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TOPIC 3: TRIGONOMETRY

3.0 Radians and degrees

π rad = 180°

Example 1: Conversion between radians and degrees.

(a) 1
2
π rad = ° (e) 300° = rad

(b) 3
2
π rad = ° (f) 270° = rad

(c) 2π rad = ° (g) 90° = rad

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(d) 4
π rad = ° (h) 45° = rad

3.1.1 Secant θ, cosecant θ, cotangent θ (sec θ, cosec θ, cot θ)

(a) sin θ = (d) cosec θ =

(b) cos θ = (e) sec θ =

(c) tan θ = (f) cot θ =

Trigonometry identity
cos2θ + sin2θ = 1
cot2θ + 1 = cosec2θ
1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ

Example 2
2 5  2  3
Find the exact values of (a) sec , (b) cosec , (c) cot    , (d) sec
3 6  3  4

3.1.2 Quadrants and angles
Complementary angles
sin (90° – θ) = cos θ,
cos (90° – θ) = sin θ,
tan (90°– θ) = 1/ tan θ = cot θ

Positve angles in all four quadrants
sin θ = sin (180° - θ) = - sin (180°+ θ) = - sin (360° - θ)
cos θ = - cos (180° - θ) = - cos (180°+ θ) = cos (360° - θ)
tan θ = - tan (180° - θ) = tan (180°+ θ) = - tan (360° - θ)
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Negative angles in all four quadrants
sin θ = - sin (- θ) = -sin [-(180° - θ)] = sin [-(180° + θ)] = sin [-(360° - θ)]
cos θ = cos (- θ) = - cos [-(180° - θ)] = - cos [-(180° + θ)] = cos [-(360° - θ)]
tan θ = - tan (- θ) = tan [-(180° - θ)] = - tan [-(180° + θ)] = tan [-(360° - θ)]

Example 3
List down all the angles between -2π and 4π with the same secant value as 52  .

Example 4
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Given that sin x = , where x is obtuse, find the exact value of
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(i) cosec2 x, (ii) cos2 x, (iii) sec x, (iv)cot x

Testing your skills
P. 68, Exercise 5A 2, 3, 5, 6.

Exercise 3.1: Secant, Cosecant, Cotangent

1. Simplify the following:
(a) sec(π – x)
cos x
(b)
sin x
(c) sec (- x)
(d) 1 + tan2 x
(e) cot (π + x)
(f) cosec (π + x)

2. Find the exact value of:
(a) sec 14 
(b) cosec 12 π
(c) cot 56 
(d) cosec (- 34  )
(e) cot(- 13  )
(f) sec (- 136  )
(g) cot(  112  )
(h) sec 76 

3. Given that sin A  53 , where A is acute, and cos B   12 , where B is obtuse, find the
exact values of
(a) sec A,
(b) cot A,
(c) cot B,
(d) cosec B.

4. Given that cosec C = 7, sin2 D = 12 and tan2 E = 4, find the possible values of cot C,
sec D and cosec E, giving your answers in exact form.
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3.2 Graphs of trigonometric functions and its applications

(a) y = sin θ

(b) y = cosec θ = (sin θ)–1

(c) y = cos θ

(d) y = sec θ = (cos θ)–1
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3.2 (cont.) Graphs of trigonometric functions and its applications

(e) y = tan θ = (sin θ) / (cos θ)

(f) y = cot θ = (cos θ) / (sin θ)

Applications of the graph to find the number of solutions for an equation

Example 5
Given the θ is in the interval of -360° ≤ θ ≤ 720°, how many values of θ satisfy the
equation cos θ = cos 20°.

Example 6
Given the range θ is in the interval of 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°, state the number of values of θ
satisfying the equation cosec θ = cosec (– 30°).

Example 7
State all the solutions of the equation: cot θ = cot(-150°), where θ is in the interval -
180° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.

Example 8
By sketching suitable graph, show that the equation

sec x = 3 – x2

has exactly one root in the interval 0 < x < ½ π.
Hence, state the number of solution in the interval –π < x < π.
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Exercise 3.2: Using graphs of trigonometry

1. The diagram shows a curved rod AB of
length 100 cm which forms an arc of a
circle. The end points A and B of the rod are
99 cm apart. The circle has radius r cm and
the arc AB subtends an angle of 2α radians
at O, the centre of the circle.

