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FacultyofAdvancedTechnology

MEng(Hons)CivilEngineering NG3H112Logistics&Transportation

Advances in Road Surfacing


StudentName:Md.MahbubHasanKhan StudentID:10000674

DateofSubmission:26thNovember2012

Advances in Road Surfacing

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Summary
Roadsbeingamajorpartoftheconstructionindustrywillplayavitalroleinachievingsustainable presentandfuture.Andtoachievethis,roadindustryhastoimproveonitsownstrength,anddue tothedemand,majorresearchandchangeshastakenplaceoverthelastfivetotenyearsonhow weshouldbebuildingourfutureroads.Sustainablematerialsandmethodshaveturnedintoabasic need to reduce environmental, social and economic impact of all construction processes including Roadsurfacing. Overtheyears,mainconcernsintheUKroadindustryhasbeenthedurabilityoftheroadsurfacing causing rutting, cracking, potholes etc and each year governments budget failing to meet the maintenancedemandoftheroads(AlarmReport,2012).1 TraditionallyusedroadsurfacingHotRolledAsphalt(HRA)hasbeenreplacedbydifferenttypesof more sustainable mixes such as Warm mix asphalt(WMA), low noise pavement, thin surfacing systemStonemasticasphalt(SMA),Permeablefrictioncourses(PFC).Onecommonthingaboutall thesemixesisthatallareworkingtowardsmanysustainablesolutionstoexistingproblemssuchas adequatefriction,noise,visibilityissues,drainage,durability. Although road surfacing involves manufacture of materials, mixing & transporting, and laying, this reportmainlycoversthematerialpartoftheroadsurfacingprocessasaccordingtoHunter(2000), ''materialmayaccountforasmuchas90%ofthetotalcostonamajormotorwayproject.''

http://www.asphaltindustryalliance.com/images/library/files/alarm_2012_report.pdf

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Table of Contents Contents page


Summary............................................................................................................................2 1.Introduction....................................................................................................................4
1.1ThePastofRoadSurfacing..................................................................................................4 1.2Currentroadsurfacinginuse...............................................................................................5

2.RoadpavementandSurfacecourse................................................................................6
2.1Typesandcurrentuse........................................................................................................6 2.2Importanceofthebindercourse.........................................................................................6

3.TowardsSustainableRoadSurfacingSolutions..............................................................7
3.1HotmixAsphalt(HMA)........................................................................................................7 3.1.1MarshallAsphalt(AsphaltConcrete)..................................................................................................7 3.1.2EME(EnrobaModulelev) .............................................................................................................7 . 3.1.3ThinSurfacecourseSystem(TSCS).......................................................................................................7 3.1.4MasticAsphalt(MA) ............................................................................................................................8 . 3.1.5PorousAsphalt(PA)..............................................................................................................................8 3.1.6HotRolledAsphalt(HRA).....................................................................................................................9 3.1.7UltrathinlayerAsphaltconcrete.........................................................................................................9 3.2Warm/ColdMixAsphalt(WMA).......................................................................................9

4.Sustainability................................................................................................................10 5.Conclusions...................................................................................................................11 6.References....................................................................................................................12 AppendixA.....................................................................................................................13


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1. Introduction
Road surfacing is one of the many components of a modern road pavement. According to the agreement between The ComiteEuropeen de Normalization( CEN), responsible for developing commonEuropeanStandards(EN),aflexiblepavementsurfacingconsistsoftwouppermostlayers SurfacecourseandBindercourse(O'Flaherty,2002).ThisisshownbyFigure1.

Figure1ElementsofaFlexibleroadPavementbasedonDMRB,Vol.7(source:www.transportscotland.gov.uk)

According to O'Flaherty(2002), '' The Primary function of this layer is to provide a safe, smooth, stableridingsurface,i.e.acarriageway,fortraffic;itssecondaryfunctionsaretocontributetothe structuralstabilityofthepavementandprotectitfromnaturalelements.'' Thewearingcourse,ideally,shouldoffermanysignificantpropertieslikeuniformity,impermeableto water,lessnoise,resisttocracking,rutting,etc. And,thebindercourseisprovidedtoallowasphaltcontractorstoachieveaveryhighstandardof surface regularity at the top of the surface course. It also acts as an impervious stratum to the ingressionofwater2.

