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To establish ISDN services, the telephone company typically has to install a number of wirelines and devices to create the all-digital circuit connection necessary to send and receive digital voice and data transmissions. The U interface is a full-duplex link that works over a single pair (2-wire) cable. It interfaces a line terminating switch in the telephone switching office with a small interface device called a Network Termination device (NT1 or NT2) at the customer premises. In the U.S., the NT1 converts the 2-wire U interface into a 4-wire S/T interface which, in turn, can support multiple devices in a single bus loop configuration, such as a telephone, computer, or facsimile machine. Alternately, in parts of Europe, the NT2 interfaces with an S interface. See ISDN interfaces for a diagram. U reference point A demarcation point in ISDN services installed in North America, where the local loop connects with the NT1 device. See U interface. See ISDN interfaces for a diagram. U Series Recommendations A series of ITU-T recommendations providing guidelines for telegraph switching. These guidelines are available as publications from the ITU-T for purchase on the Net. Since ITU-T specifications and recommendations are widely followed by vendors in the telecommunications industry, those wanting to maximize interoperability with other systems need to be aware of the information disseminated by the ITU-T. A full list of general categories is in Appendix C and specific series topics are listed under individual entries in this dictionary, e.g., T Series Recommendations. See U Series Recommendations. U-C user-central. In ADSL, the standardized interface between the twisted-pair local loop to the subscriber premises and the plain old telephone service (POTS) splitter on the network (usually the central office) side of the link. U-C2 is a less-standard interface between the POTS splitter and the ATU-C (network ADSL Transmission Unit). While functionally similar, the U-C is distinguished from the U-R interface due to the asymmetry of the link. See U-R. U-DSL The U interface in a Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) system.
ITU-T U Series Recommendations
Recom. U.1 (03/93) Description
Signaling conditions to be applied in the international telex service Standardization of dials and dial pulse generators for the international telex service Arrangements in switching equipment to minimize the effects of false calling signals Exchange of information regarding signals destined to be used over international circuits concerned with switched teleprinter networks Requirements to be met by regenerative repeaters in international connections Prevention of fraudulent transit traffic in the fully automatic international telex service Numbering schemes for automatic switching networks
U-law A pulse code modulation (PCM) coding and companding data ITU-T standard used in audio systems on computer multimedia peripheral cards. This takes some of the load of specialized applications off the central processing unit (CPU). It is often implemented in addition to A-law companding and is suitable for compression of voice communications. Note, this is technically µ-law, but many keyboards don’t support the Mu (µ) character and so it is alternately written as Mu-law or U-law. In fact, it’s even sometimes written M-law since the Greek symbol for uppercase µ is M. See A-law, Mu-law. U-plane In ATM networking, as it applies to Broadband-ISDN reference model, the U-plane is the user plane, a higher-level plane including all of the ATM
© 2002 by CRC Press LLC
through a CATV/MATV cable system.and Television-Type Appliances: For nominal 125.and 250-V. metering equipment. power packs. Fusing Resistors and Temperature-Limited Resistors for Radio. video-production. but are used in addition to or as a supplement to products mentioned above. satellite receivers. tuners. distribution amplifiers. signal transmission equipment. picture tube degaussers. Descriptions of UL Numbers from Underwriters Laboratory UL 1409 Low-Voltage Video Products Without Cathode-Ray-Tube Displays: Antenna signal amplifiers. intended for domestic and commercial and similar general indoor use and not subject to dripping or splashing: radio receiving apparatus for sound or vision. and Similar General Use: This standard applies to the following apparatus that is to be connected to the supply mains. includes double protection capacitors rated 1. dental. commercial TV cameras. Cathode-Ray Tubes: Bonded frame. video digitizers. single-channel converters. VHF amplifiers and tuners. Cellular telephones and similar transceiving devices used on a vehicle. and video tape recorders.0 B5F maximum. Video products that are intended for household or commercial use.and Television-Type Appliances: For use in appliances that do not involve potentials greater than 2500V peak. Television Receivers and High-Voltage Video Products: Household and commercial television receivers and monitors. power supply-battery chargers. Audio/Video and Musical Instrument Apparatus for Household. television descramblers. teletext and television decoders. Auxiliary products and accessories intended for use with audio or video products wherein the auxiliary and accessory products are separate and do not perform the desired function. prestressed picture tubes (CRT). rebuilt picture tubes. audio/video receiving and processing equipment. and medical equipment. Audio products and accessories intended for household use and involved with the reproduction or processing of audio signals. and health care facility television equipment. boat. video monitors. audio/video editing equipment. laser disc players. UL 1418 UL 1410 UL 1412 UL 1414 UL 1419 UL 1492 UL 6500 © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . and converters. disc players. amplifiers. motor-driven apparatus which comprise one or more of the above-mentioned apparatus or can be used only in combination with one or more of them. either directly or indirectly. laminated. picture tubes for business equipment. electronic viewfinders. and from image-producing units. satellite receiver dish controllers. UHF amplifiers.Sampling of UL Standards Related to Telecommunications UL No. from a video-recorded medium. -receiving. Antenna-Coupling. such as radio-gramophones and tape recorders. or any other battery circuit as the power supply means. that receive signals in ways such as off the air. -processing. Commercial. television cameras. or the like. Across-the-Line. channel balancers and processors. video printers. Portable audio or video products of the types described above that are intended for use with a vehicular. and -recording equipment. and Line-by-Pass Capacitors for Radio. 50. internal distribution amplifiers. Professional Video and Audio Equipment: Video tape recorders. independent load transducers and source transducers. other apparatus obviously provided to be used in combination with the above-mentioned apparatus. marine. tuner adapters and power supplies. Audio-Video Products and Accessories: Audio and video products intended for use on supply circuits. modulators.to 60-Hz circuits. CATV adapters and digital converters. and similar equipment. where the telephone interconnects to the telephone network through a radio transmitter and receiver.
cellular telephones and similar transceiving devices used on a vehicle.Sampling of UL Standards Related to Telecommunications. aluminum. supply apparatus and cable-connected remote control devices. self-contained tone generators. portable audio or video apparatus intended for use with a vehicle. General Use. Of interest is the UL 1950 Standard for Safety of Information Technology Equipment. for testing each “-LS” (limited-smoke) cable construction. battery eliminators. Practical Application Guidelines On-Line Service (PAGOS): A reference service providing information for understanding and applying the requirements of UL Standards for Safety. telephone answering devices. cross connect enclosures. Evaluated for installation in ducts. music tuners and the like for use with electronic or nonelectronic musical instruments. These electrical and composite electrical/optical-fiber cables are intended for use under the raised floor of a computer room (optical and electrical functions associated in the case of a hybrid cable) in accordance with Article 645 and other applicable parts of the National Electrical Code. quick connect assemblies. UL 1459 UL 1863 Telephone Equipment: Cordless telephones. all under an overall jacket. and connector boxes. electronic accessories such as rhythm generators. video apparatus intended for entertainment purposes in health-care facility locations. The same test need not be specified for all constructions. and communications as described in Article 770 and other applicable parts of the National Electrical Code. electronic musical instruments. cont. Data-Processing Cable: Electrical cables consisting of one or more current-carrying copper. dialers. plenums. network interfaces. Evaluated for installation in risers in accordance with the National Electrical Code as well as general purpose applications. or copper-clad aluminum conductors with or without either or both (1) grounding conductor(s) and (2) one or more optical-fiber members. Communication Circuit Accessories: Telecommunications equipment such as jack and plug assemblies. photocouplers. Evaluated for general purpose applications only. The cable manufacturer is to specify. Including Electrical Business Equipment. UL 1577 UL 1651 UL 1690 UL 2024 U UL 1950 © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . Descriptions of UL Numbers from Underwriters Laboratory such as antenna amplifiers. or any other battery circuit as the power supply means. Optical Fiber Cable: Single and multiple optical-fiber cables for control. and telephone sets. Optical Fiber Cable Raceway: Covers the following types of optical fiber cable raceways and fittings designed for use with optical fiber cables in accordance with Article 770 of the National Electrical Code: Plenum. or other spaces used for environmental air in accordance with the National Electrical Code as well as general purpose applications. UL 1685 Vertical-Tray Fire-Propagation and Smoke-Release Test for Electrical and OpticalFiber Cables: Limits for each fire test to make the tests equally acceptable for the purpose of quantifying the smoke. UL No. signaling. either the UL vertical-tray flame exposure or the FT4/IEEE 1202 type of flame exposure. telephone wall plates. Optical Isolators: Optically isolated switches and insulation systems. boat. marine. key systems private branch exchange equipment. or similar location where the telephone interconnects to the telephone network through a radio transmitter and receiver. Riser.
