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1. WWW research:

According to scribes, when Alexander entered Babylon, a number of (1)____________________ fell dead at
his feet. Soon after, Alexander developed severe pain, chills, weakness, delirium, and paralysis from
which he died. Modern infectious disease experts have looked at those writings and concluded that
Alexander died of (2)____________________ encephalitis, which is caused by a(n)
(3)____________________ that was common in the Middle East. This virus was first reported in New
York City in the year (4)____________________ and has rapidly spread. The virus is transmitted by
(5)____________________ and not by contact with infected people. Many species of
(6)____________________, (7)____________________, and reptiles can become infected with this


1. ravens
2. West Nile
3. flavivirus
4. 1999
5. mosquitoes
6. birds (mammals)
7. mammals (birds)

PTS: 1 OBJ: Fill-in-the-Blanks

2. Choose from the lettered terms; write the letter in the blank next to the best description.

a. chemoautotrophic bacteria
b. chemoheterotrophic bacteria
c. photoautotrophic bacteria
d. photoheterotrophic bacteria

1. ______ Use CO2 from the environment as the usual source of carbon atoms and use
electrons, hydrogen, and energy released from chemical reactions to assemble
chains of carbon (food storage)
2. ______ Use CO2 and H2O from the environment as sources of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen atoms and use sunlight to power the assembly of food storage molecules
3. ______ Cannot use CO2 from the environment to construct own carbon chains; instead
obtain nutrients from the products, wastes, or remains of other organisms; can
break down glucose to pyruvate and follow it with fermentation of some sort
4. ______ Cannot use CO2 from the environment to construct own cellular molecules but can
absorb sunlight and transfer some of that energy to the bonds of ATP; must obtain
food molecules (carbon chains) produced by other organisms to construct their
own molecules


1. A
2. C
3. B
4. D

PTS: 1 OBJ: Matching

3. Bacteria are microscopic, (1)____________________ cells having one bacterial chromosome and,
often, a number of smaller (2)____________________. The cells of nearly all bacterial species have
a(n) (3)____________________ around the plasma membrane, and a(n) (4)____________________
or slime layer surrounding that. Typically, the width or length of these cells falls between 1 and 10 (5)
(choose one) millimeters nanometers centimeters micrometers. Most bacteria reproduce by
(6)____________________. Spherical bacteria are (7)____________________, rod-shaped bacteria
are (8)____________________, and helical bacteria are (9)____________________. Gram-
(10)____________________ bacteria retain the purple stain when washed with alcohol.


1. prokaryotic
2. plasmids
3. cell wall
4. capsule (glycocalyx)
5. micrometers
6. prokaryotic fission
7. cocci
8. bacilli
9. spirilla
10. positive

PTS: 1 OBJ: Fill-in-the-Blanks

4. (1)____________________ are an ancient species of photoautotroph that release
(2)____________________ during photosynthesis. Some species produce (3)____________________,
which are specialized cells for (4)____________________ fixation. (5)____________________, when
in a symbiotic relationship with legumes, also fix (4). (6)____________________ form a group of
energy parasites that are unable to produce their own (7)____________________, so they must steal it
from their hosts. Fermentation by (8)____________________ species converts milk into yogurt.
Clostridia and Bacilli produce (9)____________________, which are resistant to heat, radiation, and
desiccation. Several species are dangerous pathogens, including Bacillus anthracis, which causes
(10)____________________, and (11)____________________, which causes botulism. Myxobacteria
show (12)____________________ behavior when they aggregate into a motile predatory colony.

(13)____________________ are different from the Bacteria. Although prokaryotic, they make
(14)____________________ proteins like eukaryotes and, also like eukaryotes, initiate protein
synthesis with (15)____________________ instead of the formylmethionine used by Bacteria. Many
(16)____________________, which live in highly salty environments, use the unique photopigment
(17)____________________ in their photosynthesis. Some chemoautotrophic
(18)____________________ live near deep ocean vents and are the base of vent food webs.
(19)____________________ are symbiotic in the guts of cows and termites.