1.1 The Past of Road Surfacing


If we trace the history, we can see that the need for surfacing evolved surrounding the idea of makingtheroadsmoothandcleanforacomfortablejourney.Nicholls(1998)explains,theneedfor a road surfaceto be smooth became an important factor when the main mode of transport was Horse wagon. And once automobile was introduced, there were great clouds of dust in the air making the journey a nightmare. The final solution to this problem was to bind the broken stone aggregatesskeleton(basicmacadam)withtarbeforeitwaslaid.ThisisTarmacadamandithasbeen usedwidelyuntiltarwasreplacedbybitumen.Andwhenmacadambindswithbitumenitiscalled bituminousmacadam.

ICEmanualofHighwaysdesignandmanagement,2011,page325

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Nicholls(1998)thinksthemainreasonsforuseofbitumenasabinderinsteadoftarinthe1970s were: thereplacementoftowngasbyNorthseagas,ascoaltarwasabyproductand, Concernforhealthhazardsoftarand adaptabilitytovariabletemperature.

Andduetothesereasonsonly,bitumencouldhavegainedacceptanceintotheconstructionindustry soquickly.And,asOFlaherty(2002)says,it'salsoduetoaconsiderableamountofresearchwhich started since 1960s on use of bituminous material in road pavement. This actually has been the movingforceforthepresenttrendtowardsthe useof mechanical testmethodsbefore laying the materialsinrealsite.

1.2 Current road surfacing in use


In the UK, the most common materials used for surfacing are different kinds of bituminous mixes suchasHotrolledAsphaltandthinsurfacecoursesystem.Andallofthesemixescontaintwobasic ingredients, the aggregate and the bituminous binder. Traditionally, Coated Macadams and Hot Rolled Asphalts (HRA) mixes has been used mainly for the purpose of road surfacing. And now, accordingtoEuropeanstandards,allthesemixesshallbecalledbituminousmixtures. But,duetomanyproblemsassociatedtothetraditionalsurfacingsuchasnoise,visibilitylossdueto splashandspray,carbonemission,friction,durabilityetcahugechangehastakenplaceoverthelast tentofifteenyearsinquestformoresustainableroadsurfacingsystemswhichwilldecreasenoise pollution,waterspray,increaseskidresistance,etconroadsandthinsurfacecoursesystemsand otherasphaltconcrete(Previouslyknownasmacadams)hasgainedpopularity. Currently,aroadsurfacingmust: resistcracking beskidresistant provideaquietsurface beniceinappearance bedurable besmooth alloweasyandsafeapplicationbyreducingtrafficdisruption besuitablefornewworksandmaintenance providevalueformoney

Althoughalloftheseproblemscannotbesolvedbyasinglesurfacingsystem,theyhastobeused exclusively to achieve certain requirements. As for example, rut resistance and early life skid resistancecanbeacquiredbyusinglowbindercontentsbutforamixtobecrackresistant,durable andworkableitrequireshighbindercontent. 26th November 2012 Page5

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2. Road pavement and Surface course


2.1 Types and current use
Roadpavementaregenerallyoftwotypes:Rigidandflexible.Roadsmadewithcementiouslayers (concrete) are known as rigid, while layers made up of bitumen/tar mixed with aggregates are knownasflexiblepavement. Although according to HD 26 cementious material can be used for the base and foundation, government has banned the use of concrete running surface in England by the policy document called''AnewdealfortrunkroadsinEngland''.Thisismainlyduetoexcessivenoiseproductionin ruralareas. WhendescribingtheuseofasphaltasroadsurfacingWalsh(2011)said,''nowadays,thesurface courseisverylikelytobeofasphaltregardlessofthematerialsusedintheunderlyingpavement.'' Thisisbecauseasphaltprovidesasuperiorsurfaceregularityandlownoisecharacteristics.

