confident written briefs. selling the brief to the agency in a lively face to face presentation. f) Evaluating communication effectiveness assessing campaign performance against marketing and communication objectives. providing clear guidance during the pre and post production process. developing integrated creative campaigns with multi-agency teams. insightful. generating and communicating inspiring design briefs. using qualitative research to explore and build ideas with consumers. judging design proposals against ABC criteria.Marketing Professional Skills Brand Communication Developing creative brand communication campaigns that achieve outstanding levels of effectiveness. design houses and packaging suppliers. working in teams with other professions. motivating agencies to take risks and innovate. setting objectives in terms of consumer behaviour. debating and sharpening the brief with the agency team. c) Judging creative proposals organising the agency creative presentation. knowing how agencies are organised. modelling sales levels in response to advertising expenditure. planning and interpreting market research to evaluate the impact of brand communication on consumer behaviour. clarifying the need for a new campaign or executional idea. how they work. b) Building successful agency team relationships building strong company/ agency teams. developing suitable research stimulus material. Communication). evaluating the effectiveness of each element of the campaign. selecting design houses against project requirements. taking risks and being open to surprises. discussing and responding to agency proposals constructively. comparing communication effectiveness versus competitor campaigns. reviewing the main elements of the brand’s visual identity. monitoring developments in brand awareness and image ratings over time. applying the ABC principles (Attention. developing shared professional values and objectives. applying the principles and processes of ‘Advanced Brand Communication’. d) Developing outstanding communication campaigns ensuring ownership of the creative proposals across the team. judging whether the idea will affect consumer behaviour. .

investigating developments in packaging design and technology.g. setting and applying portfolio and project metrics. being decisive and action-orientated as well as creative and exploratory. adjusting to reflect regional/local variations and issues (e. creating a stimulating physical environment. e) Managing the innovation project portfolio applying the IPM portfolio management tools to link innovation to the business strategy. capturing and sharing ideas (e. packaging). function and communication. c) Generating creative innovation ideas using consumer insights and opportunities as springboards to new ideas. managing trade-offs between speed/cost/quality. ensuring the concept remains true to consumer needs. building a sense of innovation opportunity. legal. b) Exploring consumer and technological opportunities focusing on what might be.g. ensuring consumer needs and benefits are the drivers for evaluating technology opportunities. celebrating success. identifying relevant technical attributes. continuously performing appraisals of projects (e. communicating launch plans to all internal parties. not on what was . seeking information and experiences to stimulate insights. focusing innovation efforts in priority areas – “less is more”. preparing Gate documents at each funnel stage. crafting the development of new marketing mixes. experimenting to find new and better ways of doing things. encouraging risk-taking and entrepreneurial flair. manufacturing. applying creative thinking techniques. d) Designing winning innovation concepts building ideas into distinctive consumer relevant concepts. managing international IC and local company relationships. inopad). ensuring that the portfolio contains both adopted and new ideas.Marketing Professional Skills Brand Innovation With consumer insight as the inspiration. allocating resources across innovation projects. working with other professional specialists to create or adopt consumer-relevant innovations that are rolled out fast. exploiting the potential of packaging in delivering form. a) Creating a spirit of innovation creating a climate where creativity is valued. success and failures) using IPM and category knowledge management tools.g.g. recycling and building on promising ideas and concepts in consumer research. directing efforts in line with business strategy and the BrandKey Vision. co-ordinating the inputs and activities across processes (e. jointly managing the roll-out of IC-developed innovations. developing imaginative launch support programmes. using the principles and practices of IPM.g. . probing to discover latent consumer needs. f) Driving innovation projects through the funnel using project planning tools and techniques (e. when to stop a project). consumer. benefits and cues. using market research to check and challenge project market potential. Gantt. seeking unconventional perspectives (e. building top management/stakeholder commitment. countries. writing motivating Charter Gate documents. extreme consumers). making investments using IPM Gate procedures. validating the risk profile of the portfolio. communicating qualitative and quantitative learning (process. cultural). adopting successful ideas from others (companies. working with the constraints and opportunities of the supply chain and distribution channels. using concepts to develop and test hypotheses with consumers. monitoring and controlling project budgets. naïve experts. PERT). listening to and building on the ideas of others. learning from failure. tracking project growth potential against business growth objectives. collaborating with managers from other countries and professions. g) Launch planning. rewarding people for taking and using other people’s ideas. implementation and evaluation assessing and ensuring the practicality of project implementation. developing prototypes for quick consumer response.g. seeking opportunities for business and specification simplification. mix. categories). knowing the technical foundations of a category and specific products. collaborating with Research to explore technological possibilities and limitations. performing project risk assessment. addressing both short and long term horizon needs.