UAC User Agent client. The idea received little notice until the early 1990s. which bears user application information. In ADSL.and U-planes. which has managed the development and operation of the Joint Academic Network (JANET). a deepdiving submarine that handled buoyance by “flying” through the water. UART See universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter. during which a service or entity is not available. UCM 1. Higher and Further Education Funding Councils. UCC See Uniform Commercial Code. UDP See User Datagram Protocol. The trading name for the JNT Association. U.S. It further researches and develops advanced electronic communications facilities. UAT See user acceptance testing. etc. under agreement with the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the U. A measure of duration. the standardized interface between the twisted-pair local loop to the subscriber premises and the plain old telephone service (POTS) splitter on the premises. that was developed by Karl Heinz Lipshutz in the late 1920s. A service for factory-installed components in complete products. Thus. UKERNA has responsibility for the education and research communities’ networking programs in the U. See JANET. the U-plane parameters. UA See User Agent. UECT See Universal Encoding Conversion Technology. UAV unpiloted/unstaffed aerial vehicle. universal controller module. including TIA/EIA standards. See User Agent. directional antenna which worked in the higher frequency ranges and became the model for thousands of antennas that came later and are still in use. U-R user-remote. The Mplane (management plane) enables the transfer of information between the C. UCITA See Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act. A service for completely installed systems.923. See Yagi-Uda antenna. See U-C. a sensitive. UAWG See Universal ADSL Working Group. 2. UDI unrestricted digital information. See User Agent. are negotiated through the C-plane. Education & Research Networking Association UKERNA. Products LAN Cable Performance Energy Efficiency SDS Verification Testing Brief description A UL Listing Mark indicates that representative samples have been tested and evaluated according to nationally recognized safety standards. In ATM networking as it applies to Frame Relay bearer services. Electrical appliances are certified according to U. UBR See unspecified bit rate. Synchronization and coordination between the U-plane and C-plane are described in ITU-T Recommendation Q. since 1994. in seconds. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC .layers. Verification of input/output products to Honeywell’s Smart Distributed System (SDS) for compatibility of components to an industrial control communications network. It sits adjacent to the C-plane (control plane) and shares physical and ATM layers with the C-plane. Uda. maximum frame size. UCF See UNIX Computing Forum.K. While functionally similar.K. UCA See Utility Communications Architecture.K. UASs unavailable seconds. A UL Classification mark indicates that products have been evaluated for certain properties under specified conditions. Shintaro A designer of the Yagi-Uda antenna. or Canadian standards for energy efficiency through the UL Energy Verification. user application testing. U-Plane A concept for an Undersea Plane. such as throughput. UDLC See Universal Digital Loop Carrier. See the Appendix for more detailed information on ATM. See Universal Call Model. A service for installed products without UL Listing Marks or UL Classification Marks.. UL Conformity Assessment Services Related to Telecommunications Service Listing Service Classification Service Component Recognition Certificate Service Field Engineering Service Testing Environ. Evaluation of innovative environmentally friendly products. UAS User Agent server. the U-R interface is distinguished from the U-C interface due to the asymmetry of the link. U-R2 is a less standardized interface between the POTS splitter and the ATU-R (premises ADSL Transmission Unit). Safety evaluations and evaluation of LAN cable according to industry performance specifications.
umbrella antenna An antenna that resembles an umbrella in that the lines extend out and down from a central pole. Because of the wavelength differences between UHF and very high frequency (VHF) waves and the relationship of the rods on the antenna to the length of the wave. for example.K. See fox. handheld radio communications receiver designed to facilitate radio direction finding. prices. then tries to pass the call to the first available human agent. Unix International. and Command communications satellite constellation intended to supersede the aging FLTSAT and LEASAT satellite systems. ultraviolet radiation is of commercial significance because it can degrade many types of materials and pigments. there is a greater potential for loss. ultraviolet sensing devices use ultraviolet radiation focused through a spectrograph to study the characteristics of celestial objects. tier 1. UMTS See Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems. thus not impinging on the agent’s time.K. A U. the region further from the visible spectrum.S. UFO is intended to provide global coverage of four significant geographic areas. an automatic dialing system dials a line. including the U. Telescopes and some satellites are equipped with this capability. technical specifications. then dials back the user’s fax machine and transmits the requested documents. Education & Research Networking Association. It is attached to a 2-m center beam with three elements attached in the center at 90° from the center beam. This type of calling occurs in the telemarketing industry and the call is terminated in order not to irritate a potential customer.. Commercially. Air Force. In astronomy. gets the customer’s document selections from a list of options. it is possible to make UHF antennas relatively small. EHF.telecom An online USENET newsgroup established in August 1991 to discuss topics related to telecommunications in the U. Naval. sniffer. ULP See upper layer protocol. Unattended systems generally function 24 hours per day at a significant cost savings over human operators. the call is abandoned. Computer bulletin board systems were some of the first information-rich systems to function 24 hours a day. which ranges from 300 to 3000 MHz. and phone systems now are frequently automated with menu selections and voice mail options. UHF See ultra high frequency. and they must be designed and installed with greater care to be effective. Recently. with more branching elements compared to VHF antennas. ultra-high frequency UHF. UL See Underwriters Laboratories Inc. UNIX. See antenna. ISDN. However. and can be used to remove data from erasable/programmable computer chips. but no agent is available. The Johns Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope extends the range to the far ultraviolet. Although it cannot be seen by humans. UMA See upper memory area. uk. and of related and other open software standards. Ultra Sniffer A kit-based. See UHF Follow-On. combination antennas. See infrared. Increased channel capacity is available with Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) technology. The system logs the phone call. and three major oceans. Unattended calls are also used by collection agencies and the system hangs up if no agent is available or if the call is answered by an answering machine. unattended systems Devices or systems which function without a human operator or without significant human attention except for installation and routine maintenance and upgrades. per line. from VK3TJN/VK3XAJ. 2.S. UFO provides more modern capabilities and more secure communications than the older satellite communications systems. between the violet part of the visible spectrum and X-rays. unattended call A situation that occurs when. This unit. VHF antennas. especially for “fox hunts. See FLTSAT. faxback systems allow users to request product information or technical support in the form of fax documents. when computer automation became inexpensive enough to incorporate into a wide variety of components and machines. UMP1X The USOC code for telephony-related maintenance plan. such as arc lamps. ultra-high frequency (UHF) antenna A category of antennas which are designed to take advantage of the particular characteristics of ultra high frequency (UHF) waves. The unit is designed to overcome some of the limitations of other radio direction finders in terms of overcoming interference and selective tuning without increasing complexity (and knobs). and Ka-band transmissions. as UHF television broadcast signals are generally weaker than those from VHF. UKERNA See U. Unattended systems have become prevalent since the late 1970s. it is used in a variety of lamps. A designation for a range within the radio frequency spectrum commonly used for broadcast communications. See user interface.” during which hobbyists get together to try to find a hidden transmitter. is a little larger than a deck of cards. The system is designed to provide interim Global Broadcast Service (GBS). unidentified flying object. equipment functioning and options. See Unix. ultraviolet Electromagnetic radiation with shorter wavelengths. and the various telephone carriers providing services. The Hubble Space Telescope and the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite enable study of objects using ultraviolet light near the visible spectrum. UHTTP See Unidirectional Hypertext Transfer Protocol. UML See Unified Modeling Language. UI 1.UFO 1. Topics include services. Consequently. 2. Ultra-High Frequency FollowOn UFO. that is. UMSP See Unified Memory Space Protocol. A consortium of computer software and hardware vendors promoting the development and implementation of Unix. Many businesses are willing to give up personalized U © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . UHF Follow-On.