(i) Show that α satisfies the equation
99
x  sin x . [3]
100
(ii) By sketching suitable graph, show that this equation has exactly one root in the
interval 0 < x < ½ π. [2]
(iii)Hence, state the number of root of this equation in the interval -π < x < π. [2]

2. By sketching a suitable graph of graphs, show that the equation

cosec x = ½ x + 1,

where x is in radians, has a root in the interval 0 < x < ½ π. [2]

3. By sketching a suitable pair of graphs, show that the equation

2 cot x = 1 + ex,

where x is in radians, has only one root in the interval 0 < x < ½ π. [2]

4. By the graph of the trigonometric ratios from note 3.2, state the number of solutions
for the following equations for -180° ≤ θ ≤ 720°.
(a) tan θ = tan 70°
(b) sin θ = sin -10°
(c) sec θ = sec 180°
(d) cosec θ = cosec 35°
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3.3 Trigonometric Functions On Sum And Difference Of Angles

(i) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
(ii) sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B
(iii) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
(iv) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
tan A  tan B
(v) tan (A + B) =
1  tan A tan B
tan A  tan B
(vi) tan (A – B) =
1  tan A tan B

Special angles:

θ = 30° θ = 45° θ = 60°

sin 30° = sin 45° = sin 60° =

cos 30° = cos 45° = cos 60° =

tan 30° = tan 45° = tan 60° =

Example 9
Find the exact value of (a) sin 15° and (b) tan 105°.

Example 10
Without using a calculator, find the exact value of
1 1  tan 15 
(a) (cos 75   sin 75  ) (b)
2 1  tan 15 

Example 11
8 12 1
You are given that sin A = , that sin B = , and that 0 < B <  < A < π. Find the
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exact value of tan (A + B) and cos (A – B)
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Exercise 3.3: Trigonometric Functions On Sum And Difference Of Angles

1. Find the exact value of
(a) sin 75°
(b) cos 105°
(c) tan (-15°)
(d) cot 75°

2. Find the value of :
1 1
(a) sin 80° cos 70° + cos 80° sin 70° (d) cos 15° –sin 15°
2 2
3 1
(b) cos 105°cos 15° + sin 105°sin 15° (e) sin60 + cos 60°
2 2
tan 40   tan 20 
(c)
1  tan 40  tan 20 

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3. If sinA = and sin B = , angles A and B are acute, find
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(a) cos A (d) sin (A + B)
(b) cos B (e) cos (A + B)
(c) tan B (f) tan (A + B)

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4. If cos A = and cos B =  , angles A is acute and B is obtuse, find
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(a) sin A (c) sin (A – B)
(b) sin B (d) cos (A – B)

3.4: Solving equations with double angles, sec2θ and cosec2θ

Double angles
sin 2A = 2sin A cos A
cos 2A = cos2 A – sin2 A
= 2cos2 A – 1
= 1 – 2sin2 A
2 tan A
tan 2 A 
1  tan 2 A

Trigonometry identities
sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1
tan2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ
1 + cot2 θ = cosec2 θ

Example 12
Solve the equation 1 – 2sin θ – 4 cos 2θ = 0, for all values of θ from 0° to 360°.

Example 13
Solve the equation tan 2x + 5 tan x = 0 for all values of θ from 0° to 360°.

Example 14
2
Given that θ is obtuse with sin θ = , find cos 2θ and tan 2θ.
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Exercise 3.4: Solving double angles’ trigonometric equations

1. Solve the following equations for 0° ≤ x ≤ 360°.
(a) cos 2x = 5 cos x + 2
(b) 3 cos 2x + 1 = 2 sinx
(c) cos x + 3 cos 2x = 2
(d) 4 sin x = 7 tan 2x

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2. Given that x is acute such that cos x = , find the exact values of
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(a) sin 2x
(b) cos 2x

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3. Given that cos B = , find the exact values of cos 2B and cos ½ B.
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4. If cos 2A = , find the possible values of cos A and sin A.
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5. If tan 2A = , find the possible values of tan A.
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6. The diagram shows a sector OAB of a circle with
centre O and radius r. The angle AOB is α radians,
where 0 < α < ½ π. The point N on OA is such that
BN is perpendicular to OA. The area of the triangle
ONB is half the area of the sector OAB.
(i) Show that α satisfies the equation sin 2x = x.
(ii) By sketching a suitable pair of graphs, show
that this equation has exactly one root in the
interval 0 < x < ½ π. [5]

