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Modeling External Compressible Flow
Introduction: The purpose of this tutorial is to compute the turbulent ﬂow past a transonic airfoil at a non-zero angle of attack. You will use the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. In this tutorial you will learn how to: • Model compressible ﬂow (using the ideal gas law for density) • Set boundary conditions for external aerodynamics • Use the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model • Calculate a solution using the coupled implicit solver • Use force and surface monitors to check solution convergence • Check the grid by plotting the distribution of y + Prerequisites: This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in FLUENT and that you have solved or read Tutorial 1. Some steps in the setup and solution procedure will not be shown explicitly. Problem Description: The problem considers the ﬂow around an airfoil at an incidence angle of α = 4◦ and a free stream Mach number of 0.8 (M∞ = 0.8). This ﬂow is transonic, and has a fairly strong shock near the mid-chord (x/c = 0.45) on the upper (suction) side. The chord length is 1 m. The geometry of the airfoil is shown in Figure 3.1.
c Fluent Inc. November 27, 2001
Modeling External Compressible Flow
α = 4°
M∞ = 0.8
Figure 3.1: Problem Speciﬁcation
1. Copy the ﬁle airfoil/airfoil.msh from the FLUENT documentation CD to your working directory (as described in Tutorial 1). 2. Start the 2D version of FLUENT.
c Fluent Inc. November 27, 2001
Modeling External Compressible Flow
Step 1: Grid
1. Read the grid ﬁle airfoil.msh. File −→ Read −→Case... As FLUENT reads the grid ﬁle, it will report its progress in the console window. 2. Check the grid. Grid −→Check FLUENT will perform various checks on the mesh and will report the progress in the console window. Pay particular attention to the reported minimum volume. Make sure this is a positive number. 3. Display the grid. Display −→Grid...
c Fluent Inc. November 27, 2001
2001 . enabling the construction of a smooth mesh in the interior of the domain.2). Consequently. If you click 3-4 c Fluent Inc. it may be easier to create a hybrid mesh comprised of quadrilateral and triangular cells. Grid Jun 12.3). A parabola was chosen to represent the far-ﬁeld boundary because it has no discontinuities in slope. except near the leading and trailing edges and in the vicinity of the shock expected on the upper surface.0 (2d. segregated. lam) Figure 3. For geometries that are more diﬃcult to mesh.Modeling External Compressible Flow (a) Display the grid with the default settings (Figure 3. November 27. the gradients normal to the airfoil wall are much greater than those tangent to the airfoil. 2001 FLUENT 6. In the present case. Extra: You can use the right mouse button to check which zone number corresponds to each boundary.2: The Grid Around the Airfoil Quadrilateral cells were used for this simple geometry because they can be stretched easily to account for diﬀerent size gradients in diﬀerent directions. the cells nearest the surface have very high aspect ratios. (b) Use the middle mouse button to zoom in on the image so you can see the mesh near the airfoil (Figure 3.
November 27. name. its zone number. and type will be printed in the FLUENT console window. c Fluent Inc. segregated. 2001 FLUENT 6.Modeling External Compressible Flow Grid Jun 12. This feature is especially useful when you have several zones of the same type and you want to distinguish between them quickly. 2001 3-5 . lam) Figure 3.3: The Grid After Zooming In on the Airfoil the right mouse button on one of the boundaries in the graphics window.0 (2d.
The implicit solver will generally converge much faster than the explicit solver. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Solver. 2001 ... November 27.. 3-6 c Fluent Inc.. Enable heat transfer by turning on the energy equation. For this 2D case. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Energy. The coupled solver is recommended when dealing with applications involving high-speed aerodynamics. memory is not an issue. Implicit solver. Select the Coupled. but will use more memory. 2.Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 2: Models 1.