UL provides educational materials. but at a higher cost. Unbundled Network Elements – Platform In telephony parlance. which would not result in the desired competitive benefits to users. UL Listing Marks Related to Telecommunications Listing Mark UL Listing Mark C-UL Listing Mark Classification Mark C-UL Classification Mark Recognized Component Mark International emc-Mark Field Evaluated Product Mark Facility Registration Mark Brief description Commonly seen. In phone circuits. AT&T responded to a Circuit Court decision that defeated key provisions of the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC’s) rules on UNEs. UNE-P products are intended only for resale to endusers.S. See Auto Attendant. These usually consist of industrial and building materials and equipment. and later unbundle the items. allow them to be sold separately in order to clear the products. Telephone network services that are sold or leased through competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) as unbundled services from an incumbent local exchange carrier (ILEC). For example. UNEs came about as a result of the competition-supporting provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Unbundled Network Elements UNE. this is generally an undesirable condition. and thus not usually seen from the outside. on microfilm. Inc. unbundled Products or services which are sold separately. The UNE model and Congressional decisions regarding UNE were controversial. CD-ROM. and indicates that samples of the product conform to UL safety requirements according to UL published standards for safety. There is also a Canadian version. UL. that is. Underwriters Laboratories. information (databased) services. and assistance to various regional authorities. specifically ISO 9000-series and ISO 14001 (environmental). digital switched service (DSS). including manufacturers. UL has a number of publications of interest to professionals in the communications industry. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . or respond to market demand for one product over the other. when broken down (unbundled) into discrete components. In 1997. make it possible for them to be mixed and matched into a variety of new services that may be optionally resold or leased to endusers by a variety of providers. AT&T’s position was that the rulings could open the door to competitive restructuring of existing services and monopolization of new services by competing providers. ISDN Pri and Bri. safety. Examples of UNE-P services include plain old telephone service (POTS). with pulses from the generator. switches. See blanking.service in favor of the economy offered by automated systems. get a higher return. and Centrex services. input to international safety systems. a company may release a graphics card/monitor combination as a package deal. unblanking The portion of the sweep in a cathoderay tube (CRT) where the beam is turned on. Contrast with bundled. UL is a notfor-profit organization established in 1894. Classification Mark products intended for the Canadian market. A facility which has passed UL quality assurance standards. These physical and functional services. etc. and quality assessment services and publications to a variety of organizations. not for the use of carriers themselves. The majority of the UL published standards have been approved as American National Standards by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). unbalanced line A transmission line with two conductors (such as coax or a telephone circuit) with unequal voltages with respect to the ground. Products which conform to electromagnetic compatibility requirements of Europe and/or U. Canadian market products evaluated according to Canadian safety requirements. A product which is evaluated in the field rather than in a laboratory. and diskettes. public access line (PAL). which provides conformity. and/or Japan and/or Australia. Products evaluated for specific properties under specified conditions. The UL also sponsors a UL Standards Electronic BBS (accessed directly. Specific to components used in products sold as complete units. or through the Web). UNE-Platform (UNE-P) services are combinations of Unbundled Network Elements (UNEs) that provide finished (end-to-end) services to Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (CLECs) that are functionally equivalent to retail service offerings. UL publishes a catalog of its standards and the standards themselves in print. UNC See Universal Naming Convention. UNEs include such aspects as local loops. In addition.
Novell. or connects between Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) and public network equipment. The format of the ATM subinterface unicast command is: atm smds-address <address>. applications. descended from Unicode. Unicode Consortium A nonprofit association founded in 1991 to promote and support the acceptance and implementation of the Unicode characterencoding standard. Unicast transmits a single Protocol Data Unit (PDU) to a single destination (unlike multicast. Each character is assigned a unique 16-bit value. providing graphics coprocessor chips. IBM. The protocol defines connections management algorithms and network primitive formats. Japanese Kana. UMSP uses transport layer service for reliable delivery (with acknowledgment data). IPv6 addressing. Chinese bopomofo. Subsequent writes may overwrite portions of the data or the file pointers indicating where the data are stored. and system random access memory (RAM) is used to buffer graphics displays. Mark UL Mark. where it may go to multiple destinations). unidirectional Moving. an ATM network switch which interfaces user equipment to private or public ATM network equipment. and technical symbols are also supported. and documenting the artifacts of software systems. A connection-oriented network protocol corresponding to the session and presentation layers of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model. Those shown in the UL Listing Marks chart are relevant to telecommunications. this type of integration slows down the graphics rendering and overloads the CPU. Underwriters Laboratory Inc. Korean hangul.com/about/wtalk/index. No special modes or control or escape sequences are needed. if other disk write activities have taken place. UMSP was submitted as an Experimental RFC by A. it may not be possible to unerase the files. Unicode is loosely based upon the widely supported ASCII standard.including WireTalk for the wire and cable industry. http://www. unidirectional IP multicasting resource transfer protocol suitable for one-way broadcasting over the Internet or over the television vertical blanking interval. if you accidentally delete a file. Unicode A character-encoding standard designed to support text-encoding in data files. supporting over 65. Unicode has been rolled in with an ISO specification to become a subset of ISO 10646. Aldus. and others. See Unicode. unified messaging See integrated messaging. User-to-Network Interface.536 code points of the ISO 10646 standard. such as those not represented with Roman characters.000 characters. NeXT.ul. Inc. but rather a result of how it is implemented. Underwriters Laboratory Inc. responding. This is not the fault of the concept. assessment The UL provides a number of conformity assessment services for product certification. Inc. and various types of safety and performance testing. OCD. The Unicode Technical Committee. See anycast. unerase A system command or feature of a software application that permits the user to restore files that have been erased from a hard drive or similar hard storage device. It provides information on new international environmental management standards through ISO 14001. Registrar Accreditation Board (RAB) and other international quality affiliations. A widely used modeling language for specifying. constructing. On other systems.com/ The full UL catalog is available on the Web. UNE See Unbundled Network Elements. See broadcast data trigger. rather than having them as separate systems. but the UL Standards chart shows some telecommunications-related UL Standards which may be of interest and which provide an idea of the types of use and safety issues concerned. and users. mathematical symbols. In most cases. Unified Modeling Language UML. They were later joined by Adobe. See RFC 3018. unified memory architecture A system on which the video display drivers are integrated into the motherboard. Unified Memory Space Protocol UMSP. the rest are reserved for future use. Sun. Unicode comprises the first 65. The Consortium publishes a pamphlet on the Unicode specification. The UL Conformity Assessment services chart shows some of the services relevant to telecommunications. and allowing greater video graphics memory and more control over memory for programmers. UMSP creates a network environment for organizing 128-bit address space distributed among Internet nodes. it does not control local node memory. Borland. visualizing. Arabic. The protocol allows many viewers to simultaneously access the broadcast site.html UL provides ISO 9000 standards quality registration through its accredited RvA. unicast A type of Internet Protocol (IP) address identifier for a set of interfaces. Unicode. A robust. punctuation marks. SCR. UNI User Network Interface. http://www. See PMP. you must unerase it before doing anything else. These include listing. Connection parameters may be set in a number of ways and systems with high protection levels may be configured without restricting application functionality. including Cyrillic. field engineering. Note. Symbols. Greek. classification. UL provides a number of listing marks to indicate that products or systems have been evaluated by UL and conform to certain specifications.ul. multicast. UML is intended to streamline and simplify U © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . Unicode uses a 16-bit character set. PCR. As specified by the ATM Forum. or in only one direction at a time.. Bogdanov in December 2000. was originally a collaboration between Apple and Xerox. now functions as part of the Consortium to actively maintain the standard. See Unicode Consortium. and others. Some systems use this very effectively. Unidirectional Hypertext Transfer Protocol UHTP. Hebrew. Microsoft. who produced the original specification. or transmitting in one direction. but in a greatly extended form to support major world languages.
