IHYA ‘ULOOM-UD DIYN By Imam al-Ghazali


Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 3 About the Book The book is the English version of Imam Ghazzali's Ihya Ulum-ud-Din.. It deals with worship and divine service. Imam Abu-Hamid al-Ghazzali is unquestionably the greatest theologian of Islam and one of its noblest and most original thinkers. He was born in 1058 A.D. at Tu s, where he died in 1111. He reproduced in his religious experience all the spiritual phases developed by Islam. Starting his religious life as orthodox, Al-Ghazzali soon turned Sufi, and when still under twenty he had broken with all the past. In 1091 he was appointed lecturer at the Nizamiyah in Baghdad, where he became a sceptic. Four year later he returned to Sufism after a terrific spiritual struggle that left him a physical wreck. Intellectualism had failed him. As a dervish he roamed from place to place enjoying peace of soul and acquiescence of mind. After about twelve years of retirement in various places, including two years of retreat in Syria and a holy pilgrimage, he returned to Baghdad to preach and teach. There he composed his masterpiece lyha Ulum-id-Din (the revivification of the sciences of religion). The mysticism of this work vitalized the law its orthodoxy leavened the doctrine of Islam. In it and such other works of his as Fatihat-al-Ulum, Tahafut of Falasifah, Iqtisad fi-al-Itiqad, orthodox speculation reached its culminating point.

Preface Preface of Imam Gazzali CHAPTER I Acquisition of Knowledge Excellence of Learning Praiseworthy and blameworthy learnings Four Imams Meanings of some words now changed Manners to be observed by teachers and students Signs of the learned of the Hereafter Intellect and its noble nature CHAPTER II Foundation of Belief Proof of belief Attributes and actions of God Rules of articles of belief

CHAPTER III Mysteries of Cleanliness Purification from impurities Purification of body and mind Cleansing the external Bodily growths CHAPTER IV Secrets of prayer Stories of prayer of God fearing men Merits of Jumma Prayer Optional prayers CHAPTER V Secrets of Zakat and charities Some subtle rules of Zakat Merits of optional Charity CHAPTER VI Secrets of Fasting Optional fasts and its rules CHAPTER VII Secrets of Pilgrimage Ten secret things of Haj CHAPTER VIII Excellence of the Quran External and internal rules of reciting Individual Interpretation CHAPTER IX Zikr and Invocations Rules of invocations Invocations of sages CHAPTER X Actions after division of Times Merits of Night Prayer

PREFACE Through the unbounded grace of the Almighty God and blessings of the greatest Apostle of God, the English version of the Book of worship of the world renowned Ihyaul Ulum (Revival of religious learning) of Imam Ghazzali, the greatest thinker of the world of Islam, the Proof of Islam, the famous Sufi and devout, has now been published in full. This book Ihya is a sea of knowledge full of reasons and arguments, full of Quranic verses, traditions of the Holy Prophet and of the companions and the famous saints of early ages. Each subject was supported by the Quran, traditions and sayings of the learned sages and wise men and established by reasons and arguments. As the great Imam belonged originally to the Shafeyi Sunni sect, some of the religious doctrines will be found in line with that sect, but nevertheless its importance is very great. In his advanced age, the Imam was not a blind follower of sects but followed his independent thinking and as such indirectly created a sect of his own. As the world is advancing with ever new ideas and scientific discoveries, so also this work is full of novel and great ideas and scientific discoveries and thereby the Imam revived truly the religious sciences and gave them an impetus never given by his predecessors in such a manner. He saved Islam from the currents and cross currents of devilish thoughts and pagan ideas that imperceptibly entered into Islam and clearly showed their fallacies and misconceptions. For this reason, he was given the title of Hujjatul Islam or the Proof of Islam. His thoughts prevailed upon those savants who came after him. Had not the Almighty blessed him with the necklace of reason and intellect, the true belief of Islam would have been carried away by the strong current of irreligious and misguided

thoughts. True it is that there are many weak traditions in this book, bu t at the same time it should be remembered that the authors of six authentic traditional books specially Bukhari and Muslim selected some few thousand traditions as most of them were not proved to have been founded by trustworthy narrators from the Holy Prophet down to the narrator or did not meet with all the rules laid down for an authentic tradition. For want of proof, 8 REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS Vol-I many guilty persons are acquitted. For that, it cannot be said that all acquitted persons are innocent. So in this perspective, the traditions in the Ihya should be regarded. Had Imam Ghazzali not found them trustworthy, he would not have incorporated them in his book. The present translation is an attempt to bring out a complete translation of Ihya in English in four Books. The first book deals with worship and divine service, the second book with worldly usages, the third book with destructive evils and the fourth book with constructive virtues. Ihya in original is a book in Arabic comprising four parts and its abridged addition in Persian was termed by the author himself as 'Kimiyae Sa'adat' or the Touchstone of fortune. Unnecessary arguments of different sects prevalent nearly one thousand years ago, some matters not needed at the present time and some sayings of some sages of less reputation have been omitted in the present English version. The book has been, however, translated into Bengali in full by the author himself without omission. SHORT LIFE OF IMAM GHAZZALI Imam Ghazzali was born in 450 A.H. (1058 A.D.) in the village Taberan in the district of Taus in Persia and his name is Abu Hamid Muhammad. His title is Hujjatul Islam or Proof of Islam and his dynastic title is Ghazzali. His father was not a famous person but his grand father was one of the leading men of that age. His father died while he was young leaving him under the care of his mother and grand father. Ghazzal is said to be the name of a village in the district of Taus in the province of Khorasan in Persia. According to Maulana Shibli Nomani, his ancestors had the business of weaving.(Ghazzal) and therefore he retained his family title Ghazzali (weaver). HIS EDUCATION: At the time of the death of Ghazzali's -father, he entrusted the education of his two sons Muhammad and Ahmad to one of his trusted friends. The latter imparted to them primary education and then sent them to a private Maktab. The boys within a short time committed the whole Quran to memory and after that began to learn Arabic. They were then admitted in a free Madrasa. After sometime, Imam Ghazzali left his native village for higher Vol-I REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS 9 education for Zarzan and began to study under a great earned man Imam Abu Nasr Ismail. He used to take notes of his lectures but in a certain journey he was robbed of these notes by some dacoits along with his other belongings. He took courage, went to the chief of the robbers and begged of the notes only to be returned to him. It was returned to him at his earnest entreaties. Then he joined Nizamia Madrasa at Nishapur which was a reputed seat of learning and a great educationist named Imamul Haramain was its principal. He had 400 students of whom three were most noted - Harrasi, Ahmad-b-Muhammad and Imam Ghazzali. The latter became so much grieved at his death that he left Nishapur and went to Baghdad, the capital of the Caliphs. He was then a young man of 28 years of age. At Baghdad, he was appointed principal of Nizamiyah Madrasa by Nizamul Mulk the chief vizier of the Turkish ruler Malek Shah. Being thus appointed at an early age to such a high post, his popularity as a great learned man spread far and wide and the rulers and the chieftains used to consult him in state affairs and theological matters. LECTURES OF IMAM GHAZZALI: In the lectures of the Imam, hundreds of learned men and dignitaries of the State and even the ruling princes attended. His lectures were full of arguments and reasons and they were mostly recorded by Sayeed-b-Fares and Ibn

Lobban. They recorded nearly 183 of his lectures which were completed in a book named Majalesse-Ghazzali. The great Imam then turned his mind to gain spiritual heights and the circumstances leading to it were recorded by him in his book Munkezum Minaddalal (Deliverance from error). He was a follower of Imam Shafeyi in his early age but in Baghdad he mixed freely with the peoples of all sects and thoughts and ideas. There were then the Shias, the Sunnis, Zindiqs, Magians, Scholastic theologians, Christians, Jews, atheists fireworshippers and idol worships. There were also the Deists, the Materialists, the Naturalists, the philosophers. They used to meet in mutual wars of argumentations and debates. This had such an effect in the mind of the Imam that his whole life became changed and he began to search for truth with a free mind. His old ideas disappeared and he began to live in 10 REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS Vol-I doubts. He then became inclined to Sufism but here practical actions were more required than mere belief. Being imbued with such an idea, he gave up his lucrative post at Baghdad, wore Sufi dress and left Baghdad suddenly one night in 488 A.H. He then went to Damascus and closetted himself in a room of its mosque and began attentively the divine services, meditations and Zikr. Thus he spent here two years in solitude. At the age of 27 years, he was initiated by Pir Abu Ali Farmedi who was the spiritual guide of also the vizier Nizamul Mulk. After two years he went to Jerusalem and visited the birth place of Jesus Christ and in 499 A.H. he visited the holy shrine of Hazrat Abraham and made there three promises:- 1) he will not go to the Darbar of any ruler, 2) he will never accept their presentation, 3) he will not join any religious debates. He fulfilled these promises up to his death. Then he went to Mecca for pilgrimage and visited alto Medina and stayed there for a long time. When he returned home, he was requested by the ruler to accept the post of the principal of Nizamia Madrashah and he accepted it. When the ruler was assassinated by an assassin, he gave up the post and went to Tas and closetted himself in a khankah. The new ruler requested the Imam to join his post of the principal but he declined the offer. He died at his native village Taberan on 14th Jamadis Sani in 505 A.H. corresponding to 19th December 1111 A.D. Ibn Jauzi narrated a story about his death. He said: On Monday early in the morning he got up from his bed, performed his morning prayer and then sent a man to bring his coffin cloth. When it was brought, he lifted it up to his eyes and said: Lord's command is to be obeyed. Saying this, he prolonged his legs and immediately breathed his last. The Imam left no son, but only daughters. HIS BOOKS: The Imam lived nearly 55; years and he began to write books from his early age when he was 20 years old. He travelled for nearly 10 to 11 years and spent most of his time in reading, writing and teaching. Besides this, he had to reply to thousand letters which came from far and near for his decision and opinion. He wrote nearly 400 books of which the following are noted. THEOLOGY: Wasit (Shafeyi jurisprudence), Basit, Waft (Canon Law) (compendium), Bayanul Qaolaine li Shafeyi, Khulasatul Rasail (Quintessence of jurisprudence), Fkhtesarul Mukhtesar, Gayatul Gaur, Mazmatul Fatawah (collection of legal decisions), Risalatul Qudsiyya (canon laws of Prophet). PRINCIPLES OF THEOLOGY: Tahsinul Muakhej, Shefaye Alil (cure of diseases), Mankhul, Mustastfa jurisprudence. JURISPRUDENCE: Khulasatul Fiqh (quintessence of jurisprudence) Wajiz, Igtisad-filI'tiqad (exposition of faith), Al-Qaestas Mustaqim. LOGIC: Mizanul Amal, Mihakhul Nazar fil Monteq (whetstone of reflection on Logic), Mayarul Ilm (weighing scale of science), AI-Ma'arif (Discourse on Logic). Mayarul Ilm fi Fannil Manteq (the weighing scale of the science of logic).

PHILOSOPHY: Maqasidul Falasifah (aim of the Philosophers), Munqezum Minaddalal (Deliverence from error), an autobiographical statement of his spiritual progress) Kitabul Arbayin (abridgement of Ihya), Resalatul Laduniyya (Ilham and wahi). SCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY: Tahafatul falasifah (destruction of the philosophers), Iqtisad, Mustajhari (guide of novices), Iljamal Awam (vilification of peoples), Faysatul Zindiq (refutation of atheists), Fikhrot wal lbrah (Meditation and contemplation), Al Hikmat (wisdom of God), Haqiqatur Ruh (realities of soul). SPIRITUAL AND MORAL: Ihyao Ulumiddin (Revival of religious learnings), Kimiyae Sa'adat (Touch stone of fortune), Akhlaklul Abrar (conduct of the pious), Jawaharul Quran (jewels of Quran), Minhajul Abedin (path of the devout), Mirajus Saleqin (steps for the sojourners), Bidayataul Hidayah (beginning of guidance), Mishkatul Anwar (Niche of lights). TAFSIR: Yeakutut-Ta'wil (a commentary of the Quran in 40 volumes now lost). Of the 400 books he compiled, some only have been preserved in many libraries of Europe, while the Muslims did not accept them as they should have been accepted. Besides, they went so far as to burn some of his books which were lost forever to the world. Vol-I REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS 11 12 REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS Vol-I IHYA , ULUMIDDIN: Revival of Religious sciences is a master piece of Imam Ghazzali. Abul Gafer Fersi was a contemporary of Imam Ghazzali. He said that a book like Ihya was never compiled before. Imam Nodi said: Ihya is near the Quran. Shaikh Abu Muhammad said: If all the lights of knowledge of the world are extinguished they can be revived from Ihya. Shaikh Abdullah Idrees was a great saint. He committed to memory the whole book Ihya. Shaikh Ali read it 25 times from first to last and at the end of each reading gave a feast to the students and the poor. Many students of the Imam committed it to memory. Many saints regarded the book as a result of Ilham or inspiration. The great saint Kutub Shaji one day held the book in his hand and said to the people: Do you know which book is in my hand? Immediately he showed them the signs of lashes on his back and said: I was not a supporter of the book. Last night, Imam Ghazzali took me in presence of the Holy Prophet and inflicted on me these lashes on my back for my disregard of the book. These are the signs of lashes on my back. IMAM GHAZZALI AND EUROPE: The books of Imam Ghazzali was so much accepted and honoured in Europe that they preserved them in many libraries. But they did not receive so much attention in Muslim countries. Some Muslim learned men even did not open their eyes to see them, but rather prohibited the people to read them. For this reason, his books are rarely found in the libraries of Muslim countries. Mankhul is a book compiled by the Imam at his early age. Therein he wrote with completely free and independent mind and was not a blind follower of Mazhabs or sects. This book fell into disregard in Muslim countries only for this fault. Mankhul and Ihya were ordered to be burnt and it was translated into action. Europe accepted them with honour and preserved them from destruction. The book 'Maqasedul Falasefa' is not found in Muslim countries but it is preserved in the libraries of Spain, Europe also accepted his other books. GHAZZALI'S INFLUENCE: It is no exaggeration to say that the modern opinion about religion is much due to the influence of the Imam's thoughts. The many books that were written after his death reflect greatly the thoughts of the great Imam. His views on Sufism were accepted by the latter Sufis. After him Maulana Rumi, Ibne Rushd, Shah Waliullah and such other Vol-I REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS 13

noted learn men wrote many books which resound with the opinions of Imam Ghazzali. In short, his thoughts reigned supreme in their minds. His influence on Persian literature was also great. He himself wrote Kimiyae Saadat in Persian which influenced to a great extent the minds of Maulana Rural Shaikh Sa'di, Farid Uddin Attar, Shiraaji, Hafez and other poets and Sufis. The works of such a learned man held in high esteem by all. should be widely read and circulated. Mr. Watt says: Ghazzali has sometimes been acclaimed in both east and west as the greatest Muslim thinker after Muhammad and he is by no means unworthy of that great dignity.

PREFACE OF IMAM GHAZZALI Take whatever the Apostle gave you and keep away from whatever he forbade you -59:7 Quran. Firstly, I begin with the praise of God though our praise is guide insufficient and meager in relation to His real glory. Secondly, I invoke His blessings on all the prophets and specially on His last and greatest Prophet Muhammad (peace be on them all). Thirdly, I pray for His help and grace that there should remain in me firm will and incentive for writing the book Ihayo Ulumiddin or the Revival of religious sciences. Fourthly, 0 defamer, 0 heedles, 0 one denying truth, God has removed from my tongue the tie of silence and put on my neck the necklace of arguments and reasons. It is my duty to reply to what you argue. In other words, you have closed your eyes from open truths and taken help from whatever is void and untrue and praise ignorance. If a man wants to remove something from the evil practice and habits of men or expresses his wish to translate his learning into action in order that the Almighty may prefer to purify his soul, let him keep himself engaged in divine services and seek to atone for the sins that he committed in his past life and for which he has become despaired. Let him keep aloof from the society of those persons about whom the Holy Prophet said: The greatest punishment on the Resurrection Day will be meted out to that learned man whom God has not given any benefit to his learning. It is my firm conviction that there is no reason for your refusal to accept the truth except what has been stated below. In 14 REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS Vol-I other words, the disease which entered into the minds of the majority of people has also entered your mind. The meaning is that they have given up the rules and regulations for acquiring ranks in the hereafter. They do not know that this affair is very serious and grave, that the hereafter is coming forward and this world is reseding backward, that death is near and the journey is long, that provision is scanty, dangers are great but the paths are blocked. The learnings and actions which have got no connection with God are fit to be entirely rejected by the wise and those who seek wisdom. It is very difficult for a traveller to the next world to tread the paths, because there are injurious and destructive elements on the way but there are no passport and means to cross them. The learned are the guides to these paths. They are the heirs of the prophets. Time has slipped out of their hands. Those who are slaves to evil habits are alive. The devil is powerful over the majority among them and various kinds of sins misguide them. Almost every one among them is engrossed in the luxuries of this world and its comforts and enjoyments. For this reason, the majority of them consider good as bad and bad as good. Even the religious learnings and sciences have become obsolete. The lights of guidance have almost disappeared from this world. They duped the people to believe that there is no other science than that of Flah (Jurisprudence). These are the laws of administration which help the judges in the administration of justice and the rulers in the administration of their countries. They say that there is no learning except that of Munazara or debates. The present learned man cherishes hope of victory over his adversary and seeks means to make him silent. Or they informed the people that there is no learning except the science of scholastic theology by help of which a speaker seeks to influence the minds of the public. They see no other science except these three sciences. The sciences of the next world and the

learnings of the sages of early times have disappeared from the people and the learning which was described by-God in His Holy Book as theology, wisdom, light and guidance has been immerged in the deepest recess of forgetfulness. When such is the condition of the religion, such downfall and catastrophe, I have thought it prudent to write this book entitled, Ihyao Ulumiddin (Revival of religions Sciences). By this book, the path of early Muslim sages has been opened and the Vol-I REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS 15 impediments that lay in the path o f acquiring learnings beneficial to the prophets and sages have been removed. I have divided this Ihya into four books - 1) the Book of worship, 2) the Book of worldly usages, 3) the Book of destructive evils, 4) and the Book of constructive virtues. I have discussed the chapter of knowledge at the very beginning as it is of extreme importance. It is necessary to discuss such learning at the outset which is a great help towards divine service according to a saying of the Holy Prophet. He said: To seek learning is compulsory on every Muslim. I began with the chapter on knowledge in order to separate the useful knowledge from the harmful knowledge as the Prophet said: We Seek refuge to God from the knowledge which is not useful. (1) The Book of worship comprises ten chapters - (1) Knowledge, (2) Articles of Faith, (3) Secrets of Purity, (4) Secrets of Prayer, (5) Secrets of Alms-giving, (6) Secrets of Fasting, (7) Secrets of Pilgrimage, (8) Rules of Quran-reading, (9) Rules of invocations and supplications and (10) observance of daily duties according to fixed times. (2) The Book of worldly usages consists of ten chapters - (1) rules of eating and drinking, (2) rules of marriage, (3) rules of earning livelihood, (4) lawful and unlawful things, (5) rules of companionship and brotherhood (6) rules of habitation in solitude, (7) rules of journey, (8) music and ecstasy, (9) rules of enjoining good and forbidding evil, (10) rules of living as exemplified by the character and conduct of the Prophet. (3) The Book of Destructive evils comprises ten chapters - (1) wonders of soul, (2) discipline of soul, (3) harms of stomach and sexual passion, (4) harms of tongue, harms of anger, hatred and envy, (6) evils of the world, (7) evils of wealth and miserliness, (8) evils of show and pomp, (9) evils of self- conceit and pride and (10) evils of vanity. (4) The Book of constructive virtues comprises ten chapters - repentance, (2) patience and gratefulness, (3) fear and hope, (4) poverty and asceticism, (5) Tauhid (unity of god) and Godreliance, (6) love and contentment, (7) intention, truthfulness and sincerity, (7) self-examination and self-accounting, (9) meditation, (10) death and ponder over death. 16 REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS Vol-I Vol-I REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS 17 Some people wrote some books on these subjects, but this book has got five special characteristics which are not found in those books. Firstly, I have opened by the grace of God what they closed up and I have written in detail what they kept secret. Secondly, I have arranged what they kept scattered and I have brought together what they kept separate. Thirdly, I have made short what they made long and corrected what they approved. Fourthly, I have deleted what they repeated. Fifthly, I have made this book easy to understand after disclosing the subtle matters. These are the five specialities of this book. I have placed the foundation of this work on four books for two reasons. The first basic reason is that I have incorporated in this book well-arranged rules and their real nature, so that they may be easily understood, as the knowledge by which the next world is known is of two kinds - knowledge of outward behaviours and usages and the knowledge of revelation, inspiration, secret and subtle matters. What I mean by this knowledge is the knowledge for attaining the submum bonum or the ultimate object of life. What I understand by the science of outward behaviours and usages is the knowledge of practical religion attended with actions in accordance with that knowledge. The object of

this work is only to narrate the science of practical religion and usages and not to narrate the science of revelation and inspiration, as there is no permission to put the latter into black and white though the science of revelation is the ultimate object of those who search after truth and the most coveted matter in the eye of the extremely truthful, and the best way of acquiring knowledge of worldly uses. The Holy Prophet did not speak anything about the science of revelation except through signs and symbols, because he knew that the wisdom of men to understand it is very little. There is no means of the learned other than the path of the prophets, as the learned are the heirs of the prophets. The science of practical religion are of two kinds-open science of the actions of the physical senses and the secret science of the functions of the heart. The actions which keep connection with the physical senses are the actions of habits or usages of life. The heart which comes from the unseen world and is removed ultimately from the senses is influenced by either the praiseworthy virtues or the blame-worthy vices. In short, the science of practical religion is divided into open and secret sciences. The open science and usages of life. The secret science keeps connection with the condition of heart and its qualities and is sub-divided into praise-worthy virtues and blame-worthy vices. The second basic reason is this. I see a great enthusiasm of students for study of jurisprudence or Fiqh. To those who do not fear God, jurisprudence has turned into an object of pride and a means for acquiring name and fame. Jurisprudence is of four kins. As the objects which adorn the dear things are also dear, I think it better that this book should be modelled into the form of Fiqh or jurisprudence, so that the minds may be inclined to it. For this reason, one who wants to attract the attention of the minds of some men to the science of medicine remodels it after astronomical tests and writes a book after naming 'Tablets of Health'. So also I have adopted some measures in this work, so that the minds of the people are attracted towards such learning which is beneficial to human life. As the minds of the people are attracted to the science of medicine for preservation of the health of body, so also it is necessary that the minds of the people are attracted to the treatment of the diseases of soul and mind in expectation of a happy and prosperous life in the next world which will last forever and forever. Physical happiness is short and transient as compared to spiritual happiness in the hereafter. Physique is mortal while soul is immortal. So I pray to the Almighty for his help and succour for writing and completing this book Ihyao Ulumiddin as He is the most Compassionate, the most Merciful.