2.2 Importance of the binder course


Roadsurfacing/surfacecoursegenerallyconsistsoftwolayerswhicharewearingcourseandbinder course.Bindercoursedoestwomajorfunctions:itallowsthecontractorstoachievetherequired surfaceregularityandpreventswateringression. AlthoughthecurrentUKdesignstandarddoesnotrequireabindercourseunlessthinsurfacecourse systems are used, there are lots of contradiction regarding this. And the reason stated by Walsh(2011) for having a binder course is that without binder course it is extremely difficult to achieveasurfaceregularitybetween6mmandthisleadstofutureremovalandreplacement. Therefore,itisveryimportanttoconsidertheusageofbindercourseinroadsurfacing.


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3. Towards Sustainable Road Surfacing Solutions


As more and more importance has been put on the sustainability, Health & Safety and Climate change,UKconstructionindustryisworkinghardtokeepupwiththepacebybringingandallowing newroadsurfacingmaterialsandsystemsintotheroadconstruction. Over the last fifteen years traditional Hot Rolled asphalt (HRA) has been replaced by many newly appliedroadsurfacingsystems.AlthoughmanyofthesesystemsarefairlynewtotheUK,somehas beenusedinmanyEuropeancountriesformorethantwentyyears. VarioussurfacingsystemshavebeentrialledandimprovedovertheyearsbyHighwaysRegulating AuthoritiesinUKtomeettheUKdesignandpracticalrequirements. The main driving force for using these systems seems to be the realization of the importance of reducingcarbonfootprint,bestuseofsources,propertimemanagement,cost,health&safetyand tofindanalternativeandbettersolutiontoproblemsfacedbyusinghotrolledasphalt.

3.1 Hot mix Asphalt (HMA)


Asthesemixesareplacedandcompactedathighertemperaturesotheyarecalledhotmixasphalt (HMA).Traditionally,hotrolledasphaltanddensebitumenmacadamhasbeenusedintheUK.But, nowaday'sthinsurfacecoursesystemhasgainedacceptanceoverHRA.Inthefollowingchapters, variousadvancedroadsurfacingwillbereviewed. 3.1.1 Marshall Asphalt ( Asphalt Concrete) It has higher binder ( bitumen) content and its main uses are in airfields in the UK. Better quality controlisachievedbyusingamobileasphaltplantdedicatedtoasinglemix. 3.1.2 EME (Enrob a Module lev) It was first developed in France but it is gaining popularity in the UK because of its durability and longevity. It also has higher binder content which increases durability. In this mix, stiffness is increasedtocounterreductioninstrengthanddeformationresistance. Itismainlyusedforbinderandbasecourse.Andbecauseofitshighstiffness,itcanbeappliedin limitedsites. 3.1.3 Thin Surface course System(TSCS) Inlastfivetoeightyearsthinsurfacecoursesystemhasreplacedtraditionalhotrolledasphaltasthe standardmaterialforallnewsurfacecourseconstructionandmaintenanceworkonmotorwayand trunkroad. It is commonly known as thin surfacing or negative texture surfaces. It is a proprietary system i.e. produced under a specific brand name. Unlike hot rolled asphalt (HRA), TSCS relies on aggregate interlockingandprovidesgreaterresistancetorutting. CommonlyusedThinsurfacingarestonemasticasphalt(SMA),surfacedressing,microsurfacingetc. Advantagesare: Itisaquickerwayofresurfacingroad. TrafficmanagementcostisreducedasitrequireslessworkingwidthcomparedtoHRA. Page7

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Economicalithasalongerlifespanwhichmeansitwillneedlessmaintenance. Deformation(Rut)resistanceitscoarseaggregateskeletonhashighresistancetowheeltrack ruttingandworkswellunderheavyloading. NoiseReductionitsuniformnegativesurfacetextureabsorbsandreducestrafficnoiseasmuch as3db(A). ImprovedVisibilityinwetconditionitsadequatetexturedepthwhichgivesanevenfinishand thusreducessplashandsprayfromtires. EnvironmentallyfriendlyuselessaggregatethantraditionalHRA.