in October 1996. information outside the resources in question. This became especially true when a large amount of electronic commerce began to flow across the Internet. in the mid-1990s. Unified User Interface UUI. The URA system was submitted as an experimental RFC by Daigle et al. This was formerly an Article of the Uniform Commercial Code. UCITA is a uniform commercial code for software licensing and other computer information-related transactions adopted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws in July 1999. these resources may exist in one or more locations concurrently or may at times not be available at all. The UUI interprets the browser commands to the service functions in the Envisat-1 Payload Data Segment (PDS). A data format for including meta-information. searches. A URI uses network protocols to express an address which maps onto an access algorithm. related Act. the UUI is a single interface to User Service Facilities that enables users to access Envisat data services from any station or access node using a standard Web browser. states and some of its territories.com/ uniform line A line which has essentially identical electrical characteristics throughout the transmission path.S.the process of software design. It is a product of the Object Management Group. Because of the size and structure of the Internet. the data can be converted to accommodate diverse formats. See Uniform Commercial Code. Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act UCITA. It is a structured mechanism for abstracting characteristics of desired information and distancing access processes from the client. contracts. The UCC does not strictly dictate the terms of contracts and agreements between parties. The Permanent Editorial Board for the Uniform Commercial Code provides oversight and permission for the distribution of UCC information. to remove location dependencies. some types of information are impractical to convert. In the Envisat satellite data communications services. with the growth and prevalence of concerns specific to computing. including actions. See Object Constraint Library. Uniform Resource Characteristic URC. A means to identify resources on the Internet. and remedies related to commercial endeavors and disputes. Uniform Resource Identifier URI. By creating a type of object that can be labeled for recognition and retrieval and a name space in which Common Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Schemes Scheme ftp http gopher mailto news nntp telnet wais file prospero Name File Transfer Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol Gopher Protocol Electronic mail address USENET news USENET news using NNTP access Reference to interactive sessions Wide Area Information Servers Host-specific file names Prospero Directory Service Type Files and directories Internet resources. it was felt that there was a need for a separate. Uniform Resource Agent URA. In most cases. it was suggested that they be used in conjunction with Uniform Resource Names (URNs) instead of URLS. and permitting commercial activities within the provisions of the UCC Act as they apply to commerce within the 50 U. clarifying. An adopted code for conveying. This is important because the Internet functions with many different protocols for the transmission and sharing of data. The Act sets forth the terms and conditions for commercial policies and activities described within the Act. Encapsulation of protocolspecific actions enables the addressing of high-level Internet activities. Web pages File directories in Gopherspace Internet electronic mail address Newsgroups and individual articles Alternate means of accessing news Interactive telnet remote logon sessions WAIS databases. The syntax and encoding of the names and addresses of objects has been gradually developed since 1990. See Uniform Resource Identifier. Object Management Group. However. documents Accessible files from various hosts Resources on the Prospero service © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . but it helps to provide guidelines and default terms that provide a measure of consistency and security for those conducting commercial transactions. such as names and addresses of resources. When URCs were proposed. http://www.ucitaonline. The Board publishes reports and drafts related to UCC. with URIs used to manage registered protocols or name spaces. An architecture for an agent system to provide Internet information access and management. See RFC 2016. for the identification and location of these resources on the Internet. However. concepts applicable to law. See Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act. Uniform Commercial Code UCC.
Uniform Resource Locator URL. The URN namespace enables public identifiers to be encoded in URNs in a reliable. and mineral researches. phones. Uniform Resource Name Namespace for Object Identifiers URN Namespace for OIDs. search. The URN namespace scheme was submitted as an Informational RFC by Walsh et al. 2396. unique user identifier UUI. UPS systems can prevent loss of files in the process of being saved and prevent possible corruption to the medium on which they are being written. 1737. It is responsible for assessing natural ecological events.1) is encoded as a Uniform Resource Identifier. this competing company became South Carolina’s first central power station in 1882. such as a direct current storage battery or separate alternate current generator in the event of power disruptions to the normal supply. land. for example. See Uniform Resource Characteristics. Uniform Resource Name Namespace for Public Identifiers URN Namespace for PIDs. token. The ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee is the declared registrant of the namespace. One of the more interesting developments on the Internet has been the establishment of broadcasting channels over which video and audio radio and television programming can be viewed through Web browsers and various other specialized software programs. and updated in February 2001. The scheme was originally submitted by M. This has necessitated the definition and organization of URIs appropriate for digital broadcasts. and “-” (hyphen). Functional specifications for URNs were proposed by Sollins and Masinter and presented as a Request for Comments in 1994. RFC 1630. direction. comparable way through introduction of a formal public identifier namespace (publicid).org/ Scheme names consist of a sequence of lowercase characters from a to z.abiogenesis. uninterruptible power supply UPS. “. RFC 1737. 2396. and applications which are reading or writing to storage media at the time of a power outage. Similar in concept to Uniform Resource Locators as a means to identify a resource or unit of information on the Internet. Uniform Resource Name URN. Common schemes (typed in lower case when used in a URL) are shown in the Common Schemes chart. Uniform Resource Name.1. lighting systems. The USGS conducts the National Mapping Program. backup file systems. uses a UUI system to register users and to administer their EDI clients using the Customs Computerized Entry Processing System. number. an Object Identifier is a tree of nodes.these objects can reside. queues. See RFC 3151. United States Geological Survey USGS. 2838. cartographic data collection. Uniform Resource Locator. storage. The OID namespace specifies how an Object Identifier (ASN. 1738. the Internet OID is 1. 1808. uniformity The capability of a broadcast or other communications medium to deliver a steady and consistent signal within the desired range. This may be a name. a public identifier is a simple string and. UUIs are used in association with thousands of different types of secured systems and services. depending upon the system. See RFC 1630. particularly to network servers. A namespace designed to enable Public Identifiers to be expressed in Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) syntax. A Uniform Resource Locator is an example of a URI. For example. Uniform Resource Identifier. unipolar Having only one pole. water. syntactically described as a series of delimited digits. retrieval. by providing an abstract identification of its location. A number of specific schemes for particular protocols are standardized or commonly used and there is a process for registering new ones. On the Internet. and then switch to an alternate source. 1736. energy. United States Electric Illuminating Company A month after Thomas Edison’s famous Pearl Street electrical company began providing power for incandescent lighting. or polarity. but intended to manage an object space of names expected to have a longer shelf life.3. numerals 0 to 9 and the characters “+” (plus). URLs have been in use since 1990 as Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW. A safety and steady-service device which protects equipment and data by guaranteeing a sufficient and steady source of electrical power in the event that other power sources are interrupted or lost. public identifiers are not legal URIs in the context of the Web. a URL follows this format: <scheme>:<scheme-specific-part> Examples: http://www. It is recommended that upper case be treated as lower case in resolving a URL.6. UPS systems may take their current from an alternating power supply while the system is up. UPSs are used on computers. A compact string representation for a resource available on the Internet. Power outages can create severe problems on computer systems. The New Zealand Customs Service. and in emergency centers. A URL is a means to locate resources.peanut. store charges from this source. symbol. and manipulation. historically.” (period). The USGS carries out fundamental and applied research in geological surveying. in November 2000.com/telecomdict ftp://www. An administrative function for uniquely recognizing or storing data on behalf of an individual user. Mealling as an Informational RFC. A username is a type of UUI commonly used to enable access to restricted computer systems. Generally. access and use of this information can be facilitated. and publishes U © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . See RFC 3061 which obsoletes RFC 3001. See Uniform Resource Characteristic. in August 2001. or biometric equivalent. Within XML. URNs provide a globally unique means of identifying information about a resource or access to the resource itself.