CHAPTER I ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE SECTION 1- EXCELLENCE OF LEARNING PROOF OF THE QURAN: God says: God, angels and those learned men who stand on justice bear testimony that there is no deity but He - 3: 18. Now look, 0 dear readers, how God began attestation first by Himself, then by His angels and then by the learned. It is understood from this verse that the rank of the learned and their honour are much high. God says: Those who are believers among you and the learned, God will increase their rank - 58: 12. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said about them: The rank of the learned is seven hundred times more than that of the believers, and the ofference between the two ranks is the distance of the path of five hundred years. God says: Are those who are learned equal to the illiterate - 39: 9 ? God says: The learned among His servants fear God most35 : 28. God says: Say, God is sufficient as a witness between me and you and those who have got knowledge of the Quran - 13 :43. God says: But those who had been granted knowledge said: Alas for you, the reward of God is best for those who believe and do good -28 :80. God says: These parables We set forth for men and none understands them except the learned - 29 : 42. God says: If they had only referred it to the Apostle and to those charged with authority among them, those of them who would investigate it would have

the rulers and the theologians He said: Should the day come wherein my knowledge for nearing God does not increase. God says: He created man and taught him to speak -55. The lowest knowledge of a jurisprudent is that the Hereafter is better than this world. The meaning of theology or jurisprudence will be discussed soon. He said: The learned and the warriors are nearest to the rank of prophethood. He said: There will be two groups among my people. HADIS: The Holy Prophet said: God gives knowledge of religion and guidance to truth to one whose good He intends. He Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 19 said: The learned are the heirs of the prophets. They are guides to the people and the warriors wage war in the path of God with their arms like the apostles. my followers and transmits these to them.7 : 52. Those who were best in the days of ignorance are the best in Islam provided they have got the knowledge of theology.' So the angels of heaven and earth remain busy in seeking forgiveness for the learned and they remain busy with themselves. let not the sun rise on that day. He said: God revealed to Abraham: 0 20 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Abraham! I am All. it is understood that even in this world the fruits of learning can be enjoyed. even though a worshiper is worshipping always and he would not have worshipped had he not possessed knowledge. This is also true that the Hereafter is better and more lasting than this world. the people are good and when they are corrupt.wise and I love every wise man. its ornament is shame and its fruit is knowledge. He said: Belief is without dress and its dress is God-fear. He said: There will intercede on the Resurrection Day the prophets. God says: I shall recount their story with knowledge . When this knowledge will prevail over him.7 : 6. He said: God is sufficient for the worries of one who acquires knowledge of God's religion. the people become corrupt . He said: 'Whatever is in heavens and the earth seeks forgiveness for the learned. So see how he linked knowledge with prophethood and how he belittled the rank of the learned man without action. The superiority of a learned man over a worshipper is like my superiority over the ordinary men. God's commands have been placed upon the investigation of the learned and their rank with the prophets for propagation of God's commands. He said: The superiority of a learned man over a worshipper is like the superiority of moon over the stars. he also keeps away from them. The Prophet said: The best of the people is a believing learned man who does good when sought for. He said: A learned man is a trust of God on earth. and when the people keep away from him. He said: Whoever of my followers commits to memory forty traditions will meet with God as a learned theologian. He also said: I shall intercede on the Day of Resurrection and be a witness for one who commits to memory forty traditions out of. From these. it is understood that there is no rank above the rank of prophethood and there is no honour higher than its inheritance. 2. then the learned and then the martyrs.7 : 25. God says: I have sent to them a book and with knowledge I explained it in detail. God says: 0 the children of Adam! I have sent down to you raiment to cover your shame and adornment to you.4 : 93.good guidance and knowledge of theology. In the practical religion. He said: Men are like the mines of gold and silver. he will be free from hypocrisy and show. God thus made knowledge dependent upon their efforts. So the rank of the learned is next to that of the prophets and higher than that . He said: The death of a people is easier than the death of one learned man.29 : 48. When both the groups are good. a guide and a mercy to all who believe .' The learned have been sent for which the prophets were sent. He gives him provision from a source which he has never conceived. God says: It is a clear sign in the hearts of those to whom knowledge has reached . The Holy Prophet said: Two traits of character are not united in a hypocrite .know it .' From this tradition. What can be greater than this rank? The Prophet said? 'Wisdom increases the honour of the noble and exalts a servant as high as to raise him to the level of kings. The Holy Prophet said: The ink of the learned will be weighed against the blood of the martyrs on the Resurrection Day. but the raiment of piety is best .

He was then questioned: Which knowledge do you mean? He said: Knowledge about God. This honour is not for his strength of sexual passion as a sparrow has got more strength for coition than that of a man. only the learned are alive. the givers few and the beggars many. as enemies of the learned. the beggars are few and the givers are many. I have not placed knowledge in you in order to punish you. you will be immortal.of the martyrs. he has degraded what God has exalted. He was again asked: Who are kings? He replied: The ascetics. He said: The superiority of a believing learned man over a believing worshipper is seventy degrees. The Holy Prophet said: God has not given any man more excellence than the knowledge of religion and one theologian is more formidable to the devil than a thousand worshippers. a few actions Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 21 will suffice and your ignorance about God will not suffice even though actions are numerous. He was again asked: Who are the meanest? He said: Those who exchange the religion for the world. such a calamity befalls on Islam which cannot be removed except by his successor. He said: You are living in an age wherein the theologians are many. Knowledge guards you but you are guarding wealth. But soon there will come over you such an age wherein the theologians will be few. I have forgiven you. Everybody is honoured proportionate to his knowledge. Acquire knowledge. the Quran-readers and the preaches are few. When a learned man dies. This honour is not for his strength of too much eating as the stomach of an oxe is bigger than that of a man. God will raise up the worshippers and the learned men. I have not imbued you with My knowledge but for My knowledge about you. knowledge is better than wealth. Hazrat Ali said in poems: Glory is due to none other than to the learned. But the illiterate are disgraced. Once the saint . He said: There is difference of one hundred degrees between a worshipper and a learned man. While the kings rule over the people. They said: We ask you about action but you speak of knowledge. The Prophet said: With your knowledge of God. knowledge distinguishes men from the lower animals and it is only for knowledge that men are honoured. Everything has its foundation and the foundation of this religion is knowledge of theology. wherein knowledge will be better than deeds. This honour is not due to a man for his physical strength. the preachers and the Quran-readers many.' The Holy Prophet was once asked: 0 Prophet of God. The sage Ibn Aswad said: Nothing is more honourable than knowledge. wherein deeds are better than knowledge. This honour is not on account of his bravery as a ferocious beast is braver than a man. because a camel is physically stronger than a man. Sayings of the sages: Hazrat Ali said to Kamil: 0 Kamil. Hazrat Ibn Mobarak was asked: Who are men? He replied: The learned. He said: The best part of your religion is its easiest and the best worship is (the acquisition of) religious knowledge. He did not consider anybody as a man except the learned. while wealth seeks justice. Guided are they and proofs to the seekers of guidance. Wealth decreases with expense while knowledge increase with expense. He said: On the Day of Resurrection. This honour is not for his large body as the body of an elephant is bigger then that of a man. Vol-I 22 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 23 The Holy Prophet said: Whoever has been given the Quran and thinks that any one has been given something better. Knowledge dispenses justice. Go. He will say: 0 the congregation of the learned men. the learned rule over the kings. All men are dead. This honour of a man is on account of his knowledge and intellect. which action is best? He said: Knowledge. The distance between two degrees is as the run of a racing horse for seventy years. He said: A learned man is better than one who prays and fights in the way of God.

By One in whose hand there is my life. Hazrats Abu Hurairah and Imam Ahmad held this view. He said: Angels spread their wings out of cheer for the seeker of knowledge. EXCELLENCE OF LEARNING . .Fathul Musolli was asked: Does not a sick man die for want of food. His condition is just like that of one who does not feel any pain in swoon. God advised us to pray thus: 0 God. Nobody is born learned. he repents at the advent of his death but it comes to no use. He said: To be present in an assembly of a learned man is better then praying one thousand rak'ats. his power of sense goes away just as excessive fear keeps one forgetful for a moment of the pangs of wound. He said: Such is the condition of heart. He said: To seek knowledge is compulsory on every Muslim. as learned men. Hazrat Omar said: The death of one thousand persons who pray all the nights and fast all the days is a lesser calamity than the death of one learned man who is versed in lawful and unlawful things of God. as they will find the honour meted out to the learned men there. is it better than the reading of the Quran? He said: What benefit can the Quran do except through knowledge? He said: He who seeks knowledge to revive Islam and dies in that condition. How can he call himself towards honour? A certain wise man said: I do not feel. HADIS: The Holy Prophet said: If a man seeks the path of acquiring knowledge. he begins to feel pain. these two things similarly keep the heart alive. it dies. visiting one thousand sick men and attending one thousand funerals. but when I was sought for knowledge. Learning is to be acquired. give us good in this world and good in the hereafter . SAYINGS OF SAGES: Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: When I sought knowledge. He said: To rise up at dawn and learn a section of knowledge is better for you than to pray one hundred rak'ats. He said: Knowledge is a treasure house and its key is enquiry. It is a veritable truth that the food of the heart is knowledge and wisdom. He said: If a man learns a chapter of knowledge. that is knowledge. Hazrat Abu Darda'a said: He who thinks that to go at dawn in search of knowledge is not jihad is deficient in intellect. sympathy for anybody more than two persons 1) one who seeks knowledge but does not understand it and 2) one who understands knowledge but does not seek it.the enquirer. or a student. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: To discuss about learning in a portion of night is dearer to me than to keep up awake throughout the night in prayer. the audience and their lover. He who misses knowledge has got his heart diseased and its end is its death. Men are in sleep but they are awake at death. Imam Shafeyi said: To seek knowledge is better than optional prayers. But when death takes away the burden of this world from a man. there will be the difference of only one step between him and the prophets. He said: The ignorant should not remain silent over their ignorance. but not anything else. God says: If you know not.2 : 297. When he leaves the world and its works. A certain wise man was once asked: Which thing is to be hoarded? He replied: That thing which will remain with you even if your boat capsizes. the learned man. The Prophet was asked: 0 Messenger of God. then ask those who have got knowledge of the Book -16:43. So enquire and there are rewards therefore for four persons . As food keeps the body alive. Hazrat Abu Darda's said: To learn one point is better than to pray the whole night. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: You should acquire knowledge before your death. it is better than the world and its contents. Ibn Mubarak said: I wonder for one who does not seek knowledge. The sage Hasan Basari said: The ink of the learned will be weighed against the blood of martyrs and then it will be found that the ink of the learned is heavier than the blood of the martyrs. Hazrat Hasan Basari said that it means Knowledge so far as this world is concerned and Paradise so far as the hereafter is concerned. or an auditor. He said: Either be a learned man. I became exalted. but he does not understand it. God guides him to a path leading to Paradise. In explaining 'good' in this verse. nor the learned over their knowledge. He said: Seek knowledge even if it be in China. When the heart is not given wisdom and knowledge for three consecutive days. but as soon as he recovers from his swoon. male and female. those who were killed in the way of God would every time wish that God should resurrect them. drink and medicine? The people said: Yes. I became degraded.

2: 140. It is equal to worship for one year. they will intercede and enter Paradise. you have worshipped and fought. He said: If a believer hears a good advice and then translates it in to action. It shows that teaching was binding on them. The Prophet said: If a man after acquiring knowledge keeps it Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 25 concealed God will drag him with the bridle of fire on the Resurrection Day. they will give decision without knowledge for which they will be misguided and will misguide others. Whenever a learned man will pass away. God says: He teaches them the Book and wisdom . The ditches and the canals in another spot reserve water and God gives benefit to mankind therewith. He said: If a man learns a section of knowledge to teach it to the people.16:125. make it known to the people and not conceal it God says: Who is better in speech than one who calls towards God and does good-41: 33? God says: Call towards the way of your Lord with wisdom and good sermon . If He wishes.you shall surely make it known to mankind and not conceal it . for whoever conceals it is wicked at heart .3 : 187. One spot became full of water and consequently abundant herbs and grasses grow therein. The Prophet once came out and saw two assemblies . Whenever anything will be asked to them. nor grows any grass and herb.one was calling God and offering their supplications and another giving the people good instructions. will be called great in the kingdom of heavens. God will then say: You are like some of my angels. They drink water therefrom. Then he went to them and took his seat among them. The Prophet said: The first group offer supplications to God. one who learns and teaches. It means teaching and guidance.9: 122. He said: A Muslim gives his brother Muslim no greater benefit than a fair tradition which has reached him and which he subsequently transmits to him. He may grant them and if He wishes He may reject them. he will be given the rewards of seventy Siddiqs (true righteous men). the knowledge with him will also pass away and at last there will be none left except the ignorant leaders. God says: A party from them conceal the truth although they know it . Intercede and your intercession will be accepted. they warn their people. So. His angels. The Prophet said: God will not take away knowledge from men after He has given it to them. it is better than the world and its contents. God says: Don't conceal evidence. God. so that they may guard themselves .2 : 283. Jesus Christ said: He who acquires knowledge. This rank they will get for that knowledge which reached others and not for the knowledge which did not reach others but remained with them. God says: Remember when God took a covenant from the People of the Book . The Holy Prophet said: How excellent a gift and how excellent a present is a word of wisdom which you hear and remember and then carry it and teach it to your brother Muslim.' QURAN: God says: If a party from every band of them remained behind. they could devote themselves to the religion . He said: Accursed is the world and what is therein except one who remembers the glorious God. The Prophet said: God does not give a learned man any knowledge until He takes from him a covenant as He took covenant from the prophets namely to. The learned will then say: By virtue of our learning. one who makes friendship with Him. rather He will withdraw it after taking the lives of the learned men. The Prophet said: The simile of guidance and knowledge with which God sent me is like that of profuse rain falling upon a certain locality. I have been sent as a teacher. even the ant in its hole and the fishes in the sea like one who teaches good to the people. The Prophet said: On the Day of Resurrection God will say to the worshippers and the warriors: Enter Paradise. The second simile is that of a man who does benefit to . acts up to it and teaches it to the people.9:1U 24 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I EXCELLENCE OF TEACHING QURAN: God says: When they return to them.2:123. irrigate their lands and grow crops. HADIS: The Holy Prophet said to Mu'az when he was about to start for Yemen: If God gives guidance to a man through your help. This shows that concealing truth is unlawful. Then there is a spot which neither hoards water. The first simile is that of a man who gets benefit from his knowledge. Another group are giving good instructions to the people. the inmates of heaven and earth. it is better than his worship for one year.

A learned man said: The learned men are the lights of the ages. even the fishes of the sea. even the fishes in sea. Knowledge gives life to a dead heart. He said There is no envy except for two persons . By its help. Everything. The Prophet said as reported by Muaz-b-Jabal: Acquire knowledge. so you will call knowledge better if it is compared to other qualities. insects and worms. imparting it to those who are worthy is meritorious. If the word excellence is not understood. What is sought as a means to an end is gold and silver which are mere pieces of stone having no value of . both are the same but a horse has got some additional qualities which are not found in an ass .others. teaching it to him who does not know is alms-giving. because its acquisition is fear of God. Knowledge is good for its own sake and not for its connection with other qualities. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: But for the learned. Now understand why knowledge is better. bosom friend to a stranger and become to the path of Paradise. unity of God is understood. If the quality of carrying loads is taken. For instance. learning takes a man to the limit of humanity from the limit of animality. tie of blood is maintained and lawful and unlawful things are known. God is obeyed and worshipped. companion in solitude. by its help warning is given. In other words. seeks forgiveness for them. others also become guides to good and the people follow them. It is the friend in journey. Seeing them. A certain wise man said: A learned man is an intermediary between God and men? So see how he acts as an intermediary. by its help.the quality of running fast and physical beauty. the people would have been animals. for instance knowledge is noble. guide to religion and light to them in happiness and misfortune. dry and fresh. PROOF OF REASON The proof of reason for the excellence of knowledge is this. SAYINGS OF SAGES Hazrat Omar said: He who learns a Hadis and induces one to act up to it will get the rewards of one who translates it into action. it is not possible to know the excellence of other thing. The third simile is that of a man who is deprived of both the benefits. a man reaches the rank of the pious. if one desires to know whether Zaid is a wise man. Each is a light in his own time giving light to the people of his time. cattle and sheep and even the stars in sky seek forgiveness for them. He said: May God's mercy be upon my successors. 2) useful knowledge (7) and righteous successors. What is sought for its own intrinsic value. He was asked: Who are your successors? He said: Those who love my ways and teach them to the people.1) one whom God has given knowledge according to which he conducts himself and teaches it to the 26 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 27 people. search for it is jihad. it is a light of eyes in darkness and gives strength to body after removing weakness. As a horse is called better than an ass for its quality of running fast. The angels urge them to work. To think of it is like fasting. It is said that a horse is better than an ass.1) a permanent endowment for charity. beasts in forests. search for it is worship. 2) and one whom God has given wealth and power to spend it and he spends it in good deeds. all his actions stop except three . 3) and what is sought for both. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: If a man teaches good to the people. All precious things fall into one of three groups . he should know first the meaning of the word wisdom and then of Zaid or else he will go astray. Through it. and its study is like prayer. Excellence is the additional quality of a thing which has got no defect. By its help. God exalts a nation. makes them leaders and guides of good. The Prophet said: One who guides towards something good is like one who does it. its study is praise. 2) what is sought as a means to an end. The Holy Prophet said: When a man dies. everything seeks forgiveness for him.1) what is sought for its own intrinsic value. An animal is sought for its quality and not for its body.

For this reason. drinking. because the excellence of an activity is known by three things . and back-bone without which they can not function. 2) The second category includes such activities as are helpful to the above mentioned activities. Intellectual activities are more excellent than the other activities. all things can be easily done. If God had not made them instruments of purchasing things. It is not so in case of gold and silver. If the body is healthy. The organs of the body also are divided into three categories . making dresses. If this object is kept in view. for instance. This is the most noble attribute of a man. such as eating and drinking and other works. their value would have been equal to other stones. 3) The third category includes such activities as are supplementary to the principal industries previously mentioned. The highest rank of man is the attainment of happiness in the next world and the most excellent things are the ways that lead to it. you will get pleasure in theacquisition of knowledge. influence over the rulers and the people. so knowledge is better than language. (1) Firstly. It involves thoughts of the privileged few. So knowledge is the root of good fortune in this world and in the next. Perfect knowledge and bright intellect can acquire it. (2) Next is the administration of temporal rulers over the public matters of the people and not their private matters. (3) Next is the administration of the learned and the wise over the people in the matter of the religion of God as they are the heirs of the prophets. while language can be learnt through the sense of hearing. experienced and expert men are necessary to run the government. weaving for manufacturing clothes. to keep company with the angels and the pious divines which are objects of the next world and its result in this world is honour. 2) What is helpful to these principal organs are stomach.(1) by examining the natural qualities of a man by the help of which an activity is recognised. Knowledge also has got the above three qualities. (4) Next is the administration of the preachers which involves the thoughts of the common men. Out of these three categories. This is the goal of knowledge and education. For instance. These activities are necessary for human habitation just as the various organs of the body are necessary for up-keep of the human body. out of which the most noble is government on account of which peaceful habitation becomes possible. it is widely known that the science of religion is the path of the hereafter. fingers. sewing clothes. (i) Agriculture for raising food stuffs for maintaining lives. (2) By examining the extent of human usefulness. (3) By observing the excellence of a business. such as heart. Administration is divided into four classes. After the administration of the prophets. As intellect is better than the sense of hearing. What is sought for both.their own. the most noble are the fundamental things. liver and brain. agriculture is superior to the craft of a goldsmith. (1) The first class is the highest as it is the government of the prophets and their jurisdiction spread over the public and private mattes of the people. because with its help the happiness of the next world and Divine Vision can be gained. such as eating. that is for its own sake and as a means to an end is physical health. 3) What is supplementary to the above two categories for perfection are nails. but the human activities are divided into three categories. because owing to this attribute. the business of a goldsmith is better than that of tanning hides. he .1) The fundamental organs. trust of God has been accepted by him and through it. The result of knowledge is to enjoy nearness of God. architecture for building houses and government for regulating human relations for living in peace and harmony. 1) The first category includes four fundamental activities without which the world can not go on in order. But the object of these things is to gain happiness in the hereafter and nearness to God. such as iron crafts or ploughs for cultivation. 28 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I The affairs of this world do not become orderly except through activities. eye brows etc. veins. for instance. instruments for spinning and weaving clothes and other implements. acquisition of knowledge is better than learning a language as knowledge can be acquired by intellect. Knowledge is precious for its own sake. So acquisition of knowledge and its teaching are excellent actions in order to seek good of this world and good of the next and it is most laudable with the above object. the most noble is the diffusion of knowledge whereby the people are saved from evil and destructive habits and are led towards fortune and constructive virtues.

The heart of a learned man is one of the good stewards of God. So to know a thing is not compulsory on a Muslim who does not require it.can enjoy the neighbourhood of God. If he lives up to the month of Ramazan. To know its inner meaning does not then become compulsory on him. As regards actions. (3) Thirdly. He is to believe it without any doubt and proof.knowledge of practical religion and knowledge of spiritual matters. if a Muslim reaches the early afternoon prayer. there is no doubt that the people in general get benefit of knowledge as its extant of usefulness is very wide and it contributes to the happiness of this world and the hereafter. Why should it not be compulsory when the Prophet said: Three things are destructive . This is the case with him in case of other prayers also. actions and prohibitions. The scholastic theologians any that it is scholastic theology because it contributes towards understanding of Tauhid and the attributes of God. The knowledge which Is compulsory appertains to practical religion which deal with three matter . After that. Thus if a man feels any doubt in his mind about the meaning of attestation formulas. The Prophet first required only mere verbal acceptance of Islam and confession of faith from the Arabs. For instance. vehement passion and self. The Sufis say that it is Sufism. What rank is therefore higher than that in which a man is an intermediary between his Lord and fellow-men to draw them closer to God and to paradise? SECTION 2 PRAISEWORTHY AND BLAMEWORTHY BRANCHES OF KNOWLEDGE COMPULSORY LEARNING (FARZE AYIN) The Holy Prophet said: To seek learning is compulsory on every Muslim. There are about twenty different groups in this matter. So on and so forth. envy and impulses of evil. knowledge is a thing which heals and governs the hearts and souls of men. The traditionists say that it is the knowledge about the Quran and the ways of the Holy Prophet. it becomes compulsory on him to know some of the evils as described in the Book of destructive evils. lawful and unlawful things can be understood and known. he must know how to restrain himself from these things. This is the case with Pilgrimage. it becomes compulsory on him to learn the words of attestatton "There is no deity but God and Muhammad is the servant and apostle of God. to acquire knowledge about it becomes binding on him. Knowledge is of two kinds . (2) Secondly. What was compulsory on them at that time was fulfilled. The Jurists say that it is Fiqh or jurisprudence.sordid miserliness.beliefs. worldly affairs. on the mute to know which words are unlawful. As a man is not free from hatred. As to beliefs and thoughts of mind. it becomes compulsory on him to know first how to pray it and to put it into action. Man is the lord of creation and the lord of human organs is his heart. There is difference of opinion among the learned as to which branch of knowledge is obligatory on an individual. He said: Seek knowledge even though in China. it then becomes compulsory on him to know what will remove that doubt. when a sane man attains puberty. because Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 29 30 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 31 with its help worship. So teaching is the finest mode of worship. When a duty becomes binding on a man. AS TO PROHIBITIONS: It depends upon circumstances and new events. it becomes compulsory on him to know the rules of fasting and then to fast. These duties deal with actions and prohibitions. Other evils follow . Zakat and other duties ordained by God and binding on all Muslims. If after the acceptance of Islam there is anybody who wears silk dress or takes property of another man by force or looks to a strange woman with passion. their knowledge is obligatory according to the state of mind. Abu Taleb Makki said that it is the knowledge about the five pillars of Islam.conceit. It is not compulsory on the blind man to know which sight is unlawful. knowledge of the duties to do became compulsory on them. A spiritual teacher purifies the heart and guides it towards God.

