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MODELLING AND CONTROL OF AN

AFTERMARKET PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

AUTHOR: WISDOM ENANG

RESEARCH BACKGROUND
INFORMATION

DEFINITION OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE


Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) combine the internal combustion engine of

normal vehicles with battery and electric motor.

HEV ADVANTAGES
Greater operating efficiency because HEVs use regenerative braking, which

helps to minimize energy loss and recover the energy used to slow down or
stop a vehicle. Greater fuel efficiency because hybrids consume significantly less fuel than

vehicles powered by ICE alone


Cleaner operation because HEVs can run on alternative fuels: electricity (which have lower emissions), thereby decreasing the dependency on

fossil fuels.

HEV CONFIGURATION USED IN THIS RESEARCH

AFTERMARKET PARALLEL HYRBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

UNIQUENESS OF THIS MODEL


Hybrid electric system added to conventional diesel engine vehicle.
Hybrid system only controls electric motor thus preserving the original vehicle warranty.

Hybridization kits (electric motor and electric battery) are small in size and
affordable.

POWER FLOW POSSIBLE IN THE AFTERMARKET PARALLEL HEV

Motor only mode

Power assist mode

Engine only mode

Regenerative braking mode

Recharge control mode

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

RESEARCH AIM
To produce a robust real time controller for a parallel aftermarket HEV.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
To produce a parallel HEV model capable of accurately predicting fuel

consumption in real world driving scenarios.


To identify the interactions between human driver behaviour and fuel consumption using the validated HEV model

Computation of a rule based control for the HEV


Optimal control of the HEV using Dynamic programming Intelligent control of the HEV using GPS information

Intelligent control of the HEV using information from on-board driving


pattern learning algorithm taking in to consideration driver behaviour.

WHAT DATA IS NEEDED AND HOW IT CAN BE COLLECTED?


Engine fuel consumption map at each torque and speed operating point. Engine transient testing of real world drive cycle for model validation.

Chassis Dynamometer

Motor efficiency map at each torque and speed operating point.

Electric motor test rig

WHAT HEV CONTROL OPTIONS ARE THERE?

WHAT HEV MODELLING OPTIONS ARE THERE?

Backward or Kinematic Approach

This approach makes the assumption that the vehicle meets the target performance, so that the vehicle speed is supposed known a priori; thus enjoying the advantage simplicity and low computational cost.

Quasi Static Approach

This approach makes use of a driver model typically a PID which compares that target vehicle speed (drive cycle speed) with the actual speed profile, and then generates a power demand profile which is needed to follow the target vehicle speed profile by solving the differential motion equation of the vehicle.

RESEARCH
PROGRESS

OVERALL RESEARCH PROGRESS


Testing Modelling Control

Experimental testing of Engine for fuel consumption map and model validation

Rules based HEV control


HEV modelling Optimal HEV control using dynamic control Intelligent HEV control using GPS Intelligent HEV control using driver style learning algorithm HEV model validation Real time implementation of HEV controllers

Electric motor test for motor efficiency map

RESEARCH
RESULTS

RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENTAL TESTING


Motor testing results Engine testing results

HEV MODELLING STRUCTURE QUASI STATIC APPROACH


gear_demand

[gear_demand] Goto1

[wheel_torque] From4

wheel torque (Nm) v ehicle v elocity (m/s)

[gear_demand] [vehicle_velocity] From3 Goto

gear_demand

Engine Torque (Nm)

[Engine_torque] Goto8 [engine_speed] Goto7 [idle_flag] Goto10 [Engine_Power] Goto5

cycle_gear_demand

cy cle_gear_demand wheel torque (Nm)

[wheel_torque] [shift_flag] Goto2 From11


shif t f lag (-)

[vehicle_velocity] From

v ehicle v elocity (m/s)

engine speed (RPM)

cycle_speed_demand
cy cle_speed_demand (km/h) Shif t_f lag [-]

[shift_flag] Goto9 [speed_signal] From13


speed_signal Wheel Tractiv e Force - Engine (N)

-T-TGoto3 From5
Wheel tractiv e f orce - Engine (N) idle f lag [-]

chassis_dyno_speed_dmd
Speed Signal

[speed_signal] Goto13 [Motor_Torque] From7


Wheel Braking f orce (N) Motor Torque (Nm)

[vehicle_velocity] From2

v ehicle_v elocity (m/s) Power demand (w)

[shift_flag] [Power_demand] Goto15 From12 Terminator

Shif t f lag [-]

Engine Power (KW)

Driver Subsystem

[current_mode] From22

Current_mode

Drive Train Use orange switch inside to include or exclude Engine idling when cycle speed demand is 0

Vehicle Dynamics

[Motor_Power] From6 [Power_demand] Initialize Model Parameters From8 [Engine_Power] From9 [SOC] From14 1 Constant 0 Constant2 [Power_demand] From16 [motor_speed] From17 [engine_speed] From19 Hybrid Control System
Engine_speed (RPM) Hy brid_Switch SOC

Motor_power Plots

Scope1
Power_demand

Engine Power Engine_power

Scope3 Plot Analysis

Motor Torque (Nm) Current Mode Hy brid Switch

[Motor_Torque] [idle_flag] Goto4


Fuel Consumption (g) idle f lag (-)

Manual Switch

[current_mode] Goto6

[vehicle_velocity] From1

v ehicle v elocity (m/s)

Fuel Consumption g
Pdemand SOC (%)

[SOC] Goto18 [Engine_torque] From18


Engine_torque (Nm)

motor_speed (RPM) Motor Power

[Motor_Power] [Motor_Power] Goto20 From20


Motor Power demand (W) Motor Speed (RPM)

[motor_speed]
Fuel Sav ings (%)

Goto14 Battery and Electric Motor Subsystem

[engine_speed] From10 Scope2

Enginespeed (rpm)

Fuel Savings %

Note: Time delay factor added to the Hybrid Controller to make the system results more useful in real life

Scope

Engine

This approach makes use of a driver model typically a PID which compares that target vehicle speed (drive cycle speed) with the actual speed profile, and then generates a power demand profile which is needed to follow the target vehicle speed profile by solving the differential motion equation of the vehicle.

HEV MODEL VALIDATION

HIGHLIGHTS FROM MODEL VALIDATION


Model validation carried out over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) NEDC testing results proves it to be highly repeatable and hence why it has been chosen for the model validation

Level of accuracy achieved: 99% model accuracy

RULE BASED CONTROL STRUCTURE

Overview of the control structure

Traction mode control structure

Braking mode control structure

RULE BASED CONTROL RESULTS

Drive cycle speed time profile

Power split profile

Instantaneous Fuel consumption profile comparison

Engine operating point

Battery state of Charge profile

Cumulative fuel consumption profile comparison

State of charge boundaries: Highest allowable (80%) and lowest allowable (20%)
Fuel savings achieved over the NEDC 12.58% Lowest state of charge encountered 27%

Future Work

Optimal HEV control using dynamic control

Intelligent HEV control using GPS

Intelligent HEV control using driver style learning algorithm

Real time implementation of HEV controllers

PhD RESEARCH PROJECT GANTT CHART

QUESTIONS

PLEASE?

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING