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VICTORIA SCHOOL Name: ____________________

( )
SEC 1 HISTORY
CHAPTER 3: CIVILIZATION Class: ________________

SOURCE BASED QUESTION:
INFERENCING
MR. LESLIE TAY

WHAT IT MEANS?

To infer from a source means to use given information and clues from the source to arrive at a
conclusion about an event or issue or topic when the answer is not obvious. In other words, an
inference is made by reading between the lines.

LORMS

L1 DESCRIBES THE SOURCE/ LIFTING FROM SOURCE (1)
L2 INFERENCE UNSUPPORTED (2-3)
L3 INFERENCE SUPPORTED (4-5)
L4 PURPOSE/ INTENT OF SOURCE (6)

YOU DO NOT NEED L1 AND L2 TO GET L3 BUT YOU NEED L3 TO REACH L4.

SUGGESTED ANSWERING FORMAT

We can infer from Source A that …........your inference................ We know this as Source A shows
…...........your evidence................. This suggests that ….........elaboration of evidence.............., thus
allowing us to infer that …............your inference...................

*Most students are able to make inferences and find the required evidence to support their inference but
they often fail in elaborating/ explaining how the evidence supports their inferences.

COMMON MISTAKES/ EXAM TIPS

• Read the question and highlight the keywords. You must make inferences with regards to the
subject that the question is asking. Any inferences that do not relate to the question will get
ZERO.

• Inference is not simply lifting/ quoting from source.

• An inference is an INTELLECTUAL CONCLUSION (that is well supported), not a WILD
GUESS.

• One supported inference per paragraph. This would aid the examiner in giving you your marks.

• Quote any words that you lift from the source. Source A says “......................” Your quotes
should be kept as short as possible.

• Make 3 inferences if you are unsure if one of your inferences is correct. You need two correct
supported inferences to get the marks. Having said that, you have to manage your time
accordingly. Do not give more than 3 inferences as you will be eating into the time for your
other questions. Remember inferencing questions are supposed to be lower order thinking
questions which should be done within 5-7 mins. The rest of the time should be left for the
higher order thinking questions ( i.e. usefulness, reliability)

BECAUSE PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT.....

SOURCE A : A HISTORIANS ACCOUNT OF THE SHANG CIVILIZATION

The most striking picture of China in the Shang period is revealed by
the big royal tombs discovered in Anyang between 1927 and 1936.
They comprise a big rectangular grave on a north-south axis, with a
smaller, deeper central grave. The royal coffin, made of wood, lay
above the central grave, in which a dog has been sacrificed.
Surrounding this grave were the remains of men-at-arms, doubtless
the companions and servants of the kings- his chariot with its horses
and their driver, pottery bronze vases, and other objects of value.

Study Source A. What does it tell you about the religious beliefs of the Shang people ?
(5 marks)

SOURCE B: A VIEW ABOUT FUNANESE CIVILIZATION TAKEN FROM THE INTERNET

Funan had increasing contact with India through the travels of
merchants, diplomats and learned Brahmans (Hindus of the highest
caste traditionally assigned to priesthood). Indian immigrants were
believed to have arrived in the fourth and the fifth century CE, court
ceremony and the structure of political institutions were based on
Indian models. The Sanskrit language was also widely used.

Study Source B. What can you infer from Source C about Funan's relationship with India ?
(5 marks)
SOURCE C: AN ARTIST IMPRESSION OF THE CITY OF HARAPPA

Study Source C. What can you infer about the city of Harappa from this source ? (5 marks)

SOURCE D: A HISTORIAN ACCOUNT ON THE SHANG PEOPLE

The Shang were masters of the crafts with great skills of carving
fine jade wares, stone wares and ivory wares brilliantly decorated.
Textile workers invented simple jacquard loom, which could
produce high-quality silk fabric with hidden pattern. The Shang
people demonstrated talents in medicine, transportation and
astronomy. There are schools of Sino Archeological thought that
believe that the Shang colonized the Northwestern United States as
the art of the Northwest Indians is strikingly Shang.

Study Source D. What does it tell you about the people in the Shang Dynasty ? (5 marks)
SOURCE E: AN ACCOUNT ON THE FUNANESE CULTURE

Funanese culture was a mixture of native beliefs and Indian idea. Many
Southeast Asian believed the cobra to be sacred and the introduction of
the Indian naga was quickly absorbed by the locals. The kingdom is said
to have employed Indians for state administration purposes. Sanskrit was
the language at the court, and the Funanese advocated Hindu and, after
the fifth century, Buddhist religious doctrines.

Study Source E. What can you infer from Source E about the culture in Funan? (5 marks)

SOURCE F: A TRANSLATION ON THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN FROM ANCIENT
CHINA

The Mandate of Heaven was introduced by the Zhous and is based on
four principles:

The right to rule is granted by Heaven.
There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler.
The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler.
The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty.

Study Source F. What does Source F tell you about how the Ancient Chinese perceive their ruling
system? ( 6 marks)

SOURCE G: AN ACCOUNT ON THE CHINESE’S IMPRESSION ON THE FUNANESE
PEOPLE

Normally the Chinese are not impressed by the accomplishments of other
people, but Funan's visitors brought back a favorable report of the
country's Malay upper class, which had palaces, abundant treasures, and a
system of writing related to Sanskrit. Most of the people, however, were
apparently Negrito, for one Chinese described them as "ugly and black",
with frizzy hair. This same ambassador was offended by the sight of the
Negritos walking around naked, and when he told this to the king of Funan,
a law was passed requiring all to wear clothing in public.

Study Source G. What can you infer from Source G about the Chinese’s opinion of the Funan
people? (5 marks)