To remove these evils from mind is compulsory. it 32 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I becomes sometimes blameworthy. the unanimous opinions of Muslim jurists (Ijma) and the sayings of companions. The sciences which should be learnt for agriculture. To be expert in such learnings is not Farze Kefayah. such as tafsir. This means that he shall not pass judgment when he is pressed by calls of nature. If a man at least acquires such learning or science in a town or locality. administration. Farze Kefayah is such compulsory duty without which no nation can go on in this world. The learnings which are permissible are poetry. blameworthy and permissible. The fourth source is the sayings of the companions because they saw the Prophet. judgment day. The religions learning are those which came from the Holy Prophets and in which there is no question of intellect. These are Farze Kefayah or binding on the community as a whole. all will be transgressors. knowledge of revocation of verses. such as Medicine. horticulture. One kind relates to the activities of the world. The Prophet said: To acquire learning is binding on every Muslim. Fiqh contains the laws of the . The learnings which are blameworthy are sorcery. resurrection day. Mathematics etc.praiseworthy. that learning about the duties are divided into two categories those which are connected with religion and those which are not so connected. Ijma is the third source of Islam as it shows the path towards the usages of the Prophet. biographies of illustrious companions and narrators of traditions. and the other kind relates to the activities of the hereafter. These are the religious learnings and are praiseworthy and as such Farze Kefayah or binding on the community as a whole. 0 dear readers. books on authoritative transmission. weaving etc. biology etc. industry. He did not say to learn Alif. are Farze Kefayah. The praiseworthy learnings comprise sources branches helpful and supplementary learnings. FARZE KEFAYAH (COMPULSORY DUTY ON COMMUNITY) Know. The first source is the Quran and the second is the Sunnah. however nobody learns it. They are therefore of four kinds. They were not necessary for the Holy Prophet as he was illiterate. 4) The fourth kind is the supplementary sciences and is connected with pronunciation of words and different readings and meanings. the reply is this. thereby writing the understanding as indicated by the following Hadis: A judge shall not sit in judgment when angry. They are not themselves religious education. and the learnings that are not connected with the religion are Mathematics. The last thing is of two kinds. but when any other learning is mixed with any of them. As actions become gradually compulsory on him. hell. 2) Branches of learnings of religion are drawn from the sources not according to the literal meaning but according to the meaning adduced by the mind. 3) The third is the sciences helpful to the praiseworthy sciences such as the science of language and grammar which are necessary to know the Quran and Sunnah. 1) Sources of religious learnings are four in number (a) the Book of God. They are of three kinds . talismanic science juggling. Lam or Mim. history. If.these three destructive evils. Medicine etc. the Sunnah or usages of the Holy Prophet. The latter is the science of the conditions of the heart and of its praiseworthy virtues and blameworthy evils. such as the books of law and is entrusted to the lawyers and jurisprudent. geography. what is compulsory on him is to believe in paradise. If a man is converted to Islam. but he said to learn the science of actions. The sciences which are necessary for progress in the world are praiseworthy. All learnings connected with the religion are praiseworthy. to acquire knowledge about these duties becomes gradually compulsory on him. If you question: Why have you included Fiqh or jurisprudence within the worldly sciences and Faqihs or Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 33 jurisprudent as worldly scholars. gambling and the like. hunger and disease. witnessed the coming down to revelations and they saw what others did not see through their association with the Prophet. all other people in the town or locality get absolved from its sin.

but that is done through the intermediary of this world as the world is the seed ground of the hereafter. so also the outward formalities of prayer will come of no use there. He questioned a man who praised another man as a martyr: Have you examined the heart of the killed? He uttered Kalema Tauhid out of fear of being killed and then he was killed. guard is a third thing and the laws are a fourth thing. He saves himself even from doubt whether a certain things is lawful or unlawful. About Islam. The object of Fjgh is to give knowledge of administration. He also said: Sin is heart-alluring (3) The third grade of piety is that of the God-fearing man who gives up even a lawful thing for fear of falling into an unlawful thing. The religion does not become perfect without the world. This kind of prayer will be of no use in the hereafter. it is alright although it is done to avoid payment of Zakat.administration of the world and Faqihs are such lawyers. What will help him there is 34 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I the light of heart. but it will be of no use in the hereafter and its harms in the hereafter will be greater that its benefits. Halal and Haram. but when they were asked about the Quran and the learnings of the hereafter. This is therefore a matter of this world. The actions of . For instance. rule for pilgrimage is another thing. That which has got no foundation it destroyed and that which has got no guard is also destroyed. One who is authorised by him is his deputy. Zakat. The Holy Prophet said: Discard that which is doubtful for that which is not doubtful. they did not remain silent. The Prophet said: Nobody can be a God-fearing man unless he gives up what causes no harm to him for fear of what causes harm. This kind of God-fear is only to save oneself from all unlawful things (2) The second grade of piety is that of a pious man. ABOUT ZAKAT: A Faqih will see whether Zakat has been realised according to th prescribed rules. authorised agent and one not so authorised and who gives decision out of his own accord. This is supported by the following Hadis: Nobody can give legal decision except three. its secret thoughts and its sincerity which are outside the domain of Fiqh. There is of course no doubt that a Faqih also deals with religion. but Haj or pilgrimage is one thing. a Faqih pays attention only to outward confession of Kaletha 'Tauhid but the heart or mind is outside his domain. On this point. A ruler or leader is qualified to give legal decisions.The jurisprudent will give decision that his Islam was good even though he uttered it under the shadow of sword. It may be said that the argument does not apply to various acts of worship about which a Faqih gives decision. It is well-known that pilgrimage does not become perfect unless a companion is takeh for protection from the ruffians and robbers in journey. such a man does not . Prayer.ruler. For this reason. The government does not belong primarily to the religious sciences. ABOUT PRAYER: A Faqih will give decision of correctness of prayer if the outside formalities are observed even though one's mind was absent in prayer from first to last. but it will come to no help in the hereafter. The Prophet kept the rulers and. Except these two. In reply. you will find that the religion is the foundation and the ruler is its guard. the Holy Prophet said: I have been ordered to fight the people until their lives and properties are safe in my hand. If a man gives it up. the third person is called an intruder who undertakes the responsibility himself. If you leave the religion with the rulers. Imam Abu Hanifa declared that it is the result of his knowledge of Fiqh and it is correct and the result of worldly wisdom. administrator or witness. Rule can not go without a ruler and the instrument of rule is Fiqh or administrative laws. The companions in general refrained from giving legal decisions. the warriors outside it. it may be said that Fiqh gives decision about the following matters of religion . ABOUT HALAL AND HARAM: To abstain from an unlawful thing is piety and there are four grades of piety: (1) Piety which is required for attestation of truth.Islam. he is not qualified to act as a judge. It is related that the judge Abu Usuf gave decision that if a man makes gift of his wealth to his wife at the end of a year and takes back that wealth to him by gift. As verbal expression of Kalema Shahadat will be of no use in the hereafter.mind and God-fear which appertain to the actions of the hereafter and which help the outward actions are outside the domain of a Faqih or jurisprudent..

the science of revelation and the science of practical religion. goodd faith. boasting. enmity. piety. the meaning of Paradise. lukewarm support for truth. Don't despise such learned man whom God has given a portion. A Faqih does not express opinion regarding the machinations of the heart but confines his opinion on things which are subject matters of courts. Bridge. no ear has heard and no heart has conceived. Its praise. evils are the following-fear of poverty. This is a light which illumines the heart.worthy qualities are patience. the angels. He understands now what he heard before but did not understand. hypocrisy. punishment of grave. His jurisdiction is limited to the matters of the world. The object of secret knowledge is to remove the covers of doubt over these things from mind and the appearance of such light therein which clears everything like day light. accounts and many other things. only the first one is within the domain of a Faqih and not the other three. envy. secretly fostering. the cause of revelation on Prophets.state all affairs to the people lest he is drawn to back-biting or he fears to eat a delicious food or drink lest it stimulates passion and lust which drive the people to commit unlawful things. their real nature and the means whereby they are attained. It is like a mirror through which one can see clearly everything that falls on it if is cleared of all impurities therein. The second kind of practical religion is the praiseworthy and blameworthy sciences of the states of the heart. the Holy. their results and their signs are included in the Science. cleansing it of all impurities and blameworthy sins. Science of the road to the hereafter is divided into two parts . God-fear. To. will it reflect its reality. show. A certain Sufi said: I fear the bad end of a man who has got no portion of the knowledge of revelation. Anotl er sage said: Whoever is addicted to this world or persists in his low desires will not attain this secret science though he might learn the other sciences. It is possible owing to the light of heart. loss of fear of God. the meanings of prophethood. to honour the' rich. Others hold that some are mere patterns and some are identical with the realities which these names signify. About this science. The mode of clearing theta is the abstinence from low desires and passions and following the ways off the prophets. the devil. recognition of the gift of God under all circumstances. miserliness. generosity. anger. greed. is cleansed and made to face the truth. hatred. truthfulness and sincerity. self-conceit. 41 Some say that these things are mere examples. hope. expression of.of it. The blame-worthy.erimity with outward . as God does not despise a man on whom He gives a gift. A certain sage said: Whoever has got two characteristics-here say and pride-will never be blessed with this secret science. good conduct. This secret science is the science of the Siddiqs and those who are in the neighbourhood of God. The Holy Prophet once said to Wabisaa: Consult your conscience even though they give you decision (thrice). His works and wisdom in the creation of this world. but God has reserved for the pious what no eye has seen. he comes to learn the eternal and perfect attributes of God. (4) The fourth grade is the piety of the siddiqs or extremely religious man who gives up everything except God for fear of spending one single hour of life for nothing. Hell. flattery. this cannot be attained without discipline. and 'efforts. as criticism. Thus to whatever extent the heart. The least portion is to believe it and place it to those who are worthy of it. pride. Balance. to that same extent-. obstacles . Some say that man knows nothing of Paradise except its attributes and names.td the knowledge of God's attributes. The science of revelation is the primary object of the science of practical religion. to look the poor with contempt. Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 35 Out of the above four stages. This secret science cannot be written in books. The science of the heart is that by which these impurities are 36 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I removed from thee heart as these impurities ar impediments or . of the hereafter. but it can be gained by experience as a gift of God. pre-decree. gratitude. vanity.know the limits of these attributes. Likewise others hold that limit to the knowledge of God is one's inability to reach it. displeasure over. fear. hope for living long. contentment. Prophet said: this is such a knowledge which is like a hidden things. None can grasp it except those who know God. haughtiness.

As a student sits in school. contentment with the world. loss of shame and kindess. The first subject includes Geometry and Arithmetic. To know their real nature belongs to the Science of the hereafter and to know it is compulsory on the part of a learned man of the hereafter. The second subject is Logic which is a science of reason. but he who becomes an ascetic before acquisition of Knowledge throws himself into faults. These are the faults of the mind. Imam b-Hampal and Ihya. and it states proof. So also the Imams .are. The attention of the jurisprudents with respect to the compulsory sciences is towards the. both of which are permissible for those who are firm in faith. Its meaning is that he should acquire first the science of tradition and learning and then become an ascetic and he will then get salvation. Someone said: The learned men of exoteric knowledge are the ornaments of the world and the state but the learned risen of exoteric knowledge are the ornaments' of the kingdom and angles. The companions did not publish books on Fiqh or read them. Among the learned men of practical sciences. Hazrat Jun a?. As to Philosophy. but also for the science of heart. The third subject is the science of Sufism or the science of His being and attritutes of God. . He said: Yes. The opposing dualities. but not first an ascetic-and then a traditipnist.d said: My spiritual guide said to me once: With whom do you keep company when you leave my fi ouse? I said: I keep company with Mohabasi. I shall describe the character and conduct of the early Faqihs. harsh treatment. he will at once reply and deal with' subtle intricacies. but as soon as he is asked about divorce and other matters. those who are God fearing keep attached to the learned men' of secret sciences.b-Maven could not agree on a certajn matter and they therefore went to Maruf l(arkht who was not equal to them in the science of practical relig on. God-reliance etc. roots of evil deeds and miseries. follow his knowledge and manner but avoid the subtleties of hrs schplaspc theology and return it to him. We have come to you for this. The fourth subject is Physics of which some 38 portions contradict Shariat and true religion and are therefore not right. Both these are. breach of trust. Whoever turns away from it will be destroyed in the hands of the Kingg of kings just as anybody.. They had no other object except to gain the pleasure of Lord and the signs of the learned men of the hereafter were known to them from their conditions. I heard him say: May God make you first a Muhaddis (traditionist) and then an ascetic (Sufi). reason and cause.going against the temporal rulers and the laws of a state would be destroyed. If Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 37 any Fagih is asked about sincerity. so'Imam Shafeyi used to sif near Shaiban Ray and ask him: How shall T do this work? The people asked Imam Shafeyi: Are you asking questions to a. deceit. included within theology. he would make delay in reply. `l hey said to him: The Prophet said: What will you do when you will not find a matter in the Quran and Sunnah? He said: Ask the pious men among you and consult them in this matter. revenge. world and the attention of these people is towards the good of the hereafter. When 1'14t hire. it is not a single branch of science but comprises four subjects.praise-worthy and the fountain heads of all.Beduin?' le said: This man has learnt what we have not learnt. oppression.of friendship. This is also included within theology. They lived not only for the silence of Fiqh. good deeds.

The Caliph said: May God have mercy on your father. but the modern Faqihs accepted only one of these qualities. IMAM SHAFEYI He was a devout worshipper. That is research in to the minutest details of Fiqh.? Muhammad-b-Shuja narrated: Caliph Abul Mansur ordered W.Imam Abu Hanifa. When he was asked about the reason. Ibn Juray said: I was informed that Abu Hanifa was a great God fearing man. Hakimb-Hashim said: I heard about Abu Hanifa at Syria that he was the most trusted man for which the Caliph wanted him to be appointed as a Treasurer of the state treasury and threatened him with punishment if he Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 39 would not accept it. Everyone of them possessed five qualities. These actions prove his exoteric knowledge. Rabiy-b-Asem said: Caliph Yezid sent me once to Abu Hanifa and he wanted to appoint him as cashier of the state treasury. Now see how he fled away from a prize post and as a result he received punishment. one part for prayer and one part for sleep. Sharik said: Abu Hanifa used to spend long time in silence and meditation and converse little with the people. . Iman Ahmad-bHambal and Imam Sufiyan Saori. He sought God's pleasure by his knowledge Ibn Mobarak said that Imam Abu Hanifa had good character and conduct and observed prayer and fast too much. Soon we shall narrate the lives of some noted Faqihs not. Regarding his asceticism. He divided the night into three parts-one part for study. His son said: I did accordingly. but he said: I am not fit for this post. he said: If l have told the truth. On the day when the wealth would be delivered to him. The narrator said that Imam Shafeyi used to finish the Quran 60 times in the month of Ramzan and every time he finished it in prayer. At the end of each verse. Put it in a corner of his room. he would THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Abu Hanifa's knowledge of the things of the hereafter and his concern over the important matters of religion are proved by the following narration. The four other qualities relate to the good of the hereafter and only one relates to the good of this world. IMAM ABU HANIFA He was a great Imam and a great ascetic and God fearing man. devout. Imam Malek. He used to spend one third of the night in prayer and yet I have not seen him reciting more than fifty to one hundred verses. take this purse to the Caliph and tell him: This is your trust which you have deposited with Abu Hanifa. He said: I am ashamed before God that I am described by something which I don't possess. Imam Shafeyi. They are followed only in respect of one quality and not the other four. Thereafter Abu Hanifa left death instruction with regard to this wealth and said to his son: When I die and you finish my burial. Everyone of them was an ascetic. Hasan Qarabasi reported: I spent many nights with the great Imam. One of the people present said: This is his habit. he covered his body with a cloth after prayer and did not talk with anybody. learned in the science of the hereafter. The man of the Caliph went to him with Dirhams but the Imam did not talk with him. to attack them but to attack those who claim to be their followers act and contrary to their character and conduct. He preferred king's punishment to that of God. On his refusal to accept the post.did not compile books. Ibnul Mobarak narrated about Abu Hanifa: Do you say of that man who was given the treasures cf the world but who fled away from them. The noted Faqihs are five:. law given for the people. he was given twenty stripes. I am unfit for that post as I am a liar. it is good for the post. It is narrated that he was once offered the post of the chief justice of the state. and if I have told a lie. This was done. Once Abu Hanifa was walking in a street when the people hinted at him saying: This man spends the' whole night in prayer. seeker of God's pleasure through the help of Fiqh. Hammad-b-Solaiman said that he was in the habit of praying the whole night and in another narration half the night. He who has been given silence and asceticism has been given all knowledge. yet they were experts in the science of Fiqh.000 dirhams to be given to the Imam but he declined the offer.

Then he along with us left the place. I followed him. as are embodied in Fiqh. wages etc. When I reached Baghdad. make ablution well. The Imam said: I used not to take food with satisfaction for the last 16 years as a full stomach makes the body heavy. Hudaidi said: Imam Shafeyi once went to yemen with some men and returned to Mecca with 10. I seek refuge to Thee from the place of the liars and the scoffing of the heedless. remains safe from destruction. the best man of his time has died. He also said: Every one has got some persons who love him and some who hate him. He was told that he had expired. (3) and to guard the limits of God. He had a sweet voice and began to read: This is a day on which they will not speak and they will not be given permission to rise excuse-77:35. Whoever loves a thing keeps it with him and everything is insignificant to one to whom the world is insignificant. He looked at me and said: Have you got any necessity? I said: Teach me something of what God has taught you. Forgive my faults through the grace of Thy countenance. and patience comes after trial. God will then treat good with you both in this world and in the next. entertain hopes for the next world and believe God in all your affairs. be among those who obey God. He said: Adopt asceticism in the world. makes the heart hard. Job. This reveals the deep knowledge of Imam Shaheyi about the Quran. I saw that the colour of the face of the Imam became changed and he was trembling vehemently and then fell in swoon. Hares had a student with him and he was a Qari or reader of the Quran. I. Generosity of the Imam was great and the root of asceticism is generosity. Joseph and others. bestow Thy bounty upon me and cover me with Thy mercy.000 dirhams.40 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I beseech God's mercy upon himself and upon all Muslims. what do you say about . A man then was passing by me and said: 0 young man. Sufyan Saori said: I or anybody has not seen like Shafeyi. He did the same with Moses. Such fear and asceticism are the result of nothing but for his knowledge of God and not for his knowledge of legal questions like advance payment. you will then be among those who will get salvation. increases sleep and renders a man lazy for worship. his heart becomes illumined. Then he went away. Shall I give you more advice? I said: Yes. He once asked Imam Shafeyi: Which of these virtues is better-patience. I was making ablution in the bank of the river for prayer. Abdul Qader-b-Abdul Aziz was a God-fearing man. trial and peace and mind (Tamkin)? The Imam replied: Peace of mind is the rank of the Prophets and it is not attained except by trial. 0 God. Omar-b-Nabatah said: I have not found more God-fearing man than Imam Shafeyi. he was then in Iraq. He said: Know that he who knows God as true gets salvation and he who fears his religion. Once Sufiyan-b-Aynabat fell in swoon before the Imam. Don't you see that God examined Abraham and then He gave him peace of mind? he examined Solomon and then gave him peace of mind and kingdom. If it be so. He also said: Whose confesses his obedience to God through the help of his knowledge. This is asceticism which leads to God-fear. he and Hares-b-Labeed went one day to the valley of Safa. I asked: Who is he? They said: Imam Shafeyi. He who remains indifferent from the world. will be cool at seeing the rewards which God will give him tomorrow. the hearts of gnostics have submitted and the necks of those who yearn for Thee bowed. 0 worshipped. Imam Shafeyi said: The knowledge of one who does not make himself perfect will come of no use to him. loan. He said: He who claims that the love of the world and love of God are united in him is a liar. He said: If he has died. Once he was asked: 0 Malik. He also said: Never have I taken oath by God whether true or false. Shall I give you Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 41 more advice? I said: Yes He said: The faith of one who has got three characteristics is perfect-(1) to enjoin good to act according to it. A tent was fixed for him in the outskirts of Mecca and people began to come to him He did not move from that place till he distributed all dirhams among the people. When he recovered he began to say: 0 God. IMAM MALEK He was adored with five qualities. and (2) to prohibit evil and to desist from it.

He said to his sons: Go out to the mosque and acquire from him knowledge along with the people. apply scent and then become fearful and grave and then narrate traditions. Malek said: This is not the way to make the people follow 'Mualta' because the companions of the Prophet after his death dispersed around the different countries and they related the traditions in each place. The Caliph Harun Rashid once asked Imam Malek: Have you got any house? He said: No. Nevertheless they are known for asceticism and God fear. See therefore his benevolence and his veneration for the soil of Medinah. Such an ascetic was Soloman despite his royal glory. Another example of his asceticism is that Imam Shafeyi once said: I noticed a number of Khorasan horses at the door of Malek. the Caliph had him flogged. This is proved by a saying of Imam Shafeyi who said: Once I was near Malek. Does this mean that you ask me to leave Medina in return for what you have given me? I prefer nothing more than the city of the Messenger of God. It is said that once the Caliph Mansur prohibited him to narrate the particular tradition on the illegality of divorce made under compulsion. God places it wherever He wishes. he used to distribute them in charity. lease and other worldly laws? . When the Imam intended to narrate traditions. because we have decided to make the people follow 'Mualta' as Osman made them follow the Quran. comb his beard. When the learned were mentioned. There is yet another report of his asceticism. When asked about these formalities. he asked Malek: 0 Abu Abdullah. The Caliph then gave him 3000 dinars and said: Go and buy with this money a house. Therefore here are your dinars. The Imam accepted the money but did not spend it for the purpose. hire. He said: I shall be ashamed before God to tread with the hoof of any least of burden the soil wherein lies His Prophet. Did the Imams rise to such eminence only for their knowledge of Fiqh which now means contracts of the type of salam. you may leave them. don't be separate from him.something you shall learn and not something you should receive. he said: I intend to show honour to the traditions of the Prophet. This knowledge has come from you. he said: There is no benefit in arguments about 42 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 43 religion. He was asked about forty eight legal questions: He replied regarding thirty two questions: I don't know. not even the whole world. large wealth began to come to him from different corners of the earth. rental. If anybody does not separate from you morning to evening. If you like. If you honour it. I said to him: Keep one of them for yourself for riding. All books contain their sayings and stories of their asceticism. For this. there is no way as the Prophet said: Had they known. he used to make ablution. When the Caliph intended to return to Baghdad he asked Malek: You should come along with us. Knowledge is . Further the Prophet said: Difference of opinion among the people is a blessing. He declared among the people that divorce pronounced under compulsion is not binding. Imam Malek was counted as a bright star. Then the Caliph said: You are right. He said: May God exalt my master. Regarding the seeking of pleasure of God by knowledge. Imam Ahmad and Sufiyan Saori had many followers. you should come frequently to my place. sit in the middle of his bed. 1 Such was the asceticism of Malek. When as a result of his diffusion of knowledge and the spreading of his companions. and if you dishonour it. it will be despised. The Caliph thereafter instigated some one to question the Imam on the subject. He said: Knowledge is light. they would 'have known that Medina is best for them again he said: Medina removes its corruption just as the furnace removes the dross of iron. it will be exalted. Now examine the lives of the Imams and serutinize those who claim to be their followers. take them back and if you like. so that I may learn from you 'Muatta'. He said: I once went to the Caliph Harun Rashid. I said to Malek: How beautiful are they! He said: They are then presents from me to you. I have never seen any other horse better than them.search for knowledge? He replied: It is fair and beautiful. As for my going with you.

remain silent. once coals with Mathematics and is connected 44 THE POOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I with accounts. Then she became lean and fit for conception. The Prophet said: Learning is of decisive verses or lasting usages (of Prophet) and just ordinances (based on the Quran and Sunnah). Once the Prophet was passing by a man surrounded by the people. learning of trivial sciences before the important ones learning of subtleties before fundamentals. her husband came to the physician and said that his wife did not die. He asked: Who is this man? They said: He is a great learned man. (2) The second reason is that if a science causes much harm to the acquner. the gist of which is that the future events are indicated by the present causes. however. talisman. if inquired into. After Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 45 the period. Hazrat Omar said: Learn Astrology. the moon and the stars are st}bjects to the commands of God. remain silent and whenever my companions are mentioned. Firstly. The Sahihs Bukhari and Muslim narrate traditions also that the Prophet of God was once victim of sorcery for which he fell ill. Ignorance of some branches of knowledge is good and it will be clear from the following Hadis of the Holy Prophet. because thoughts occur in their minds that it is the stars which influence the course of events and so the stars are to be worshipped: The wise man knows that the sun. to conduct you in land and sea and not more.SECTION 3 BLAMEWORTHY SCIENCES Knowledge is not held to be blameworthy except for one of three reasons. So don't discuss about those learning which have been declared by Shariat as useless. The second kind deals with Astrology. A certain person once complained to a physician that his wife was sterile and that she bore no children. . The Prophet said: Such a learning which does not do any benefit and such ignorance which does not do any harm. such as magic. will do harm. The physician left the pulse of the woman and told her that she would die after 40 days. It is gathered from this story that ignorance is sometimes good. The woman got extremely frightened and gave away all her wealth and lived these forty days without food and drink. The Prophet asked: Of what learning? They said: Of poetry and Arab geneology. if it leads to the harm of another. He asked: How will it e? The physician said: I saw that the woman was too fat and that grease was blocking her uterus and that it could not be removed except by fear of death. There are three causes for this prohibition. it is blameworthy. Gebriel informed the Prophet of this matter. There are many things which. The second reason is that Astrology is purely guess work. The physician said: Now col?abit with het• and you will get an issue. It appears from this that discussion about Astrology and the like sciences are useless undertakings. in some cases is beneficial as is seen from the following story. it becomes blameworthy. Astrology is therefor an attempt to know the course of the laws and ordinances of God in connection with His creations. (3) The third reason that this science is blameworthy is that it becomes of no use to one who acquires it. It is a kind of knowledge obtained through the learned men of the precious stones and mathematical calculations of the places and times of the rising of stars. Ignorance. Firstly. It has been termed blameworthy because it command is that of only ignorance. The Prophet said: I fear three things for my followers after me. It is of two kinds. for example. I decreed stations for it till it changes like an old and crooked palm branch-36:39. such as the science of Astronomy. faith in Astrology and disbelief in Taqdir (predecree). the oppressionn of the leaders. He said: I seek refuge to God from useless knowledge. The Quran says: The sun and the moon have got courses reckoned-55: 4 It says again: As for the moon. sorcery' These sciences are true no doubt as the Quran testifies. it is harmful for majority of the people. The Sharia has declared it as blameworthy. The enchantment was taken out from underneath a stone in the bottom of a well. The Prophet said: Whenever Taqdir is mentioned.

