Office of Naval Research Contract Nonr-6lO i06) Task Order NR OÖ4-476

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Technical Report No. I

ON THE WESTERGAARD METHOD OF CRACK ANALYSIS
CLEARINGHOUSE

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by G. C. Sih

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March I966

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Department of Applied Mechanics Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

Slh Department of Applied Mechanics Lehigh University Pethlehem. .Offtee of Naval Research Contrast Nonr-610 (06) Task Order NR 061-476 Technical Report No. Pennsylvania March 1966 Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted by the United States Government. 1 On the Westergaard Method of Crack Analysis by 0. Distribution of this document is unlimited. C.

Pa.On the Weatergaard Method of Crack Analysis by G. the stresses and displacements may be expressed in terms of two complex functions <fr(z) and \|>(z) of the variable z-x+iy. Surprisingly enough it has yet to be pointed out that the method in [1] suffers severe restrictions for a class of problems dealing with the infinite medium with a crack (or cracks) subjected to external loads at infinity. These restrictions will be derived in the work to follow from the more general consideration of complex potentials originated by Muskelishvili [2]. In the theory of two-dimensional Isotropie elasticity. C. Numbers in brackets designate References at end of Note. 2 3 Professor of Mechanics. D.1 - .C. Slh 2 A survey of the literature on the analysis of crack problems shows that the Westergaard method [1] has been most frequently quoted and used by the practitioners In fracture mechanics for nearly thirty years. . Lehigh University. They are 1 The results presented in this paper were obtained in the course of an investigation carried out under Contract Nonr-6l0(06) with the Office of Naval Research in Washington. Bethlehem.

0 (4) where A is a real constant depending upon the applied load. If the external loads are placed symmetrically with respect to the x-axls along which the cracks are situated. Im [z ♦"(z)+*»(z)] . (4) and letting the stresses take the form K ■ 3 . The shear modulus is denoted by y.ox + 21 xxy .a + a m l\ Re [♦«(B)] (1) oy .z ♦' (z) . then the shearing stress T i. (3) can be satisfied by taking i|i'(z) + z 4>"(z) + A . for y .0 (3) must vanish at y»0. Eq.0 . ..JTzT (2) where K takes the value 3-^v for plane strain and (3-v)/(l+v) for generalized plane stress and v is the Poisson's ratio. Eqs.**v for plane strain.e.2 - . (1) and (2) may be simplified by introducing symmetry conditions as follows: Symmetric Problems. Making use of eq.2[z ♦M(z)+*'(z)] and 2y(u+iv) » ie $(z) .

-2y Re [♦"(«)] and the displacements are 2M U . the constant A cannot be neglected arbitrarily. (4-6) and (9-10) in [1].2 Re IV(z)] .2y Re [♦»(z)] . only if 2 *'(z) . consider the problem of an infinite medium with a central crack of length 2a along the x-axis. Eqs.0 In general. * ■» <J y .2 Re [♦•(«)] + 2y Ira [♦"(z)] .ox .2y Im [♦"(z)3 + A a . the problem Is reduced to the determination of a single complex function $(z) satisfying the necessary boundary conditions.0 xy .Ay Hence.A (7) T . respectively. as (xZ+y2)-1/2 '^« a "60. z . T -a<x<a (9) 1 0. A .3 - . To illustrate this point. The boundary conditions are ay "T xy "0. (7) and (8) agree with eqs. * ■ 0 ' .2(l-2v) Re [*(z)] .2y Im [♦'(z)] + Ax (8) 2y v ■ 4(l-v) Im C*(z)] .

