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You are on page 1of 10

TOPIC 3: TRIGONOMETRY

3.0 Radians and degrees

π rad = 180°

Example 1: Conversion between radians and degrees.

(a) 1

2

π rad = ° (e) 300° = rad

(b) 3

2

π rad = ° (f) 270° = rad

(c) 2π rad = ° (g) 90° = rad

3

(d) 4

π rad = ° (h) 45° = rad

3.1.1 Secant θ, cosecant θ, cotangent θ (sec θ, cosec θ, cot θ)

(a) sin θ = (d) cosec θ =

(b) cos θ = (e) sec θ =

(c) tan θ = (f) cot θ =

Trigonometry identity

cos2θ + sin2θ = 1

cot2θ + 1 = cosec2θ

1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ

Example 2

2 5 2 3

Find the exact values of (a) sec , (b) cosec , (c) cot , (d) sec

3 6 3 4

**3.1.2 Quadrants and angles
**

Complementary angles

sin (90° – θ) = cos θ,

cos (90° – θ) = sin θ,

tan (90°– θ) = 1/ tan θ = cot θ

**Positve angles in all four quadrants
**

sin θ = sin (180° - θ) = - sin (180°+ θ) = - sin (360° - θ)

cos θ = - cos (180° - θ) = - cos (180°+ θ) = cos (360° - θ)

tan θ = - tan (180° - θ) = tan (180°+ θ) = - tan (360° - θ)

Page 2

Negative angles in all four quadrants

sin θ = - sin (- θ) = -sin [-(180° - θ)] = sin [-(180° + θ)] = sin [-(360° - θ)]

cos θ = cos (- θ) = - cos [-(180° - θ)] = - cos [-(180° + θ)] = cos [-(360° - θ)]

tan θ = - tan (- θ) = tan [-(180° - θ)] = - tan [-(180° + θ)] = tan [-(360° - θ)]

Example 3

List down all the angles between -2π and 4π with the same secant value as 52 .

Example 4

2

Given that sin x = , where x is obtuse, find the exact value of

5

(i) cosec2 x, (ii) cos2 x, (iii) sec x, (iv)cot x

**Testing your skills
**

P. 68, Exercise 5A 2, 3, 5, 6.

Exercise 3.1: Secant, Cosecant, Cotangent

**1. Simplify the following:
**

(a) sec(π – x)

cos x

(b)

sin x

(c) sec (- x)

(d) 1 + tan2 x

(e) cot (π + x)

(f) cosec (π + x)

**2. Find the exact value of:
**

(a) sec 14

(b) cosec 12 π

(c) cot 56

(d) cosec (- 34 )

(e) cot(- 13 )

(f) sec (- 136 )

(g) cot( 112 )

(h) sec 76

**3. Given that sin A 53 , where A is acute, and cos B 12 , where B is obtuse, find the
**

exact values of

(a) sec A,

(b) cot A,

(c) cot B,

(d) cosec B.

**4. Given that cosec C = 7, sin2 D = 12 and tan2 E = 4, find the possible values of cot C,
**

sec D and cosec E, giving your answers in exact form.

Page 3

3.2 Graphs of trigonometric functions and its applications

(a) y = sin θ

(b) y = cosec θ = (sin θ)–1

(c) y = cos θ

(d) y = sec θ = (cos θ)–1

Page 4

3.2 (cont.) Graphs of trigonometric functions and its applications

(e) y = tan θ = (sin θ) / (cos θ)

(f) y = cot θ = (cos θ) / (sin θ)

Applications of the graph to find the number of solutions for an equation

Example 5

Given the θ is in the interval of -360° ≤ θ ≤ 720°, how many values of θ satisfy the

equation cos θ = cos 20°.

Example 6

Given the range θ is in the interval of 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°, state the number of values of θ

satisfying the equation cosec θ = cosec (– 30°).

Example 7

State all the solutions of the equation: cot θ = cot(-150°), where θ is in the interval -

180° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.

Example 8

By sketching suitable graph, show that the equation

sec x = 3 – x2

**has exactly one root in the interval 0 < x < ½ π.
**

Hence, state the number of solution in the interval –π < x < π.

Page 5

Exercise 3.2: Using graphs of trigonometry

**1. The diagram shows a curved rod AB of
**

length 100 cm which forms an arc of a

circle. The end points A and B of the rod are

99 cm apart. The circle has radius r cm and

the arc AB subtends an angle of 2α radians

at O, the centre of the circle.