3.5 Expression a sin θ + b cos θ in the form R sin(θ + α) or R cos (θ + α)

b
Given that R = a 2  b 2 , tan   :
a
(i) a sin θ + b cos θ ≡ R sin(θ + α),
(ii) a sin θ – b cos θ ≡ R sin(θ – α),
(iii) a cos θ + b sin θ ≡ R cos(θ – α),
(iv) a sin θ – b cos θ ≡ R cos(θ + α)

Example 15
Solve the equation 3 cos θ – sin θ = 1, for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°. Hence find the solutions of the
equation, giving your answer to the nearest 0.1°.

Example 16
Express 3 cos θ + 4 sin θ, in the form R cos(θ – α). Hence find the:
(a) maximum value of 3 cos θ + 4 sin θ
(b) minimum value of 3 cos θ + 4 sin θ
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(c) minimum value of
3 cos   4 sin   8
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Ex 3.5: Expression a sin θ + b cos θ in the form R sin(θ + α) or R cos (θ + α)

1. Solve the following equation for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.
(a) 8 sin θ – 15 cos θ – 10 = 0
(b) 3 cos θ + 7 sin θ = – 3

2. Express in the given form, and hence find the maximum and minimum values of
(a) sin θ + 2 cos θ; Rsin(θ + α)
(b) 2cos θ – sin θ; Rcos (θ + α)

3. Express cos x + ( 3 )sin x in the form R cos (x – α), giving the exact values of R
and α such that R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ 90°. Hence find the solutions of the equation cos
x + ( 3 )sin x = 2 , giving your answer exactly in degrees.

4. Express 3 cos θ – 5 sin θ in the form R cos( θ + α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ ½ π.
Hence, or otherwise, find the solutions of the equation 3 cos θ – 5 sin θ = 2, giving
your answer correct to 3 significant figures.

5. Express 5 cos θ + sin θ in the form R cos( θ – α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ 90°.
Hence state the maximum value of 5 cos θ + sin θ.

6. Express 8 sin x + 6 cos x in the form R sin ( θ + α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ ½ π.
Hence state the minimum value of 8 sin x + 6 cos x.

7. Express 4 sinθ – 3 cos θ in the form R sin(θ – α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ 90°.
Stating the value of α correct to 2 decimal places.
Hence solve the equation 4 sin θ – 3 cos θ = 2, giving all values of θ such that 0°
≤ θ ≤ 360°.
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Write down the greatest value of .
4 sin   3 cos   6

8. Express 5 sin θ + 12 cos θ in the form R sin (θ + α), where R is positive and α is acute,
giving the value of α to the nearest 0.1°. Hence solve the equation 6 sec θ – 5
tan θ = 12, for values of θ lying between 0° and 360°, giving your answer to the
nearest 0.1°.
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3.6 Proving Trigonometrical Identities

(i) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
(ii) sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B
(iii) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
(iv) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
tan A  tan B
(v) tan (A + B) =
1  tan A tan B
tan A  tan B
(vi) tan (A – B) =
1  tan A tan B
(vii) sin 2A = 2sin A cos A
(viii) cos 2A = cos2 A – sin2 A = 1 – 2sin2 A = 2cos2 A – 1
2 tan A
(ix) tan 2 A 
1  tan 2 A

Example 17
(a) Prove that cos θ – cos 3θ = 4 sin2 θ cos θ.
(b) Prove that cos 3θ = 4 cos3 θ – 3 cos θ.
(c) Prove the identity cot x– cot 2x = cosec 2x.
(d) Prove that sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) = 2 sin A cos B.

Ex 3.6: Proving Trigonometrical Identities

1. Prove tan θ + cot θ = 2 cosec 2θ [3]
2. Prove that cos 2θ + tan θ sin 2θ = 1. [4]
By letting θ = 15°, find the exact value of tan 15°.
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3. Prove that identity tan A + cot A = . Hence, or otherwise, solve the equation
sin 2 A
tan (θ + 45°) + cot (θ + 45°) = 4, giving all the solutions in the interval 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.
[5]
4. Prove the identity cot θ – tan θ = 2 cot 2θ. [3]

5.

6.

7.