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Introduction

Why should simulation be performed in CDMA radio network planning?

Simulation is one of important steps for CDMA radio network planning, it can Simulate network running effect to guide engineering construction Serve as an important means to assist decision-making Since CDMA system is of self-interference, it is very difficult to calculate its complicated forward links due to multiple factors, such as user distribution. In this sense, if conditions permit, perform simulation unless the network configuration is extremely simple.

Simulation Is One of Important Steps for CDMA Radio Network Planning


Simulation is oriented to simulate the running situation of networks under the current network configuration so as to facilitate decision-making adjustment. Adopt the planning software to perform simulation based on various types of BTS coverage area, the number of BTSs within the coverage area, and the configuration of each BTS. All these are obtained from traffic coverage analysis.

Atoll Atoll

After the traffic coverage analysis, acquire the BTS coverage range based on the link budget and calculate the BTS number in the coverage area, and then obtain the BTS configuration based on the traffic distribution. Select some devices, and perform simulation using the network planning software, targeting at ensuring the coverage and capacity in the area and avoiding the interference. The simulation result can be used to confirm ideal site to perform the next step of network planning---survey, based on the ideal site. If the ideal site is unviable during the survey, adjust the site correspondingly. If the adjustment range exceeds the one-quarter cell radius, re-perform the simulation, which is a repeated process. After the simulation through the network planning software, implement the network design (such as coverage predication, traffic distribution, adjacent cell allocation, frequency planning, interference analysis, and micro-wave transmission), and simulate the network running effect to instruct the engineering construction through the setting and analysis of system hardware parameter, network capacity, and PN code allocation scheme before the network construction. The simulation result can be used to check whether current network

Introduction to Atoll Software

Be

professional

radio

network

design

tool,

supporting

GSM/TDMA, GPRS-EDGE, cdmaOne,W-CDMA/UMTS and CDMA 2000/1x RTT/EVDO. It is specially designed for 3G. Realize mobility of planning design, supporting both single system configuration and Enterprise server-based network configuration. The single system configuration does not require connecting external database and users still can share engineering data. Feature modern software structure as well as open and extendable platform

Simulation step by step -UNet(Atoll)

Are Parameters ready? (site, transmitter, cell)

Coverage by transmitter Traffic model Simulation Coverage prediction Over Y


Result OK?

N Parameters modification? (site, transmitter, cell)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Importing a Digital Map Chapter 2 Data Importing Chapter 3 Atoll Propagation Model Chapter 4 Analog Prediction Chapter 5 Traffic Model Chapter 6 Monte carlo Simulation

Composition of a Digital Map

A digital map basically consists of the following three components, stored under three directories respectively. \Heights
Digital elevation model (DEM): describe basic landforms of this area and directly participate in radio propagation model calculation

\Clutter
Digital clutter model (DOM): clutter classification data describes clutter coverage on the ground, such as forest, lake, open area, industrial area, urban area, high-storey building area. It is used during calculating radio propagation path loss.

\Vector
Linear vector model (LDM): linear clutter vector data describes plane distribution and space relationship of linear clutters, including speedway, street and river.

The following is an example of Projection file. The contents of Heights\projection.txt are shown below: Heights\ Krasovsky - 1940 50 Gauss - Kruger 0.0 117.0 500000 0.0 Four parameters are: Elliptical model---regard the earth as an elliptical model model---regard Projection band ID---the ID of one of sixty projection band globally of the ID---the E-map Projection mode---main mode includes UTM, and TM (Gauss-Kruger) mode---main (GaussLatitude and longitude coordinate of projection band center and coordinate in the grid coordinate system The following is an example of index file. The contents of Heights\index.txt are shown below: Heights\

Selecting coordinate system

U-Net works with the following two coordinate systems at the same time: Primary coordinate system: It is a coordinate system of geographical database Display coordinate system:

it is a coordinate system for

display and data-input. All the geographical coordinates are displayed and input according to this system. If the projection coordinate system and the display coordinate system do not match with each other, U-Net will adjust them.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Importing a Digital Map Chapter 2 Data Importing Chapter 3 Atoll Propagation Model Chapter 4 Analog Prediction Chapter 5 Traffic Model Chapter 6 Monte carlo Simulation

Antenna Data and Lobe Pattern

Input antenna type, manufacturer and antenna gain in [General]. Import the corresponding attenuation table at each angle of the antenna in [Horizontal pattern ] and [Vertical pattern]. Input Beamwidth, FMax, FMin or other user-defined parameters in [Other properties ]. Right click Antennas>Properties in the Browse-Data window to open antenna attributes box.