Ilm. Such people believed that another fruit of Tauhid is to avoid complaints to the people. It was a science of the path of the hereafter and knowledge of the beneficial and harmful matters of soul. Tazkir and Hekmat and have given them the meanings of their own. This is proved by the words of God in the following verse that they may be expert in religion and may warn their people when they come back to them-9:193. As a result. It has now the meaning of the science of unusual legal cases. is indifferent to their wealth and wishes good of the Muslim world. The people have changed the original meanings of the words Fiqh.SECOND MATTER CHANGE OF THE MEANINGS OF SOME WORDS CONNECTED WI TH KNOWLEDGE. One who commits to memory the intricacies of law is Faqih. it had a different meaning. Those who were present before the Prophet did not know the details of laws. God says: They have got hearts but they do not understand 'therewith-2:178. not to get angry at them and to remain satisfied with the decree of God. mystery of the minutest details of jurisprudence and excessive debates on them. the science of the knowledge of God and His verses. But what has been said about the excellence of learning and the merits of the learned men apply to those who are versed according to the former meaning. He said: a perfect Faqih is one who does not deprive the people of the mercy of God. Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 47 Tauhid is therefore a precious fruit which is engaged into several husks. He who fears God most. When Anas-b-Malek narrated the following tradition-To sit with those who remember God from dawn to sun. Te Prophet once said: Shall I not inform you 46 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I about a perfect Faqih? The companions said: Yes. the belief that good and evil all come from God and that the result of Tauihid is God-reliance. . restrains himself from attacks on the reputation of his fellow Muslims. the knowledge of the methods of argumentation.85:16Q. The present meaning of Tauhid is scholastic theology or Ilm Kalam. rental etc. the manner of confronting adversaries. In the first century. nor discards the Quran in favour of something else. the domination of God fear over the heart. This points out to the result of Fiqh. Hazrat Ibn Masud exclaimed: Nine-tenths of the science of religion have passed away. ILM is the science of religion. The man who gives attention to such a science is called now Faqih or jurisprudent. manumission. Someone asked Sa'ad-b-Ibrahim: Who is the greatest Faqih in Medina? He said:. FIQH (religious learning). they have become now blameworthy. The modern people have taken up the husk and given up the pith. He said: The Physician Himself has given me this disease.rise is dearer to me than the manumission of four slaves'. nor makes them lose hope of His mercy. is wise in his religion worships his Lord constantly. remains steadfast to the hereafter. knowledge of the meanings of the Quran and. Tauhid. the outer husk is distant from the inner. In another narration. The present people used the term Ilm to mean the science of those who can well debate the cases of jurisprudence with their adversaries and those who cannot do that are termed weak and outside the category of the learned men. Tauhid was then the belief that all things come from God and it ruled out all intermediary causes. the Prophet said: A man cannot become a perfect Faqih unless he makes the people understand about the existence of God and believes that there are several objects in the Quran. When the Caliph Omar died. TAUHID (unity of God). does not give hope of freedom from punishment. he said: The Physician said: I certainly do what I wish-11:109. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: A Faqih is one who renunciates the world. Fiqh or jurisprudence is that which gives such a warning and fear rather than the details of divorce. The people said to him: Let us call a physician for you. He did not say. Another fruit of Tauhid is the saying of Hazrat Abu Bakr in his illness.

Such murder is excusable. Those who follow their passion do not conform to this monotheism. He asked the Prophet one day about the blood money of a child which died in the womb of its mother saying: How shall we pay the blood wit of a child who has taken no food. They then come to the place. Such was not the practice at the time of the four rightly guided Caliphs. The Prophet said: The worst deity in the sight of God that is worshipped in the world is the deity of passion. The hypocrite Muslims also utter it. God says: Have you seen such one who takes his passion as God-25: 43Q?. surround them and hear them. keep yourself far from ornamental talks.The people have termed it as the science of husk and given up the science of pith. recite poems and poetries and sing songs. enjoy yourselves. ZIKR OR TAZKIR (God's Remembrance). The prophet also said: There is wisdom in poetry. The direction of the Ka'ba is not the direction of God. The Prophet once heard three talks from Abdullahb-Rawahah and said: 0 Abu Rawahah. defects of soul. God says: As to poets. The Prophet said: When you pass by the garden of paradise. its general use in sermons is bad. machinations of the devil. He was asked: What are the gardens of Paradise? He said: Assemblies of Zikr (remembrance of God). The meaning of the husk of Tauhid is to utter by tongue 'There is no deity but God'. The Prophet said: are you like the desert Arabs who indulge in ornamental words? POETRY: As to poetry. descriptions of the beauties of the beloved. nor it is becoming of him. This is the science of invocation and admonition. Now the assembly of Zikr means the assembly of lectures wherein the modern lecturers deliver long speeches. they accost themselves and say: Come unto your goals. The Prophet said: The angels of God roam in the horizon except the angels of creation. remember God and take lessons. Such is the assembly about which the Prophet said: To be present at the assembly of Zikr is better than one thousand rak'ats of prayers. Ibn Omar once came out of the mosque exclaiming: None has sent me out except a story-teller. but he really does not turn his heart towards God and begins the day with a lie. HIKMAT: The word Hakim derived from the word Hikmat is now used in the case of physicians. There are many traditions regarding the merits of the assemblies of Zikr. This is real Tauhid which is to entrust every affairs of man to God in such a way that his attention is not diverted to any other matter except to God. For this reason. He did not turn out Hasan Basari as he used to deal with the hereafter. Don't you find the wondering in every valley and say what they do not do-26 255? God said: I did not teach him (Prophet) poetry. It is opposite to Trinity of the Christians. contemplation of death. There are however such poetries which contain wisdom. God says: Remind them because Zikr or admonition benefits the believers-51:55Q. The heart believes it to be true. Story-telling is an innovation. Idol worship is also done according to the wishes of passion. the soul of such a man inclines towards the religion of his ancestors. Mind is the mine of Tauhid and its fountainhead. Furthermore what is narrated of poetries is sermons comprises mostly of love episodes. astrologers and those who tell the future of the people by examining hands. Hazrat Ata said: One assembly of Zikr expiates the sins of seventy assemblies of useless talks. Such a man is like one who rises up in the morning and says facing the Ka'ba: I have turned my face towards One who created the heavens and the earth. Hazrat Ali turned out the story tellers from the congregational mosque of Basra. nor cried. The pith of Tauhid is confirmation by heart what the tongue confesses. A man of Tauhid turns his mind towards God and not towards any other direction. nor breathed. This gives arise to lust and sexual passion more than religious enthusiasm. When they see any assembly of Zikr. He who turns his face towards the Ka'ba can't be called to have turned his face towards God as God is not confined within space and direction. those who go astray follow them. . no drink. 48 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 49 tell stories. the joys of union and pangs of separation. visiting one thousand sick men and attending one thousand funerals.

The Prophet said: If a man learns a word of wisdom. be busy with acquisition of knowledge which is compulsory according to your need. because it is such a sea of which the depth is unlimited. Now you have come to know about praiseworthy and blameworthy sciences and how the intermingled with one another. All knowledge which the ancient sages loved have vanished. A valuable life should not be spent uselessly but there are some sciences which have got moderate benefits. and if you want. For this science. More importance however is the science which everybody neglects. This is the hidden science which can never be recorded in books. fast etc. If you keep busy with yourself. He who does all these things earns it according to his fate and not to his efforts. He was asked: Who are those few? He said: Those who purify my Sunnah after the people polluted them and those who revive my sunnah after their death. knowledge of open deeds such as prayer. (1) The knowledge of which a little or much is blameworthy has got no benefit either in this world or. the saints and the learned with faith according to their different ranks. for example magic. Either be busy with yourself or be busy after finishing your work with others. (2) The science which is beneficial up to the end is the science of knowing God. One part is blameworthy in whole or in part. power and streng. The Prophet said: Islam began with a few and it will soon return to a few as it began. but there is no escape from efforts as efforts are the only keys of guidance and there is no other key. Performance of these outward deeds is like the external application of . purification of mind. one part is praiseworthy in whole or in part and one part is praiseworthy upto a certain limit and beyond that it is blameworthy. Now chose either of the two. Beware of the two persons. you may follow the paths. Be careful of correcting others before you correct yourself. Each has got three limits-first limit up to necessity. but a little of ugly figure and bad conduct is bad: Moderate expense of wealth is praiseworthy but immoderate expense is blameworthy. second up to moderation and third up to excessive quantity and there is no end of it during life. self-conceit and such other destructive faults. This is the science which is sought for its own attributes and by which the blessings of the hereafter is gained. If you want good. Know which of these sciences are bad and which are good as there is nobody who is safe from envy. The Prophet. efforts shall have to be made and the condition of the learned men of the hereafter shall have to be examined. On being repeatedly asked.but God says about the word Hikmat (wisdom): He gives wisdom whom He wishes Whoever has been given wisdom has been given a great good-2:272Q. in the next. because. Now think what was Hikmat and what it has come to. the Prophet replied: They are wicked learned men. A little of health and beauty is good. Good nes to those few. One day a man asked the Prophet: Who is the worst creature in creation? The Prophet said: 0 God.. a great deal of efforts. In another narration: The few are a few righteous people in the midst of many unrighteous men. Look to the condition of physique. for instance. precaution shall have to be taken. For it. it is better than the world and what it contains. Those who search it are remaining constantly in its shores and edges. THIRD MATTER HOW MUCH IS PRAISEWORTHY OF THE PRAISEWORTHY SCIENCES? Knowledge is divided into three parts. renunciation of the world and the following of the Prophets and friends of God are necessary. His attributes and His works. you may follow the path of the ancient sages and saints. hatred. pride. It is the science of heart. (3) The sciences which are praiseworthy up to a certain limit are those which have been narrated at the time of discussion of Farze-Kafayah. of the latter generations. pardon me. but their harms are greater. astrology or talismnics. His laws affecting this world and the hereafter.i and according to the decree of God could not even navigate its ends. Now think also of the meaning of many words which have come down to us. there is such harm in it which is greater than its benefit. To exert oneself to the utmost of one's 50 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I capacity to gain it falls far short of what is required.

Whenever the Caliphs called them. Therefore there were differences of opinions among the learned men and there grew different Mazhabs or sects as a result. (2) The second condition is that one should not consider debates more important than Farze-Kefayah duties. they fled. Rather they are a contentions people. This induced the people to take the controversies and disputations. Then he read the following verse: They did nothing about you but disputation. the rightly-guided Caliphs were the leaders of the learned in the science of God. This is applicable also to Had is. He said: It has all vanished like scattered dust.ointment to the body when it is stricken with scabies and boils while neglecting to remove the pus by means of surgery. They composed also many works on these subjects. After their death. They were the eyes of knowledge and were experienced in the legal decisions. He also said: Those. About a verse-'But they in whose hearts there is perversity'(3:5:) the Prophet said that they are a contentious people about whom God said: Beware of them. 0 dear readers. one who has not already fulfilled his part in duties of Farze Ain should not engage himself in the debates even for searching truth. There were argumentation and disputations over the intricate questions of religion. that after the Prophet. 52. There is no learning which has got no limits of necessity. Only two rak'ats of prayer at the latter part of night has done me benefit. The learned men lay stress upon the outward actions and the learned men of the hereafter remove the impurities of mind. A certain saint asked a learned man in dream: Tell me the condition of learning about which you held disputation. The acquisition of these learnings are weapons for the hereafter. They did not take the help of jurisprudents except in cases where consultation was necessary. SECTION-4 HARMS OF THE SCIENCE OF POLEMICS AND EVILS OF DEBATES AND DISPUTATIONS. He commits sin who does other works leaving aside a more important Farze Kefayah duty. THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 53 THERE ARE EIGHT CONDITIONS OF DEBATES (1) The first condition is that where debate for search of truth is one of Farze Kefayah duties. At that time. So you should not engage yourself in Farze Kefayah duties till you are pure in heart and acquire strength to give up open and secret sins. The worst men to God in creation are given to bitter disputes. He is like a man who does not give water to drink to people who are thirsty and facing death even though he has got power to do so. moderation and perfection. beacause he remains then busy in giving lesson of cupping. Give attention first to the Holy Quran. a band of Tabeyins (successors of companions) were alive and they persisted in following strictly the injunctions of religion. Tafsir and Fiqh.-who has been given to disputation have not beeii given actions. Once the Prophet was asked When will the people give up enjoining good and fobidding evil? The Prophet said : When flattery will grow in good . then to Tafsirs of the learned men and then to other learnings. Know. The Prophet said: No people are misguided after guidance except disputation. Caliphate went to those who were not so experienced in legal matters and administrative affairs. But some learned men used to mix with the Caliphs and consequently became humiliated. They were compelled to seek the aid of jurisprudents. They decided on the strength of Ijtihad and their decisions were recorded in their lives. Don't engage your life to the learning of only one branch of education as life is short but the learnings Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 51 are many. The Prophet said: You are living in an age when you receive inspiration for actions but soon a people will appear who will be given to disputation. then to the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet.

The Prophet said: When the learned men do not translate their learning into action. the question of inheritance and not about future cases. when Hazrat Omar was once giving sermon. (7) H'Y'POCRISY. for example. God said : Who is more wrongful that he who lies against God and treats the truth when it comes to him as a lie-39:33 ? (9) ANOTHER FAULT OF DEBATE IS SHOW AND FLATTERING the people in an effortto win their favour and to nislead them. Hazrat Ali was asked a question by a man and he replied. I destory one who snatches anything of these two from Me. A debater ascribes to his oppoinent foolishness. ignorance and stupidity. There is 'a'Hadis Qudsi in which God said : Grandeur is My cloak and pride is My mantle. A debater expresses his friendship for his adversary outwardly but he cherishes hatred for him inwardly. (7) The seventh condition is that the debater should not prevent his adversary from giving up one argument in favour of another and one illustration in favour of another. a house will be built up for him in the highest paradise. When the man pointed cut his mistake. (2) PRIDE: The Prophet said : A believer cannot have pride in him. is that the subject for decision should be about actual cases that crop up. He should not mind weather the truth is found by him or by his adversery. (8) TO TURN AWAY FROM TRUTH. (3) The third condition which justifies debate is that the debater should have ability and give decision on his own responsiblility without referring to the opinion of Imam Abu Hanfia or any other Imams. (5) DECLARATION OF SELF-PURITY. The Propherr said : A believer has got no rancour. From these eight conditions. when they sever the 54 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I ties of relationship. The most hateful thing to a debater is to reject the truth revealed to his adversary and thus he takes to deception and deceit.people among you. when they profess love for one another with their tongue and nurse hatred in their hearts. a woman pointed out to him his mistake to which he submitted. (4) The fourth condition which justifies debate. One who falls in it gets punishement in the world. At another time. (6) The sixth condition is that the debater should like truth in the same spirit as a lost thing is searched for. If a man gives up desputation in matters of truth. God says : Pry not (49:12). Hypocrisy is the greatest disease with which a debater . (3) RANCOUR: A debater is seldom free from the evil of rancour. THIRD MATTER-EVILS OF DEBATES The following evils arise out of modern debates. a garden will be built for him in paradise. kingdom will go to the meanest of you and theology to those who will be corrupt. God sends curse upon them. He who has not the ability of independent interpretation should not express his opinion but should refer it to an Imam. God says : Don't attribute purity of yourself. He said : If a man gives up disputation in matters of unlawful things. (1) ENVY: The Prophet said : Envy consumes good deeds as fire consumes fuels. makes their tongues mute and their eyes blind. (5) The fifth condition is that debate should be held in priavte in preference to open meetings in presence of noted people and in grandeur because privacy is more suitable for clear thinking and to examine what is right and what is wrong. (6) SPYING and prying into the secrets of adversary. Envy is a burning fire. (4) BACK-BITING which is likened by God to the eating of carrion (49:12). A debater is never free from envy and hatred. The Prophet prohibited dispute about useless things. (8) The eighth condition is that debate should be held with such person from whom benefit is derived and who is learned. The companions also held consutations as questions arose or were likely to arise in order to arrive at truth. He knows best who fears Him (53:33). you will be able to distinguish those who debate for the sake of God and those who debate for other purposes. God said : He is more wrongful than one who devises a lie against God and calls the truth a lie when it comes to him 29:68. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : Acquire knowledge wherever it is found and don't obey the devils who are prone to disputes. he admitted it.

the abode of angels. Here there is an instance of Moses and Khizir Khizir said : You will not ask me anything I do. Besides these major offences. For this reason. boxing. (1) The first duty of a student is to keep himself free from impure habit and evil matters. These manners comprise ten duties. It purifies secret faults and takes to God. The Prophet therefore said : Angels do not enter a house wherein there are dogs. rancour. Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 55 56 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I (4) The fourth duty of a student is that he should first pay no attention to the difference whether about wordly sciences or sciences of the hereafter as it may perplex his mind and he may lose enthusiasm. God said : Herein there is warning for one who has got a heart or sets up ear while he himself being a witness-50:36. (5) The fifth duty is that a student should not miss any branch of knowledge. lust. The people should question only in the matter which the teacher permits him. Whatever the teacher should recommend to the student. tearing of garments etc. The Prophet said : It is the habit of a believer not to flatter anyone except when he seeks knowledge. Hazrat Ibn Masud said : Knowledge is not acquired through much learning. (2) The second duty of a student is to reduce his worldly affairs and keep aloof : from kith and kin as acquisition of knowledge is not possible in these environments. When dogs reside in a heart. (3) The third duty of a student is not to take pride or exalt himself over the teacher but rather entrust to him the conduct of all his affairs and submit to his advices as a patient submits to his physician. the fountain head of acquisition of knowledge. so they are generally impure. So outward and inward purities are necessary. conceit and the like are dogs. Human mind is a house. The Prophet said : Religion is founded on cleanliness. The third class learned men call ruin to themselves but make others fortunate. kicks. One class comprise those who ruin themselves and also ruin others. Debators and compelled to deception. It is understood from this that purity and impurity are not merely external as the polytheists also keep their dresses clean and bodies clean. so worship by mind. The meaning of having a heart is to be fit for receiving knowledge and one who is prepared and capable of understanding knowledge. there arise many other guilts out of controversies leading to blows. A certain sage said : Knowledge is God-fear as God said : The learned among the people fear God most. but as their mind is impure. God sys : The polytheists are impure 9: 28Q. (10) DECEPTION.is attacked and it is a major sin. Prayer is observed by outward organs and as outward purity is not gained except by outward organs. Effort to acquire knowledge is the worship of mind. These ten evils are the secret major sins arising out of debates and disputations. It is a light cast in heart. a certain sage said : God has not gifted two minds to a man. the latter should follow it putting aside his own opinion. He should adopt first what the teacher says and should not argue about the different mazhabs or sects. SECTION 5 Manners to be observed by teachers and students. He should . cannot'be attained without the removal of bad habits and evil attributes. The inward purity is of greatest importance. Knowledge cannot be acquirred except through modesty and humility.of three classes. envy. Such learned men call others towards good. Still Moses questioned him and for that he separated him. where is the place for the angels? God takes the secrets of knowledge to the hearts throught the angels. pride. For this reason. The learned men are . a certain sage said : Knowledge will not give you its full share till you surrender your entire mind to it. Therefore a student should not take pride over his teacher. They do not take it except to the pure souls. the place of their movements The blameworthy evils like anger. Another class make themselves fortunate and make other also fortunate.

it is an age-long lie 46:10 A poet said : A sweet thing is bitter in the mouth of a patient as sweet water is tasteless to a sick man.try to become perfect in them as all branches of learning help one another and some branches are allied with others. Each branch of knowledge has got its fixed place. don't understand Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 57 that you have even purified one thing till you know God and know that He is the cause of all Causes and the Creator of everything. of His books and of His prophets is the noblest and also the branches of knowledge which help it. it is clear that the science of the knowledge of God. The highest rank is that of the Prophets. In this science. namely the knowledge of the hereaafter and the learnings which are auxiliary to it. nobility of its fruit and the anthenticity of its principles. From these points of view. He who guards it. (6) The sixth duty of a student is that he should not take up all branches of knowledge at a time. God said : They have got stages. Each has got a rank in it and each has got a reward in the hereafter according to his rank. The object of the science of worldly usages is to acquire spiritual knowledge. His aim should not be to gain worldly matters. Our object for this knowledge is to acquire light arising out of certain faith which God casts in soul. The goal of the spiritual knowledge is to know God. some higher. God says : When they do not find guidance they say. then you will be is master of truths. to argue with the illiterate and to show pride and haughtiness. It has been narrated that the portraits of two ancient wise men were seen on the wall of a mosque. He whose object is to gain nearness of God should seek such learning as helps towards that goal. A little learing if acquired with enthusiasm perfects the knowledge of the hereafter or the sciences of the worldly usages and the sciences of revelation. then of the friends of God and finally that of those who follow them. Take up Mathematics and Astrology. In short. the science of religion is more noble as its result is more noble. It can be known from two things. is to know God This science is like a sea of which the depth cannot be ascertained. to gain proximity to God and His angles and to live in the company of those who live near Him. (8) The eighth duty of a studnet is to know the causes for which noble sciences are known. Such light was acquired by Hazrat Abu Bakr. Take for example the science of religion as medicine. The only condition required is that the object of acquisition of knowledge should be to please God. he does not take up one learning till he masters the previous one. It leads man to God or helps him in that way. The fruit of the science of religion is to gain an eternal life and the fruit of the other is to gain a temporary life. my thirst was quenched without any water. it becomes his enemy. his faith would be heavy. One of them held a peice of paper in which it was written: If you purify everything. The Prophet said about Abu Bakr: If the faith of the people of the world is weighed with the faith of Abu Bakr. (7) The seventh duty of a student is that he should not take up a new branch of learning till he has learnt fully the previous branch of learning. Good knowledge is acquired according to one's genius. the highest rank is that of the Prophets. to acquire riches and properties. (9) The ninth duty of a student is to purify mind and action with virtues. Our object by this knowledge is not that belief which is handed down from generations to generations. some lower. In the hand of the second man. is like a guard who patrols the frontiers in jihad. of His angels. because it is requisite for the acquisition of knowledge. God said God will raise herewith in rank who are believers and to whom knowledge have been given-58:11. rather know the truth. From this. the highest and the noblest of all science. then of the friends of God and then of the learned who are firm in . If a man does not get a things. One branch of knowledge is a guide to another branch. But when I have come to know God. the former is nobler because the former is more authentic in its foundations. Hazrat Ali said : Dont't onceal truth form men. but should take up the most important one at first as life is not sufficient for all branches of knowledge. there was a scroll in which it was writen : I removed thirst before by drinking water and then I have come to know God. God says : Whoso has been given the Quran recities it with due recitation-2:15 In other words.

God says As for one who is of those nearest to God. This is more clear than geeing with eyes. I don't mean heart made up of flesh but it is a subtle Sir or secret essence which the bodily senses fail to perceive. He who acquires knowledge and acts up to it and teaches it to the people is noble to the angels of heaven and earth. The material heart is the vehicle for the spiritual essence to remove the veil from it as it belongs to the science of revelation. there is happiness. It is the spiritual substance which drives towards God. . They are the sciences of medicine. bounty and garden of bliss for him. Body is a conve3 ance and the actions run towars the goal. SECOND SUBJECT-DUTIES OF A TEACHER A man has got four conditions in relation to wealth. or like a lamp which gives light to other things but itself burns.(1) condition of acquisition of knowledge. This is the knowledge which can not be gained except by the agnostics who are close to Him. To God belong the creation and the command is the most precious thing which can carry the trust of God. It has come from God and it will return to God. He who teaches knowledge to others but does not himself act up to it is like a note-book which does not benefit itself but benefits others or like an instrument which gives edge to iron but itself has got no edge. They purify the mind from evil traits and take it to a high place that does not fall to the lot of any except to those whom God shows favour. a sceince which is withheld from men and there is no permission to discuss it. Those who are lower in rank than them will get also salvation. It is nobler than the heaven and the earth and what they contain as the latter refused to bear the trust out of fear of the spiritual world. 58 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I (10) The tenth duty of a student is that he should keep attention to the primary object of knowledge. Others are like those who have got faith but without contemplation and without seeing with their own eyes.knowledge and then of the pious who follow them. God Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 59 says : They ask you about soul. What is permissible is the discussion that it is a precious jewel and belongs to the world of spirit and not to the world of matter. laws (Fiqh) and all other sciences which keep connection with the welfare of the people in the world. Such a man is like a pot of musk which is full of fragance and gives fragrance to others. (1) One kind of learning is like the purchase of commodities in journey. (3) The third kind of knoweldge is like the knowledge of pilgrimage and its rules and regulations. But as for one who is of the companions of the right hand there is peace for him-56:87. It is acquired like wealth and has got four conditions. They are confirmed in their faith after seeing for themselves. (2) condition after acquisition of knowledge. So give more importance to the sciences which take to that ultimate goal. Secondly he hoards his productions and does not seek the aid of others. Similar are the conditions of knowledge. This world is a temprory abode. (3) condition wherein he will contemplate and enjoy his achievement and (4) condition wherein he would impart his knowledge to others and this last condition is the best. A wealthy man at first produces commodities. It is not in your power to enjoy bliss of this world and that of the next world together. (2) Another class of learning is like the science of travelling in the desert and surmounting obstacles. he spends it for himself and rests satisfied with it. All bliss and happines lie in Him. His attitutes and the knowldge of the actions of angels. By the soul. This is a certain truth which they perceived through contemplations. The last is the best. Fourthly. The goal is God and nothing else. The connection of soul with God is nobler than that of all the bodily limbs. This is the science of knowledge of God. A poet said: . Say : Soul proceeds from the command of my Lord17:87. It is a spiritual substance from God and has been described sometimes by Nafs. He is like the sun which illumines itself and gives light to other things. sometimes by Qalb. There are three kinds of learnings. he spends there from for another to get honour. Thirdly. or like a needle which remains naked but sews clothing for others.