**(i) Show that α satisfies the equation
**

99

x sin x . [3]

100

(ii) By sketching suitable graph, show that this equation has exactly one root in the

interval 0 < x < ½ π. [2]

(iii)Hence, state the number of root of this equation in the interval -π < x < π. [2]

2. By sketching a suitable graph of graphs, show that the equation

cosec x = ½ x + 1,

where x is in radians, has a root in the interval 0 < x < ½ π. [2]

3. By sketching a suitable pair of graphs, show that the equation

2 cot x = 1 + ex,

where x is in radians, has only one root in the interval 0 < x < ½ π. [2]

**4. By the graph of the trigonometric ratios from note 3.2, state the number of solutions
**

for the following equations for -180° ≤ θ ≤ 720°.

(a) tan θ = tan 70°

(b) sin θ = sin -10°

(c) sec θ = sec 180°

(d) cosec θ = cosec 35°

Page 6

3.3 Trigonometric Functions On Sum And Difference Of Angles

**(i) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
**

(ii) sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B

(iii) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B

(iv) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

tan A tan B

(v) tan (A + B) =

1 tan A tan B

tan A tan B

(vi) tan (A – B) =

1 tan A tan B

Special angles:

θ = 30° θ = 45° θ = 60°

sin 30° = sin 45° = sin 60° =

cos 30° = cos 45° = cos 60° =

tan 30° = tan 45° = tan 60° =

Example 9

Find the exact value of (a) sin 15° and (b) tan 105°.

Example 10

Without using a calculator, find the exact value of

1 1 tan 15

(a) (cos 75 sin 75 ) (b)

2 1 tan 15

Example 11

8 12 1

You are given that sin A = , that sin B = , and that 0 < B < < A < π. Find the

17 13 2

exact value of tan (A + B) and cos (A – B)

Page 7

Exercise 3.3: Trigonometric Functions On Sum And Difference Of Angles

**1. Find the exact value of
**

(a) sin 75°

(b) cos 105°

(c) tan (-15°)

(d) cot 75°

**2. Find the value of :
**

1 1

(a) sin 80° cos 70° + cos 80° sin 70° (d) cos 15° –sin 15°

2 2

3 1

(b) cos 105°cos 15° + sin 105°sin 15° (e) sin60 + cos 60°

2 2

tan 40 tan 20

(c)

1 tan 40 tan 20

12 4

3. If sinA = and sin B = , angles A and B are acute, find

13 5

(a) cos A (d) sin (A + B)

(b) cos B (e) cos (A + B)

(c) tan B (f) tan (A + B)

5 1

4. If cos A = and cos B = , angles A is acute and B is obtuse, find

7 5

(a) sin A (c) sin (A – B)

(b) sin B (d) cos (A – B)

3.4: Solving equations with double angles, sec2θ and cosec2θ

Double angles

sin 2A = 2sin A cos A

cos 2A = cos2 A – sin2 A

= 2cos2 A – 1

= 1 – 2sin2 A

2 tan A

tan 2 A

1 tan 2 A

Trigonometry identities

sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1

tan2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ

1 + cot2 θ = cosec2 θ

Example 12

Solve the equation 1 – 2sin θ – 4 cos 2θ = 0, for all values of θ from 0° to 360°.

Example 13

Solve the equation tan 2x + 5 tan x = 0 for all values of θ from 0° to 360°.

Example 14

2

Given that θ is obtuse with sin θ = , find cos 2θ and tan 2θ.

3

Page 8

Exercise 3.4: Solving double angles’ trigonometric equations

**1. Solve the following equations for 0° ≤ x ≤ 360°.
**

(a) cos 2x = 5 cos x + 2

(b) 3 cos 2x + 1 = 2 sinx

(c) cos x + 3 cos 2x = 2

(d) 4 sin x = 7 tan 2x

3

2. Given that x is acute such that cos x = , find the exact values of

5

(a) sin 2x

(b) cos 2x

3

3. Given that cos B = , find the exact values of cos 2B and cos ½ B.

4

7

4. If cos 2A = , find the possible values of cos A and sin A.

18

12

5. If tan 2A = , find the possible values of tan A.

5

**6. The diagram shows a sector OAB of a circle with
**

centre O and radius r. The angle AOB is α radians,

where 0 < α < ½ π. The point N on OA is such that

BN is perpendicular to OA. The area of the triangle

ONB is half the area of the sector OAB.

(i) Show that α satisfies the equation sin 2x = x.