Data Importing
Sites information: refer to BTS equipment type and channel element data Include the following parameters: BTS name, longitude and latitude, height above sea level, and whether to lock BTS location. Transmitter TMA, feeder and BTS equipment: Include the following parameters: Activetransmitted and received total loss (including actual loss and calculated loss), total noise coefficient (including actual one and calculated one), BTS equipment selection, antenna model, mounted height, direction angle, and downtilt. CELL information: Include the following parameters: carrier wave of each cell in this sector, active set threshold value, maximum transmit power, pilot channel power, synchronization channel power, other common channel power, total transmit power, UL load, and neighbor cell.
Microsoft Excel

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Importing a Digital Map Chapter 2 Data Importing Chapter 3 Atoll Propagation Model Chapter 4 Analog Prediction Chapter 5 Traffic Model Chapter 6 Monte carlo Simulation

Introduction to Propagation Models

Okumura-Hata model

Lp = 69.55 +26.16log 13.82log b + (44.9 6.55log b ) log SRAhm logf log logh log logh log logd
Cost231-Hata model

Lp =46.3+33.9log 13.82log b +(44.96.55log b)log logf log logh log logh logdSRAhm +Cm log log
Typical models are from repeated CW tests.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Importing a Digital Map Chapter 2 Data Importing Chapter 3 Atoll Propagation Model Chapter 4 Analog Prediction Chapter 5 Traffic Model Chapter 6 Monte carlo Simulation

Coverage Prediction

A Coverage bytransmitter analog prediction is the precondition for simulation. There are ten analog predictions in all, but only the first three can be performed at the current stage because simulation results are unavailable.

Coverage Prediction

Setting the following parameters: Signal level threshold value: defaulted as -110dBm and the maximum value has no upper limit. All and Best signal level: usually select Best signal level so as to be convenient to observe the coverage of the best cell. Signal level margin of the best cell: defaulted as 0 Reliability: 50% is usually set. Carrier wave: it is usually set to All carrier waves for coverage area computation.

Coverage Prediction

Drawing a computation area Select Draw from Computation zone in the Tools menu in the Atoll software. And then draw a polygon with the mouse on the zone to be researched. The computation zone is within the red line. Shadowing margins Compute shadowing margins in each type of landform by inputting the standard variance of each clutter and improving Reliability Level. Reliability level is 50% Calculate or Calculate all by default.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Importing a Digital Map Chapter 2 Data Importing Chapter 3 Atoll Propagation Model Chapter 4 Analog Prediction Chapter 5 Traffic Model Chapter 6 Monte carlo Simulation

Traffic Modeling
Traffic data involved in traffic modeling includes service type, terminals, mobility type, user profile, environment and traffic map.

Service Type

Service type Speech service 1X RTT data service 1X EVDO data service

Terminals

Terminals
RC1 RC2 RC3 RC4 RC5 EVDO_HAT

RC1 and RC2 are used for speech service. RC3, RC4 and RC5 are used for 1X RTT data service. EVDO_HAT is used for EVDO data service.

Mobility Type

Mobility Type 50km/h 90km/h Pedestrian

Different mobility types have different settings. Tadd, T_Drop, Min Ec/Nt, Max rate=f(C/I)

User Profile

Urban User

Rural User
Communication profile in different areas differs. Servicesvoice Or Data TerminalRC1RC5 Calls/hour Duration

Environment

Environment
Business center City Rural

The following differ in different types of traffic environment: User Mobility Density Clutter Weighting

Creating a Traffic Map

Based on Environments (raster): refer to the raster map based on traffic model Based on User profiles (vector): refer to the vector map based on user profile Based on Transmitters and Services (throughput): refer to throughput map based on sector and service type Based on Transmitters and Services (#users): refer to users map based on sector and service type

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Importing a Digital Map Chapter 2 Data Importing Chapter 3 Atoll Propagation Model Chapter 4 Analog Prediction Chapter 5 Traffic Model Chapter 6 Monte carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo Simulation

The process of Monte-Carlo simulation is as follows: Perform Monte-Carlo simulation based on traffic map. Atoll randomly distribute user location and user profile on the traffic map based on the number of users and density. Perform uplink/downlink power simulation based on results from step 1.