Wisome is better than pearls. The months and years of this world are so many stations of their journey. The hearts of pious men are graves of secret matter. He who searches wealth in lieu of knowledge is like one who has got his face besmeared with impurities but wants to cleanse his body. (3) The third duty of a teacher is that he should not withhold from his students any advice. but then there should be some people to understand it. The Holy Prophet is the guide of all teachers. We have been commanded to give every man his rightful place and to speak to men according to their intellect. the master is made a servant and the servant a master. By teacher. A teacher ruins himself and also his students if he teaches for the sake of the world. In other words.. There is no miserliness in the fortunes of the nxet world and so there is no envy among them. Wealth and property are the servants of body which is the vehicle of soul of which the essence is knowledge and for which there is honour of soul.' (5) The fifth duty of a teacher is that he shall not belittle the value of other sciences before his students.' From this. it gives light to others but itself dies burning. he should not seek remuneration for teaching but nearness to God therefor. It is because of the spiritual teacher that the hereafter is much remembered. In that case. they would have done it saying that they would not have been forbidden to do it unless there has been some good in it. He who teaches grammer naturally thinks the science of jurisprudence as bad and he who teaches jurisprudence discourages the science of traditions and so on. As parents save their children from the fire of this world. He who knows it as bad is worse than swine. A father is the immediate cause of this transient life. (4) The fourth duty of a teacher is to dissuade his students from evil ways with care and caution. Once a learned man was questioned about . In fact the teacher of one learning should prepare his students for study of other learnings and then he should observe the rules of gradual progress from one stage to another. (2) The second duty of a teacher is to follow the usages and ways of the Prophet. it becomes a danger to some persons. Jesus Christ said : Don't hang pearls around the neck of a swine. the people of the hereafter are journeying towards the next world and to God and remain absent from the world. In this matter. not power or richnes and that God created ambition as a means of perpetuating knowledge which is essential for these sciences. He said : If men had been forbidden to make . he should follow the Prophet who said : We prophets form one class. with sympathy and not with rebuke and harshness. he should teach them the inward sciences. so a teacher should save his students or disciples from the fire of Hell. The students should not be taught such things as are beyond the capacity of their understanding. becausesin that case it destroys the veil of awe and encourages disobedience. God instructs us to say : Say. For this reason. After he finishes the outword sciences.parridge of camel's dung. The duties of a teacher are more that those of parents."Knowledge without action is like a glowing wick. He should tell them that the object of education is to gain nearness of God. Whoever takes up the profession of teaching should observe the following duties: (1) He will show kindness and sympatty to the students and treat them as his own children. I mean the teacher of the sciences of the hereafter or the sciences of the world with the object of the hereafter. Such evils are blameworthy. Hazrat Ali said pointing out to his breast : 'There is much knowledge in it. (6) The sixt duty that a teacher should do is to teach his students up to the power of their understanding. They turn to the verse: "The believers are brethren"-49:10. The Prophet said : 'I am to you like a father to his son. I don't want any remuneration for this from you-9:31.' His object should be to protect the student 60 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I from the fire of Hell. it is understood that whatever the teacher knows should not all be communicated to the students at the same time. The Prophet said When a man speaks such a word to a people who cannot grasp it with their intellect. but a teacher is the cause of immortal life.

The Prophet said: Nobody can be learned unless he Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 63 puts his learning into practice.something but he gave no reply. I will give my goods to him. So if the actions of a teacher are contrary to what he preaches. To give a thing to one who is not fit for it and not to give a thing to one who is fit for it are equally oppression. A certain poet therefore said: Should I cast pearls before the illiterate shepherds? They will not understand. SECTION 6 EVILS OF KNOWLEDGE AND SIGNS OF THE LEARNED MAN OF THE HEREAFTER We have enumerated the excellence of knowledge and learned men. Every man thinks that his wisdom is perfect and the greatest fool is he who rests satisfied with the knowledge that his intellect is perfect. Or he is like a cane and the student is like the shadow of the cane. For this reason.2 : 44? Hazrat Ali said: Two men have broken my back. If the stamp has no character. but a great warning has come about the dishonest learned men. (8) The eighth duty of a teacher is that he should himself do what he teaches and should not give a lie to his teaching. nor know thir worth. one should know the differences of the learned men of this world and the learned men of the hereafter. If I don't disclose it to one who understands it. He said: In the latter days. He said: He who conceals his knowledge will be given by God a bridle of fire. (7) The seventh duty of a teacher is that he should teach his backward students only such things as are clear and suited to their limited understanding. Many people have got external eyes but very few have got internal eye. He who does this will go to Hell. The learned man misleads the people through his sins and the fool through his evil actions. He said: Don't acquire knowledge to boast over the learned nor dispute with the ignorant and gain popularity among the people. then put the bridle of fire upon me. and gain his love. Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 61 62 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I If God by His knowledge sends one with knowledge." The learned man said : You may place the bridle of fire and go. The Prophet said: The most severely punished among men on the Day of Resurrection will be a learned man whom God has not blessed on account of his knowledge. but it is like poison. Knowledge can be grasped by internal eye and actions by external eye. the learned man who ruins himself and the fool who adopts asceticism. How can the shadow of the cane be straight when the cane itself is crooked? God said: Do you enjoin good to the people and forget it for yourselves . the door of debates should not be opened before the common men. He commits sin who witholds it from one worthy. He said: Knowledge is of two kinds-knowledge by tongue which is open proof of God for the children of Adam and the science of soul which is useful. There is warning in this verse that it is better to safeguard knowledge from those who might be corrupted by it. He said: I fear most . A teacher is like a stamp to clay and a student is like clay. In short. there is no impression on clay. The questioner said : Have you not heard that the Prophet said?He who conceals any useful knowledge will on the Resurrection Day be bridled with a bridle of fire. What I mean by the learned man of the world is that his object of learning is to live in ease and comforts and to get honour and prestige from the people. He wastes his learning who gives it to one unworthy. it does not help towards guidance. God said: Don't give to the fools your property (4 : 4). there will be ignorant worshippers and sinning learned men.

People asked: How can a hypocrite be a learned man? He replied: He has verbal knowledge. God says: The hypocrites will remain in the lowest abyss of Hell (4: 144) as they refused to accept truth after they acquired knowledge. It neighter absolves any water itself. (4) One who has no knowledge and does not know that he knows not. He rejected them. a learned man will be brought and will be thrown into Hell. Jesus Christ said: The wicked learned man is like a rock which has fallen into the source of a stream." 64 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I The Prophet said regarding a wicked learned man: Some learned men will suffer such intense agonies of torture that the inmates of Hell will seek refuge on seeing their tortures. The death of the heart is search of the world with the actions of the hereafter. I used to prohibit them evil but I myself used to do it. nor permits it to flow out and reach the plants. Such a man is fit to be guided. Hazrat Hasan Basan said: Don't be included within those persons who are learned in wisdom and knowledge but are equal to the ignorant in actions. He considers this world and the next world as diametrically opposed to each other like two hostile friends of a man.wives.(1) One who has real knowledge and knows that he knows. Be careful of him. He said: He whose knowledge is great but guidance less is away from God. They are the wicked learned men. If one friend or co-wife . His bowels will gush forth and he will roam with his bowels as a donkey moves round a mill-stone. Bal'am also got God's book but he kept himself busy in worldly affairs and was therefore likened to a dog. Its outer part is cultivated but its inner part is full of dead men's bones. "Woe more to one who buys the world in lieu of the hereafter. Hazrat Hasan said: Death of the heart is the punishment of a learned man. A poet said: "Woe to one who buys misguidance in lieu of guidance. Jesus Christ said: How can you guide the night travellers along the right way when you yourself are perplexed? These and other traditions show that a learned man faces eternal happiness or eternal damnation. (2) One who has knowledge but he does not know that he knows. or like two co. He is a real learned man. SAYINGS OF WISE-MEN Hazrat Osman said: I fear most for this nation the hypocrite learned men. Someone asked him: Who is he? He said: I fear most for the misguided leaders. he becomes ignorant.7: 175. SIGNS OF THE LEARNED MAN Oh THE HEREAFTER There are many signs of the learned man of the hereafter. The inmates of Hell will move along with him and ask: What is the matter with you? He will reply: I used to enjoin the people to do good but I was not myself accustomed to do it. So the devil followed him and he became one of those who were misguided. There is a story of Bal'am-b-Baura about whom the Quran says: Narrate to them the story of one to whom I revealed My signs.for one* who appears as Anti-Christ than Anti-Christ himself. These traditions and historical narratives show that the learned man who is given to lust and worldly love will be disgraced and put to endless tortures and one who is a learned man of the hereafter will getsalvatic n and gain nearness of God. Leave him alone. He is therefore like a dog which lolls out its tongue whether you chase it or leave it alone . woe still more to one who fosters irreligion in lieu of religion. Khalld-b-Ahmed said: There are four kinds of men . Ibn Mobarak said: A man is learned till he searches for knowledge. The Prophet said: On the resurrection day. This has been said about the wicked learned man. (1) He does not seek the world by his learning He considers the world as insignificant and the hereafter as great and ever-lasting. but his mind and his actions are ignorant. When he thinks that he has knowledge. (3) One who has no knowledge and knows that he does not know. so guide him. The wicked learned man is also like pipes which come out of a garden full of stenchy smell as it has got graves of dead men.

the lower the one falls. don't take the message of God to such a learned man. God says regarding the learned men of the next word: There are such men among the People of the Book who believe in what was revealed to them and what has been revealed to you. Those learned men who are sincere are in fear till they come to know their ultimate good end. because every learned man is addicted to his object of love. All are dead except the learned. Hazrat Sayeed-b.is pleased. All learned men are in a state of stupefaction except those who translate their learning into practice. he who knows these things but does not love the next world more than this world is in the hand of the devil. Or they are like the east and the west. the other rises up higher. if put into practice. 0 David. All the learned men who translate their learning into practice are in error except those who are sincere.Musayyeb said: When you see a learned man frequenting the houses of rulers. Such a man is a robber in the pathway of My servants. The saint Sahal Tastari said: Every branch of learning is worldly except the learning of religion which. he is a true servant. He r 66 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 67 also said. Such a learned man is not included within the category of the learned men of the hereafter. He who does not recognise the grave nature and stability of the next world is an unbeliever bereft of faith. the more he goes distant from the west. his light goes gradually. the other friend Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 65 or co-wife becomes displeased. The world captivated him and he will turn you from My love. Every action without sincerity is fruitless. The more one advances towards the east. God said in the scripture of David: If any learned man loves his passion more than his love for Myself. Hasan Basari said: Death of the heart is the punishment of a learned man and death of the heart means search of this world in exchange of the actions of the next world. . God says regarding the learned men of the world: God took oath from the People of the Book that they would disclose it to the people and would not conceal it. I write one as a man of sound judgement who flees towards Me. the more the full pitcher will become less and the empty one more in water. Jesus Christ said: How can a man be counted as a learned man who persists in the pathways of this world although his journey is towards the next world? The Prophet said: He who searches learning in which there is pleasure of God but by which he seeks worldly honour will not get fragrance of paradise on the Resurrection day. The two worlds are like two scales of a balance. as this matter has been established as true by veritable sights and experiences. 0 David. but they threw it behind their backs and sold it for a small price .3: 198.' For this reason. The more you pour water from the full pitcher into the empty one. Hazrat Ihya-b-Muaz said: When the world is sought by learning and wisdom. When you see such a man who searches Me. Hazrat Omar said: When you see a learned man addicted to this world. They don't sell the verses of God for a small price.' God says of the dishonest learned men: They devour this world in lieu of learning. Or the two worlds are like two pitchers. disregard him for the sake of your religion. He described the learned men of the hereafter as God-fearing and given to asceticism. There is defect in the intellect of a man who has not come to know that the happiness of this world will soon pass away. Their reward is near their Lord .3: 184. I will never punish such a person. he is a robber. My treatment with him is that I deprive him of the pleasure of communion with Me. one is full and another empty. He who does not consider this world and the next world as opposed to each other does not know the religion of the Prophets and does not believe the Quran from first to last. is next worldly.

Moses said to him: Do you know such and such a person? He said: Yes. He went round saying: Moses. all the animals in the world. told me this. and asceticisn from worldliness. I shall not accept your invocation. I will create such a calamity for them which will perplex even the patient. In other words. I shall ask him about his condition. if any objection is raised against learning. The birds in the horizon. If you remember Me with what . the fishes in water. the chosen man of God told me this. They take wealth in its exchange and sell it for a small price. There is such a man among the learned who delivers lectures quoting the sayings of the Jews and Christians to show his learning. God gives learning to another kind of men but they are miser to distribute it to the people. he is this pig. There is such a man among the learned who remains busy with legal decisions and commits mistakes and remains satisfied with one who does divine service. turn him into his former position. Sometime after. the confident of God.The Prophet said: God sent revelation to a people: Those who learn jurisprudence for an object other than that of religion' and those who search the world with the actions of the next world are like those who wear the dress of goat's skin before the people but whose hearts are like the raving wolves.Lord. The Prophet said: The learned men of my followers are of two kinds. A more severe narration was reported by Muaz-b-Jabal to the effect that the Prophet had said: 'One danger of a learned man is that he would prefer talking than hearing. Moses. he sneers at him. Their tongues are sweeter than honey but their hearts are more bitter than colocynth. he became rich and then disappeared. There is such a man among the learned who delivers lectures with pride and self conceit and considers his speech as good and when any other man delivers lectures. he becomes angry. There is such a man among the learned who is like a king in learning. He searched for the world in lieu of religion. God revealed to him. Moses said to hink 0 . told me this. There is such a man among the learned who broadcasts his learning and narrates traditions to the rich and not to those who are in need of them. A more severe punishment will be meted out to the following kind of people. Sit with the learned man who calls towards five matters towards faith from doubt. sincerity from show. Such a learned man is in the third stage of Hell.Adam and his successors remembered Me. Such a learned man is in the seventh stage of Hell. The Prophet said: Don't sit with every learned man. and the honourable scribes invoke blessings for them. Thus they will be punished till God finishes the judgment of account. a man came to Moses with a pig with a rope tied to its neck. A certain man was a servant of Prophet Moses. God gave them learning but they were miser in distributing it to the people and took small price in lieu thereof and property in exchange. as there is ornamentation and exaggeration in his speech. rather he does not order an action to be done without . They deceive Me and scorn Me. love from enmity. even like the wing of a mosquito. modesty from pride. There is in Hadis: If a man is praised so much that it fills up what is between the east and the west. Cod gives to one kind learning which they distribute among the people and for which they do not covet anything and they do not sell it for a small price. Such people will be brought on the resurrection day with bridles of fire and they will raise up shrieks before all the creatures. Moses searched for him but his whereabouts were not found. (2) SECOND SIGNS: The second sign of the learned man of the next world is that his words and actions are the same. Moses. They will come to God being honoured on the resurrection day and they will even get the company of the Prophets. There is such a man among the learned who guards his learning but does not like to communicate it to others. Such a learned man is in the first stage of Hell. A speaker is not free from these faults but there is safety and wisdom in silence. the intimate friend of God. it is not valuable to God . Saying these. I shall inform you how he was changed to this condition. He is in the second stage of Hell. It will be proclaimed: They are children of so and so. Such a learned man 68 is in the fifth stage of Hell. Such a learned man is in the fourth stage of Hell.

So he will remain busy with :acquisition of knowledge but will remain without action up to his death and at the time of his death he will have no action. There will soon appear such men who will keep it like an arrow and they are not good among you. she becomes repentant.first doing it himself. God says: Fear God and you will know . God says: Will you enjoin the people to do good deeds but forget them for yourselves . Another class of judges judge unjustly with or without knowledge of truth and they will go to Hell. They will say to you by their tongue 'Fear God' but sin will be exposed in their actions. Direct your life according as you read it. The hearts of the learned will be hard like a hard stone. One class of judges judge with justice and with knowledge of truth and they will go to Paradise. God says: Fear God and listen-5 5: 11God said to Jesus Christ: 0 son of Mary. Hazrat Omar Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 69 said: Three things will cause the end of time. Hazrat Ibn Mas'ud said: The Quran was revealed in order that men may direct their lives according to its teachings. God will disgrace one before all people on the Resurrection Day who does not act according to his learning. God will then rob them of the fountain of wisdom and extinguish the light of guidance from their hearts. Their tongues were being cut with scissors. Another class of judges judge contrary to the laws of God and they will go to Hell.9 : 90. God says: Fear God and He will give you knowledge . Hazrat Muaz said: Beware of the learned man's error. because he is the most honoured one among the people and because the people follow his error. There is written in the Torah and Bible: Don't search for learning which you do not know till you do what you know. The Prophet said: Judges are of three classes.61: 3.2:282. nor the taught will get any benefit from learning. Hazrat Huzaifa said: You are now in an age wherein if you give up one tenth of what you know. One of them is the error of the learned men. We used to prohibit evil deeds to others. THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I 70 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I (3) THIRD SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the next world is that his mind . Tongue will then become dry and heart hard. The Prophet said: The corrupt learned men and illiterate worshipers will be the cause of destruction of my people. you will perish. God says in the story of Shuaib: I don't wish to do anything which I myself forbid you . The Prophet said: What I fear most for my followers is the errors of the learned and the arguments of the hypocrites about the Quran. but there will soon come an age wherein if a man does one-tenth of what he knows will get salvation. Jesus Christ said: He who teaches good but does not translate it into action is like a woman who commits fornication in secret and becomes pregnant but when her pregnancy is exposed. I asked them: Who are you? They said: We used to give advice to others for good deeds but we used not to do them. The learned man who does not act up to his knowledge is like a patient who describes the qualities of a medicine without using it or like a hungry man who describes the taste of a food without eating it. God said: Woe unto you for what you utter. The reason is that the hearts of the learned will be addicted to the love of this world in preference to that of the next world. It was questioned: 0 Prophet of God. At that time neither the teachers. otherwise you will be ashamed of Me. but we used to do them. how will it happen? He said: The devil will say: Search for knowledge but don't put it into practice till you acquire it.2 : 41? God says: It is a hateful thing to God that you say what you do not do . The only reason is that the teachers will teach except for the sake of God and the students will learn except for the sake of God. The Prophet said: The devil sometimes will prevail over you on account of knowledge. The simile of the learned man is that of a judge. but God will not give its rewards till you translate it into action. The Prophet Once came to his companions and said: Take to learning as far as possible.2:190. Rains will fall on it from the sky but it will slip away therefrom. take lessons to yourself and then give admonition to others. Hazrat Ibn Mas'ud said: Soon there will come a time over the people when sweetness of heart will vanish. The Prophet said: I passed by a party of men in the night of my ascension to heaven.

The Prophet said: Have you known death? He said: Yes. Sixth. So I took the devil as a foe and ceased to have enmity with the people.43: 31 Q. I have tried my utmost to suppress my lust and remained satisfied with obeying the injunctions of God. He asked him What have you done with the beginning of knowledge? The man said: What is the beginning of knowledge? The Prophet replied: Have you known God? He said: Yes.79: 40 Q. Shaqiq said: You have not learnt except eight things! He said: Yes. He once asked Hatem: How long are you in my company? Hatem said: For the last 33 years. Seventh. Hatem began to describe them. Let me hear them. 0 dear teacher. I have learnt nothing except eight things. I have pondered over the following words of God "As for one who fears the majesty of his Lord and refrains his soul from lust. He asked: What have you learnt about this truth? He said: What God willed. When he goes to the grave. Fifth. I turned to the people and found everyone seeking his livelihood and for that debasing himself and committing unlawful things and then I looked towards the following . He who shuns the learning of practice and remains busy in arguments is like a sick man who suffers from many diseases. He said: What have you learnt from me during this period? Hatern said: I have learnt only eight things. This is the height of foolishness. but when he fears death. The Prophet said: Go and gain experience of these things first and then I shall teach you some of the strange things of knowledge. Secondly. I have come to know that the words of God are true. Then I looked towards the following words of God 'The most honourable of you to God is one who is the most God-fearing among you' .would be directed towards such learnings as will be useful for the next world and give encouragement to pious deeds. He said: How have you prepared for it? He said: What God willed.49 13Q. Fourth. A student should be like Hazrat Hatem Asem who was the disciple of Hazrat Shaqiq Balakhi. Then I began to give unto God whatever valuable things fell into my hands. I looked around the people and found them slandering and cursing one another because of envy and hatred and then I looked towards the words of God: It is I who distributed their subsistence among them in this world's life . it becomes separate from him." So I have made good deeds as my object of love. paradise is his resting place . So I gave up envy and hatred and'realised that subsistence comes from God and then I disliked the people no more. I looked around and beheld that every man has got an object of love and he lives with that thing until his death. He said: Describe those eight things to me. he goes to an experienced physician and asks him many questions of the qualities of drugs and complexities of medical profession but he does not ask him about his diseases. Third.35: 6 Q. Then I intended to accept God-fear in my life till I am honoured by God. Then I turned to the following words of God: What is with you will end and what is with God will last . The sage Shaqiq said: 0 Hatem.16:98 Q. his name and fame and his honour and glory and found that there is nothing in them. I pondered over the following words of God "We are for God and to Him we shall return. I looked around the people and found that everyone values what he possesses. When I will go to the grave. my good deeds will accompany me to the grave. I looked around and saw that everyone puts his trust in his wealth and properties. ? looked to the people and found them ungrateful to one another and even some of them kill others and then I looked towards the following word of God: The devil is your foe and so take him as foe . you have done well. I don't wish to speak falsehood. On day a man came to the Apostle of God and said: Teach me some of the strange things of knowledge. First. He will avoid those learnings -which will bring lesser benefit and wherein there are much arguments.

Hatem said: "Visiting the sick is no doubt meritorious but looking after the poor is worship. We went to a merchant who was well known for love of the poor. Finding that I am one of the animals whose provision is upon God.11 : 8Q. Then I relied on God and He is sufficient for me. Hatem asked: Have you found in their learnings that to God the rank of a man whose palace is high and spacious is grater? He said: No. turns his attention towards the next world. Being requested to sit. Hatem went there on his own accord and said to . In short. Hatem thought for a moment and then said: Is this the condition of the house of a learned man? After permission. may God prosper you. I turned to the people and found that everyone placed his trust in something created. He said next day to the sage Hatem: Have you got any necessity with me? I wish now to go to see an ailing theologian. or the pious men. He asked: What then have you found? The judge said: I found therein that a man who renunciates the world. judge of Rayy. Hatem. some in his industry and some in the health of his body and then looked towards the following words of God: If a Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 71 72 man relies on God. They said to Hatem: The palace of Tanafusi and Qazawin is more lofty and spacious. luxury in dresses. He asked him: From whom did the companions learn? He Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 73 said: From the Apostle of God. Abdullah-b-Khawas used to keep company with Hazrat Hatem Asem and he said: Once I with 320 pilgrims went to Rayy along with the sage Hatem Asem. The merchant asked about his health but Hatem stood silent. or Pharaoh and Namrud who erected lofty buildings with bricks? The dishonest learned men like you are fools. he did not sit but asked the judge: From whom have you got your learning? He said: From the companions of the Apostle of God. Ibn Maqatil's sickness became thereafter acute and the inhabitants of Rayy came to know what passed between him and Hatem. some in his wealth. the more he will be close to God and the more he will be in association of the learned men of the hereafter and in rank. Hazrat Shadiq exclaimed. Hatem said to the judge: Whom have you followed. The sick man was Muhammad-b-Magatil. He is sufficient for him . the learned men of the hereafter seek and acquire knowledge but the learned men of the world are engaged in acquiring wealth and name and fame and give up those learnings for which God sent the Prophets. The judge lay down on a oft mattress and a servant was standing with a fan near his head. I examined the Torah. I will go along with you. Then he went away from that place. furnitures and houses. We had food stuffs with us and not food. Eighth. prophets or their companions.words of God: There is no animal in the earth of which the provision is not upon God . but rather he adopts moderate course in all these things following the earlier sages and he is best satisfied with the least of everything. we looked at his lofty and beautiful palace.65: 3Q. On hearing Hatem. He asked: From whom did the Apostle of God learn? He said: From Gebriel and he learnt from God. some in his profession. the Jabur (Psalms) and the great Quran and found that all these centre round these eight things and he who puts them into practice follows these four books. loves the poor and proceeds towards the hereafter has got a great rank near God. the Bible. The less is a man attracted towards luxuries. We became his guests that night. I turned towards the duties prescribed by God and entrusted my fate unto Him. (4) FOURTH SIGNS: Another sign of the learned man of the next world is that he has got no attraction for various kinds of foods and drinks. we entered the house and found it very beautiful and spcious with carpets spread all over the floor and screens of varied colours hanging. When we came near his gate.