established in 1897. In telecommunications SS7 routing. During the call. incorporating a long tube of mercury. Brown in Abilene. http://www. UNIVAC was advertised as the UNIVAC File-Computer “electronic brain” by Remington Rand Univac. including magnetic tape. A commercial consortium formed to promote an easy-todeploy. and to allow the subscribers a choice of modem hardware. An organization founded in the 1800s which promotes the well-being of the industry. Due to the media exposure. an important step toward cooperation between Bell and the Independents.usta. See Museum of Independent Telephony. and then moved to Shawnee Mission. UART chips and UART circuitry perform a conversion function within a computer. UNIVAC was the first significant commercial nonmilitary computing system. may have averted government takeover of the telephone industry arising from charges of the monopolistic control exerted by Bell at that time. taking up additional floor space.lite.thousands of reports and maps each year. convert it from digital to analog to transmit through the phone line and from analog to digital when received. 1951. There is an original UNIVAC in the Smithsonian museum. or in the modem itself. The National Telephone Association later became the United States Independent Telephone Association (USITA). looks up the dialed number in a dialing base for routing. It was designed and built in the mid-1940s by the Eckert-Mauchly Electronic Control Corporation. Digital public switched network (PSN) carrier systems comprising a central office (CO) terminal near the switching system. The same process occurs in reverse at the receiving end. Census Bureau acquired an 8-ton UNIVAC system. universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter UART. hence. the UNIVAC was used to (correctly) predict the presidential election returns but the results were not made public until after the election. It operated there until 1966. United States Telecom Association USTA. but taken over before its completion by Remington-Rand.S. X-1 was the programming language used. A mercury delay line. After the mid-1980s divestiture of AT&T.org/ United Telephone Company A historic phone company founded in 1898 by Cleyson L. conferences. The UCM provides mediation between the Originating Call Model (OCM) and the Terminating Call Model (TCM). Also called line concentration module. and publications for its members. Universal Call Model UCM. or through a serial device to an external modem. an extension of the Basic Call Model associated with Intelligent Networks (INs). In spring. United States Telephone Association. such as printers. there have been a number of initiatives to simplify the installation process and. UNIVAC became so well known that the name became a generic term for large computing devices. available for a little more than $1 million. and later expanded to other communities. USTA represents more than 1200 local exchange carriers (LECs). discussion forums. A UART chip may be in the computer. the UCM maintains routing and bearer circuit status.and B-number and route and. technical bulletins. and various peripherals. when the information is received. This organizational strength provided a voice for independents in the dominant Bell marketplace. Kansas. The UCM receives responses from an initial address message (IAM) and its associated calling line ID. USTA arose from the National Telephone Association.413. descended from the ENIAC. It then puts out a request for analysis of the A. USITA became the United States Telephone Association (USTA) and it is now known as the United States Telecom Association to reflect the broader technology base of local exchange carriers (LECs). the U. Banks of spinning tape reels would line the walls facing the main console. Virtual Switch Controller. See Intelligent Networks Call Model. There were a number of input/output modes. the parallel data generated by the computer are converted by the UART into serial data that are then transmitted through the modem. In systems using PRI ISDN. entered into in 1913. whereupon the UCM activates seizure of the originating channel. and provides technical and standards assistance. large. where it forms the local division of Sprint Corporation. the UNIVAC consisted of a blackboardsized control console with lots of buttons and switches mounted on a solid old metal office desk with a scopelike display in a separate housing to one side. USTA provides representation before Congress and various regulatory bodies. UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer. This is not the same process as is performed by a pair of connected modems. Universal Digital Loop Carrier UDLC. In general. The UART does its job before the modulation/demodulation process occurs in the modem. fast version of Digital Subscriber Line (xDSL) based on ANSI T1. The clock speed of a UNIVAC wasn’t much different from the personal computers first introduced in the mid-1970s and it took a great deal of care and expertise to get the system up and running and to maintain the vacuum tube-based hardware. the UCM is bypassed. The Kingsbury Commitment. See ENIAC. See G. training courses. the cost. Universal ADSL Working Group UAWG. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . general-purpose electronic computing system in active use in the 1950s. In 1952. Kansas. a Division of Sperry Rand Corporation. When a computer software program generates data that travels from the computer to the serial card in a peripheral slot. a remote terminal at the customer’s premises. A historic. Functional criteria for digital loop carrier systems are described in Bellcore TR-NWT-000057. Since traditional ADSL installations require a splitter to be wired to the subscribers’ premises and a custom modem installed in their computer. and media relations. was installed inside the computer housing as a memory device. which modulate and demodulate a signal. and a digital transmission link connecting the two.
etc. Universal Encoding Conversion Technology UECT. as are those between the remote terminal and the network interfaces. collect. universal payphone A payphone with a wide scope of payment options including coin. It is not directly compatible with emerging American mobile standards. including radio access. An open serial data bus standard developed by a consortium of prominent computer products and telecommunications services providers in the mid-1990s. scanners. UMTS is a broadband. facsimiles. See JEPI. UMTS is considered to encompass next-generation wireless telecommunications technologies. An electronic commerce payment mechanism developed by JEPI. but particularly in Western Europe. universal mailbox A centralized computer point of access for a variety of types of messages. and much more. UDLCs were introduced in North America in the early 1970s. ETSI finalized the first series of 3GPP specifications into the UMTS standard. 1. UECT has been incorporated into the AltaVista search engine. Commercial USBs are designed to support many devices. It allows peripherals to be attached to a computer through a single peripheral attached to the motherboard. one of the significant search tools on the Web from Digital Equipment Corporation. Thus. multimedia messaging. In September 2001. In terms of file storage. calling card. The UMTS first series specifies a wide variety of services. characteristics such as hot swapping and the capability U © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . companies such as Nortel Networks have entered into agreements with developers to create 3G wireless dual-mode modems supporting the UMTS standard. See integrated messaging. functions for applications development. Universal Naming Convention UNC. Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems Initiatives UMTS Initiatives. sometimes up to 64 (the host computer is considered a device). In general. A Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) proprietary software system for converting documents to and from Unicode. a convention for logically mapping a name to a process or device such that its explicit file path or routing path is transparent to the user. Universal Payment Preamble UPP. It was intended for personal computer users to be able to easily attach and detach external computer peripherals without a lot of technical expertise. etc. Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems UMTS. UMTS standards were developed to improve the situation and encourage market support for UMTS deployment. UMTS technologies are characterized by high mobility and flexibility in terms of available data rates and are considered suitable for the basis of a wireless Internet with global roaming capabilities. Lucent announced an initiative to create a Bell Laboratories Research & Development Centre to partner with Italian universities to enable startup businesses and researchers to test ideas and products related to UMTS integration an implementation. The Release 99 first series enables developers to move ahead with the rollout of 3G services. The UNC can be used to set up a virtual network with various printers. UMTS initiatives seek to support and foster the establishment of broadbased UMTS standard- based wireless communications systems: In May 2000. Connections to analog interfaces are through twisted-pair copper wires. digitally encoded voice messages. The mechanism was described through an RFC document including several examples in August 1996 as to its relationship between the HTTP Payment Extension Protocol (PEP). In 2000. including email. A USB will sometimes also provide additional power to devices that might require it. This increases ease of access and transparency to users who shouldn’t have to worry about the location of a file on a virtual storage system (which may be a device on another machine a few feet or a few thousand miles away) except as desired. based on work by Don Eastlake. In conjunction with general packet radio service (GPRS). etc. Payment Extension Protocol. UMTS standards were developed by two groups comprising prominent telecommunications vendors. One of the basic goals of USB development was ease of use. the German Bundestag (Parliament) approved UMTS funding for education and research to promote future development of UMTS technologies. Universal Serial Bus USB. with other devices chaining or attached in a star topology. credit card. 2.Digital switching streamlined the system. packet-based data transmissions technology base supported in Europe and also potentially in Japan and other Asian countries. storage devices. Eropolitan Vodafone announced costs for their UMTS initiative in Sweden and a collaboration agreement with the Vodaphone Group. enabling central office terminals to be integrated into the digital switch. linked in as resources regardless of where they may be located on the network. Trials of UMTS were carried out by Nortel Networks and British Telecom (BT) in 1999. so the user can look at one listing to determine what to read and when to read it and to simplify the filing and cross-management of document databases. Since wireless data technologies have lagged somewhat over the years from a lack of support and interoperability. As a result of standardization. a convention for identifying a shared file on a computer network without explicitly identifying its storage location to the user. UPP provides a uniform vocabulary for a uniform syntax and naming options common to payment systems.. In November 2000. Common parameters could be specified within PEP-specified header fields and in paymentsystem-specific headers. Third-generation mobile telephony research and deployment efforts that are being carried out by a number of companies in a variety of regions.