tuning international brand mixes for brilliant local implementation.Marketing Professional Skills Brand Activation Bringing a brand to life in the local marketplace via creative implementation of its core mix. controlling brand expenditure versus budget. delivering against annual profit targets. b) Developing close marketplace connections with consumers “hunting” for meeting points between the brand and the consumer. d) Driving brand visibility and channel presence bringing the brand to life at consumer destinations. integrating activity proposals into coherent brand and category plans. ensuring promotional activities support the Key Vision. monitoring developments in the political. etc.). ensuring the brand is well merchandised. executing effective launch activities for new products. profit margins and budgets assessing the impact of pricing on purchase decisions and sales volume. local stores. accessible and visible in all priority channels. determining price levels and promotion policy. monitoring and protecting brand profit margins. responding to sales short falls or competitive challenges. . sales. discovering the drivers of consumer shopping behaviour. street markets. shares. assessing developments in market size and structure. assessing promotional effectiveness against brand and category plans. recognising potential opportunities for the brand in existing and emerging channels. involving other departments and external partners to enable operational implementation. distribution etc. Delivering brand growth by using all channel opportunities to connect with consumers and deepen their experiences and relationships with the brand. managing and supporting consumer advice and support services. f) Monitoring market developments and brand performance checking brand in-market performance (e. c) Implementing consumer activation programmes specifying the role and objectives of Consumer Activation Marketing (CAM) within the overall brand/category activity plan. creating a brand ‘experience’ for consumers.. defining marketing information requirements and systems. capturing and responding to consumer feedback. legal and economic areas. defining brand support priorities and budget allocations. evaluating effectiveness of market support activities. identifying unconventional brand communication opportunities. a) Converting brand strategies into innovative activity plans defining local marketing objectives by brand and channel. exploiting databases to target promotional offers. using new product launches to advance brand visibility and channel presence. exploiting brand icons and properties as communication vehicles. resolving consumer complaints to the satisfaction of the consumer. generating creative ideas to stimulate consumer interest and sales growth. developing platforms for integrated promotional. aligning tactical activities with the brand’s Key Positioning. sponsorship. e) Managing prices.g. connecting with consumers in their homes. contributing towards the development of impactful point-of-sale materials. planning and managing promotion implementation. working with agencies to develop effective techniques and executions. searching locally and internationally for intelligence about competitor activity and performance. developing local Communications Plans. advertising and PR campaigns. exploiting databases to enable one-to-one relationship management.

recognising the implications of customers’ decision and implementation processes. storage. participating in the design of effective tailormade trade promotional activities. analysing sales data to identify drivers of brand growth. encouraging the development of effective shelf layout and cabinet siting plans. building knowledge of trade customers from store visits. deciding the role of each channel in meeting the category goals. c) Contributing to Category Management developing clear internal category strategies to guide category management with customers. determining an appropriate brand portfolio in each channel. assessing where value is created and diminished within a channel. b) Interpreting trade partner marketing needs investigating channel. an efficient line assortment. experimenting with exciting and emerging ‘routes to market’. partner and customer needs and opportunities. determining the priority channels for the category. contributing to shelf management proposals. ensuring brand pricing strategy is coherent across channels. (e. jointly with Customer Management and key customers. shelf impact). identifying brand opportunities based on shopper insights. identifying and assessing opportunities to adapt products to specific channels. developing. Ensuring that brand sales are maximised by addressing the current marketing needs and future opportunities of all trade business partners. identifying brand mix development opportunities to maximise in-store effectiveness. reflecting customer requirements in brand/ category plans (e. aligning brand plans to consumer and channel specific needs and opportunities. company literature and historic behaviour. translating consumer insight and brand strategy into relevant trade communication. appreciating trade margin structures and objectives in each channel. developing new and alternative channels. store image. leveraging brand communication and activation campaigns via in-store activities. ensuring all trade activities are in line with brand objectives and strategy.g. incorporating trade partners requirements from the beginning of brand development projects . promotional policies). rapidly communicating consumer insights to members of Customer Management. defining and promoting role of our brands within the trade partner’s assortment. agreeing brand marketing objectives and support budgets for trade activities.g. assessing impact of trade and customer developments on consumer marketing. shelving. d) Developing channel and customer-specific marketing plans planning marketing activities to grow brand equity and sales.Marketing Professional Skills Channel and Customer Marketing Development Collaborating with Customer Management to develop channel and customer specific marketing plans and activities. helping to determine a consumer orientated category definition. . a) Assessing channel and customer developments and opportunities analysing brand and customer shopper profiles.

Marketing Professional Skills Active Marketing Learning Building marketing knowledge and best practice through external scanning. etc. distilling the lessons from market research findings. organising and running workshops to disseminate learning. pricing and campaign effectiveness models. b) Analysing and capturing learning anticipating the potential learning to be gained from marketing projects and planned activities. coaching. establishing communities of practice for key marketing activities. visualisation). . customers and competitors. selecting areas for ‘disciplined’ experimentation. less tangible learning (e. IPM toolbox. a) Seeking and applying marketing best practice identifying marketing and business driven learning needs and opportunities. regularly communicating key lessons and insights to marketers and other professionals (within company and across businesses and categories). meetings.g. setting specific learning goals for post launch reviews. being creative to capture qualitative. Translating and applying this knowledge and best practice to drive brand development and growth. contributing to Marketing Academy catalogue of case studies and good practice.g. contributing to and accessing category knowledge work (e. communicating the results widely. practices and learning from inside and outside the business. d) Experimenting to create new knowledge encouraging calculated risk taking and learning from mistakes. c) Promoting and communicating learning participating in ‘communities of interest’ to exchange and develop ideas and practices . capturing learning with knowledge management tools to (e. setting up small-scale experiments to try out new ideas.g. teaching on Marketing Academy events and programmes. promotion evaluation. leading and promoting marketing learning. using techniques to translate experience into learning (e. story telling. IPM and category databases). campaign assessments. applying marketing best practice both as an individual and as a team leader. seeking challenge on own ideas and proposals. demonstrating openness to ideas. IPM toolbox) to enhance decision making and action. IPM learning. systematically searching for and scanning sources of new marketing practices.g. finding and using alternative ways to recognise and celebrate learning. case studies. using knowledge management tools (e. investigating. active experimentation and ongoing operational activities . incorporating learning into own PDP. electronic suggestion boards).g. marketing databases). building learning into market. video of presentations. piloting and implementing new marketing tools and techniques. generating the hypotheses to be tested. seeking opportunities to meet and learn from consumers..

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