The governor asked him: Why do you utter this? Hatem said: Don't be hasty in judgment upon me.Tanafusi: May God have mercy on you! I am a foreigner and I wish that you should teach me the elements of my religion and the particulars of ablution. kindness and a sign to good conduct. They brought him before the Governor and said: This man is a foreigner and says that this is the city of Pharaoh. None has seen its contents except God. 21 Q. when it was brought. take to humility. From Yahya-b-Sayeed to Malek-b-Anas: I have been informed that you put on fine cloths. fear God. When the sage Hatem went to Madina. the Most Compassionate and blessings on Prophet Muhammad. Hatem once went to Bagdad and there Imam Ahmad went to see him and asked him: What will ensure salvation from the world? Hatem said: You are not safe in this world unless you possess four characteristics . 0 lad. God said: Who has made unlawful the fineries of God which God has gifted to His .(1) overlook the ignorance of man. They have taken you as Imam and they are satisfied with your words. We do what you have mentioned but beg forgiveness of God for them. I seek His help. 0 Malek. bring a pot of water. You sit in the assembly of learning and people come to you from distant places. Then he began to wash each limb four times. example-33. Tanafusi said: 0 Shaikh. There is no power and might except by His help. Hatem said: 0 people. He asked: Where are the palaces of his companions? They said: They had no palaces. Tanafusi then came to know that he had no necessity of learning from him ablution. sleep on soft couches and keep a door-keeper at your door. They had only cottages in this world for rest. The Prophet did not lay stress for renunciation of the world. I am a foreigner. i have been extravagant for washing my hands four times.. It has been narrated that Caliph Yahya-b-Syeed once wrote to Imam Malek-b-Anas saying: In the name of God. Tanafusi made ablution and washed each limb thrice and said: This is thus Hatem said: I am making ablution in your presence. These are the stories of Hatem Asem. this city then is the city of Pharaoh. Then he narrated the whole conversation between him and some Medinites. you have been extravagant and washed your hands four times. He asked: Where is the palace of the Prophet of God? I shall observe my prayer therein. use of ornamentation in permissible things is not unlawful but it creates fondness for these and to give them up at the end becomes difficult. eat delicious food. what is the name of this city? They said: It is the city of the Prophet of God. Whose example have you adopted. In short. example of the Prophet or of Pharaoh? They then left him. Then he said: God said: You will find in the Prophet of God an excellent example . (3) seek their good and (4) don't seek anything from them. Imam Malek wrote back saying: I have received your letter and it has come to me as an admonition. Thereafter he did not come out to the people for forty days. (2) conceal your ignorance from them. I write to you this letter as an admonition.33: 21 Q. Tanafusi said: Yes. They said: He had no palace except a THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I 74 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I small cottage wherein he rested. the Most Merciful. May God bless your piety and reward you for your advice. some of its inhabitants went to him and he asked them: 0 people. but you do not consider yourself extravagant for what you are in all these luxuries. Hatem said: 0 glorious God. Whose example have you adopted.

approve his lies and say that he possesses an attribute which he does not actually possess. He was asked: What is it? He said: The palaces of the rulers. he says : I don't know. He who comes near them is not free from their pleasures and harms. His sons said to him : Those who are like you in following Islam and keeping company with the Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 75 76 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Prophet frequent the houses of rulers.servants and clean and pure foods . They said : 0 father. They are mostly unjust and do not obey the advices of the learned men. you will then die of starvation. know that earth will consume the flesh and fat but not faith. because this world is sweet. When you see a learned man loving the world. beware of his company as he is a thief. He who rejects his allegiance to them will be save and he who hates them will be safe but God will keep him distant who remains satisfied with them and follows them. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: There lived before your time a man who was born in Islam and enjoyed the company of the Prophet. The Prophet said: The learned are the representatives of the Prophets to the people till they do not mix with the rulers. He was asked: Shall we fight with them? The Prophet said: No. Another sign of the learned man of the hereafter is that he does not give Fatwa or legal decision in a hurry but tarries to be relieved of it. When they mix. Hazrat Huzaifa said: Be careful of the place of danger. By God. (5) FIFTH SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the hereafter is that he keeps himself distant from the ruling authorities add avoids their company. The learned man who frequents them will look to their grandeurs and then think God's gift upon him as insignificant. He did not make the fineries of the world unlawful but admitted that abstinence from luxuries is better. Hazrat Hasan used to say to the opposing parties : By God. Hazrat Aozayi said: There is nothing more hateful to God than a learned man who frequents the house of a ruler. till they pray. he who follows them becomes unmindful and he who frequents the rulers falls into danger. He did not frequent the houses of rulers and hated it. When he is asked about a matter about which he . He replied to him : Those who are religious do not wish to go to you. It would have been better if you frequnent their houses. Hazrat Omar-b-Abdul Aziz wrote a letter to Hasan Basari saying : Name such persons to me who will help me in enforcing the injunctions of God. the world is a corpse and the people surround it. convert him to your religion because I have learnt it by experience. To keep company with the rulers is the key to evils. When he is asked about a matter known to him from the Quran. (6) SIXTH SIGN. Hazrat Sayed-b-Musayyeb said: When you see a learned man frequenting the house of a ruler. So beware of them and don't mix with them. I will not be a partner to it even if I am able to do it. Hazrat Maqhul said: He who learns the Quran and becomes expert in religious learning but comes to the company of the rulers out of greed is immerged in the sea of Hell fire. I would rather starve to death than die as a great man with hypocrisy. Peace be on you. He said: 0 dear sons. Don't give up writing to me. ever-new and its bridle is in their hands. He said also: Soon you will have rulers to whom you will bear allegiance or not. When he has doubt. The Prophet said: He who lives in desert becomes hard-hearted. The Prophet said: The learned men who frequent the houses of rulers are worst and the rulers who frequent the houses of the learned men are best. You will not wish the company of those who love the world Keep the noble in company as they will defile their honour by breach of trust. he gives his opinion. Hadis. they commit treachery with the Prophets. Ijma and Qiyas.7 : 32Q? I know certainly that abstinence from these things is better than indulging in them. Some one of you will go to a ruler." See then the sense of justice which Imam Malek showed. He said : 0 sons. He is Sa'ad-b-Abi Waqas.

they reply. Someone said : One who hurriedly used to give opinion was a less learned man. The activites of the companions and their followers were confined only to four things. He also said: I don't know is the shield of a learned man. Abu Hafs Nishapuri said : A learned man is he who fears the day of questions. Some one said : the companions used to refer to one another about four things-Immate (leadership). Sufiyan Saori said : Malek-b-Anas. In other words. The devil says : Look to this man. he would give it to another who would give it to another and so on.Abi Laila said : I met in this mosque 120 companions of the Prophet among whom there was none who when questioned to express an opinion would not have wished that someone else would reply to it. He who remains silent for God owing to his ignorance gets reward not less than that of the man who does not remain silent. Bashar and others were among the former. he replied only one and not others. reading the Quran. a ruler or a person to whom power is delegated or a religious man. whether Tubba was accursed or not. Someone said that among the jurists. he would say : Go to the ruler. Such was the condition of companions of the Prophet and the earlier sages. When asked about the best and worst places on the earth. they donot speak unless asked and they remain silent when sufficient reply is obtained from others. The Prophet said: Let not the people seek legal decision except from three persons. Abdur Rehman-b. They sleep when it overcomes them. Ibrahim-b-Adam said: There is nothing more formidable to the devil than a learned man who manifests his knowledge both openly and salinity. because to confess one's ignorance is the most difficult thing. it would amount to murder. Now see what was the condition of the learned men of that age and what is the condition now. Hazrat Ibn Hussan said. According to one tradition : There are three roots of learning. the greater number were men who used to say we don't know than the numbers who who used to say we know.building mosques. Wasiat (legacy). They heard the Prophet say : There is no good in most of their secret talks except only in. Hazrat Ibn Mas'ud said: He who gives opinion as soon as a question is put to him is mad. Ahmad-b-Hanbal. Their words end only in necessary talks. whether Zul-Qarnain was a Prophet or not.has formed an opinion through Ijtihad. The sage Shubi said : "I don't know" is half of learning. It is narrated that when somebody presented something to someone of Ahle Suffa. his who enjoins 78 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I alms-giving or what is right or concord among men. Hazrat Ibn Abbas replied nine and did not reply one. When Hazrat Ibn Omar was asked ten questions. because he has taken the affairs of men. Ibn Omar used to say : Do you wish to use us as a bridge over which you wish to cross over to Hell. Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 77 Some wise man said: There are Abdals (worshipers) in the world. When compelled. His silence is severer to me than his speech. until it finally came back to the first one. the Prophet said : I don't know. Fuzail. who fears that he will be asked on the Resurrection Day : Wherefrom have you got this answer : The Prohpet said : I don't know whether Uzair was a Prophet or not. when put to them. independent interpretation and speculation. Zikr of God and enjoining good had forbiding evil. Amant (deposit) and Fatwa (legal decision). the lasting usage of the Prophet (and another root is unknown to mereporter). When Ibn Omar was asked any question. he is careful not to commit himself but refer the matte to someone else who is more capable than himself. the express word of the Quran. The . used to be placed before Hazrat Omar who used to call all the warriors who took part in the battle of Badr for consulation. Tf he commits mistakes. But the Almighty God said to me that the best place is mosque and the worst place is market. Their meal ends when they are still hungry. Any question of legal decision.

Who will bring it after crossing it? Know. the worshipers and the ascetices departed from the world with their hearts locked up.Prophet said : If you see a man adopting silence and asceticism. he used to say : Ask Sayeed-b-Musayyeb.t say that knowledge is far beyond the ocean. But this wisdom appears as result of hard labour. For this reason. When Hazrat Abbas was asked. I become his ears with which he hears. loquacity decreases. to travel thereon and to have abiding faith in finding self mortification and obsertion. The learned men are of two kinds. he used to say : Ask our leader Hazrat Abbas. a learned man for the public who is a Mufti or giver of legal decision and a companion of the ruler. observation of the heart. (7) SEVENTH SIGN. It opens if one sits in loneliness with God with a mind turned with humility of spirit towards God and through self-mortification. the Prophet would not have said : If they seek justice to you (thrice). There are many students who cut short their education and remain busy in actions and observations of the heart. God gives him such a knowledge as was unknown to him. knowledge of the paths of the hereafter. etc. If any question was put to Hazrat Abu Darda'a. They can not be opened except by the hearts of the truthful and martyrs. the niceties of wisdom for which the wisdom of the'wise becomes perplexed. don't say that knowledge is in heaven. When I love him. The Prophet said that God said : A man continue to come close to Me with optional divine services till I love him. 0 dear readers. Many students who have been learning for a long time could not move more than what they heard. This is the key of Ilham or inspiration and the fountain head of Kashf or secret knowledge. Had it not been for the fact that the light of the heart of one who has a heart with inner light determines the outward or esoteric knowledge. God opens for them. The condition of secret knowledge. The sage Bashr-b-Hares was also like him. observation and watching. he used to say : Ask Hares-b-Zaid. ask your heart. When Ibn Omar was asked anything. None knows them but He-6:59. It is said that such a learned man was Imam Ahmad-b-Hanbal who was like the river Tigris and everyone used to take benefit from him. Sahal-Tastari said : The learned men. They take it as good and realise that they are the news of a pure soul and a gift of God arising out of sincere devotion and reflection. When its meaning is presented to the commentators. When Hazrat Anas was asked anything. It is not found in the commentaries and it also did not appear in the hearts of the reputed commentators. as he is not free from wisdom. Then he recited this verse of God : To him are the keys of unseen thing. and another learned man for Tauhid and good deeds and he resides in solitude. It appear as a result of the meditation of a devotee. he used to give no reply. It was also mentioned in one of the books of ancient ages : 0 children of Israil. Reading of books and learning of sciences are not sufficient for it. He was like a covered well of fresh water visited by a single person at a time. the science of practical religion and the subtleties of the flow of thoughts of the heart is similar Each of these beneficial learnings . take advice from him. Who will bring it down to the earth? Don't say that knowledge is in the lowest abyss of the earth ? Who will dig it out? Don. The seventh sign of the learned man of the next world is that his main object of anxeity is to learn secreat knowledge. that knowledge is in your hearts. because self mortification leads to Mushahadah or contemplation and lets flow the fountain of wisdom through the intricate details of the science of heart. So many are the subtle meanings of the mysteries of the Quran that appear in the hearts of those persons who have devoted themselves to Zikr and maditation of God. the Prophet said : If a man acts according to his learning. A wise man said: When know ledge increases. Take its lesson from those who have got knowledge of soul or heart and make one's character like that of the Truthful and than knowledge will spring forth in heart so much so that it will immerge him therein.

one of whose sure faith was good but whose sins more and another whose actions were more and faith little. His trustees and deputies on the earth. Their hearts are not illumined by the light of Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 79 80 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP knowledge and stand not on its firm foundation. (8) EIGHT SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the next world is that he is sincere and upright for making his faith firm and strong as firm faith is the root of religion. They lose their insight owing to their-scepticism and keep themselves busy in indulgences. the Prophet said: Among the things you have been given. hear Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 81 from them the learning of sure faith. Hazrat Ali said in the course of a long discouse about such men : Hearts are like different vessels and the best vessel is that which holds good things. so that your faith may become firm as their faith became firm. Hazrat Ali said : Alas. make subdued the seekers of truth. Whoever is given a special share of these two.' In other words. They will make easy what the rich think difficult and they will make clear what the heedless think obscure. because whenever he commits sin. Then he wept and said: How eagar I am to meet them. For this reason the Prophet said: Learn sure faith. follow them always. Learning is knowledge by which religion is learnt and by which allegiance is obtained in your life time and which becomes a good thing to be remembered after your death. Knowledge increases by expense. he repents and seeks forgiveness. but on the first onslaught of oposition doubt arises in their minds. When two persons. Knowledge is a judge and wealth seeks justice. Knowledge is better than wealth. keep company with those who have firm faith. he said: There is no man without sin. A little sure faith is better than many actions. the least is firm faith and determination for patience. but I find none to carry it. So it is necessary to learn the learning of faith. while wealth descreases. The real nature of knowledge ledge will be disclosed with their help. Along with death the benefits of wealth disappear.is an ocean of which the depth is beyond reach. but their souls will be kept hanging in lofty places. thus will knowledge perish when its people will die. after which the path of the heart will be opened. All people are dead." These are the attributes of the learned men of the next world which can be gained by constant actions and sincere efforts. here. The world will not be free of men who will establish religion secretly and openly in order that the proofs of God are not obliterated. They will be lost openly. were mentioned to the Prophet. but the benefits of knowledge remain. but their pictures will reign in hearts. is abandant knowledge. They will leave the religion for their successors and will plant it in the hearts of the young. They will keep company with the world with their bodies. has got faith even if he misses prayer at night and fasting by day. 0 God. The Prophet said: Sure faith is belief in its entirely or perfect faith. Loqman advised his son: 0 dear son. They are servants of God among His people. They will get good news from the life of sure faith. I don't find any trusted seeker but I find such men who seek the world with the weapon of religion and attribute to the friends of God the gifts of God and give prevalence of His proof over His creations. They amass wealth and hoard it. Men are of three kinds. but you guard wealth. One whose intellect is short and faith sure cannot be injured by sin. but the learned are alive and will live as long as time shall last. They will be few in number but they will be great in honour. For this reason. Thus his sins are expiated and his virtues remain intact and he enters paradise. Then taking a deep breath and pointing to his breast. the divine learned men. Each disciple gets its clue in proportion to his ability and good deeds. the travellers to the path of salvation and the ignorant people calling towards evils who are swayed by every passing wind. God will preserve His religion through them. It guards you. action is not .

Never the less you admit the possibility that something which requires punishment has been concealed in his secret life. So the existence of an eternal thing cannot suddenly be said to be true without thought. they come without cause or some of them come to existence without cause. it is said that so and so has got weak faith about . But there are such men who established the truth of an eternal matter by such proof as follows. Vol-I 82 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I The fourth state is sure or certain faith in a matter without the least doubt in it. This admission is mixed with your first inclination and creates in your mind conjecture. Here light means sure faith. if you are asked about a man who is in your sight pious and God-fearing. The third state is that the mind is strongly inclined to a thing and opinion adverse to it cannot come to it. or perceived by the sense# and it is not like the sun and the moon of which the truth can be perceived by eyes. it becomes impossible as the existence of a thing becomes without a cause. The truth of an eternal thing is not such as the truth that two is greater than one or as the truth that nothing can occur without a cause. is called Yeqin or certain faith. or through some evidences as we have already stated. This is called 'yegin'. (3) or somethings are eternal and somethings are originated. All things fall under one of the three categories.possible except through firm faith in religion. For instance. Therefore the mind is compelled to believe in the existence of something eternal. either the first or the third position is established. Firstly when truth and falsehood are equal in the mind of a person. The second meaning of Yeqin is that of the jurists. when a wise man is asked: "Is there anything eternal in existence" he cannot suddenly reply to it as the eternal thing is not subject to conjecture . If all the things are created. For instance. This is the conjecture of the general public about religious matters. is belief without doubt. whether he will be punished or not. or through experimentation such as our knowledge that cooked scammony is purgative. Such a state is called doubt. Knowledge of these things come out spontaneously without the necessity of any thought. This is called I'tiqad or faith. if mind inclines more to a thing out of the two states and if mind knows that it may be otherwise. Those who have knowledge of an eternal thing tell the people of it and the people believe it and stand on it. The light of Tauhid for the sins of the monotheists is more warm than the fire of polytheists for their virtues. (2) or all existing things are originated or created. your mind inclines more to his not being punished as there are outward signs of his piety. The philosophers and the scholastic theologians say that its meaning is faith in objects beyond doubt. It is not to look at a thing with Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 83 conjecture or doubt. This is called I'teqad or belief approaching certainty. There are four states of a person when he is eager to know the truth of a thing. If there be no existence of an eternal thing. God referred to those who have sure faith several times in the Quran and pointed out also that through faith they receive His blessings. Ihya ibn Muaz said: Tauhid (monotheism) has got light and shirk (polytheism) fire. A man cannot act except in proportion to his sure faith and his action does not decrease except when his sure faith decreases. So true belief in the truth of an eternal thing does not come spontaneously in the mind. The reply to the question . Secondly. This is the state of all common people. then all things are originated or created. the first state will be stronger. The ordinary meaning of Yeqir. But if all things are created. This is impossible and that which leads to impossibility is itself impossible. sufis and most of the learned men. For instance. 91) All existing things are eternal. The knowledge thus obtained through reasoning such as above or through the mind instinctively as the impossibility of any created thing coming into existence without a cause or through traditions as the knowledge that there is existence of Mecca. the object is attained as the truth of eternal things has been established by proof.What is meant by Yeqin or sure faith is as follows. If all things are eternal. In that case.

So certain faith is the root and its branches are many. increase and decrease and clearness and vagueness. The effect of God-fear appears on his body. As there is connection of bread with satisfaction of stomach and punishment with sins or poison with loss of life. some one said: I have seen nothing so certain and at the same time completely unheeded as death. Yeqin is a work of special Marfat. (2) From this. God says: There is no moving animal in the earth whose provision is not upon God (9: 8Q). his faith that God provides every man with subsistence grows 84 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 85 strong. Thus whenever anything prevails over the mind and enjoins one to do and prohibits him not to do is called Yeqin or certain faith. with no attention to the secondary causes but to the First Cause. The object is noble according to the second interpretation as it is the faith of a Siddiq. it reminds him of God and his . (1) TAUHID: This is tobelieve firmly that all things come from the Cause of all causes. although a time comes when he cannot even earn his livelihood. As there is greed to satisfy hunger whether its quantity is large or small. According to this. fear. dress. Fourthly. so a man avoids sins. He does not express gratefulness to hand and pen as he considers them as weapons and means.that Yeqin can be described in there meanings .(99: 7). For this reason. Just as a man avoids poison regardless of quantity. (3) Then he believes firmly in the following: Whoever does an atom weight of good will find it and whoever does an atom weight of evil will find it . peace. he observes all the ettiquits in loneliness as he observes them before an emperor. certain and firm as it is a medicine of doubt. that the pen moves under the control of the Writer who moves them. These matters appertain to Shariat and I am mentioning some of these matters which are the roots of certain faith. humility. Such men are called men of strong faith. while certain belief of the second meaning is found only in the favourites of God. It is not to look to the means or intermediaries but to the original and primary cause. If any man looks at him. The stronger the faith. major or minor. plants and all creatures are subject to His order. That is a faith of reward and punishment. It is that all causes come from Him and that everything is within His control and power. What the Prophets said from the first to the last is a subject of certain faith. he makes his heart more pure and clean than his body. so that it becomes so strong in his mind that it. character movements. so he strives to do all acts of worship. Thus it is clear from what has been described above . Then to him. but there are men who don't turn their attention to it and there are men who engage all their thoughts towards preparation for death. modesty and all other praise worthy qualities appear in him. This certain faith is highest in rank. speech and silence. This certain faith is in accordance with the first interpretation. What I wish to impress is that the object of the learned man of the hereafter is to make his faith strong.as to strength and weakness. animals. moon. although there is no doubt in it. shame. his wrath on others. the stronger is carefulness and the more are the religious actions. Then he understands that the sun. For this reason. The result of this certain faith is that he will not regret for anything he loses. he believes that God watches him in all circumstances and sees his currents of thoughts in mind and machinations of the devil. hatred for others and jealousy for others vanish away and His will remains supreme in his mind. (9) NINTH SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the next world is that he becomes humble and adopts silence. Belief in its first meaning is found among all believers. so he finds connection of good deeds with rewards artd of evil deeds with punishment. All people believe firmly about death and it is free from doubt. He believes that what has been pre-ordained for him must come to pass. stars. In this condition. can rule over him. the means or intermediaries become like hand and pen. whether few or many. Another instance is that so and so has firm faith in earning wealth. It is that everything is subject to His will and nothing has got any will of its own.death. faith may be described either with strength or with weakness. In this case. If one has got sure faith in this Tauhid.

Those who have suffered most in the world will be happiest in the hereafter. . His commands and punishments. The worst man calls such a man a learned man. He goes after greater knowledge little knowing that a little knowledge of right kind is better than a great deal of knowledge which detracts man from God. (3) Another class are those who have knowledge of God. He gets up in the morning from sleep and searches for increase of wealth. So I accept nothing of it. tranquillity. pirs and the learned men. modesty and freedom from pride and vanity. he does not help you. God then revealed to his Prophet: Tell so and so. They said: Tell us. Their soul is in the earth but their wisdom is in the hereafter. Be not among the proud learned men lest your knowledge encourages ignorance. which actionis best? He replied: To avoid evil and to make your tongue wet with the remembrance of God. and God-fear and humility become strong in their minds. The worst man to God is one who gathers knowledge from every quarter and yet remains covered in the darkness of trials. It has been narrated that the Prophet was asked: 0 Prophet of God. The man became repentant and gave it up. He was asked: Which companion is worst? He replied: The companion who does not remind you when you forget. It is the garment of the Prophets. so that we may keep 86 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I company with them. He said: The corrupt learned men. There is in a tradition: There are such good man among my followers who rejoice getting the mercy of God and weep secretly for fear of His punishment. He was asked: Inform us about the best men among us. He began to mix with the people and roamed in the streets befriending all the children of Israil and he humiliated himself. Siddiqs. The roots of no tree will get thirsty if they were raised with righteousness. its garment. while he has not lived a single day in learning. He was asked: Who are the worst among men? He said: 0 God. They are examined by lawful and unlawful things. His eye is a mirror of his mind. kindness its father and humility. The Prophet said: Those who remind you of God whenever they are seen.nature and character are proofs of his actions. There is a story that a certain wise man of Banu Israil composed 360 books on wisdom for which he was called Hakim (wise). the nearness of God keeps enmity with him. He was asked: Who is the most learned man among the people? He replied: The most learned man among them is he who fears God most. 0 Apostle of God. God then revealed to their Prophet: Tell him: You have now earned My pleasure. gravity and patience. The sage Sahal Tastari divided the learned into three classes. If you remember. He was asked: Which companion is best? He replied: The companion who helps you when you remember God and reminds you when you forget. Hazrat Omar said: Acquire knowledge and therefor acquire tranquillity. They walk with modesty and come close to God through the means of His grave. The Prophet said: Those who have been the most God-fearing in the world will be the most secure in the hereafter. The crops of nobody will wither if they were planted with piety. as he is detested both in heaven and earth. Hazrat Ali said in his sermon: This is my responsibility and I am pledged for the following. Humble yourselves before your teacher and let your students do the same before you. He lives in doubts and scepticism like living in the spider's web and does never know whether he committed mistake or not. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: Patience is the vizier of knowledge. Those who have wept much in the world will laugh most in the hereafter. (2) Another class are those who have got knowledge of the commands of God and His punishments and they are the ordinary believers. I seek Thy pardon. the earth has become full of your hypocrisy and you have not sought My pleasure therein. (a) One class are those who are well acquainted with the commands of God but not punishment of God. The most ignorant man is he who knows not the honour of God-fear. Bashr-b-Hares said: If a man seeks to rule by knowledge. A certain wise man said: God has not given a man with a garment better than the garment of God-fear. Such kind of learning is God-fear which cannot be inherited. They are siddiqs. The signs of the learned man of the hereafter are recognised in his face.