Although it offers many advantages and sustainable solutions, it is not the ultimate surfacing material because durability problems are faced when it is laid in winter season as it loses heat quicklyduringlayingprocess.Alsosomeofthemarepermeableandsotheyshouldnotbeusedin areaswherefloodingandstandingwaterisanissue. Also,accordingtotheICEmanualofHighwaydesignandManagement(2011,pg348),HRAsurfacing iscomingbacktofavourasconcernoverthedurabilityofTSCShasgrowninveryrecentyears. 3.1.4 Mastic Asphalt (MA) Mastic asphalt is a mortar based mixture, and 30 to 50% of the mixture is composed of very stiff bitumen.Thisisthemostimpermeablesurfacingofallasphalttypes(O'Flaherty,2002). Asitcontainssuchahugepercentageofbitumen,itisveryexpensiveandthisMAismainlyusedin tunnels,bridgedecks,roofsetcwhereitismusttopreventwateringressionintothelowerlayers. 3.1.5 Porous Asphalt (PA) Porousasphaltusessinglesizedaggregatetohaveagreaterairvoidcontent.Normally,itcanhavea voidcontentofabout20%andthusitcanreducesplashandsprayfromcarsandatthesametimeit alsoreducesnoiseproducedfromtyreandroadcontact.Itisusedinrunwaystoallowremovalof waterfromthesurface. Totheconcernofusers,noiseandsplash&sprayreducingpropertiesarereducedasvoidsgets cloggedupbyworntyreparticles. Anotherreasonwhyporousasphalthasnotgainedsomuchpopularityisbecauseofthinsurface coursesystem(TSCS).AlthoughbothwereintroducedintheUKatthesametime,TSCShadlownoise propertiesaswellasmoredurable.

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3.1.6 Hot Rolled Asphalt (HRA) Itisamortarbasedgapgradedmix.Itisbestforplaceswherestandingsurfacewaterisanissue. AccordingtoWalsh(2011),itgivesthebestperformanceoverlyingacrackedbase,althoughthecrack willappearatsurfaceultimately. Precoatedchippingshastoplacedtoobtainrequiredsurfaceskidresistance.Also,asitismortar based,itspropertiesaretemperaturedependant.Itrequiresextrawidthtolaywhichisalsowhyitis beingusedless. 3.1.7 Ultra thin layer Asphalt concrete Itisathinsurfacecoursesystemwhichisspreaddirectlyoverathinkbondcoat.Itisalsocalled paverlaidSurfaceDressing.

3.2 Warm / Cold Mix Asphalt (WMA)


Themainideasbehindthesemixesaretoreduceenergyconsumptionandcarbondioxideemission fromthe processofasphaltmixingandplacingat areduced temperature then traditionalhotmix asphalts(HMA)suchashotrolledasphalt,thinsurfacecoursesystemetc.WMAfirstdevelopedin Europe around 1994 in response to the need for reducing energy use, environmental impact and improveworkingconditionsofhotrolledasphalt.3 Researchon'improvingenergyefficiencyinasphaltindustry'conductedbyCarbonTrusthasshowed that currently the most common method of hot mix asphalt (HMA) production is the Batch mixer plantprocesswhichconsiststwomainprocesses: aggregatesareheatedanddriedatabout1700oCinaburnerand ThentheaggregatesaretakenintoaMixerwherebitumenandotheradditivesareaddedat about170oC.