1. Cyanobacteria
2. oxygen
3. heterocysts
4. nitrogen
5. Rhizobium
6. Chlamydia
7. ATP
8. Lactobacilli
9. endospores
10. anthrax
11. Clostridium botulinum
12. collective
13. Archaeans
14. histone
15. methionine
16. extreme halophiles
17. bacteriorhodopsin
18. extreme thermophiles
19. Methanogens

PTS: 1 OBJ: Fill-in-the-Blanks TOP: 21.5 ARCHAEANS

5. Match each of the numbered items with a lowercase letter designating its principal bacterial group and
an uppercase letter denoting its best descriptor.

a. Archaea
b. chemoheterotrophic Bacteria
c. photoautotrophic Bacteria

A. Live in anaerobic sediments of swamps and in animal gut; chemosynthetic; used in sewage
treatment facilities
B. Endospore-forming rods that live in the soil and in the animal gut; some major pathogens
C. Gram-positive nonsporulating rods that ferment plant and animal material; some are
important in dairy industry
D. In acidic soil, hot springs, hydrothermal vents on seafloor; may use sulfur as a source of
electrons for ATP formation
E. Live in extremely salty water; have a unique form of photosynthesis
F. Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci that live in soil or aquatic habitats or are parasites of
animals and/or plants; some fix nitrogen
G. Mostly in lakes and ponds; cyanobacteria; produce O2 using water as an electron donor
H. Helically coiled, motile parasites of animals; some are major pathogens

1. ______, ______ Anabaena
2. ______, ______ Clostridium
3. ______, ______ Extreme halophiles
4. ______, ______ Lactobacillus
5. ______, ______ Methanogens
6. ______, ______ Rhizobium, Agrobacterium
7. ______, ______ Spirochaetes, Borrelia
8. ______, ______ Extreme thermophiles


1. c, G
2. b, B
3. a, E
4. b, C
5. a, A
6. b, F
7. b, H
8. a, D

PTS: 1 OBJ: Matching TOP: 21.5 ARCHAEANS

a. State the principal characteristics of viruses.

A virus is a noncellular infectious agent with two characteristics:

1. It consists of a nucleic acid core (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat.

2. It can replicate only after its nucleic acid has entered and subverted the host cell’s
biosynthetic apparatus to produce new viral particles.

3. The vertebrate immune system can detect and fight viruses, but the problem for the
defense mechanisms is the constantly mutating viral proteins.

b. Describe the structure of viruses.
• Genetic material is DNA or RNA
• Coat is protein

Helical and polyhedral


c. Distinguish among the ways viruses replicate themselves.

V. Viral Multiplication Cycles

A. What Happens During Viral Infections?

1. The steps of viral replication are as follows:

a. Virus recognizes and becomes attached to host cell.

b. DNA, or RNA, alone (or whole virus) enters cytoplasm.

c. Viral genes direct host cell into replicating viral nucleic acids, synthesizing viral
enzymes and capsid proteins.

d. Synthesized components are assembled into new virus particles.

e. Newly formed virus particles are released from the infected cell.

2. Replication can proceed by way of two pathways:

a. In the lytic pathway, the virus quickly accomplishes the five steps listed above and
causes the cell to rupture (lysis), spilling its contents and the viruses.

b. In lysogenic pathways, the viral genes remain inactive inside the host cell (and its

descendants); often the genes become integrated into the host DNA only to resume their destructive
viral activity later.

3. In the multiplication cycle of RNA viruses, the RNA serves as the template for
synthesizing DNA using reverse transcriptase.


a. Consist of protein coat around nucleic acid core; require living cells to act as hosts for their
b. The core can be DNA or RNA; the coat is protein and in some viruses is surrounded by a
lipid envelope.
c. Viruses may use the lytic pathway, in which the virus quickly subdues the host cells and
replicates itself and descendants are released as the cell undergoes lysis; or they may use a
lysogenic pathway, in which viral genes are integrated into the host's chromosomes and
remain inactive inside the host cell during a period of latency, which may be a long time,
before activation and lysis.