Slowly and steadily they march to their destination. humility. When a student possesses three qualities. he was asked as to the meaning of expansion of breast and he said: This is light. For this reason. Humility is based on the following verse: They are humble to God and they barter not His verses for a small price (3 : 198 Q). he expresses wonder at it and says that it is the deception of one who believe sermons. gifts become perfect on a teacher. what corrupts the deeds? So Hazrat Huzaifa had special knowledge about hypocrisy. power and prestige. the learned fear God most (35 : 25Q). what are the rewards of one who does such and such good deeds? I used to ask him: 0 Apostle of God. (11) ELEVENTH SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the next world is that he relies . Falls un oit although he is wise. Godfear. good manners and keen understanding. good conduct and love of the hereafter more than that of the world which is asceticism. Wherefrom have you got them? He said: From the Messenger of God. fame. They were Sahal Tastari. gifts become perfect on a student. Wherefrom have you got them? He said: From Huzaifah. keep mind anxious and provoke evils. Huzaifah was asked: You utter such words which no companion heard except you. The companions were want to ask the Prophet: 0 Apostle of God.Hazrat Ali said: When you hear the word of knowledge.. Shu'bi and Abdur Rahman. modesty. (10) TENTH SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the hereafter is that he studies the learning of practice and avoids such leanings as destroy actions. He expands his breast for Islam (6:125). Good conduct is based on the following verse: You have become gentle to them on account of the mercy of God (3 : 153 Q). you utter such words which nobody knows except you. He was always asked about good deeds but I used to ask him about evil deeds. I have not known it but to live.. People are indifferent to their goal. He was asked: 0 Abu Sayeed. hypocrites and subtleties of dangers and difficulties. Whenever anything of it is 88 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 89 presented to a learned man. a poet said: I have not known evil for evil's sake. A certain wise man said: Five qualities inferred from five verses of the Quran are the signs of the learned men of the hereafter. remain silent and don't mix it with frivolous talks. The natural way of the actions of the learned men of the hereafter is to make efforts about the different conditions of heart but this knowledge is now rare. intelligence. When it is cast into heart. He was asked: Has it got any sign? The Prophet replied: Yes. When the Prophet read this verse: If God wishes to guide anyone. humility and good conduct.. Someone said: If a teacher possesses three qualities. In short the qualities which the Quran mentions are found in the learned men of the hereafter as they learn the Quran for actions and not to acquire name. Hasan Basari was the man whose words had the greatest similarity to those of the Prophet and whose ways of life nearest to those of the companions. the reward of God is better for one who believes and does good deeds (28: 80Q). it expands. Their goal is obscure. patience. Ignorant also are they of the true path. to be separate from this world of deceit. to turn to the hereafter and to prepare for death before it actually comes. He who is ignorant of the evil of men. they are unknown. Fear of God is based on the following verse: Of His servants. Very few are so journers to this path." It has been said that at Basra there were 120 men of scholastic theology regarding speech and Zikr but there were only three men regarding the knowledge of Yeqin or certain faith and the conditions of soul and secret attributes. Asceticism is based on the following verse: But they to whom knowledge has been given said: Woe to you. so that I may not fall therein. A poet said: "The true path is one out of many paths. Modesty is based on the Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 87 following verse: And lower your wing for the believers (15: 88Q). The root of religion is to be careful of evil deeds. It will yield no fruit.

One sage said: We placed in our hearts and in our eyes what we received from the Prophet. Ibn Abbas said: There is nobody except the Apostle of God whose knowledge is not sometimes followed and sometimes rejected. But the great object of thought of the learned men of the present time is to teach. They spent their lives in jihad. and a rich man who loves this world and searches it. They were not satisfied with the words of others. Their successors were mere men like ourselves. His object of following is what the law giver said and enjoined. meditation. Hazrat Ali said: 'The best of us is one who follows this religion: In short if you follow the companions of the Apostle of God. compose books. Yeqin or certain belief began to diminish. to give Fatwa. (12) TWELVTH SIGN: Another sign of the learned man of the next world is that he saves himself from innovations even though the people are unanimous on innovations and novelties. Reject these two. The companions were superior. He is rather diligent in studying the conditions of the companions. The Prophet said: Word and guidance act two matters. Then came the book Mutta of Imam Malek and the Jame of Sufiyan Saori. Then Hazrat Omar and some companions gave advice to put it in to writing. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: Two innovators have appeared in Islam. The light of Prophethood was so strong on them that it saved them from many sins. enjoy the properties of orphans. avoidance of major and minor sins. because they saw the circumstances under which the Prophet had lived and saw with their own eyes the revelation of the Quran and hence their rank is higher as their minds were imbued with it. He from whose soul screen has been removed and whose soul has been illumined with the light of guidance is an object to be followed and he should not follow others besides him. When the people were inclined to these books. Beware of innovation. The companions believed blindly what they heard from the Prophet and they put into it practice. Thus Hazrat Abu Bakr had the Quran collected in one book. For this reason. Thus the. Every innovation is here say and every here say is a sin. The best word is the word of God and the best guidance is the guidance of the Prophet. Ata and the students of Ibn-Abbas at Mecca. Beware don't . observation of their outer conduct and inner self. Hazrat Abu Bakr and one party. Then Moammer-b-Rashed composed a book in Yemen on traditions and usages of the Prophet. nor in the time of their successors. of the companions did not like to collect even the Quran in a book form for fear that the' people would not commit the Quran to memory and lest the people depend only on this. research in to the qualities of soul and the learning of safety from the stratagem of the devil began to disappear. to become mutawalli of Waqf estates. Their minds were distant from books and manuscripts which were not in vogue in their times. Thereafter the science of heart. a man of bad judgment who holds that paradise is for those whose judgment is like mine. God saved 90 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 91 the learned man of the next world from these two kinds of persons. We accepted something of what came from the companions and rejected something. to make argumentation.on his insight and knowledge which enlighten his heart and not on books and what he learns from others. learnings of the next world began to decrea 'e. Hasan Basari and other pious successors. These books were compiled first in about 120 Hijra after the death of the companions and some of their successors specially after the death of Hazrat SayeedbMasayyeb. their conduct and character and their deeds. Thus it became the custom too call the scholastic theologians and story tellers who embellished their words with ornamentation and ryhmed prose. because it is the worst thing. no blame will attach you even if you act in opposition to the people of this age. Then in the fourth century many books on scholastic theology and argumentation were written. Ahmed-b-Hanbal was critical of Malek for his composition of AlMuatta and said: He has done what the companions did not do: It has been said that the first books in Islam was written by Ibn-Juray on dialects of the Quran and historical sayings based on what he heard from Mujahed. frequent the rulers and enjoy their company.

These are the twelve signs of the learned men of the next world and every quality was found in the learned men of early ages. He said: By God. spreading of soft and fine rugs in mosques etc. good guidance will be better than many actions. Ibn Masud used to say: In latter days. By God. is like a man who changes the reign of a king in relation to one who opposes his particular order. If you take the weapons of the world in lieu of religion. huge expenses in the construction of buildings for mosques. He was asked: 0 Prophet of God. follows sunnah and does not introduce innovations. A certain learned man said: Truth is heavy. When the Caliph Merwan introduced the custom of a pulpit in the I'd prayer.think that the end will be delayed. Imam Malek said: In past times people were not in the habit of questioning as they do now-a-days and their learned men did never say that such a thing is lawful and such a thing is unlawful and the question of unlawfulness pever arose. There is in another Hadis: The curse. Blessed is he who humbles himself. I wish that my sound should reach them. But never be the third one. The Prophet said: Adopt the middle course. God says: Avoid those who make their religion a sport and pastime (6 : 69Q). is it not innovation? He said: It is not innovation. The latter crime can be forgiven but there is no pardon of one who changes the regime. abstains from superfluous talks. Abu Solaiman Darani said: Nobody who gets any inspiration for something good should attempt to do it unless it is conformed by a tradition. excess in ablution and bath. He also said: You are now in an age when the best of you is one who is quick in doing good deeds. The early Muslims seldom placed anything for their prayer. I will not pray to-day behind you. this age will be considered as good deeds of the next age. heart good and does not do harm to the people. You will be in good deeds till you know the truth. Either be imbued with these attributes or be repentant after admitting your sins and faults. The learned man among you will not conceal truth. as their condemnation of unlawful thing was open. . who spends out of his lawful earnings. Imam Ahmad-b-Hanbal used to say: People have discarded knowledge and followed strange things. Your hearts may become hard. of God. Blessed is he who acts up to his knowledge. Hazrat Huzaifa said a more wonderful saying: Your good deeds of this age are the evil deeds of the past age and the evil deeds of. Beware. There is a well known Hadis: Whoever introduces such an innovation in our religion which is not there is an evil man. The good deeds of our age is the embellishment of mosques. God is our helper. He who goes in advance retards it and he who remains behind advances. what has passed will not return. but soon there will come over you a time wherein passion will have priority over knowledge. Hazrat Abu Sayeed Khodri said to him: 0 Merwan. but soon there will come an age when the best of you will be one who will be firm in faith and remain silent to ward of doubt. makes his conduct refined. The Prophet said in a sermon: Blessed is he whose concern for his own faults keeps him away of finding fault of others. because most of the good deeds of this age were reprehensible at the time of the companions. angels and all people is upon one who deceives our people. you don't know better than what I know. Whatever is ordained is impending. Be therefore one of the two. He declined to pray behind him saying that the Prophet used to stand with a stick in his hand at the time of I'd prayer and deliver sermon. what is the deception of your people? He said: God has an angel who proclaims every day Saying: He who oppresses the religion by introducing an innovation in opposition to the usages of the Prophet in relation to one who commits it. keeps company with theologians and the wise and spurns the sinners and the wicked people. It is better than what you know. He who increases it transgresses and he who decreases it fails and he who keeps attached to it is satisfied. as in that case doubt will arise in your mind. Many people assembled here. spends his surplus wealth. How little is their learning. Let him then praise God for he has got what was in his mind. Hazrat Ibn Masud truly said: You are living in an age when passion is harnessed ljy knowledge. He said the truth. God says: Have you seen one who considers his evil as good and it appears to him alright?' What has been introduced as innovation after the companions and what is unnecessary appertain to sport and pastime.

Through you I take. revelation or life. He said to intellect: Come near aid it came near. The Prophet said: A man acquires the rank of praying all nights and fasting all days through good conduct. Know that intelligent man is who obeys God. God said: He will take them from darkness into light (5: 18Q). his conduct good and his speech fluent.6 : 122? Whenever God mentioned about light and darkness. The Prophet said: The first thing God created is intellect. although his face is ugly. The Prophet said: 0 people. Know that intellect will give you rank to your learning. The good conduct of a man does not become perfect till his intellect is not complete and when his intellect becomes perfect he obeys God and disobeys his enemy the devil. his body long. you find the ignorant near the quarupeds and they were about to kill the Prophet. My object is to show the honour of intellect from the Quran and Hadis. SECTION 7 INTELLECT AND ITS NOBLE NATURE The noble nature of knowledge has been revealed through intellect. Know what you have been enjoined and what you have been prohibited. His light is like a niche etc (24 : 35). It shows him path towards guidance and saves him from destruction. The Prophet said: Nobody earns a better thing than intellect. For this reason. Have you not heard the words of the sinners in Hell: Had we heard and understood. you will reside with those who are doomed to destru. God said: Thus I have revealed to you spirit by My command (42: 5Q). Intellect has been termed as Nur or light in the following verse: God is the light of the heavens and the earth. For this reason.l° 92 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I follow the conduct of the -transgressors and if you take to ignorance and refusal of faith. An ignorant man is he who disobeys God though his appearance is Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 93 beautiful. so is the rank of an old man over his people. through you I give. acquire knowledge from your Lord and advise one another with intellect. Knowledge is like the fruit of a tree and it flows from intellect. Why should it not be honoured when it is the cause of fortune in this world and the next? What is there to distinguish between beasts and men except intellect? Even a ferocious beast which has got more strength than man fears a man at seeing him as it knows that he may put him into snare on account of his intellect. we would not have been the inmates of Hell. through you I give reward and through you I punish. He meant knowledge and ignorance. The Prophet asked: How is his intellect? They said: We shall inform you after seeking his diligence in prayer and other good deeds. He named benefiting learning arising therefrom as spirit. the Prophet said: Just as the rank of the Prophet upon his followers. Once a party of men were praising a man before the Prophet and praised excessively. Then He said to it: Go back and it went back. . his rank low and appearance shabby. The Prophet said: Every thing has a root and the root of a believer is intellect and his divine service will be in proportion to his intellect. On the Resurrection day. Why do you ask us about his intellect? The Prophet said: The ignorance of an ignorant man is more harmful than the transgression of a sinner. Don't mix with those who received honour for love of the world as they are doomed. This is not for his wealth or for his long body or for his great strength but for his ripe experience grown out of intellect. his body dwarf. Intellect is the source and fountain head of knowledge and its foundation. a man will be raisedito the rank of nearness to God in proportion to his intellect. He who disobeys God is not more intelligent than an ape or a pig. God said: Have I not given life to one dead and have I not created light for him with the help of which he can mix with the people . or like the light of the sun or like the vision of the eye. Then God said: By My honour and glory: I have created nothing in my sight more honourable than you. The intellect of a man does not become perfect and his religion firm till his faith does not become perfect. But when they saw his noble countenance. they feared him and there shone on their face the brilliance of his prophethood although it was latent in his soul in the same manner as intellect._Jon and despair.

He who among you learns a thing by proof and argument is the best in intellect among you. The Prophet said He who is greatest in intellect among you is most dearful of God and the greatest observant of what has been ordered and prohibited even though he does not do much optional worships among you. It shows the path to theoretical learnings on mastering the abstract disciplines. do they act except in proportion to their intellect? Their actions will be in proportion to their intellect and they will get reward in proportion to their actions. Every people have got a goal and the goal of this people is intellect. for everything there is a mainstay and the mainstay of man is intellect. The Prophet then said: You 94 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 95 have got no knowledge about these men. sensation and power of understanding of a man and an ass are equal with no difference. Hazrat Ayesha asked: 0 Apostle of God. Had it been possible that the natural intellect. then it would have been possible that an ass and a lifeless thing are equal regarding life . to admonish His servapts. It is an attribute for which man can be distinguished from other animals. He said: 0 people. Everything has got a basis and the basis of the next world is intellect. Everyman has got an offspring to whom he is as crited and mentioned and the offspring of the Siddiqs to which they are ascribed and mentioned is intellect. Every journey has got a tent for shelter and the tent of a believer is his intellect. The Prophet said: The believer whct*is most load by God is he whose sole goal is to obey the commands of God. The Prophet said: Angels have been earnest and diligent in their obedience to God through their intellect. while the believers among the children of Adam have endeavoured to that effect in proportion to their intellect. I asked him: Will they not get their rewards in proportion to their actions? The Prophet said: 0 Ayesha. for what thing do the people in the world get excellence over one another? He said: For intellect. Every people has got a missionary and the missionary of the worshippers is intellect. Everything has got a mainstay and the mainstay of man is his intellect. TRUTH ABOUT INTELLECT AND ITS DIVISION Intellect is a word which has got four meanings. He who according to-that for the few days of his life gets s'iccess and salvation. They have got this instinct though they are not learned. so also intellect is so much intermingled with some men that it helps them towards acquisition of theoretical learnings. It is like a light which falls in to the heart and helps it to understand things. as he who is indifferent to the sciences and he who is asleep are both classed by him in the same rank. Hazrat Bara'a-b-Azeb said: I asked many things to the Prophet.Hazrat Omar asked Tamim Dari: What is the supreme authority among you? He said: Intellect. I had asked the Prophet as I asked you and he had replied as you replied. they will get those ranks according to their intention and intellect. how? He said: Each man has got rank according to the intellect 'God' has given him. Hares-bAsad said in defining intellect that it is a natural attribute by which theoretical sciences are grasped and understood. I asked: In the next world? He said: For intellect. Then the Prophet said: I asked Gebrail: What is the main thing? He said: Intellect. Everything has got a support and the support of religion is intellect. They asked: 0 Prophet of God. Their victory and their hope were in proportion to their intellect. Hazrat Abu Hurairah said: When the Prophet returned from Uhud. The Prophet said: Everything has got a weapon and the weapon of a believer is his intellect. He heard him say: So and so is such and such. He said: You have spoken the truth. He who denies this meaning and limits intellect to understand only the necessary sciences is wrong. First Meaning. Every amity has got a permanent house and the basis of the house of Siddiqs is intellect. Every merchant has got merchandise and the merchandise of the diligent is intellect.Ao complete his intellect and to admonish himself. So they reached to their different ranks. On the Resurrection Day. He who is more earnest in obedience of God's commands is greater in intellect. Just as life in them helps them to move their bodies at sweet will.

The wise man is God-fearing though he is abject and despised in the world. It is like water hidden in earth. Such a man acts not by dictates of passion but by the ultimate result of an action. Second Meaning: According to this meaning. Abu Darda's said: May my parents be sacrificed to you. your honour and fame will increase in this world and you will gain for that proximity to your Lord and honour in the next world. intellect is wisdom which appears even in childhood. whose eloquence is well-known. a man and a beast have been differentiated in the matter of theoretical learnings by intellect. he come close to intellect. 96 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Fourth Meaning: When the natural power of a man reaches such point by which he can know th result of actions and for which the present pleasure of sexual passion is controlled. As there is connection of eye with sight. Thus the word intellect. natural and acquired. The Prophet said to Abu Dard'a: Increase intellect. becomes like a natural attribute. Just as the light of the sun rendered useless. This special attribute is a polisher. so according to natural law. whose hand is full of charity and whose rank is exalted? The Prophet said: These are the treasures of the life of the world but the hereafter is for the God-fearing. Similarly there is oil latent in almond seeds and otto in roses. The fourth meaning is understood from the following Hadis: When a man comes close to the doors of religion and good deeds. A learned man is one who fears God. Thus he who is laugh by experience and schooled by time is called a man of intellect and he who lacks these qualifications is called ignorant. The first two arise as natural causes and the latter two are acquired. It lies under intellect as a natural course. Vol-I KNOWLEDGE 97 The Prophet said: The wise man is he who believes in God. They asked him: Is not he the wise man who is best in conduct. They asked him: Who is the best worshipper among men? He said: The wise. so also there is the connection of this natural quality of intellect with learning. so there is connection of Shariat with intellect with a view to express and spread learning. Intellect is like a mirror which can be differentiated from other things having bodies by their special attribute regarding form and colour. who is the most learned of men? He said: The wise. then your nearness to Lord will increase. if applied to any fruit. The first meaning of intellect is its base and fountain-head. It appears from this that intellect is the name of natural instinct. Knowledge does not come from outside. Forehead can he differentiated from eye as it has not been given the special quality of sight as in case of eye. water comes out of iHmd no new thing is poured over it. The first meaning is understood from the following Hadis. When the light of the eye is closed. Such a man is called an intelligent man. If a well is dug. as fear of God. It is however applied to knowledge as a thing is known by its fruit. Acquired knowledge is useless without the other. God says: When your Lord took out progency from the children of Adam from their backs and then took . Just there is connection of sun's rays with sight. as a body knows by instinct that two is greater than one. you will then become a man of intellect. The fourth meaning is the ultimate result of intellect and distant goal. Just as according to natural law. Third Meaning: Intellect eans according to this knowledge acquired through experience. Hazrat Abu Hurairah and others went to the Prophet and said: 0 Prophet of God. believes in His Prophet as true and obeys His commandments. The second meaning is its branch and near the first meaning. Hazrat Ali said: Knowledge is of two kinds. Do good deeds. The third meaning is the branch of the first and second meanings.with rio difference. an ass has been helped with life. The Prophet said: God has not created anything more honourable than intellect. They asked him: Who is the most excellent of men? He said: The wise. that and individual cannot remain in two different place4 at the same time and that a lawful thing is not the same as an unl wful thing. it is said that he has got intellect. is the fruit of learning. To this effect. how will it be in my case? The Prophet said: Avoid illegal things prohibited by God and fulfill the obligatory duties ordered by God.

Is there any one who will remember it (54:17Q)? Soul is like a horseman and body like a horse. These secrets were revealed to the Prophet. These attributes are called intellect.18Q. God says : He who is blind in the world will be also 98 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I blind in the hereafter. this attribute is latent in him.171 Q. God says : It is not the eyes that are blind but the souls which are in breasts-22:45Q. namely controlling power. In other words. And thus I showed Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and earth . CHAPTER II . In other words. The power of internal insight is more than that of external sight. some one Wasq and some more.6 : 75Q. acquired nothing but husk of religion. their souls will bear witness about it God says. This means confession of their souls. Intellect with reference to the three other meanings is subject to disparity. some three. Abdullah-b-Salam narrated that the Prophet at the end of a long sermorr described the Throne and stated that the angels asked God : b God. men are of two kinds.witnesses 'Am I not your Lord' they all said: Yes . so also there is disparity of intellect in different individuals by instinct. some over one Farq. This disparity of intelleft is found in." they would certainly answer "God" (43 : 87Q). This disparity of intellect in different indviduals is also understood from a tradition. He shose insight is not ripe. To one kind of men Iman was presented but they forgot it and they are unbelievers and to another kind of men who cultivated their souls and-remembered it. disparity of men is clear and evident. hast Thou created anything greatter than the Throne? He said: Yes. such as the thing that two are greater than one. that those with understanding may remember (38 : 28Q).all its meanings as described above except the second. Thus God said : His soul fulfilled not what he saw-53:. your intellect cannot grasp it. The natural religion of God upon which He created men (30:29Q). not verbal promise by tongue. The disparity is also due to the differences in knowledge of a subject. In other words. A wise man will be able to overcome appetite more easily than an ignorant and illiterate man. God says for this : So that they may remember (14 : toQ). some through insight and some through sight and both were called sight. The blindness of the horseman is more serious and harmful than that of the horse. some four. So Iman or faith is hidden in the heart of every man. Can you count the number of sands? They said : No. that an object cannot reamin in two different places at the same time or that a thing cannot be both eternal and originated. INTELLECTUAL DISPARITY OF MEN As the lands are of serval kinds. Remember the gits of God upon you and your convenant with Him (5 : 10) 1 have made the Quran easy for rememberance.7: . Some men have been given one grain. Similarly a learned man is more competent to give up sin than an ignorant man. For instance the power of control of appetite and sexual passion is different in different individuals even it is different in the same individual at different stage of life. Thus a man having special knowledge of medicines may refrain from some harmful foods whit a lay man fails to do that simply because he lacks in medical knowledge. some two. God says about this matter : If you ask them "Who created you. he is able to do it. A young man may fail to overcome sexual appetite but when he grows old. With-regard to the fourth meaning of intellect. These people are like those who forgot a thing after remembering it and afterwards it is reminded to them. intellect. They asked: How great is it? He said : Alas. The opposite of inner light and insight is blindness. God said : I have created intellect in different minds as numerous as sands. amely axiomatic knowledge. the natural religion of every man is upon a thing that he should have faith in one God and know the natural attribute of each thing. Viewed from this angle.

the Creator. His will lies naturally in His attributes which are unlimited. His attributes are not like those of the created beings as His being is not like that of the created. If mankind. God speaks without sound. What He does not will comes not into being. not divisible. benefitting or not benefitting. (6) To believe in His words. above heaven and above everything. The Quran is recited by tongue. every contrivance of the devil and every 100 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I thought good or bad is within His knowledge. rather distance and nearness are all equal to Him. He fixed the provision and death of created being and nothing can escape from His power. the Eternal without any before Him and without any beginning. (5) To believe in His hearing and sight. The smallest atom in the earth or in heaven is not outside. He is free from change. Nothing however scanty can escape His hearing and nothing however subtle can go from His sight. increase or decrease. the Last. There is no creator of actions except He and nobody is outside His judgment. Whatever happens between the deepest abyss of the earth to the highest heaven is within His knowledge. His hearing and sight are all pervading. Not a glance of the eye. He is not limited by measure. He wills. It does not take the help of words and languages through the movement of lips. (4) To believe in His will. He is Everliving. His knowledge is eternal and unlimited without any increase or decrease and without any defect. angles and of everything. What He will comes into being. they won't be able to do it without His will. who guides His servants towards the true path. free of restriction. the First. He is without body and form. nevertheless it is eternal existing with the eternity of God. the Last. There is none to rescind His command.powerful. His creatures and not by existence. His talk is without sound. jinn. The Quran. He is above Arsh. nearest to the jugular vein of a man. His knowledge is without limit and He knows everything. He expresses Himself through. known or unknown. slumber. He is beyond space and beyond time. He_is free from faults and failures. His knowledge. the Al-Knowing.. The following beliefs aboutGod is necessary. angels and devil want to remove an atom from its proper place. He is nevertheless llelow the deeper t depth. His power and might are above counting. Everyting open and secret is within His knowledge Every thought in mind. Darkness can not obstruct His sight. Almighty. He is the First. Al. space and time. Nothing is like Him and He is not like anything. The heavens are rolled in His hands. the Everlasting without any end. there is no obstacle to it. the External and the Internal. Everything is in His grasp. He is single without any associate. very close to a thing. (7) To believe in His actions. He is now as He was before. He sees without eyes. limitation and resemblance. Yet He is near. profit or loss. Hazrat Moses heard His words without sound and language and the righteous will see Him in the hereafter without body and space. Nothing comes into being small or great. faith or infidelity. He ?s not in anything and nothing is in Him. It is eternal. He is free from diligence. He knows the creeping of an ant and on a solid stone in intense dark night or in the movement of a moste in the air. not a stray sudden thought in mind is outside His will. He hears and sees. sin or virtue without His order. the great Destroyer. Distance is no bar to His hearing and seeing. He created everything in its best of make and form and no other . He is unique in creation and unrivalled in ever new creations. rest and change.SECTION 1 FOUNDATION OF BELIEF Praise be to God. ancient and selfexisting unlike the talks of the created. It has got no connection with circulation of air. death. There is none to follow His command without His will. power and will. There is no refuge of one who is disobedient to him. (2) To believe in His power and existence. (1) To believe in His Transcendence. the Bible. disease. who makes Himself known to men that He exists by Himself without any partner. the Gospel and Psalms are His created books to His Prophets. He does what He wills. good or evil. written in papers and preserved in heart. There is no precedence or subsequence of any event from its appointed time. sleep. (3) To believe in His Knowledge. cathces without hand and creates without instrument. He is the Lord of the entire universe. the Doer of whatever.