(1) and (2) and separating the real and imaginary parts give ox . Skew-Symmetric Problems.0 It follows that + 2 4>'(z) + z ♦"(z) + IB » 0 (11) I|I'(Z) (12) where B is a real constant.(z)+*»(z)] ■ 0. The same applies to the problem of an infinite row of collinear cracks spaced periodically in an infinite medium [3]. or Re [2<j»*(z)+z ♦ l.(l-e)(o°.The solution to this problem Is given by [2] ♦'(z) = (o"/2)[z/(Z2-a2)1/23-(l-£)(a°yiO (10) *'(z) . the normal stress o is required to vanish at y»0.(a2o"/2)[z/(z2-a2)3/2]+(l-c)(o"/2) Inserting eq. (12) into eqs.2y Im [♦"(z)] y . (10) into (H).*J Re [*'(z)3 . say along the xaxis./2) Note that A vanishes only in the special case of e»l corresponding to the case of uniform tension at infinity. at y .. For loads applied skew- symmetrically with respect to the crack line.4 - .2y Im [♦"(*)] (13) av . Substituting eq. A is found to be A .

T "xy * T . B ■ 0 y Im Z. (13) and (14) may be obtained by selecting an Airy stress function of the form The results are the same as those given above if 2 $»(z) .By (13) (1M) 2W v « 2(l-2v) Im U(z)] .a2)3/2] . as (x2+y2)w ■*■«» Prom [2].Bx The Westergaard version of eqa. The restriction of B»0 leads to a trivial solution for the problem of uniform in-plane shear applied to an infinite medium containing a crack. • y J -a<x<a (15) o x ■ ay ■ 0 .iTaB[z/(z2-a2)1/2]-i(a2T°'/2)[z/(z2. are ■ 0 .5 - . the complex functions are ♦ •(z) .2y Im [+'(z)] .T xy • . ' For this problem.2 Im [#•(«) * >y Re U"(z)] .-(iT°/2)[z/(z2-a2)1/2] + i r/2 (16) #*(s) .2y Re [♦»(«)] .B and 2y u w 4(l«v) Re [♦(z)J . the conditions O«T y xy "0.2.

.«» The constant B may thus be found from eqs. (12) as B . It should be mentioned that the Westergaard method is valid for loads applied to the crack surfaces since in such cases the constants A and B have no contribution.T Hence. „ 6 - . B cannot vanish for a non-trivial solution.

Private communication with I. pp. Holland. 1953» 3.7 - . P.I. Groningen.M. "Bearing Pressure and Cracks". 2. Muskhelishvili. Westergaard. H.. N„ Sneddon.References 1. A 49-53. 1937. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Noordhoff Ltd. N. "Some Basic Problems of Mathematical Theory of Elasticity". 6. Vol. .

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ABSTRACT The Westerpaard method of crack analysis. oiaemrrivt MOTH (Typ* m —pm mm Research Rro. «r PAOM TA. MO.»OTA». •■ ACRORT DATS »•. IMPORT TITLE On the Westerraard Method of Crack Analysis 4. A VA H. The examples of a single line crack in an infinite plate owin? to biaxial tension and pure shear are discussed. The necessary modifications of the Westereaard method are derived from the complex potential formulation of Muskhelishvili.AOU. OP mmn March 1966 MT MMMORAffi) Nonr-6l0(06) A MNOJOCTNO. C. No. is shown to be invalid for a class of crack problems dealing with the infinite medium with cracks under applied loads at infinity. G. n. published almost thirty years ago.. tu. MO.ITV/LMMTATICM MOTKU Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted by the United States Government. MWRT MCUMTTT c UMWMtHII I. DD I JAN «4 14/W Unclassified Security ClaooJficatloa . ! Unclassified DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA • R4D »mmUt •fun«. ORIAIRATIM« ACTIVITY (C»n Department of Mechanics Lehigh University ■- Unclassified tft. TARY NOT» It.IROMSORIMO MILITARY ACTIVITY Office of Naval Research II. 1 • A tfHRRRfMOMT MOfQ <*«r < NR-06^-l76 10. AuTMOAO) (U»t MM Bmtt kMtm) Sih. Distribution of this document is unlimited.lect I. «neu«» ».

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