In a data communications equipment (DCE) transmissions cell. Internet-friendly. work continued on USB 2. In Unix applications. A map projection technique which preserves angular relationships and scale.. When spelled in all capitals. In February 1998.uwcc. See Single UNIX Specification. taken from around the world’s mid-latitudes. graphics tablets. The UUID is typically used in global contexts where it is a challenge to assign a guaranteed unique ID. the Global WIN Forum (GWF). which may include time stamps. Unix. They also have potential as transaction IDs. The format is rapidly gaining popularity and many personal computers now come with USB ports built in. Since divestiture. whereas Unix spelled in upper and lower case is used generically in the computer industry to refer to the many freely distributable flavors of Unix that have been implemented by different groups. Transmission speeds for a variety of attached devices would be individually negotiated.to attach multiple devices were desirable design goals. UPCS are permitted within the 1890 to 1930 MHz frequency ranges and are further subdivided for use with asynchronous (1910 to 1920 MHz) and isochronous (1890 to 1910 and 1920 to 1930 MHz) communications. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . a UUID enables network resources to be uniquely named without regard to location. A UTM consists of a series of identical projections. A wireless communications collaborative program initiated by wireless operators and vendors in 1995. a property of particular interest to e-commerce transactions. See Universal Wireless Communications. each 6° of longitude oriented to a meridian. they are thus not tied to a physical root namespace. Specific frequency ranges have been assigned to UPCS services by the Federal Communications System (FCC). UNIX UNIX is a powerful. to the X/Open Company Limited. and the Global Operators Forum (GOF). cross-platform. multiuser operating system.. Thus. from AT&T.5 MBytes/sec) compared to high-speed storage access. or networking transmissions (12 MBytes/sec). With the success of USB 1. Unlicensed PCS UPCS. An identification system for tariff services and equipment introduced in the 1970s by AT&T. These are also known as Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs). widespread. established to support carriers and vendors of IS-136 TDMA/IS41 WIN standards. monitors. joysticks. A unique identifier originating from the Network Computing System (NCS) and the Open Software Foundation (OSF) distributed computing environment.D. In the context of Universal Resource Identifier (URI) schemes on the Internet. Unlicensed Personal Communications Services. It is estimated that higher data rates of more than 400 MBytes/sec may be possible without substantial hardware changes (with the exception of hubs) through the use of microframes. UNIX Computing Forum UCF. random quantities (or seeds for random quantities). A Washington State LLC. Traditionally the USB HID Class is connected to the computer through a wire. It is common for a peripheral card to have two USB ports.1. originally developed in 1969 by Ken Thompson at AT&T Bell Laboratories.org/ Unix A widespread. including the Global TDMA Forum (GTF). The UWCC sponsors a number of working forums. See UNIX. the Uuid class provides a means for creating and converting Uuid objects to support network UUIDs. the code is even less universal than before. Older computers with PCI slots can be adapted for use with USB through peripheral cards. along with IS-41 Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) standards. mice. See band allocations. Universal Time See Coordinated Universal Time. to Novell Inc. The trademarked version of Unix is spelled all in caps as UNIX. it is a broadly unique 128-bit identifier assigned to an object. Some are incorporated into short-range wireless local area network (LAN) data and phone systems. Universal Service Order Code USOC. These are commonly used for applications such as cordless phones. and the hardware address of the originating network device. Universal Transverse Mercator projection UTM. Universal Unique Identifier UUID. providing backward compatibility and flexibility in device data rates. with individual Bell operating companies developing billing systems somewhat independently of one another. Inc. A comments and feedback forum through the Santa Cruz Operation. powerful operating system. which provides UNIX server operating systems and related products. etc. Universal Wireless Communications UWC.0 to give it even better performance characteristics. UUIDs are useful in that they need not be assigned and administered by a centralized authority (beyond node identifiers). and later adopted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). intercoms. UNIX is a registered trademark. The program is built on the TIA IS-136 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) radio frequency standards. http://www. UTMs are used in many planimetric and topographic maps. UNIX has gone through a number of hands. as are domain names. Through a process of enumeration. but interest in wireless versions is strong and implementations are being suggested. HIDs include keyboards. licensed exclusively through the X/Open Company Limited. multitasking. depending upon the mechanism chosen for generating the UUID. etc. (SCO). A number of low-range communications systems can be used without broadcast licensing. a combination of data are combined to produce the UUID. etc. Leach and Salz defined the format of UUIDs guaranteed or extremely likely to be different from all UUIDs generated until the year 3400 A. Universal Wireless Communications Consortium UWCC. The Human Interface Device (HID) Class is a USB Core-compliant aspect of USB intended for user input devices that require relatively slow data rates (1. audio/visual. peripherals are assigned unique addresses for managing runtime data transmissions and transactions.
off-shore sheltering of illegal gains. and gray market consumer items. storing. From the satellite back to the Earth is a downlink. black market pharmaceuticals. Various European networks (Deutsche Telekom. Call matching is a way of determining whether the call is authorized and should be permitted to ring through. but which has not been used. without charging extra. or taken home and returned. Improper or insufficient shielding may result in Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rejection in the manufacture of new products. Some carriers also provide unpublished service. cell rate. Some carriers make it possible for callers to leave a message for an unlisted number. usually requiring a fee. usually at a different location or desk. Most cables are shielded with plastic and/ or metal foil. may carry a warranty that differs from a new warranty. In contrast. and computers shielded to prevent interference with nearby broadcast devices. transfer To transmit a broadcast or transfer data from the current device to another one. This is useful for emergency calls. etc. see unlisted phone number. An unguaranteed ATM networking service type in which the network makes a best-effort attempt to meet the sender’s bandwidth requirements. it is felt by many that stronger legislative constraints on unsolicited electronic mail should be put in place to protect recipients and providers from bearing the cost and inconvenience of these solicitations. A very common type of cable consisting of one or more pairs of twisted copper wires bound together. upload. Unlicensed PCS. See traffic policing. Because the cost to the sender of sending email is often insignificant. “junk” email is a far greater problem than junk postal mail. Computer data are often uploaded from a personal computer to the U © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . unused A product which may have been opened. harassment from ex-spouses. People pay to prevent their numbers from being listed for a variety of reasons: to avoid crank calls. and WOTAN. Between 1995 and the present. Heather Wilson in February 2001 to protect Internet users and providers from unsolicited and unwanted electronic mail. but may be listed with directory assistance. unshielded Unprotected from emitting or receiving electromagnetic interference or broadcast signal interference. the volume and frequency of unsolicited electronic mail. Test results and components from the project will be used to update single fiber links to ca.unlisted phone number A service requiring a fee. but may or may not (depending upon the carrier) be available through directory assistance. blind transfer A phone call transfer in which the recipient is not advised as to the identity of the caller. Some people choose unpublished phone numbers to avoid crank calls and undesired telephone solicitations. In video applications. such as radios. UPCS See Unlicensed Personal Communications Services. The distinction is made partly because of the different technologies used in satellite and Earth stations. traffic shaping. unpublished phone number A service. which is excluded from printed directories. If there is no match to the destination number in any of the relevant lookup tables. Some carriers will subscribers to exclude addresses from a published listing. young teen pornography. and filtering costs to service providers and recipients. the card will likely be rejected or may be redirected to someone in authority. Thus.) are involved in testing the systems. It may have slight abrasions and. UTP is frequently used for phone wire installations intended to carry faster data rates. For further privacy. as a partial privacy measure. there are still circumstances where low shielded or unshielded cables are used. which the caller may or may not return at his or her option. UPGRADE An ACTS project intended to increase the capacity of the existing single fiber European Communications network to higher bit rates over existing hardware to serve the needs of future communications. if listed with directory assistance. This is common on automated systems in which the caller can select an extension by way of the keypad on a touchtone phone. BROADBAND. the uplink is the leg from an Earth station to a satellite. the cost of sending out a million email messages may only cost pennies to the sender but may result in significant forwarding. See available bit rate. unmatched call A call that does not have a corresponding match in a Service User Table (SUT). A network mechanism for monitoring and controlling traffic and guaranteeing service for legitimate uses. unspecified bit rate UBR. UPC Usage Parameter Control. The cost of sending out a million junk postal solicitations is typically more than $30. uplink In broadcast communications. but also because uplink and downlink services can often be purchased separately. if sold. etc. unsupervised transfer. also known as “spam. 1998 EXPO in Spain. For these reasons. 1300-nm wavelength. such as the Authorization Code Table (ACT) or Calling Card Table. well-shielded cables are recommended. undesired telephone solicitations.000.” rose dramatically. and semiconductor laser amplifiers. Monitors should be shielded to protect users from radiation exposure. A bill proposed by Rep. in which a phone listing is not published in printed directories. Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Mail Act of 2001. send. but since this increases the weight and cost of the cable. it is a midway solution between a listed and an unlisted number. See BLISS. unshielded twisted-pair UTP. providing an economic deterrent to excessive mailings. switches. Capacity will in part be increased with new modulators. resulting in significant load to service providers along with lost productivity and undesired costs to users who had to filter out the messages and sift through them to locate legitimate mail. Junk email is now widely used to promote fraudulent money-making schemes. in which a phone listing is not published in printed directories or available through directory assistance. especially when junk email file sizes increased due to added images and HTML-format tags. See unpublished phone number.
