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fallacy: Rule 2 modus tollens P→Q ¬Q ∴¬P Associated Fallacy: Since the logic of argument states that P (the antecedent) implies Q (the consequent), we need to deny Q. If we were to deny the antecedent (P), we create a fallacy (Denying the Antecedent). Negative Premises: If a modus tollens argument includes a negative premise, then the argument contains a double negation. We see this in the Moral Argument, which states, ¬P If God does not exist, Q then objective moral values do not exist. ¬ Q ∴(¬¬P) Objective moral values do exist. God exists.

Since the logic of the argument states that P (the antecedent) implies Q (the consequent), we need to afﬁrm P. If we afﬁrm the consequent (Q), we create a fallacy (Afﬁrming the Consequent).

The double negation (¬¬P) is logically an afﬁrmation of P. N.B.: “Only if ” creates a necessary condition (Q).

James Porter Moreland and William Lane Craig. Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2003. pp. 29–67

1

and let Q symbolize “he did not have his glasses. P→Q Q→R ¬R P→R ¬P Rule 4 Conjunction P and Q P&Q The & symbol stands for any grammatical coordination or subordination. the following sentence would still be take the symbol & for its logical form: Jack wrote the letter.Rule 3 Hypothetical Syllogism P→Q Q→R ∴P→R N. even though (&) he did not have his glasses. we can demonstrate that R is a necessary condition to Q and P. we afﬁrm P (modus ponens see rule 1). Thus. it is best to let the symbol stand for the essential element of the proposition.” and “even though” is symbolized by &.: You do not have to use P/Q. We let P symbolize “Jack wrote the letter. For example.” N. P→Q Q→R P P→R R The argument begins with a Hypothetical Syllogism (Rule 3). Thus.: Rules can be combined.B. . we could symbolize the above with L & G. Based upon the sufﬁciency of P for Q .B. We can do likewise with modus tollens. For memory purposes. in our case. For example. The above example employs both a Hypothetical Syllogism and a modus ponens to demonstrate R. and conclude R.

Rule 5 Simpliﬁcation P & Q P&Q ∴ P ∴Q “The main usefulness of this rule is that if you have the premise P & Q and you need either P by itself of Q by itself to draw a conclusion. 36). simpliﬁcation can give it to you” (p. The rule states. which indications a disjunction. P implies itself but is restated with Q. N. Craig and Moreland note. 37).36).B. One of the propositions (P or Q) only need to be true for a valid inference. “if P is true. “The main use for absorption will be in cases where you need to have P & Q in order to take a further step in the argument” (p. then ‘P ∨ Q’ is also true” (p. P (P ∨ Q) → R P∨Q ∴R . P→Q (P & Q) → R P → (P & Q) P→R Rule 7 Addition This rule of inference introduces the symbol ∨ (or). For example. P&Q P→R P R Rule 6 Absorption P→Q ∴ P → (P & Q) This is tautology. In other words.: Addition is another rule that can be used enhance your argument.

P ∨ Q ¬ P ∴ Q P∨Q ¬Q ∴P Rule 9 Constructive Dilemma (P → Q) & (R → S) P∨R ∴Q∨S . in which case the propositions are not mutually exclusive. In other words P is mutually exclusive from ¬ P. its antithesis is false.Rule 8 Disjunctive Syllogism The rule states if one proposition is true. This rule is an inference from the rule of excluded middle. then its disjunct is false. which states that if a proposition is true. If both propositions in a disjunctive syllogism are either true or false. then a third option exists.

Summary of Sentential Logic/Propositional Logic

Summary of Sentential Logic/Propositional Logic

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