(ii) By sketching a suitable pair of graphs, show

that this equation has exactly one root in the

interval 0 < x < ½ π. [5]

3.5 Expression a sin θ + b cos θ in the form R sin(θ + α) or R cos (θ + α)

b

Given that R = a 2 b 2 , tan :

a

(i) a sin θ + b cos θ ≡ R sin(θ + α),

(ii) a sin θ – b cos θ ≡ R sin(θ – α),

(iii) a cos θ + b sin θ ≡ R cos(θ – α),

(iv) a sin θ – b cos θ ≡ R cos(θ + α)

Example 15

Solve the equation 3 cos θ – sin θ = 1, for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°. Hence find the solutions of the

equation, giving your answer to the nearest 0.1°.

Example 16

Express 3 cos θ + 4 sin θ, in the form R cos(θ – α). Hence find the:

(a) maximum value of 3 cos θ + 4 sin θ

(b) minimum value of 3 cos θ + 4 sin θ

1

(c) minimum value of

3 cos 4 sin 8

Page 9

Ex 3.5: Expression a sin θ + b cos θ in the form R sin(θ + α) or R cos (θ + α)

**1. Solve the following equation for 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.
**

(a) 8 sin θ – 15 cos θ – 10 = 0

(b) 3 cos θ + 7 sin θ = – 3

**2. Express in the given form, and hence find the maximum and minimum values of
**

(a) sin θ + 2 cos θ; Rsin(θ + α)

(b) 2cos θ – sin θ; Rcos (θ + α)

**3. Express cos x + ( 3 )sin x in the form R cos (x – α), giving the exact values of R
**

and α such that R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ 90°. Hence find the solutions of the equation cos

x + ( 3 )sin x = 2 , giving your answer exactly in degrees.

**4. Express 3 cos θ – 5 sin θ in the form R cos( θ + α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ ½ π.
**

Hence, or otherwise, find the solutions of the equation 3 cos θ – 5 sin θ = 2, giving

your answer correct to 3 significant figures.

**5. Express 5 cos θ + sin θ in the form R cos( θ – α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ 90°.
**

Hence state the maximum value of 5 cos θ + sin θ.

**6. Express 8 sin x + 6 cos x in the form R sin ( θ + α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ ½ π.
**

Hence state the minimum value of 8 sin x + 6 cos x.

**7. Express 4 sinθ – 3 cos θ in the form R sin(θ – α), where R > 0, and 0° ≤ α ≤ 90°.
**

Stating the value of α correct to 2 decimal places.

Hence solve the equation 4 sin θ – 3 cos θ = 2, giving all values of θ such that 0°

≤ θ ≤ 360°.

1

Write down the greatest value of .

4 sin 3 cos 6

**8. Express 5 sin θ + 12 cos θ in the form R sin (θ + α), where R is positive and α is acute,
**

giving the value of α to the nearest 0.1°. Hence solve the equation 6 sec θ – 5

tan θ = 12, for values of θ lying between 0° and 360°, giving your answer to the

nearest 0.1°.

Page 10

3.6 Proving Trigonometrical Identities

**(i) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
**

(ii) sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B

(iii) cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B

(iv) cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

tan A tan B

(v) tan (A + B) =

1 tan A tan B

tan A tan B

(vi) tan (A – B) =

1 tan A tan B

(vii) sin 2A = 2sin A cos A

(viii) cos 2A = cos2 A – sin2 A = 1 – 2sin2 A = 2cos2 A – 1

2 tan A

(ix) tan 2 A

1 tan 2 A

Example 17

(a) Prove that cos θ – cos 3θ = 4 sin2 θ cos θ.

(b) Prove that cos 3θ = 4 cos3 θ – 3 cos θ.

(c) Prove the identity cot x– cot 2x = cosec 2x.

(d) Prove that sin (A + B) + sin (A – B) = 2 sin A cos B.

Ex 3.6: Proving Trigonometrical Identities

**1. Prove tan θ + cot θ = 2 cosec 2θ [3]
**

2. Prove that cos 2θ + tan θ sin 2θ = 1. [4]

By letting θ = 15°, find the exact value of tan 15°.

2

3. Prove that identity tan A + cot A = . Hence, or otherwise, solve the equation

sin 2 A

tan (θ + 45°) + cot (θ + 45°) = 4, giving all the solutions in the interval 0° ≤ θ ≤ 360°.

[5]

4. Prove the identity cot θ – tan θ = 2 cot 2θ. [3]

5.

6.

7.

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