Submitted to Miss.

Pooja Saini

Submitted by Jyotendra Sharma (EC-A III Yr)
1

I would like to thank God. respected HOD sir and all readable books which help me to make such a knowledgeable report. my friends. but only put a veneer over true feelings. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my mentor Miss Pooja Saini. guidance and encouragement – without which this report would not have come forth. for her vital support. which are of gratitude at this point of time. 2 . Heartily.Acknowledgement “There are the times when silence speaks so much more loudly than the words of praise to only as good as belittle a person. whose words do not express.” Firstly. dear parents.

Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science has successfully completed his project on the topic: “Ad-Hoc wireless communication” under supervision and guidance of Miss. 5th Semester. Pooja Saini HOD EC Department 3 . Teacher in charge: Miss. Pooja Saini.Certificate This is to certify that Jyotendra Sharma of Electronics & Communication.

Jyotendra Sharma 4 .Declaration I hear by declare that the present work on the Topic: “AdHoc wireless communication” is done by me myself only under the guidance of Miss. Pooja Saini .

2)-PRNet 3)-Important keywords 4)-Features of Ad-Hoc 5)-Establishment of Ad-Hoc 6)-Network Architecture 7)-Disadvantages 8).Index Table of contents Page no.1)-Motes 2. 1)-Introduction 2)-History 2.References 1 7 9 11 12 13 15 16 17 5 .

1-Introduction An ad-hoc network is a local area network (LAN) that is built spontaneously as devices connect. ad-hoc is a communication mode (setting) that allows computers to directly communicate with each other without a router. the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each other. In the Windows operating system. It is a type of peer to peer networking. 6 . Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each node in the network.

7 . Neighboring motes pick up the transmissions and forward them to their neighbors and so on. Each mote wakes up. the path that the truck is following through the field of motes. tanks etc.2-History 2. DARPA first used motes to detect enemy’s truck movement in a remote area. until the signals arrive at the collection node and are transmitted to the commander. A mote is an electronic sensor that can sense vibrations caused by massive vehicles such as trucks. senses its position and then sends out a radio signal to find its neighbors. on sensing vibration generated by heavy vehicles. The commander can now display the data on a screen and see. An airplane flies over the area and scatters thousands of motes in target area.1-MOTES: Ad-Hoc. A mote is equipped with a magnetometer and GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver that helps it to pin point its location and then can inform an administrator to know whereabouts of enemy artillery. in real time. was used as a mode of communication between military elements. in beginning.

(Figure depicting motes communicating with each other) (Figure depicting close view of motes) 8 .

Few characteristics of PRNet are:  Presence of mobile repeaters : Used to receive. They operates in zones i.  Static station for routing: This is the type of routing which is used to transmit data between various nodes.  Mobile terminals : These are the end users who shall receive data transmitted by mobile repeaters. This path followed by data is called route and route can be specified by maintaining routing table.2-PRNET : ANOTHER APPLICATION OF AD-HOC PRNet (Packet Radio Network) was to provide an efficient means of sharing broadcast radio channel among many radios. 9 . Static routing means that there is no automated way of route formation and it has to be specified manually by an administrator. Packet radio is a form of packet switching technology used to transmit digital data via radio or wireless communications links. they act as transmitter for terminals falling under there zone. Data flow in certain pattern within various nodes.2. amplify and retransmit signals.e.

10 . Not entirely infrastructure less: Unlike actual Ad-Hoc PRNet is not completely infrastructure less as it does require mobile repeaters for transmission of data and routing table has to be manually maintained unlike Ad-Hoc which uses dynamic routing. Figure depicting implementation of PRNet Static station: It is responsible for maintenance of routing table and transmission of data to mobile terminals.

it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. is a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations. metrics (distances) associated with those routes.1-Routing table: In computer networking a routing table.2-Routers: A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks. using information in its routing table or routing policy. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. Static routes are entries made in a routing table by non-automatic means and which are fixed rather than being the result of some network topology "discovery" procedure. Then.3-Important keywords: 3. and in some cases. The construction of routing tables is the primary goal of routing protocols. 3. or Routing Information Base (RIB). When a data packet comes in one of the lines. 11 . creating an overlay internetwork. The routing table contains information about the topology of the network immediately around it. the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination.

