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1. Inroduction When the ratio (L/S) is less than 2.0, slab is called two-way slab, as shown in the fig. below. Bending will take place in the two directions in a dish-like form. Accordingly, main reinforcement is required in the two directions.

2.Types Of Two Way Slabs

Flat plates Slabs without beams Flat slabs Two-way slabs Two-way edgesupported slab Slabs with beams Two-way ribbed slab Waffle slabs Two-way Edgesupported ribbed slabs

3. Design Methods

Design methods

Grashoff method

Marcus method

4. Direct Design Method "D.D.M" Before discussion of this Method, we have to study some concepts: 1. Limitations: 1. Three or more spans in each direction. 2. Variation in successive spans 33% ( 3. LL 2 DL 4. Column offset 5. L/B 2. 6. For slabs on beams, for one panel .

2. Determination of Two way slab thickness:

Case 1 : interior and edge beams are exist. = = Where: : is the largest clear distance in the longest direction of panels. : is the clear distance in the short direction in the panel. = = Example for finding For panel 1 For panel 5 So h to be used should be : hmin< h < hmax : for fig. shown:

Case 2: interior beams are not existing, thickness can be found according to table 8.8, page 339.

3. Estimating dimensions of interior and exterior beams sections: Dimensions can be estimated from the following figures: Where: b = beam width, h = slab thickness, a =beam thickness.

Design Procedures Discussion will be done to one representative strip in the horizontal and vertical directions; the same procedure can be used for the other strips.

: total factored load in t/m2 . = clear distance in the direction of strip, and not less than 0.65 .

b- Distribution of the total factored static moment to negative and positive moments: I. For interior Spans: According to the code, the moments can be distributed according to factores shown in the figure:

II.

Static Mom. Mo can be distributed, according to factors given in the table 8.9, page 341.

c- Distribution of the positive and negative factored moments to the Column and middle strips:

Note: width of column strip is equal to 0.25l1 or 0.25l2 which is smaller. l1: length in the direction of strip, center to center between columns. l2: length in the direction perpendicular to l1.

I.

Determination of factored moments on column and middle strips: Note: is given only for the beams in the direction of the strip

Finding and t:

Ib : Moment of inertia of the beam in the direction of strip can be found from fig.8.14 and fig.8.15, pages 310 and 311. Is : Moment of inertia of slab = t = , , where is slab thickness. Note: t is given only for edge beams perpendicular to the strip

t: Ratio of torsional stiffness and are the modulus of elastisity of concrete for beam and slab.

C: Cross sectional constant defines torsional properties X: smallest dimension in the section of edge beam. Y: Largest dimension in the section of edge beam. Note: the C relation is applicable directly for rectangular section only, but when used for L-Shape beams, we should divide it to two rectangular sections and find C. C=

C "A" = C1 + C2 for A

and

C "B" = C1 + C2 for B.

When and t are found, factors for moment can be found from table 8.10 page 343 for the column strip.

Notes: l2/l1 = 0.0 , when there is no interior beams in the direction of strip under consideration. t = 0.0 , when there is no extirior edge beams perpendicular to the strip under consideration.

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After finding the moments on the column strip, Moments on the middle strip is the remain. II. For the moment on the beam if exist :

If: l2/l1 1 The beam moment is 85% of the moment of the column strip. l2/l1 = 0 there is no beam .. mom. = 0 0 < l2/l1 < 1 Interpolation have to be done between 0 and 85% to find percentage of moment on the beam from that of the column strip. ** The Mom. on the remain part of column strip = Tot. Mom. on the column strip Mom. on the beam.

Summary:

1- Find Mo :

Column strip

Middle Strip

4- Distribute Mom. In column strip into Mom. On beam and remained slab.

On beam

On remained Slab

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Example 1: For the given data, design strip 1-2-3-4 of the two way slab for flexure. Data: Columns are 30cm X 30cm, Equivalent partitions load=250 Kg/m2, Live Load = 400Kg/m2, = 280 kg/cm2 = 4200 Kg/cm2, slab thickness = 16cm

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Solution: Thickness is given 16cm, no need to be checked. 1- Calculate total factored load Wu "t/m2": Wu = 1.4 (0.16 2.5 + 0.25) + 1.7 (0.4) = 1.59 t/m2. 2- Determine The Total Factored Static Moment (Mo) : Mo = = = 13.83t.m

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3- Distribute Mo into +ve and ve moments : The total factored static moment was distributed according to Table "8.9" in your text book as shown in the following Figure.

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4- Moments on the column Strip : Evaluate the constant and Evaluation of : = . "For beam in direction of strip"

t = CA = CB =

After and t are calculated, factors for the moment of column strip can be found from Table 8.10, page 343 = 4.07 =4.88 1 , t between 0 and 2.5 , = 1.2

Ve exterior moment Factor : =1 100 0.903 75 =1.2 100 0.8797 69 =2 100 0.7866 45

t = 0 t = 0.97 t = 2.5

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5- Moments on the Middle Strip: "The remain moment":

6- Moment On Beam : As >1 . Beam willl resist 85% of the column strip moment.

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Notes: For each value of moment, can be calculated, then . Widths to used for design and calculations are : -For the remained slab of column strip: b = 1.25-0.64=0.61m -For half middle strip: b= 3.15-1.25=1.9m -Beam is designed as rectangular section of b=0.3m at ve moments and as T-section at +ve moments. Beam should be designed for shear, according to specifications of code ACI 318"13.6.8", and reported in page 344 of your text book.

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