Enhancements and bug fixes to INN were released by David Barr. Web browsers. In 1981 Mark Horton. a protocol that operates at a higher level of the model. See ISDN. See certified. As soon as it caught on. URN. URL See Uniform Resource Locators. See upload. like new. URL. from UC Berkeley. which is often at a different frequency from the downlink in order to reduce interference between incoming and outgoing signals.” USB See Universal Serial Bus. For example. although colloquially it often means the next higher layer.S.S. Sometimes the designation implies from a smaller or less powerful system to a larger or more powerful system. a handheld device bar code device may be designed to be upwardly compatible with a desktop computer. Rich Salz released InterNetNews (INN). In hierarchical network models. functional time between failure or maintenance periods. West One of the regional companies created when AT&T was divested in the mid-1980s. Two years later. A telephone standard which uses frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) techniques in the 824 to 894 MHz range. In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. USENET Created in late 1979. so its use is not completely standardized. Information from a laptop may be uploaded to a desk computer. URI See Uniform Resource Identifier. since future changes or improvements cannot always be anticipated. RFC 1738. shortly after the release of a Unix V7 which supported UUCP. RFC 1808. a program optimized for NNTP hosts. uptime An uninterrupted interval during which a system or process has been in active service.000 public newsgroups. In cable networks. USDN U. Thus. Contrast with downstream. upper layer protocol ULP. Contrast with download. See upstream. age. See RFC 1737. The uplink is the transmissions path from the Earth to the satellite. but with support for UUCP. a new naming structure. the transmission going in a direction away from the reference point. in addition to compression. comprising Mountain Telephone. UPP See Universal Payment Preamble. and FTP are common ways in which people upload files. and control messages. This 1982 version was known as B News. U. and TCP/IP’s greater lin k up do wn lin k © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . See distance learning. USENET is an important communications medium best known for its more than 35. used A term describing a product that has been opened and used. it became known as A News. and Matt Glickman enhanced the software to better handle the increasing volume of information. URA See Uniform Resource Agent. USENET was developed by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis at Duke University. Contrast with downtime. A News volume began to steadily increase. or remaining useful life of the product. Broadcasts may be uploaded to a satellite link. ULP more specifically refers to protocols in any of the layers higher than the layer currently being referenced. beginning in 1995. after modifications by Steve Daniel and Tom Truscott. which usually consists of application and user transactional functions. The active.Internet or to a mainframe. as far as is known. A section of memory on Intel-based IBM and licensed third-party computers commonly used to buffer video data which can be accessed and read by a video graphics display card. Used equipment is generally represented as being in working condition. Moderated groups capability was added. Upwardly compatible may also mean compatible with a larger or more complex version. fair. administration of the software was taken over by Rick Adams from the Center for Seismic Studies. Telecommunications software. and Steve Bellovin at the University of North Carolina. the transmission from the transmitting station to the cable television headend is the upstream direction. ISDN services. In 1992. upper memory area UMA. Pacific Northwest Bell. upstream Generally. Maintenance of INN was taken over by the Internet Software Consortium.S. URN Uniform Resource Name. with no implications as to the quality. USDC U. A rewrite by Geoff Collyer and Henry Spencer of the University of Toronto was released as C News in 1987. the stream of data from a personal computer to a mainframe would be considered upstream. The first two-site installation was described in January 1980. Digital Cellular. USDLA United States Distance Learning Association. at the Usenix conference and. Northwestern Bell. UUCP gave way to TCP/IP. INN was designed for socket-oriented Unix hosts. Upward compatibility in terms of later versions is much more difficult to achieve than downward compatibility. and other related firms servicing the “Fourth Corner. See RFC 1738. URM user request manager. RFC 1630. upwardly compatible A device or program intended to work with later upgrades or revisions. Contrast with downwardly compatible. refurbished.
. UDP is primarily used with the Internet Name Server and Trivial File Transfer. See RFC 1392. For more details about UDP. An IETF-recommended protocol for the Internet which provides a datagram mode for Internet Protocol-based (IPbased) packet-switched network communications. User events typically include button.. user’s group. in 1986. or objects.. user acceptance testing. A support group. This is an extremely important aspect of product development. See FidoNet. zero if not used. This can also be referred to as delta testing or enduser testing. see the “USENET Software: History and Sources FAQ” on the Internet. user application testing UAT. The sophistication of the security can range from a simple name prompt at the time of login. User Agent UA. The format of UDP header is shown in the User Datagram Protocol Header chart. See beta testing. The Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) was also developed and. window. The testing of a product by actual users (those who fit the profile of potential buyers or users) in conditions similar to what the use environment would be in order to ensure acceptance of the product and sufficient design ergonomics and explanation (menus. users’ group An organization of users of a particular product or service. as opposed to developing or distributing it. or menu selections/adjustments and movement of icons. a type of input event which is signaled through an input device such as a mouse. someone actually tried it). user account An account assigned for a specific individual on a computer network or on a multiuser machine. and different protections attached to directories. User datagram length in octets. Although often used to indicate a nontechnical consumer of a product or service. RFC 1153. user group. joystick. user event In programming. including the header and data. processes. RFC 977. and programs. yes.. gamma testing. and interpreted into a response by the operating system or applications program. +----------------------------------------/ . Indicates sending port. manuals.- U Source Port Optional.compatibility across platforms was a means to provide wider access to newsgroups. see See RFC 768. keyboard. Service Location Protocol. See Directory Agent. a means to use this for news articles was released. A user account is a security system configured by the system administrator. User Glossary Working Group UGWG. User Datagram Protocol UDP. A group within the User Services Area of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) which has created an Internet Users’ Glossary.g. Related to specified Internet destination address. a user also generically refers to anyone interacting with that product or service.) for the operator to be able to use the product without significant intervention or assistance. Destination Port Length © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . For more information. With the introduction of computers. user Sometimes called end user. society took a technological leap that was difficult User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Header Format 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +----------------+---------------+---------------+--------------+ | Source | Destination | | Port | Port | +----------------+---------------+---------------+--------------+ | | | | Length | Checksum | +----------------+---------------+---------------+--------------+ | | Data octets . The minimum is eight. Service Agent. UAT occurs when the product is considered to be finished and in good working order (bug-free). etc. to name and password logins at various levels of access. The default port for replies. windows. as many entrepreneurs have “surefire” ideas not readily appreciated or desired by users (e. potato-flavored ice. A network service used by clients to find available services on behalf of the user. or touchscreen. newsgroup. RFC 822/RFC1123. The most challenging types of user events tend to occur in fast action video games and realtime graphics input processing. RFC 1036.
flags. and many other amateur and professional enthusiasts to brainstorm ideas and contribute to the developing fields. had no monitor. A UserID is frequently paired with a password for system access. or if computers take time away from people rather than freeing them from repetitive tasks or drudgery. joysticks. On networks using the most common mail systems. amateur radio groups. But the basic methods prevailed for decades. Even the lifelike and startling three-dimensional virtual reality world represents. so that letters could be directly sent and received (eventually resulting in teletypewriters) without the operators doing the translation. if people are forced to adopt unhealthy or uncomfortable habits to interact with computers. Telegraph key codes are still a requirement of attaining amateur radio licenses. With the development of personal computers. keyboards. The user interface is the single most important aspect of computing and should never be undervalued. this limitation persists on many systems today. Individuals and small companies. USKA Union Schweizerischer KurzwellenAmateure Union (Union of Swiss Shortwave Amateurs). an evolutionary development. often with no lowercase letters. or keyboard. user interface history The earliest telecommunications interfaces consisted of physical semaphores (smoke. but also because this venue provided a forum for computer hobbyists.uska. The received message was usually presented as a long paper tape inscribed with wiggly lines. particularly in the 1970s. if you made a mistake. it was obvious that improvements were needed in order for a computer to be more fun. and other sensory cues and gadgets presented to the user. standard. The Altair microcomputer. data gloves. inspired partly by high-end systems with better resources than the Altair. with many software programs providing very poor support for users. On computers. beginning in the mid-1950s. mainly because they could be used anywhere. While ingenious computing pioneers wrung astonishing surprises from this primitive technology. sometimes called the CPS-UUI field. Yet within 2 years modern microcomputers. per line/circuit. In order to facilitate the use and understanding of complex systems. It is considered the highest layer of the computer system structure. USGS See United States Geological Survey. for example. user interfaces have developed in fits and starts. As such. A member organization that is associated with the International Amateur Radio Union. See user interface history. level 1. The UUI field enables upper layers (users) to somewhat transparently convey parameters. USOP User Service Order Profile. with the machine instructions for physical operations comprising the lowest layer. you had to start again. electronics. http://www. dots and dashes. then human needs are not adequately served by the technology. UNI. mice. for the most part. User-to-User Indicator UUI. This is commonly done through peripheral devices such as touchscreens. It was programmed by means of flipping little dip switches. the UserID typically forms the first part of an email address. USP1X The USOC code for telephony-related maintenance plan. even in the earliest days of telecommuni- cations technology. The design of user interfaces is an art. and technologies. to provide mutual support and assistance in sharing information and meeting technological challenges. programming languages. See United States Telephone Association. aesthetics. and consumer-friendly. mouse. Computers up until the 1950s used a similar model. This kind of user interface wasn’t very friendly. and arms) and telegraph keys sending coded messages that needed to be decoded and transcribed when received. for backward compatibility. and large rectangular graphic blocks. user interfaces took a leap. microphones. and others not yet invented. Computers were designed to serve the needs of people. but were merged in the mid-1990s into one field.for any one individual to understand or bridge. and a large dose of sympathy for a broad range of users. or punched holes. forcing the user to conform to the idiosyncrasies of the machine (or the programmer who wrote the software). In ATM network Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2). A unique computer account designation used to gain access to a secure or monitored system. sold originally as a hobby kit in 1984. the UI. UserID User Identification. psychology. The communications link through which a person interacts with a machine. had a window of opportunity during which they were able to make highly significant contributions to the development of the industry. philosophy. many users’ groups sprang to life. Early computer user interfaces consisted primarily of monochrome screens displaying limited text. versatile. images. Almost every change since then has been an evolutionary refinement or logical addition rather than a revolutionary change. with which the user interacts. came into being in the form of the TRS-80 and Apple computer. USITA Formerly United States Independent Telephone Association. Initially the PPT and UUI were separate fields. in its broadest sense. so inventors. rather than the other way around. albeit an exciting one. The proliferation of users’ groups is important not only for the support they provided to members. user interface UI. sound. and keyboards and monitors became standard. a knowledge of ergonomics. sought ways to encode the alphabet. User interfaces and software applications should be designed with the goal that the purpose of the technology is to improve the quality of life. a 5-bit indicator in a 3octet-header CPS packet that follows the length indicator (LI) and precedes the header error control (HEC). © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . includes the various symbolic text. It demands common sense.ch/ USOC See Universal Service Order Code. with the simplest of equipment. Historically many systems accepted only eight characters for the UserID and. The development of computer technology was no longer in the hands of large educational institutions and corporations.
