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Peripheral neuropathy & malnutrition may be co-existent. C/b amnestic syndrome with gross memory disturbances. hallucinations. recent memory disturbances) Apathy & ataxia.Syndromes in Psychiatry (BY DNB CET REVIEW TEAM) Wernicke’s encephalopathy An acute reaction to severe thiamine deficiency mostly d/t chronic alcohol use. C/b ocular signs (nystagmus & external ophthalmoplagia) Higher mental function disturbance(disorientation. Insight often impaired. . Korsakoff’s psychosis Also d/t severe thiamine deficiency d/t chronic alcohol use. C/b disorientation. ataxia & spastic limb paralysis. Marchiafava-Bignami syndrome A rare disorder most probably d/t alcohol-related nutritional deficiency. dysarthria. epilepsy. Confabulation. personality & intellectual deterioration. confusion.
seen with schizophrenia. derealization & depressive features. Othello syndrome (conjugal paranoia) A psychosis in which the content of delusions is predominantly jealousy (infidelity) involving spouse. clouding of consciousness. panic attacks. Typical Capgras’ syndrome(illusion des sosies). after drinking a binge of alcohol in individuals showing no other evidence of heart disease. dream-like states & perceptual disturbances with rapid shifting. Van Gogh syndrome Dramatic self-mutilation occurring in schizophrenia. reduced drive & lack of ambition d/t chronic cannabis use. Hemp insanity (cannabis psychosis) Asso with cannabis. Acute schizophreniform disorder with disorientation & confusion. Alice in Wonderland syndrome Perceptual distortion of shape. apathy.pt sees a familiar person as a stranger who is . Amotivational syndrome Lethargy. So is folie a trios. loss of interest. colour& reciprocal position of objects. multiple phobias. size. C/b diffuse anxiety. disorientation. especially paroxysmal tachycardia. migraine PAD syndrome Phobic-Anxiety-Depersonalization syndrome.Holiday Heart Atrial or ventricular arrhythmias. depersonalization. Most often in women with erotic conviction that a person with higher status is in love with the patient. Pfropf schizophrenia A syndrome of schizophrenia occurring in presence of mental retardation. Kadinsky-Clerambault’s syndrome A syndrome of mental automatism Folie a deux Induced delusional disorder c/b sharing of delusions b/w 2 persons. folie a famille Capgras’ syndrome (delusion of doubles) C/b delusional conviction that other persons in environment are not their real selves but are their own doubles. Clerambault’s syndrome (erotomania) A psychosis in which the content of delusions is erotic. Oneiroid schizophrenia A subtype of schizophrenia with acute onset. folie a quatre. anergia. Good prognosis. There are 4 types 1. Commoner in women 20-40 years.
strength & even bodily organs such as heart. Asso with insomnia. Seen in severe depression where pt has extreme nihilistic delusion (e. C/b vorbeireden. 2. Munchausen syndrome (Factitious disorder.person understands nature of questions but answers wrong. Intermetamorphosis pt’s misidentification is complete including both external appearance & personality.possessions. Charles bonnet syndrome phantom visual images Ekbom syndrome (Restless Legs syndrome) Pt experiences extremely uncomfortable feeling in leg muscles during walking. Briquet’s syndrome (Somatisation disorder) A chronic or recurrent illness with either a dramatic or complicated medical history. Gelineu’s syndrome Narcolepsy. Munchausen syndrome by proxy Pt intentionally produces physical signs & symptoms in another person who is under pt’s care. hypersexuality . Professional patients. Seen in patients with conversion & dissociation disorder (hysteria).imposing as the familiar person. Associated with hypersomnia. Hospital addiction) Pt repeatedly simulates or fakes diseases for sole purpose of obtaining medical attention. Pickwickian syndrome Sleep apnea commoner in elderly & obese persons. may think that his bowels are rotting and he will never pass stools again) Ganser’s syndrome (hysterical pseudodementia) Commonly found in prison inmates. Syndrome of subjective doubles pt’s own self is perceived as being replaced by a double. La-Belle-Indifference Lack of concern towards symptoms despite apparent severity of disability produces. Kleine-Levin syndrome C/b hypersomnia. associated with hypersomnia. Fregoli’s phenomenon Delusion that a persecutor is taking on a variety of faces like an actor.g. Polysurgis. 4.approximate answers. Illusion de Fregoli pt falsely identifies strangers as familiar persons. A pt with at least 25 unexplained medical symptoms for a diagnosis or with 20-25 unexplained symptoms for a probable diagnosis. Cotard’s syndrome Delusion that one has lost everything. Hospital hoboes. 3. hyperphagia.