The Spalart-Allmaras model was designed speciﬁcally for aerospace applications involving wall-bounded ﬂows and has been shown to give good results for boundary layers subjected to adverse pressure gradients. c Fluent Inc. This embodies a relatively new class of one-equation models in which it is not necessary to calculate a length scale related to the local shear layer thickness.. (a) Select the Spalart-Allmaras model and retain the default options and constants. 2001 3-7 . Turn on the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model.Modeling External Compressible Flow 3. November 27. The Spalart-Allmaras model is a relatively simple one-equation model that solves a modeled transport equation for the kinematic eddy (turbulent) viscosity. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Viscous..
1. November 27.Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 3: Materials The default Fluid Material is air. Deﬁne −→Materials. which is the working ﬂuid in this problem. 3-8 c Fluent Inc.. Select ideal-gas in the Density drop-down list. 2001 . 2. This will open the Sutherland Law panel. The default settings need to be modiﬁed to account for compressibility and variations of the thermophysical properties with temperature.. Select sutherland in the drop-down list for Viscosity.
thermal dependency of the physical properties is generally recommended. Cp and Thermal Conductivity have been left constant. Click Change/Create in the Materials panel to save these settings. 2001 3-9 . and then close the panel.Modeling External Compressible Flow (a) Click OK to accept the default Three Coeﬃcient Method and parameters. In this case. The Sutherland law for viscosity is well suited for high-speed compressible ﬂows. c Fluent Inc. Note: While Density and Viscosity have been made temperature-dependent. November 27. For high-speed compressible ﬂows. the temperature gradients are suﬃciently small that the model is accurate with Cp and Thermal Conductivity constant. 3. however.
For ﬂows with Mach numbers greater than 0. Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. 2001 . November 27. For more information on how to set the operating pressure. an operating pressure of 0 is recommended. see the FLUENT User’s Guide... 3-10 c Fluent Inc.1.Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 4: Operating Conditions Set the operating pressure to 0 Pa.
. Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions. 2001 3-11 . Note: The X.997564 and sin 4◦ ≈ 0. For external ﬂows.069756. you should choose a viscosity ratio between 1 and 10.Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 5: Boundary Conditions Set the boundary conditions for pressure-far-ﬁeld-1 as shown in the panel. November 27. c Fluent Inc.and Y-Component of Flow Direction are set as above because of the 4◦ angle of attack: cos 4◦ ≈ 0..
November 27..9. 2001 .Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 6: Solution 1. However. Set the solution controls. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. closer to 1) under-relaxation factors will generally result in faster convergence. (b) Under Solver Parameters. 3-12 c Fluent Inc.. instability can arise that may need to be eliminated by decreasing the underrelaxation factors..e. set the Courant Number to 5. (a) Set the Under-Relaxation Factor for Modiﬁed Turbulent Viscosity to 0. Larger (i.
This can cause 3-13 c Fluent Inc. (b) Click Init to initialize the solution. November 27. 3. Initialize the solution. 2. when the solution is ﬂuctuating. 2001 ... and moment coeﬃcients.. The second-order scheme will resolve the boundary layer and shock more accurately than the ﬁrst-order scheme. For the ﬁrst few iterations of the calculation. lift. select Second Order Upwind for Modiﬁed Turbulent Viscosity. Solve −→ Monitors −→Residual.. the values of these coeﬃcients will behave erratically. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize.Modeling External Compressible Flow (c) Under Discretization. you are going to enable the plotting of the drag. (a) Select pressure-far-ﬁeld-1 in the Compute From drop-down list. You will need to iterate until all of these forces have converged in order to be certain that the overall solution has converged. Turn on residual plotting during the calculation. To monitor the convergence of the solution.