Static Simulation

1.

Generate a certain quantity of network instantaneous stateSnapshot Here, some MSs or terminals are distributed based on a certain rule (such as random even distribution) at each Snapshot.
2.

Acquire connection capability between terminals and networks by incremental operation. Here, it is required to consider the possibility of multiple connection failure (uplink/downlink traffic channel maximum transmit power, unavailable channels, low Ec/Io and uplink/downlink interference).

3.

Measure and analyze results of multiple Snapshots to have a overall understanding of network performance. Monte Carlo simulation is one type of static simulation.

Monte Carlo SimulationCoverage Probability


The following takes coverage probability for an example to further understand how Monte Carlo simulation is performed.

100% 100%

20% 20%

60% 60%

100% 100%

0% 0%

75% 75%

60% 60%

40% 40%

Monte Carlo Simulation

2 1X XX 1 X 4X 3 5 X X X 4 X 1200mErl X X 3 500mErl X X 100 X X X 30 X X 3 X 1X 4 4 XX 5 2 X 300mErl 1000mErl X X X5

X 50

120 X X

The overlay measurement results of multiple Snapshots should be consistent with traffic model.

Disadvantages of Static Simulation

Static simulation has its own disadvantages, including Lack of time continuity. In this case, low-end users cannot be accessed when there are a great number of users. Failure to simulate 1X dynamic threshold. The reason is that the 1X system introduced soft handoff dynamic threshold but static simulation lacks time continuity. In this sense, static simulation is more seriously restricted in the 1X system than in the 95 system.

Initialisation

1st step : Mi best server determination

2nd step : Mi active set determination

3rd step : Uplink power control For each mobile Mi

4th step : Downlink power control

5th step : Uplink and downlink interference update

Congestion and radio resource control

Convergence study

Atoll completes calculation on each user within the network by the following five steps: Step 1: Determine the best cell. The possible reasons for cells failing to become the best cells may be: deficient pilot strength and UL load exceeding the rated value Step 2: Determine cells entering the Active set of the terminal. The possible reasons for cells failing to enter the Active set may be: Ec/Io value is lower than Tdrop in Mobility type. Step 3: Control uplink power (namely the power of the terminal). In this step, the following case may occur: The terminal is refused due to its deficient transmit power. Step 4: Control downlink power (namely traffic channel power). In this step, the following case may occur: The MS fails to access this cell due to deficient downlink traffic channel power. Step 5: Update uplink/downlink interference in each cell.

UL load control CE control Walsh code control Cell total power control

Check congestion and radio resource control after a repetition. Check whether uplinks and downlinks are converged. If they are, terminate this simulation. If not, calculate one by one all terminals in the network again.

Convergence

Max num of interationsthe maximum repeated calculations. That is to say, the simulation is over although the result of the last repetition is not converged. A repetition is the process of calculating all users during the simualtion. One simulation can contain multiple repetitions. UL convergence threshold uplink convergenece threshold. When the difference between the result of the current repetition and that of the previous repetition reaches this threshold, the simulation is over even though repetitions do not reach the maximum times. DL convergence thresholddownlink convergence threshold. When the difference between the result of the current repetition and that of the previous repetition reaches this threshold, the simulation is over even though repetitions do not reach the maximum times.

Simulation Report

Analysis Report on Simulation Results

Statistics
In the Request is total users accessed into the network, uplink/downlink total volume required by the network, and details classification of each type of service. In the Result is refused users and relevant causes, users successfully accessed, actual volume of the network, and details classification of each type of service.

Sites
Include BTS rated maximum channel elements, FCH and SCH channel elements actually used for uplinks and downlinks, channel elements of uplink/downlink overhead channels for soft handoff, speech/data volume of uplink/downlink FCH and SCH channels.

Analysis Report on Simulation Results

The following initial conditions must be satisfied: Setting global parameters of the transmitter Setting original parameters of this simulation Setting parameters related to landform, such as the orthogonal factor and standard variance of each type of landform