ceramic insulators. The main routing information in UUCP-base networks is related to the UUCP Map and is contained in a pathalias database. UTM See Universal Transverse Mercator Projection. A UUCP Map Entry is issued when a host is registered on the UUCP system. The pole is used to support utility wires for power and telecommunications and may have crossbars and insulators. USENET. establishing it as an important catalyst for intercommunications and the development of distributed networks. UTDR Universal Trunk Data Record. and local power drops to nearby residences and businesses. especially avalanche areas. supported by rocks and guy wires). Utility Communications Architecture UCA. for a message from U © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . UUCP was quickly adopted by many educational and research institutions for disseminating mail. to reduce installation.USTA See United States Telephone Association. Unfortunately.0 GHz microwave C-band. In 1987. and to achieve secure communications through standard mechanisms. Thus. so various alternatives were tried. By the mid-1980s national networks in other countries were being set up with UUCP. and migration costs. Unix. is an open industry resource for assisting in frequency relocation. at one time in history. operations. transformers in cylindrical containers. A typical utility pole with crossarms bearing primary power lines. rodents like to chew through the wires. utilizing. UTAM Inc. UUCP was a basic networking system developed in the mid-1970s by AT&T Bell Laboratories. A comprehensive suite of communications protocols based upon open systems for use by electric utilities providers/maintainers. it was distributed with UNIX in 1977. UT1 A time reference based on Earth’s axis rotation. secondary power lines. causing almost as much interruption to service as the avalanches. UCA began at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). It is related to Coordinated Universal Time in that UTC was set to synchronize with UT1 at 0000 hours on January 1. UUCP Project. scalable architecture that can control various types of devices ranging from small local devices to those in major installations and control centers. UUCP Map A logical map describing the interconnections between intercommunicating UUCP-capable systems. UUNET was founded to provide commercial UUCP and USENET access. time-consuming business. Transmissions in inclement regions are now often sent with microwave transceiving systems rather than with wires. it was necessary to reinstall poles once or twice a year. a costly. In some areas. As UUCP spread and became an important medium for computer connectivity. Utility poles are raised with the aid of long poles with spikes on the end called pike poles. although some areas have metal poles. including laying the wire along the ground. UCA Version 2 has been developed to support the communication needs of Energy Management Systems. UUNET. 1958. in 1988. Utility Communications Architecture Forum UCA Forum. Two years later USENET. UTAM Since some of the frequencies used by incumbent carriers have now been designated for USDC services (1890 to 1930 MHz). the global public news forum. RFC 822. http://www. was established using UUCP. UUCP mail routing was taken over by the UUCP Project. UCA documents are being assessed by an IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee for review as potential IEEE standards. UCA is a flexible. Intelligent Electronic Devices. A group dedicated to promoting UCA and assisting individuals and companies in understanding. See band allocations. Remote Terminal Units. and furthering this technology. UTS Universal Telephone Service. and others. RFC 976. UTP See unshielded twisted-pair. See joint pole for more details and diagrams. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems. a solution which requires less maintenance. formats for the transmission of electronic mail through UUCP were then standardized for mixed computer environments along lines developed by ARPA. it was thought that metal poles would soon replace all the wooden poles. UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy. The standardization effort is intended to help utilities providers to intercommunicate through a variety of physical media. it was ported to many other computer architectures. UTR Universal Tone Receiver.ucaforum. UTC See Coordinated Universal Time. Due to its increasing importance. In 1997. or with industrial machines designed for the job. RFC 920. a prediction that didn’t hold true. Most poles are made from logs. See BITNET. UNIX.org/ utility pole A sturdy tall pole installed in the ground (or on the ground in mountainous areas. companies are changing their operating equipment and software to operate instead in the 2.
decvax. UWB ultra wideband. URN See Uniform Resource Name. was turned over to the UUCP Project currently coordinated by Stan Barber. In the 1980s. In the early 1980s. and chico representing familiar interlinks to those who were using the system at the time. is located in Toronto. a search for ucbvax lists the Internet mail routing entry as cs. created by Eric Ziegast. © 2002 by CRC Press LLC . UUID See Universal Unique Identifier. See UUCP. in addition to the determination of optimum data paths between systems.com!decvax!purdue!ucbvax!%s The UUCP Map can also provide information about site administrators.org to be delivered to yoursite the path might be expressed as mysite. menlo70. 3. the UUCP Map was still small enough to be represented on a single page.dec. the UUCP mail routing for UUNET site. The UUCP Mapping Project endeavored to create a single worldwide database of systems interconnected through UUCP. Internet connectivity has become ubiquitous and the situation has changed. and news feeds. UUNET A Unix-based network provider and backbone (long-haul network). UWCC See Universal Wireless Communications Consortium. UUCP grew and spread to the point where static connections/routing maps were no longer practical in the way they were in the early UUCP days. For example. Inc.org/ UUI 1. The xx designates the region.org site1!site2!midsite3!yoursite!%s Because exclamation marks are traditionally used to separate the nodes. map updates generally came from domain registrations rather than from manually submitted registrations. See unique user identifier. UXTxx The USOC code for telephony-related surcharges for emergency reporting services. this is commonly called a “bang path” and veterans of the early email days can remember typing bang paths into their email TO: headers.edu!ucbvax!%s and the UUNET mail routing entry as decwrl. UUNET Technologies Inc. MX forwarding. 2. with systems such as ucbvax.purdue.uucp. UUNET provides Internet name serving. UXTMN refers to UXT services for Minnesota. UUNET Canada. UUCP over long-distance dialup lines was the primary means by which providers. In the 1990s. For example. connectivity.mysite. and individuals received their messages. UV See ultraviolet. http://www. it was announced that UUCP Maps would likely be replaced with XML for future registrations. By 2001. is located in Virginia. There are sites on the Web that enable the UUCP Map to be queried for a specific entry. UWC See Universal Wireless Communications. From this point. UUCP Project A project initiated in the early 1980s to enable the exchange of electronic mail among communicating sites using the UUCP store-and-forward transport system. institutions. In 1997. This stimulated commercial establishment of computer networks. UUCP Map entries are available through the backbone “netdir” service. The formation of UUNET was probably due in part to the Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) focus on research and education enforced by the National Science Foundation’s NSFNET. By the 1990s. See User-to-User Indicator. See Unified User Interface. In Europe. UUNET is the only remaining significant network that uses UUCP transport for USENET messages. However.
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