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VICTORIA SCHOOL SEC 1 HISTORY

CHAPTERSCHOOL
3: CIVILIZATION Name: ____________________ ( )
VICTORIA SEC 1 HISTORY
COMPARING ANCIENT INDIA, CHINA AND SEA
CHAPTER 3: CIVILIZATION
MR. LESLIE TAY Class: ________________
COMPARING ANCIENT INDIA, CHINA AND SEA
MR. LESLIE TAY

INDUS ANCIENT CHINA EARLY SEA
Periods Indus Civilization Yangshao and Longshan Villages Beginning of SEA Civilization
c. 2500 - c.1200 BCE c. 3000 BCE c. 6000 BCE

Rise of Powerful Kingdoms Shang Dynasty Funan Kingdom
600 - 322 BCE 1523 -1027 BCE 1st- 6th Century CE

Mauryan Empire Western Zhou Dynasty Srivijaya Kingdom
• c. 322 -185 BCE 1027 - 771 BCE 7th- 13th Century CE

Eastern Zhou Dynasty
771 - 221 BCE

Qin Dynasty
221 – 206 BCE

Location and Indus Plain, near Indus River Valley of Yellow River in North China Mainland SEA with rivers such as
Water Source Modern Day Luoyang and Anyang Mekong and Irrawaddy

Island SEA, thousands of islands in
South China Sea
Predecessors Pottery Neolithic Xia Dynasty (Not historically proven) SEA Culture
Yangshao and Longshan (3000 BCE) (Dongsan Culture)
Main Cities Mohenjodara, Harappa, Lothal No fixed capitals Oc-eo (Funan), Palambang (Srivijaya)
INDUS ANCIENT CHINA EARLY SEA
Government • Very much unknown. • Ruled by a dynasty of kings (from the • Ruled by kings/ sultans
same family line)
• But the fact that the city was • Officials help kings/ sultans govern
well-planned (Drainage • Kings lived in a capital city, from by collecting taxes especially for
system- sanitation, citadel- which they ruled the surrounding the maritime kingdom whenever
defence, granary- food storage villages and smaller cities. ships docked at ports.
and the Great Bath- leisure)
shows that there must have • Presence of palaces, temples and • Religion played an important part
been a system of efficient storage houses in governance.
government.

• No major palaces built show us
that whoever was ruling did so
humbly.

• Presence of “priest king”
sculpture led some historians
to predict that Ancient India
was ruled by priest kings.

Occupations • Farmers who grew crops such • Mostly farmers, traders, priests and • Presence of craftmen, fishermen,
as wheat, barley and dates. Use craftsmen. sailors, traders and priests
of ploughs.
• Shang craftmen were able to make • There were also people who built
• Utensils, bronze tools and intricate bronze objects such as and repaired ships.
other artifacts show that there weapons, winecups and jugs.
were craftmen who made these • Officials were responsible for
items. • Craftmen also made beautiful silk bringing in trade and protecting
clothes and jade ornaments for the foreign traders.
• Public baths used for religious kings and their family.
bathing suggests that there • Cities were crowded with people
were priests who conducted from different countries and
religious ceremonies. different cultures.
INDUS ANCIENT CHINA EARLY SEA
Writing • Pictographic • Pictographic • Sanskrit borrowed from the India

• Still undeciphered • Formed the basis of the Chinese script • Development of own writing
today system- Jawi (Malay using Arabic
• Writings were found on stone alphabets)
seals which were probably • Found on oracle bones made of bones
used as form of personal of animals/ turtle shells
identification
Religion • Worshipped animals such as • Belief in higher God: Shang Di. • Hinduism
bulls Presence of temples. Kings had to
make sacrificial offerings to Gods • Buddhism
• No major religious buildings
found • Ancestor worship • Presence of majestic temples
(Angkor Wat in Cambodia)
• Elaborate Burials
Trade • Presence of bazaars/ artisans • Very complex system of trade • Villages on coast acted as ports
quarter, coppersmiths and where goods are traded
other specialists piled their • Main trading place was probably the
trade market where the commoners could • Goods that were traded included
barter or use cowry shells, the Shang ivory, coconut, rice, bronze tools.
• High level of intercommunity currency, to buy stuff.
trade • Rice farmers by made profits by
• All of the tombs of Shang nobles that selling their rice.
• Extensive trade in gold, copper have been found to date contain thou-
and carnelian with central and sands of cowry shells alongside the
southern India noble.

• Maritime trade routes of the
Indian Ocean were of great
importance. Linked Indus with
the Persian Gulf (Arabian and
African products)

INDUS ANCIENT CHINA EARLY SEA
Decline Reason for decline uncertain: Shang Dynasty: Funan Kingdom:

• Many died during floods of Last king assassinated. Invaded by a tribe, Declined when traders from Sumatra and
Indus River while others Zhous Java no longer stopped at Oc-eo when
forced to leave? sailing to China. Indians bypassed Funan
Zhou Dynasty: and traveled down to the Straits of Melaka
• Invaded by Aryans (As to trade in Sumatra and Java.
recorded in the Vedas) Collapse of power. Chiefs took power over
from the king Srivijaya Kingdom:
• Died of plague/ diseases?
Traders sailed directly to East Java