PTS: 1 OBJ: Short Answer

List five specific viruses that cause human illness. Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses,
Polio, hepatitis A (HA), HIV, measles, chicken pox, rabies etc

There can be multiple answers (see Table 21.2 in text). Possible answers include Herpes simplex (a
herpesvirus), rhinovirus (a picornavirus), HIV (a retrovirus), West Nile virus (a flavivirus),

PTS: 1 OBJ: Short Answer

8. A(n) (1)____________________ is a noncellular infectious agent consisting of a central
(2)____________________ core surrounded by a protective (3)____________________.
(4)____________________ contain the blueprints for making more of themselves but cannot carry on
metabolic activities. Chicken pox and shingles are two infections caused by a DNA virus from the
(5)____________________ category. (6)____________________ are RNA viruses that infect animal
cells, cause diseases including AIDS, and follow (7)____________________ pathways of replication.
During a period of (8)____________________, viral genes remain inactive inside the host cell and any
of its descendants. Pathogenic protein particles are called (9)____________________.


1. virus
2. nucleic acid

3. protein coat
4. Viruses
5. Herpesvirus (or Varicella)
6. Retroviruses (HIV)
7. lysogenic
8. latency
9. prions

PTS: 1 OBJ: Fill-in-the-Blanks

9. Identify the viruses that cause the following illnesses by writing the name of the virus in the first blank
preceding the diseases. In the second blank, categorize it as a DNA virus or an RNA virus.

1. __________, ______ Common colds
2. __________, ______ AIDS, leukemia
3. __________, ______ Cold sores, chicken pox


1. Rhinoviruses, RNA
2. Retroviruses, RNA
3. Herpesviruses, DNA

PTS: 1 OBJ: Identification

10. Match each numbered item with the correct lettered description.

a. Disease breaks out irregularly, affects few organisms.
b. Disease abruptly spreads through large portions of a population.
c. Disease occurs continuously, but is localized to a relatively small portion of the population.
d. Protein particle normally present in the nervous system; when misfolded may be infectious
and be linked to degenerative diseases.
e. A virus that infects a bacterium.
f. Damage and destruction to host cells occurs quickly.
g. Noncellular infectious agent that must take over a living cell in order to reproduce itself.
h. Viral nucleic acid is integrated into the nucleic acid system of the host cell and replicated
during this time.
i. Any disease-causing organism or agent.

1. ______ bacteriophage
2. ______ endemic
3. ______ epidemic
4. ______ lysogenic pathway
5. ______ lytic pathway
6. ______ pathogen
7. ______ prion
8. ______ sporadic
9. ______ virus


1. E
2. C
3. B
4. H
5. F
6. I
7. D
8. A
9. G

PTS: 1 OBJ: Matching

11. ___ Which of the following diseases is not caused by a virus?
a. hepatitis B
b. polio
c. influenza
d. syphilis


PTS: 1 OBJ: Self-Quiz

12. ___ Bacteriophages are ______.
a. viruses that parasitize bacteria
b. bacteria that parasitize viruses
c. bacteria that phagocytize viruses
d. composed of a protein core surrounded by a nucleic acid coat


PTS: 1 OBJ: Self-Quiz

13. Match all applicable letters with the appropriate terms.

a. causes chicken pox, cold sores
b. one, HIV, causes AIDS
c. causes the common cold
d. photosynthetic cyanobacterium
e. parasitic bacteria, cannot produce ATP
f. rod-shaped, used in yogurt production
g. Archaean methanogen
h. Archaean thermophile
i. anaerobic, forms endospores

1. ______ Anabaena
2. ______ Chlamydia
3. ______ Clostridium
4. ______ Herpes simplex
5. ______ Lactobacillus
6. ______ Methanococcus

7. ______ Retrovirus
8. ______ Rhinovirus
9. ______ Sulfolobus


1. D
2. E
3. I
4. A
5. F
6. G
7. B
8. C
9. H

PTS: 1 OBJ: Self-Quiz

14. Distinguish chemoautotrophs from photoautotrophs.


a. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic.

b. Anabaena, by means of heterocysts, can fix nitrogen.

c. Green and purple bacteria use hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen gas as a source of electrons for

2. Chemoautotrophs

a. Among the most important are the nitrifying bacteria that participate in nitrogen cycling.

b. Their enzymes strip electrons from ammonia for use in generating ATP.

Answer not provided.

PTS: 1 OBJ: Chapter Objectives/Review Questions

15. Describe the principal body forms of Bacteria (inside and outside).



Flagela, pili, capsule, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm (including ribosomes), DNA loop chromosome,

Answer not provided.

PTS: 1 OBJ: Chapter Objectives/Review Questions

19. Distinguish between the lytic and lysogenic patterns of viral replication. See 6 c above.