Since you have performed some initial iterations. 4. just upstream of the shock wave. and moment coeﬃcients are global variables. drag. Solve −→ Monitors −→Force. Since the drag. Request 100 iterations.. After setting up the monitors. you can try increasing the Courant number to speed up convergence. or you get a ﬂoating point exception. read in the previous data ﬁle. and then you will set up the monitors.Modeling External Compressible Flow the scale of the y axis for the plot to be set too wide. you will continue the calculation. 2001 . To avoid this problem.. and the ﬂuctuations of the solution will have diminished signiﬁcantly. This will be suﬃcient to see where the shock wave is. and monitor the value of the skin friction coeﬃcient.. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. set the Courant Number to 20. Solve −→Iterate. and try again. Under Solver Parameters. To monitor this. November 27. unless the integration scheme becomes unstable.. you will have FLUENT perform a small number of iterations. lift. A small number of iterations will be suﬃcient to roughly determine the location of the shock. and this will make variations in the value of the coeﬃcients less evident. and moment coeﬃcients. you will need to decrease the Courant number. you will create a point monitor at a point where there is likely to be signiﬁcant variation. 3-14 c Fluent Inc. 5. 6. and the solution is stable. indicating certain overall conditions. If the residuals increase without bound. they may converge while conditions at speciﬁc points are still varying from one iteration to the next.. Increase the Courant number.. The solution will generally converge faster for larger Courant numbers. Turn on monitors for lift.
select Drag. the history information will be lost when you exit FLUENT. c Fluent Inc.25 m for X and 0 m for Y under Moment Center. using values of 0. (b) Select wall-bottom and wall-top in the Wall Zones list.9976 for Y under Force Vector. (f) Click Apply.Modeling External Compressible Flow (a) In the drop-down list under Coeﬃcient. November 27. If you do not select the Write option. using values of 0. These magnitudes ensure that the drag and lift coeﬃcients are calculated normal and parallel to the ﬂow. (c) Under Force Vector. 2001 3-15 . which is 4◦ oﬀ of the global coordinates. (h) Repeat the above steps for Moment. (e) Select Write under Options to save the monitor history to a ﬁle. (g) Repeat the above steps for Lift.06976 for Y. (d) Select Plot under Options to enable plotting of the drag coefﬁcient.06976 for X and 0.9976 for X and 0. and specify cd-history as the ﬁle name. enter 0.
The dimensionless forces and moments are the lift. (a) In the Compute From drop-down list. and moment coeﬃcients. 2001 .Modeling External Compressible Flow 7. select pressure-far-ﬁeld-1. FLUENT will update the Reference Values based on the boundary conditions at the far-ﬁeld boundary. and moment coeﬃcients. drag. Set the reference values that are used to compute the lift. Report −→Reference Values. November 27. 3-16 c Fluent Inc. The reference values are used to non-dimensionalize the forces and moments acting on the airfoil. drag...
Modeling External Compressible Flow c Fluent Inc. 2001 3-17 . November 27.
. 3-18 c Fluent Inc.11e+04 8.89e+04 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) Jun 12. (a) Display ﬁlled contours of pressure overlaid with the grid.02e+05 9. v. Display −→Contours. Deﬁne a monitor for tracking the skin friction coeﬃcient value just upstream of the shock wave.54e+05 1.4).23e+05 1. 2001 FLUENT 6.Modeling External Compressible Flow 8. Zoom in on the airfoil (Figure 3. Close the Grid Display panel. S-A) Figure 3. Click Display in the Contours panel.0 (2d.44e+05 1.12e+05 1. iv. since there are no changes to be made here. Turn on Filled. coupled imp. 1.00e+04 5.33e+05 1. i. iii. This will open the Grid Display panel. where the pressure ﬁrst jumps to a higher value. November 27. ii.95e+04 4. Select Draw Grid. 2001 ..05e+04 7.4: Pressure Contours After 100 Iterations The shock wave is clearly visible on the upper surface of the airfoil.