hence Ad-Hoc is very flexible and is capable of handling situations like change in geography.  Ad-Hoc wireless network can be established on the go i. Wired network transmits data through system of complex network via. routers etc. Whereas. even devices in motion can establish connection.  Supports short range communication. nodes. or addition of new user. Gateways. which gives it ace over wired networks:  It doesn’t require any established infrastructure like wired network. Ad-Hoc just require two devices which have transmission and reception capabilities and some set of protocols to transmit data. 12 .  As depicted earlier that even devices in motion can establish connection.e.4-Features of Ad-Hoc: Ad-Hoc provides us with following features.  Ad-Hoc does feature encryption of data however is not as secure as other data transmission techniques.

the routes are updated  First between B & C. B tries to determine if single hop communication is feasible and establishes a connection. If Third node C joins the network with its beacon signal. and A->C (Let’s assume bi-directional links).e. They may also include their location info if they are GPS equipped Beaconing messages are control messages.  Then between B & C again confirming that A and C both can reach each other via B.1-Bringing up an ad-hoc: Ad hoc network begins with at least two nodes broadcasting their presence (beaconing) with their respective address information. they both update their routing tables. 13 . A & B both try to determine if single hop communication is feasible II.5-Establishment of Ad-Hoc 5. Only one of the nodes e.g. all routes are direct i.  then between B & A. In first scenario. If node A is able to establish a direct communication with node B verified by appropriate control messages between them. In the second scenario. The distinct topology updates consisting of both Address and the route updates are made in three nodes immediately. two scenarios are possible: I. A->B. B->C.

So old route between A &C was A->B->C is replaced by A->D->E->C All five nodes are required to incorporate this change in their routing table This change will happen  First in nodes B & C  Then in A & E  Then in D 14 . Assume link between B & C breaks because of some reason however observe that nodes A & C are still reachable via D and E.5.2-Topology update due to link failure: Mobility of nodes may cause link breakage requiring route updates.

all is done by devices themselves. It acts as a whole i. FDD is Frequency Division Duplex (FDD).e.4 GHz. node failures etc. Wireless nodes communicate with each other without any fixed infrastructure. thus no transmission fee!! 15 . Time Division Duplex (TDD) refers to multiplexing of transmission and reception in different time periods in the same frequency band .6-Network architecture of Ad-Hoc All ad hoc networks operate in TDD (Time division duplexing) mode. And Ad-Hoc operates in unlicensed frequency band of 2. All data transmission and reception occurs in the same frequency band (there is no special node to do the frequency translation). There is no centralized control for managing the network e. Ad-Hoc is a type of distributed wireless type network. there are no dedicated hardware. Terminals have an RF or infrared interface to communicate with each other. however is not employed in present Ad-Hoc system as it increases circuit complexity. it refers to using different frequency bands for uplink and downlink transmissions. It emulates full duplex communication over a half-duplex communication link. FDD is another mode of communication.g.Time-division duplexing (TDD) is the application of time-division multiplexing to separate outward and return signals.

reception.  It is very hard to avoid packet collisions in case of wireless transmission. 16 .7-Disadvantages of wireless / Ad-Hoc communication  Wired transmission is much more secured because it consists of physical cables that have fixed destination and are buried deep inside ground so that no one can easily dig them out.in which the hacker shows himself as a host and lures the user to enter his vital information on his computer. consumes power that calls for use of huge power sources. beaconing. retransmission.  Wireless transmission.routing table changes.  Mobility affects routing.  Wireless transmission is much more prone to hacking techniques such as masking.

(23 February 2009). “How Stuff Works” – Perfect guide for beginners to understand Ad-Hoc. 3. Article on “Design and Implementation of Ad Hoc” by ChihYung Chang and Jang-Ping Sheu . Robert T.Department of Computer and Information Science. 2.8-References: 1. 17 . Aletheia University. "Ad hoc hypothesis". Carroll. 4. “Wikipedia”.Wireless Ad-Hoc network.

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