C/b rapid downhill course leading to deterioration & development of neurological deficits. Idiot Savant syndrome Pervasive impairment of functions but certain islets of precocity or splinter functions may remain. Asperger’s syndrome Predominantly in boys.Clumsy Child syndrome (Motor dyspraxia. . Motor skills disorder. Strauss syndrome Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder. Culture-Bound Syndromes are as follows Dhat syndrome A culture-bound syndrome prevalent in Indian subcontinent. schizoid personality pedantic speech preoccupation with obscure facts Rett’s syndrome Occurs in girls. Developmental coordination disorder) C/b poor coordination in daily activities of life. Females affected infrequently. C/b complaint of passage of ‘dhat’ in urine. After an apparently normal early development & normal head circumference at birth. there is deceleration of head growth b/w age of 5-30 months. Asthenia May be anxiety. Affected male pt believes that his penis is shrinking & may disappear into his abdominal wall & he may die. Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome C/b multiple motor tics Multiple vocal tics Duration of >1 year Kanner syndrome Failure to develop attachment with a parenteral figure & pre-occupation with inanimate objects. believing that their breasts & vulva are shrinking. Minimal brain dysfunction. Heller’s syndrome (Disintegrative psychosis) A type of childhood psychosis with age of onset 3-5 years. Loss of purposive hand movements & acquired fine motor manipulative skills with subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements. depression or sexual dysfunction associated. Less severe form of pervasive developmental disorder Autism without significant delay in language & cognitive development. Koro Prevalent in Asia including India. Multiple somatic symptoms. Organic drivenness.
throw herself on ice in extremely cold conditions. Susto Occurs in Latin America. She may imitate the cry of a bird or an animal. They feel inadequate. More in women. It also occurs in demented patients when external stimuli such as light & interpersonal . ataxia. who screams & tears off her clothes. the prospective father develops symptoms similar to pregnancy & symptoms r relieved by delivery. unprovoked episode of rage in which affected person runs about & indiscriminately injures or kills any person who in encountered on the way. c/b automatic obedience. COUVADE's Syndrome: Seen in husbands of pregnant women. It takes on a delusional quality. Piblokto (Arctic Hysteria) Occurs in Askimos. Pt believes that his body is entered by a magical substance & that he is altered. Shinkeishitsu A defense syndrome. mainly of anxiety but with obsessive features occurring in young Japanese thrown into a modern industrial society for which they are not equipped. STOLKHOLM Syndrome: Identification with the aggressor usually seen in kidnap victims who try to protect their kidnappers. accidental falls. The episode lasting for 1-2 hours. f/b amnesia of events.Amok Prevalent in South-East Asia. Windigo (Wihtigo) Prevalent in native American Indians. confusion. Latah (Startle reaction) Prevalent in South-East Asia & Japan. JACTATIO CAPITIS NOCTURNA: Nocturnal head banging DEJA VU: Recognition of events that are in fact new JAMAIS VU: Opposite of Deja vu where patient fails to recognise events that have occured before SYNDROMES ASSOCIATED WITH TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC CONDITIONS SUNDOWNER SYNDROME: Drowziness. echolalia & echopraxia. occurring especially during times of starvation. a cannibal monster. Pt believes that he has been transformed into a wihtigo. lost & unloved. in older patients who are over sedated & in old patients with Dementia who react adversly to even small dose of psychoactive drug. Often female. C/b sudden.
crying spells. has as many as 20 different names. changes in mental status. tachycardia. Chief complaints are all related to cardiac Pathology in which the subject has fear of a heart ailment which may progress to hypochondriasis & sometimes to circulatory neurasthenia Syndromes associated with dementia Alzheimer’s disease Pick’s disease Parkinson’s disease Shy-Drager syndrome (Multisystem degeneration) Huntington’s chorea Steel-Richardson syndrome (progressive Supranuclear palsy) Binswanger’s disease (subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy) Wilson’s disease Leigh’s disease Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease ALS-Parkinson’s-Dementia complex of Gaum Syndromes associated with mental retardation Down’s syndrome Turner’s syndrome Kleinfelter’s syndrome Cri du chat syndrome . when these r administered in combination patient shows evidence of organic brain syndrome including difficulty in concentration. SSRI DISCONTINUATION SYNDROME: Abrupt discontinuation of SSRI causes dizziness. severe muscular rigidity. SSRI or TCAD. impaired short term memory. Rapid & regular perioral tremors like chewing movements. TCAD's. nausea. mood changes Severe cases may show hyperpyrexia. Diarrhoea. myoclonus. NEUROLEPT MALIGNANT SYNDROME: EPS. sensory & sleep disturbances. more noticable at night. increased CPK. Was seen first in soldiers of civil war. lethargy. excessive sweating. increased motor activity. liver transaminase. myoglobinuria ANTI-CHOLINERGIC SYNDROME: Phenothiazines.orienting cues are diminishd. leucocyte function. hypertension. disorientation. Most commonly occurs as result of Rx with BZD's RABBIT SYNDROME: Extra pyramidal side effect of chronic anti-psychotic treatment. Hyperthermia. It is due to overactivity of serotoninergic receptors by excess of serotonin due to combination of MAO. flu-like symptoms. dry SKIN due to inhibition of sweating. autonomic instability. vomiting. Anti-Parkinson drugs all have anticholinergic properties. shock & death. fever. anxiety. DA COSTA's SYNDROME: Irritable heart syndrome. tongue & other body parts not involved. SSRI's with short half life like Paroxetine & Sertraline more likely causes SEROTONIN SYNDROME: Abdominal pain. alteration of mental status including delirium. irritability.
Fragile X syndrome Hartnup’s disease Tay-Sachs disease Gaucher’s disease Niemann-Pick disease Lesch Nyhan syndrome Hurler’s disease Hunter’s disease Sanfillipo’s disease Renpenning’s syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome Crouzon’s syndrome Apert’s syndrome De Lange syndrome (Amsterdam dwarfism) .
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