95e+04 4. 2001 3-19 . November 27.11e+04 8.54e+05 1. In the following step. c Fluent Inc. S-A) Figure 3. you will create a point surface inside a wall-adjacent cell. 2001 FLUENT 6.12e+05 1.23e+05 1.89e+04 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) Jun 12.05e+04 7. to be used for the skin friction coeﬃcient monitor.Modeling External Compressible Flow vi.02e+05 9. coupled imp.5: Magniﬁed View of Pressure Contours Showing Wall-Adjacent Cells The zoomed-in region contains cells just upstream of the shock wave that are adjacent to the upper surface of the airfoil. Zoom in on the shock wave.33e+05 1.5).0 (2d.00e+04 5.44e+05 1. 1. until individual cells adjacent to the upper surface (wall-top boundary) are visible (Figure 3.
2001 . so you will need to select the desired location in the graphics window as follows: i.) iii. however. Click Create to create the point surface.53 for x0. November 27.. ii. (See Figure 3. In general. Click Select Point With Mouse. ii. you have entered the exact coordinates of the point surface so that your convergence history will match the plots and description in this tutorial. enter 0. Surface −→Point. iv. 3-20 c Fluent Inc. i.Modeling External Compressible Flow (b) Create a point surface just upstream of the shock wave. Click the right mouse button. and 0. Under Coordinates. in the vicinity of the shock wave. Note: Here. Click on Create to create the point surface (point-4). Move the mouse to a point located anywhere inside one of the cells adjacent to the upper surface (walltop boundary).051 for y0. you will not know the exact coordinates in advance..6.
12e+05 1.05e+04 7.23e+05 1.0 (2d. coupled imp. November 27.89e+04 Contours of Static Pressure (pascal) Jun 12. 2001 FLUENT 6.6: Pressure Contours With Point Surface c Fluent Inc.44e+05 1. 2001 3-21 .33e+05 1.Modeling External Compressible Flow 1.54e+05 1.00e+04 5.95e+04 4.02e+05 9.11e+04 8. S-A) Figure 3.
. ii. Solve −→ Monitors −→Surface. 2001 .Modeling External Compressible Flow (c) Create a surface monitor for the point surface. turn on the Plot and Write options and click Deﬁne. This will open the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel... 3-22 c Fluent Inc. i.. To the right of monitor-1.. November 27. Increase Surface Monitors to 1.
. iv. viii. 9. Continue the calculation by requesting 200 iterations. and click OK in the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel.. Select Wall Fluxes. and Skin Friction Coeﬃcient under Report Of. vi. 10. Specify monitor-1. Increase the Plot Window to 4.Modeling External Compressible Flow iii. c Fluent Inc.cas).. Select point-4 in the Surfaces list..out as the File Name. Save the case ﬁle (airfoil. 2001 3-23 . Solve −→Iterate. Click OK in the Surface Monitors panel.. select Vertex Average. November 27. v. vii. File −→ Write −→Case.. In the Report Type drop-down list.
0014 Average of Surface Vertex Values 0.Modeling External Compressible Flow 0.0020 0.0008 0. the residual criteria are satisﬁed and FLUENT stops iterating.7). November 27. S-A) Figure 3.0018 0.0004 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Iteration Convergence history of Skin Friction Coefficient on point-4 Jun 13. Since the skin friction monitor indicates that the skin friction coeﬃcient at point-4 has not converged (Figure 3.0 (2d.0012 0.0010 0.0016 0. 3-24 c Fluent Inc.0022 0. 2001 FLUENT 6. 2001 . you will need to decrease the convergence criterion for the modiﬁed turbulent viscosity and continue iterating.7: Skin Friction Convergence History for the Initial Calculation Note: After about 90 iterations. coupled imp.0006 0.
.dat).Modeling External Compressible Flow 11. 2001 3-25 . This is the residual for the modiﬁed turbulent viscosity that the Spalart-Allmaras model solves for. the force monitors and the skin friction coeﬃcient monitor (Figures 3. Reduce the convergence criterion for the modiﬁed turbulent viscosity equation... Continue the calculation for another 600 iterations. After 600 additional iterations.. 12. c Fluent Inc. indicate that the solution has converged. File −→ Write −→Data. nut stands for νt . Save the data ﬁle (airfoil. 13.11). November 27. Solve −→ Monitors −→Residual.8–3. (a) Set the Convergence Criterion for nut to 1e-7 and click OK.