Theresearchhasshownthat: Almost90%ofthecost,energyandCO2emissionintheasphaltproductionisduetothefuel ofdryerburnerequipment.Thefunctionsofdryerburneraretoheatanddryaggregatesfor optimumworkability. About50%oftheenergyisusedtoheattheaggregatesandabout35%energyfordrying theaggregates. CurrentWMAdoesnotconsideranyofthesetwopoints.Insteaditusesvarioustechnologies,such as wax based additives, where the viscosity of bitumen is lowered and thus at lower temperature asphaltcanbeproducedinthemixer. WarmMixAsphaltscanoffermanyadvantagesovertraditionalHotMixAsphalts:
3

Lowerfuelcostasmixerrequireslessheatenergy.

http://www.techtransfer.berkeley.edu/pavetech/prc_update_vol2_no1.pdf

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Advances in Road Surfacing Lowergreenhousegasemission Itcanbepavedinwinterseason. HigheramountofReclaimedAsphalt(RAP)canbeused. Improvesworkingconditionduetoproductionoffewerfumes.

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ButColdMixAsphaltsdoesnotrequiredryingoftheaggregatethussavinghugeamountofenergy andemissions. Althoughthepossibilitiesandadvantagesarehuge,thesemixes/technologiesareyetnotprovento work in UK roads and most importantly climate. In February 2010, a three year project has been givenbyCarbonTrusttoacollaborativegroupoforganisationsconsistingAtkins,Nynas,Tarmacand MIROtocarryoutmarketdevelopmentforlowcarbonasphaltbydemonstratingtwotechnologies: semiwarmasphaltandcoldmixasphalt.4 Iftheresearchissuccessfulwithdevelopmentofmixspecification,fieldtrialsetcthenwemightsee cold/ semiwarm asphalts on the road in few years time as it will save huge amount of carbon emissions,fuelcostandwillprovideafumelessenvironmentfortheworker.

4. Sustainability
Secondarymaterialcanbeusedinplaceofcoarseandfineaggregateandfillers. Blastfurnaceslag,slateaggregate,recycledglasscanbeusedinsteadofcoarseaggregate.While Chinaclaysandandspentfoundrysandcanbeusedasfineaggregate.(Nichollsetal.,2010). PulverisedFuelashandcementkilnsandcanbeusedasfillersinasphaltmixes. Recycling Althoughasphaltis100%recyclable,PD6691(Europeanstandard),allowsonly10%usageinthe constructionofanewsurfacecourseandabout50%forotherlayers.

http://www.locarbonasphalt.co.uk/index.htm

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5. Conclusions
Aftercompletingtheresearchreport,followingconclusionscanbedrawn: TraditionalHotRolledAsphalthasbeenreplacedbyThinSurfaceCourseSystems(TSCS). Typeofroadsurfacinguseddependonthesiterequirement. ColdmixorWarmmixasphalthasthepotentialofsavingtheroadmakingindustryfrom producingahugeamountofCO2,alargeamountofmoney. 100%asphaltscanberecycledand10%canbeusedincreatingnewroadsurfacing.


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6. References
ColemanA.O'Flaherty,2002.Highways,FourthEdition.ButterworthHeinemann HUNTER,R.N.(2000).Asphaltsinroadconstruction.London,ThomasTelford WALSH,I.D.(2011).ICEmanualofhighwaydesignandmanagement.London,ICE NICHOLLS,J.C.(2010).Increasingtheenvironmentalsustainabilityofasphalt.Wokingham,U.K., TRL. AlarmReport(2012).Availableat: http://www.asphaltindustryalliance.com/images/library/files/alarm_2012_report.pdf (Accessed:10/11/2012) www.techtransfer.berkeley.edu(2012) http://www.techtransfer.berkeley.edu/pavetech/prc_update_vol2_no1.pdf (Accessed:11/11/2012). www.locarbonasphalt.co.uk(2012) http://www.locarbonasphalt.co.uk/index.htm (Accessedat:14/11/2012)

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Appendix A

Figure2DetailsofSurfacewithPositiveorNegativeTexture(Figure5.3,DMRBHD36/06)

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