2001 FLUENT 6. 2001 FLUENT 6.0014 Average of Surface Vertex Values 0. November 27.Modeling External Compressible Flow 0. coupled imp.8: Skin Friction Coeﬃcient History 0.0600 0.0016 0. S-A) Figure 3.0650 0.0500 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Iterations Drag Convergence History Jul 12.9: Drag Coeﬃcient Convergence History 3-26 c Fluent Inc.0010 0.0020 0.0800 0.0 (2d.0018 0.0006 0.0004 0. S-A) Figure 3.0008 0.0012 0.0022 0.0700 Cd 0.0750 0. coupled imp.0550 0.0002 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Iteration Convergence history of Skin Friction Coefficient on point-4 Jul 12. 2001 .0 (2d.
0700 0.0300 Cm 0. coupled imp. coupled imp.11: Moment Coeﬃcient Convergence History c Fluent Inc. 2001 FLUENT 6.5250 0.5500 0.0 (2d.4000 0. 2001 FLUENT 6.5750 0.0600 0.0 (2d. S-A) Figure 3.0000 -0.Modeling External Compressible Flow 0.0200 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Iterations Moment Convergence History About Z-Axis Jul 12. November 27.4750 Cl 0.3250 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Iterations Lift Convergence History Jul 12.0100 -0. S-A) Figure 3.5000 0. 2001 3-27 .4500 0.0200 0.0400 0.0100 0.4250 0.3500 0.6000 0.3750 0.0500 0.10: Lift Coeﬃcient Convergence History 0.
(c) Deselect Node Values and click Plot. or approximately 30 or greater. The value of y + in the wall-adjacent cells dictates how wall shear stress is calculated. 2001 .. select Turbulence. (a) Under Y Axis Function. 3-28 c Fluent Inc. select wall-bottom and wall-top.. November 27. (b) In the Surfaces list. Plot the y + distribution on the airfoil. When you use the Spalart-Allmaras model. Otherwise.Modeling External Compressible Flow Step 7: Postprocessing 1. Wall Yplus is available only for cell values. and are meaningful only in boundary layers. Plot −→XY Plot. you should check that y + of the wall-adjacent cells is either very small (on the order of y + = 1). The values of y + are dependent on the resolution of the grid and the Reynolds number of the ﬂow. you will need to modify your grid. and Wall Yplus...
00e+01 2.00e+01 8.00e+01 3. 2001 3-29 .9 1 Position (m) Wall Yplus Jun 13. wall-bottom wall-top 9.00e+01 0.6 0.00e+01 6. except for a few small regions (notably at the shock and the trailing edge).Modeling External Compressible Flow The equation for y + is y+ = y√ ρτw µ where y is the distance from the wall to the cell center. y + > 30 and for much of these regions it does not drop signiﬁcantly below 30.00e+01 Wall Yplus 4.5 0. Therefore.4 0. coupled imp.00e+01 7. you can conclude that the grid resolution is acceptable.7 0.1 0. µ is the molecular viscosity.12: XY Plot of y + Distribution c Fluent Inc.12 indicates that.2 0.8 0.3 0. ρ is the density of the air. Figure 3.00e+00 0 0.00e+01 1.00e+01 5. S-A) Figure 3. November 27. and τw is the wall shear stress.0 (2d. 2001 FLUENT 6.
coupled imp.45. on the upper surface at about x/c ≈ 0..96e-01 1. November 27.01e+00 8. Display −→Contours.38e-01 2.13).15e+00 1. S-A) Figure 3.67e-01 7.13: Contour Plot of Mach Number Note the discontinuity.30e+00 1.87e-03 Contours of Mach Number Jun 13.24e-01 5. 3-30 c Fluent Inc. (a) Select Velocity.53e-01 9. 1....Modeling External Compressible Flow 2. 2001 FLUENT 6. Display ﬁlled contours of Mach number (Figure 3. 2001 . and Mach Number under Contours Of.81e-01 4. in this case a shock.44e+00 1. (b) Turn oﬀ the Draw Grid option. (c) Click Display.0 (2d.
.5 0.00e+00 -1.25e+00 0 0.14).8 0.2 0. c Fluent Inc. choose Pressure.50e-01 -1. and Pressure Coeﬃcient from the drop-down lists..1 0.9 1 Position (m) Pressure Coefficient Jun 13.50e-01 Pressure Coefficient 0.7 0..6 0.3 0. Plot the pressure distribution on the airfoil (Figure 3.0 (2d.50e-01 5. 2001 3-31 . S-A) Figure 3.25e+00 1.00e+00 7.00e-01 2. (a) Under Y Axis Function.4 0.14: XY Plot of Pressure Notice the eﬀect of the shock wave on the upper surface. Plot −→XY Plot. wall-bottom wall-top 1. 2001 FLUENT 6. coupled imp.50e-01 -5..00e-01 -7. November 27.00e+00 -2. (b) Click Plot.Modeling External Compressible Flow 3.
3-32 c Fluent Inc..00e+02 1.2 0. adverse pressure gradient induced by the shock causes the boundary layer to separate. 2001 .75e+02 1.4 0.15).00e+01 2. Plot −→XY Plot.8 0.1 0.3 0.50e+01 5.50e+02 1..50e+01 0. coupled imp. Plot the x component of wall shear stress on the airfoil surface (Figure 3. Flow reversal is indicated here by negative values of the x component of the wall shear stress. wall-bottom wall-top 2. November 27. 2001 FLUENT 6. S-A) Figure 3.5 0.6 0.. and X-Wall Shear Stress from the drop-down lists.15: XY Plot of x Wall Shear Stress The large.50e+01 0 0..9 1 Position (m) X-Wall Shear Stress Jun 13. choose Wall Fluxes.25e+02 1. (b) Click Plot. (a) Under Y Axis Function.00e+00 -2. The point of separation is where the wall shear stress vanishes.7 0.Modeling External Compressible Flow 4.0 (2d.00e+02 X-Wall Shear Stress (pascal) 7.
16). S-A) Figure 3. c Fluent Inc.96e+01 -2.16e+01 2.. coupled imp.24e+01 -7.46e+02 3.45e+01 Contours of X Velocity (m/s) Jun 13. 4. November 27.34e+02 8.Modeling External Compressible Flow 5. (b) Click Display. and X Velocity under Contours Of. 2001 FLUENT 6.94e+02 3. Display −→Contours..86e+02 1.38e+02 1. (a) Select Velocity.0 (2d.16: Contour Plot of x Component of Velocity Note the ﬂow reversal behind the shock. Display ﬁlled contours of the x component of velocity (Figure 3.. 2001 3-33 .90e+02 2.42e+02 2..
80e+02 1.58e+01 1. coupled imp.13e+02 2. November 27.69e+02 2.0 (2d.24e+02 1. and click Display. S-A) Figure 3.58e+02 3.17.17). 3-34 c Fluent Inc. Flow reversal is clearly visible. It showed how to monitor convergence using residual.17: Plot of Velocity Vectors Near Upper Wall.02e+02 3.04e+01 4. 4. (a) Increase Scale to 15. Zooming in on the upper surface. behind the shock. will produce a display similar to Figure 3. 2001 FLUENT 6. Plot velocity vectors (Figure 3. 2001 . and demonstrated the use of several postprocessing tools to examine the ﬂow phenomena associated with a shock wave. force.35e+02 9. and surface monitors.18e+00 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (m/s) Jun 13..47e+02 4.Modeling External Compressible Flow 6.. Display −→Vectors. Behind Shock Summary: This tutorial demonstrated how to set up and solve an external aerodynamics problem using the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model.