and the advices of the pious. He has got no fatigue or languor. (c) to. one should not resort to scholastic theology but to reading the Quran. then of Omar. Its water will be whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. Some will render little account. Its meaning will be gradually unfolded to him. then the martyrs. Those who believe in Tauhid will come out of Hell after their due punishment in Hell. Tereafter He originated creations not because of His necessity. He is wise in His actions and just in His judgments. first of Abu Bakr.form is (8) To believe in the other words. their character arid conduct. They will be in the neighborhood of God. then the rest of the believers. It is to attest to the prophethood of Muhammad. The feet of the unbelievers will slip and they will fall down into Hell. He existed in eternity by Himself and there was nothing along with Him. not of oppression or injustice. It is a fountain of the Prophet. their God. Tafsir and Hadis and to understand their meaning because in that case the light of divine service appears in him. They are two terrible angles. You will have good idea about them and praise them as God and His Apostle praised them. True it is that the belief which is based on authority. EXCELLENCE OF BELIEF What has been said above about belief is applicable to a boy in his early years in order than he may commit them to memory. heaven. 102 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 103 (f) To believe in the judgment. The feet of the believers will be firm upon it by the Grace of God and so they will cross it to paradise. then of Osman and then of Ali.fear and their asceticism spread effect in his mind. (e) To believe in the Fountain. His justice is not comparable to that of men. To achieve this end. angels devils. earth. He gave him superiority to all other Prophets and made him leader of mankind and did not make complete any faith with the words of Tauhid till it was followed by the attestation that Muhammad is His servant and apostle. They will make the dead one sit up with his soul and body and ask him about his religion and his Prophet. then to understand them and then to believe them and then to know them as certain and sure. He made compusolory to believe whatever he said about this world and the next world. The root of faith of the ordinary people is Taqlid or blind belief on authority. is not free from some weakness. It is a bridge stretched ever Hell. God sent the unlettered Quraishite Prophet Mahammad as an apostle to all the Arabs and non-Arabs. believe in the Balance with two scales and a tongue the magnitude of which is like the stages of heaven and earth. There will be so many pitchers around like so many stars in firmament. This is the first examination after death. Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BEI4EF 101 better that in. Instruction to the boy is like the sowing of seed in his heart. (h) To believe in the goodness of the companions. sharper than the edge of the sword and thinner than a hair. inanimate things comes out of nothing but by His power. Therewith the actions of men will be weighed. The above actions are like the serving of water and tending . It comes to his mind as a matter of course without proof. The weight would be like a mote or mustard seed to establish exact justice. (g) To believe in the intercession of the Prophets then the learned. but when it is certain and sure. plants. it becomes perfect. He gave them miracles and conveyed His injunctions and prohibitions through them. their company. (a) To believe in Munkar and Nakir. (b) To believe in the punishment of grave as true. Whatever exists in the world. to the jinn and men and by his law he abrogated all other laws. jinn. The believers will take drink from it and enter paradise after crossing the bridge. animals. He does not accept the faith of a man unless he believes in these articles of faith along with the following. men. They will have the right of intercession in proportion to their ranks to God. Whatever He does is from a sense of justice. The first duty of a boy is to commit them to memory. Obedience to Him is binding on all His creatures and He expressed it through His Prophets. Whoever will drink therefrom once will never be thirsty. (d) To believe in the Bridge. some great and some will enter paradise without account.

The expression of this secrecy has got different stages. without length and breadth. that He is kind to creatures free from imposing works beyond power of men. It the boy wants to be included within the travellers of the hereafter with Taufiq or God's grace as his friend. They are that men's actions are created. mountains its tents? I have created you of two sexes and ordained your sleep for rest. I created above you seven solid heavens and placed therein a burning lamp and I sent down waters in abundance from clouds that I night bring forth by it corns and herbs and gardens thick with trees-78:6. without be y. That is the most valuable jewel and the ultimate goal of the saints and favourites of God. As there is no limit to these stages. -0 SECTION 3 PROOF OF BELIEF Iman or belief is founded upon four pillars. that He punishes men. It is founded on ten bases-He is Al. FIRST PILLAR The basic principles of faithfor knowledge of God (1) The first basic principle is to have knowledge of the existence of God. there is also no limit to the degrees of secrets. eternal in words. hearing. That is the secret matter which rested in the breast of Hazrat Abu Bakr and for which he was superior to all others. Paradise. eternal. each of which has got ten bases. object of vision of the next world and He is one without any partner. Al-knowing. God says : In the creation of the heaven and the earth and in the alternation of night and day and in the ships which pass throught the sea with what is useful to man and in the rain which God sends down from heaven. jurisprudence and other science. giving life by it to the earth after its death and by sacttering over all kinds of earth and in the change of the winds and in the clouds that are made to do service between heaven and earth. placed therein the moon as a light and the sun as a torch and God caused you to spring . becomes strong and thrives in to a tree and its root becomes strong and firm and its branches rise high.vill be open to one in proportion to ones efforts and strivings and the more one makes his soul clean and pure. God says : Have I not made the earth a couch. To make faith strong by argumentation is like striking a tree with an iron matter. the Bridge. The boy should also be guarded against argumentation and speculation as their harms are greater than their benefits. that He sent apostles and that our Prophet was helped by miracles and that his prophethood will last till the day of Resurrection. the Balance. God says : Don't you see how God created the seven heavens one over the other. seeing. ancient. speaking. for God in assuredly with those who do right -29:69Q. Hell. Owing to these efforts. It is to believe in the truth of Resurrection. 104 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP (4) FOURTH PILLAR: It is to believe in the things accepted on authority and it is based on ten things. willing. the true Imams. To teach by proof is one thing and and to see proof by eyes is another thing. the doors of guidance are opened up for him till he remains engaged in actions attached to God-fear and restrains himself from passions and lusts making efforts in discipline and self mortification. occupying no space. We shall guide them in our paths. are signs for those who understand2:159.the seed. without form. (1) FIRST PILLAR: It is the knowledge of essence of God and it is established upon ten bases. (2) SECOND PILLAR: It is to have knowledge of His attributes and to believe them. They are the knowledge and belief that God is existing.powerful. a light from God falls in his heart as God says: Whose strives for Us. questions by Munkar and Nakir. without any special direction. that there is nothing obligatory on Him. It grows. night as a mantle and day for gaining livelieood. They differ in proportion to the differences of intellect and knowledge. does what He wills. The first light which illuminess faith and the first thing to be followed is the Quran and there is no word better than the word of God. excellence of the companions in accordance with chronological order and qualifications of being an Imam. !t . knowledge and will and free from changes of events. living for ever. punishment of grave. willed and fixed by God. (3) THIRD PILLAR: It is to have knowledge and faith in His works which are established over ten bases. It is like the learning of the mysteries of medicines.

Its proof'is this. Firstly. the turn for the-present new things to come into being Vol-I 106 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I would never come. it requires a Creator to bring it into existence. motion and rest themselves are originated things. Another reason is that if there is no end of the motion of heavenly bodies. Secondly. If any of the above two things is predominant over the body. The world and whatever exists in it are originated things. He will turn you back in to it again and will bring you forth again-71:14 God said : Don't you see the germ of life? Is it you who created it or I? I have decred death among you and I shall not be overcome to change you forms and create you what you know not-56:58: It is clear that if he who has got a little intellect and ponders over these verses and looks to the wonderful creations of the. The world is a new or orginated thing. a body is not free from motion and rest. If the eternity of a thing is established. The would is an originated new thing and it did not come into existence without a cause. That a thing cannot come into existence without a cause is clear. the Creator of heavens and earth (14 : 11) ? The Prophets were Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 105 therefore sent by Him to call the people towards monotheism there is no deity but Got'. PROOF OF KNOWLEDE A new thing cannot come into existence without a cause. When it is an originated thing. its extinction is impossible as we shall prove it by the subsistence of the creation. since the affirmation of one is the negation of another and negation of one is the affirmation of another. because the number becomes even with the addition of one. They cannot be even. There fore there are testimonies of the Quran and human nature which are sufficient proofs. A new thing is originated because of its emergence an old thing is distant because of its extinction. for such a thing belongs to a certain definite time and it also comes to our intellect that it comes at a fixed time without precedence or subsequence. How can it change into odd when its number has got no end? They cannot be even or odd as it has got no end. Thirdly. But it is impossible for a thing which has no end to come to nought. what is not free from changes is an originated or new thing or whatever is not indepedent of originated things is itself originated. If He were an originated thing and not eternal. it is concluded that the world is not free from changes and therefore it is an originated thing. The last two are impossible. (2) The second basic principle is the knowledge that God is eternal. Its proof is that if it were not so. He has got no beginning and no end. three conditions would arise -their numbers would be either odd or even. What is static can move and what is moving can become static according to the dictates of intellect.forth from the earth like a plant. Even motion and rest are two new orignated things not free from changes. or both odd and even or neither odd or even. All other proofs are unnecessary but still we shall prove by the proof of knowledge that God exists. It is found in all bodies. That which has no end cannot be even without change. It requires no meditation. The human soul naturally testifies that God exists and that everything is governed by His Laws. Its proof is found in the fact that it is not free from motion and rest which are the characteritics of every new material thing. They cannot be odd. They were not commanded to say : For us there is one God and for the world another God. From this. He would have need of a . because such a thing was inborn in their minds from the time of their births. God said : Turn your face then towards the true faith. Its proof is that one comes after another. If you ask them who has created the heavens and the earth they will reply 'God'. For this reason God says : Is there any doubt about God. as even number comes odd by the addition of one. He is the final of everything and before everything living or dead. God said. the world before every new thing may change which has got no beginning and unless these. it becomes a new event. the natural religion whereon God created men-30:30. There are three matters in this argument. new things come to nought. heavens and the earth will realise that without a great Designer these workmanships are impossible. because of the urgency of its fixed time. as positive and negative are united therein.

Willing creator. it also requires a cause to come to nought. how does the form of existence of a thing become? It is not also possible. These attributes are impossible for a body. rest. God is eternal as we have learnt it from previous Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 107 discussions. It is that God is not confined within any direction as he created direction. So how would He enter in a body as He existed by Himself before all originated things and there was nobody along with Him. Every form occupies a space and moves and stays in it. He would have remained in two conditions. Almighty. He is the first and the last. (3). (4) Fourth basic principle. either he would come to nought by Himself or through an oposing annihilating agent. If it were possible to believe that the Creator of the world has got a body. It is that God is wihtout form not occupying any space and free from space. If it is possible for a thing which is self-existing to come to nought. If a designer wishes to make a body without the substance of body. If any form is limited by space and is eternal. the Creator is the First and the Last. The substances of the body are not free from division. Fifth basic principle. his end becomes impossible. When He does not occupy any space. He is the Designer. He is Alknowing. Its proof is this. He is unique. Body has got motion and rest which are the characterof originated things. If He is above the world. There is noting below Him as the word 'below' is conneted with feet and God has no feet. To an ant. If He had an end. It is not possible that a thing comes to nought after meeting with an opposing agent. If that thing which comes to nought is eternal. one right hand and another left. There is nothing above God. (5). (6) Sixih basil principle. It is not inconsistet with the attribute of His grandeur and the symptoms of origination and . These are the qualities of an originated thing. He created two directions for man. When the attribute of eternity has been established. there is a direction opposite to it and every opposite thing has got a body like it or similar to it. below the roof. Where is the similarity of the Creator with the created. the Creator of the world and its Fashioner. than an originated thing coming before an eternal thing loses its identity and existence. Then there are front direction and back direction. everlasting and noting is like Him. It is that 'od is soated upon His Throne. motion. then it would be possible to attribute divinity of the sun and the moon and other heavenly bodies. For this reason. Third basic principle. Thus it would have continued without end. because He has got no head and the word 'above' is connected with head. How then did He exist in eternity with His opposite? If the opposite is an originated thing. form and quantity. Its Creater exised from before it. (8) Eighth basic principle. It is that God is everlasting wihtout end. he will commit mistake. But God is free from it. it is understood that the sustance of the creation of the world is eternal. He has got no body as every body is limited by space and composed of different substances. how can He be governed by that ? Along with the creation of men. When direction is an originated thing. right or left. the above portion is it 108 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I lower side and the lower side is it upper side. that is upon power. directions have been created. He created for man two hands.Creator who would also have need of a Creator. it is also possible for that thing to come into existence. (7) Seventh basic principle. though they are contrary in our case. What rests above head is above and what rests below feet is below. the open and the secret. The reason is that if a thing requires a cause to come to existence. its existence from eternity is impossible. rather He is ever-living. Accordingly there is right hand direction and the left hand direction. composition. Whatever comes in succession ends in an ancient creator which is the first. He is not like any worldly thing. motion and rest. If a man says that God has got body and occupies space. either above or below. Its proof is this. God has got no length and breadth as these are attributes of a body which is an originated thing. front or behind. What is not free from changes is an originated thing. one rests on earth called the direction of feet and one above his head. he commits blunder for using such word and not for its meaning. It is that god is not comoposed of abody having different substances. the Fashioner with the fashioned? Hence it is impossible that anything is like Him.

' meaning it is established on honour in the earth. He is an object to be seen in the hereafter as He said : On that day shall faces beam with light looking towards their Lord-75 : 22. because it has been established that He has got knowledge and power and that He has got life. Insight is a kind of Kashf and knowledge. If it is taken literally. but He Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 109 comprehends vision-6:103. would be lacking in natural intellect and is utterly foolish. It is that God is everyliving. SECOND PILLAR OF FAITH God's attributes based on ten principles. This is attested by the verse : Does He not know who has created ? He is subtle. It is that every action happens according to the will of God. This is height of foolishness.s He does. In other words every existing thing lives according to His will. He is the end of praise and guidance as He described Himself. Take this proof by your intellect that there is nothing like of what He created with wonderful design.' meaning within His power or might. the creation -also sees Him though not in fornt. innovations.and the Throne is also a body limited by space. He who sees a garment of silk of which the weaving and texture are fine and says that it has been made by a dead man or a man who has got no power. As God sees His creation though not in front. He is unique in every new creations. it becomes possible to believe that He has got a bod . The Quran says : Had there been any other god therein. (9) Ninth basic principle. (2) Second basic principle. He is truthful as the world is perfect with His designs and well regulated. he would be powerful and the first would be weak rather than an almighty God. It is that God is one without any partner. single without any like. When every action happens according . It is that whatever exists is within His knowledge and under His control. He has got connection also with insight without any direction. If the first God willed something. This means that He encompasses everything. If the second is to oppose the first. This is supported by the following Hadis :'The hea 'of a believer in is with two fingers of the Merciful. The people of truth accepted this interpretation as the people of untruth were compelled to accept the interpretation of these words of God : He is with you wherever you are (57:4). 110 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 111 (3) Third basic principle. then it is possible also to doubt the lives of animals inspite of their motions and rest. Even an atom in heaven and earth is not outside His knowledge. also because of the following verse: God addressed Moses saying : You cannot see Me-7: 139. This is what is meant by the following verse of the Quran : Then He ascended to heaven and it was then but smoke-41:10.annihilation. (4) Fourth basic principle. This shows the deep knowledge of the Designer and wonderful intricacies. space and direction. (1) First basic principle. As it is possible to know Him without modiality or form. This means that he would have no supreme power. There is nothing like Him. and Kashf is more clear than knowledge. It is impossible. it is also possible to see Him likewise. He is the orignal Creator and repeats creations and whatever He will. It is that God is Almighty as He said: He is powerful over all things-15 : 120. It is that although God is free from form. Without sword and shedding blood. He is not visible in this world as God said : Vision does not comprehend Him. they would have gone to ruin-21 : 22. the result would be impossible. When God has got connection with knowledge and not with direction. and inventions. It means his dominion and power as the poet said : Bishr has gained power in Iraq. If its meaning is taken literally. If it were conceived that a powerful and knowing designer is without life. It is also supported by the following Hadis : 'The Block stone is the right hand of God in the earth.1 don't understand how the Mutazalites hold that God is visible in this world also though Moses could not see Him. cognisant-77: 14. (10) Tenth basic principle.. His taking rest on the Throne means this. He is truthful in all His promises and has got knowledge of everything. the second would have been compelled to him.

Origination is an attribute of body as it is subject to change and the attribute of body is also subject to change. His words are eternal but our words and sounds are new and originated. For instance. (5) Fifth basic principle. If it is possible to conceive of the existence of the seven heavens Paradise and Hell all written in a small piece of paper and that Taqdir of men is preserved in the minutest part of heart and seen with an eyeball without the things existing in the eye ball. He is without change and without novelty. Speech is of the mind Tongue is the vehicle of mind. if I know that zaid will come at sun-use. It is that His will is eternal.him would be owing to that foreknowledge and not for any new knowledge The eternal knowledge of God should be understood in this way. It is that God is hearing and seeing and it is impossible to evade His sight and hearing. Understand also that all the words represent His speech. Pay no attention to one who does not understand that the eternal is that before which nothing existed. Thus in the word. the opposite thing also comes into being according to His will. It is that His knowledge is eternal. body or size. Whose thinks it impossible that the Prophet Moses heard God's words which had no sound or words. . He exists with His attribiutes from eternity. because if it comes down on paper on account of writing. it remains confined to the place of event. 'Bismillah' the word 'B' precedes 'S' and consequencty 'S' cannot be eternal. (8) Eighth basic principle. How can you do it when it depends on the will of another which again depends on the will of another and so on to infinity and there is no end of it. since it is impossible that He is subject of change. It does not resemble the speech of other beings. He has got attribute of speech. It is that the words emanting from God are eternal along with His attributes. If you understand that God has got knowledge of everything. (7) Seventh basic principle. His knowledge about it is not new but eternal and ancient. so His speech has got no sound or words. His will to make an event at the appOinted time has got connection with His eternal knowledge. Whenever any animal is born. What is not free from change is originated.So power leads His will to two different directions. his arrival at sun-rise and to welcome. The thinnest sound of the creeping of a black ant on a solid stone in the deep darkest night does not evade His hearing. In reality His speech is speech of the mind. written in paper. If His will rises in another object and not in His being. then the essence of fire would come down on paper on account of its writing and would burn it. A poet says. He is the bridge of mind and lies secretly in thoughts and reflections. (9) Ninth basic principle. How will it not be when His sight and hearing are perfect beyond doubt and there is no decrease of this power? How can the power of the created become perfect in relation to the power of God? How can a designer become perfect in relation to the great Designer? How can a portion become equal to one whole? (6) Sixth basic principle It is that God speaks without words and sounds and letters. it would be possible for the world to come into being without a will. preserved in mind. it becomes impossible for him to believe that he will see in the next world such a thing as has got no body though he understands that a thing can possible by seen which has got no colour. Just as speech of mind has got no sound or words. but the essence of speech does not come down on these things. How can the Creator be sharer with it in the attribute of change? For this it can be said that He is eternal. Whatever occurs in His creation is within His knowledge from eternity and not his new knowledge. Rather it is necessary that His attributes should become eternal as His being is eternal. He who cannot conceive it is a fool. He calthot will just as you can not 112 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I execute an action which is not in yourself. God has got a secret for leading some men astray as He says : There is no guide for one whom God misguides-13 : 33. even though he has not seen such a thing.to His will. Similarly conceive of hearing what is applicable to sight. it is also possible to concevie of the speech of God as being read with tongue. because if there is rise of a new will. If it is possible for a will to come into being without another will. understand it also that along with His being.

What then would prevent its connection in the case of some actions and would not prevent it in the case of other actions when all are similar? How could animals be independent of the Creator when the wonderful workmanship of spiders. guidance or misguidance.has got full power without any decreae? His power is connected with the movements of men. speaking with His words. secret matters and thoughts as He knows the orientation of their actions and gave proof of His knowledge by creating creations. belief or infidelity. These attributes belong to His eternal attributes. benefit or loss. namely the matter that actions are the result of compulsion and the matter that they are the result of volition. It is the knowledge that every event in the world is His action. it has been named power of motion. It is that God being the Creator of the power of men. It is that God is wise by His knowledge. learned without his learning and the object of learning. The power of motion is not the result of compulsior on any man as he can move according to his will and knows the difference between compulsion and volition. How can this motion be his creation when he does not know the different parts of acquired actions and their numbers? When these two matters are disproved. As murder can not be conceived without the killer and one killed a learned man cannot be concevied without learning and an object of learning. (2) Second basic principle. God has no necessity of keeping connection with the container of power in the matter of creation because the power of God is eternal and its connection with the world is eternal. There is none to reject His command. God created you and what you make-37 : 96. as murder murderer and one murdered are in separable. Neither a twinkling of an eye. living with His life. when He is the subtle. choice as well as the container of choice. Shirk" or Iman come from Him. All motions are similar and are connected with power of God. He well regulated the creation and gave it its due power and motion. bees and other animals amaze the wisest and intelligent Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 113 minds? Who has got power of spaciality in these creations except God? Then animals themselves donot know of the benefits they produce.." "What ! does He not know when He has created. mighty with His power. How will He not be the Creator of the actions of men when He. there remains the middle position which is this that actions are voluntary in a fixed manner through power of God by invention and through the power of a man by acquisition. All the actions of His servant are His creations and keep connection with His power. Learning. power and will. willing with his will. (3) Third basic principle. but motion is connected with the attribute of power and for this reason of connection. his words will be like those of a man who says that he is wealthy without his wealth. THIRD PILLAR OF FAITH Knowledge of the action of God involving ten principles. confirming thereby His words-God is the creator of everything-9: 102. success or failure. Good or evil. Whatever is your conversation. object of learning and the learned man are inseparable. If one says that He is wise without wisdom. does not prevent them from doing voluntary actions by way of acquisition. the cognisant" He ordered men to take precaution in their actions. none to disobey his . for God created power and '. nor a sudden rise of thought in mind in the visible and invisible world occurs except through His order. hidden or open. sin or virtue. creation and invention. or ignorance. There is no creator of it except He. He truly knows the innermost recess of your hearts. words. they are nevertheless not outside the will of God. (1) First basic principle. knowledge.ne container of power.(10) Tenth basisc principle. because the power with which he was created is his attribute. Motion is also the creation of God and an attribute of man acquired on the strength of power. So they cannot be called the cause of workmanship Now think that all creations bow down to One who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth. seeing with His light and hearing. Power is an attribute of a man though it is the creation of God and not acquired by man. It is the knowledge that though the actions of man are his acquisitions.

Tyranny means to dispossess a man from his possession but it is impossible in the case of God as He does not dispossess others in view of the fact that the kingdom of heaven and earth is His. it would have been impossible for men to pray for removing it. Tell me how a Muslim can deny the supreme rule of God. I would have given every soul its guidance31:13. There is none to question Him of what He does. then we would saythat every ant killed under feet and every bug crushed would be brought back to life. Had I wished. nor imposition of obligations is necessary for Him although the Mutazalites hold that they were necessary for the welfare of men. It is that God can inflict on man what is beyond his capacity. The result will be that many will be out of his control. Various tortures inflicted on animals have not been proceded by any offence or crimes committed by the animals. (5 ) Fifth basic Principle. It were not possible. He guides whom He wishes and misguides whom He whishes. God has got freedom of actions among His servants and it is impossible that His servants will oppose His freedom. the ruler rebukes the master for beating his slave. (6) Sixth basic Principle. In reply we shall say that command is one thing and will is another thing. It is proved by this. Question may be asked how God commands to do what He does not wish and how He prohibits whatHe wishes. It would violate the dictates of reason and law as nothing is incumbent upon God. The master shows reason that his slave does not obey him. But this is impossible since He is the only being to enjoin and prohibit.decree._ . such a work which if given up will cause harm in future as it is said that it is compulsory on men to obey God who will punish him in the hearafter by the fire of Hell: or it is to avoid such present harm which is injurious as it is said that to drinik water for a thirsty man is compulsory so that he may not die. As a proof he orders his slave to arrange the bridle of his horse before the ruler though he knows that the slave will not obey it. his objection before the ruler does not stand and if he wishes that his order should be obeyed it amounts to his murder. This is against the belief of the Mutazalites. It is that God is free to punish a man inspite of his virtues and to reward a man inspite of his sins. God's helplessness is seen. (4) Fourth basic principle. 'The . it follows that the evil actions are also the result of His will. It is that God is generous in inflicting trouble on men by His commands. Now it is seen that evil deeds are predominant in men. If he does not order him. lay not on us that for which we have no strength-2:246Q. It has already been stated that nothing is compulsory on God but His dealings are not intelligible to men. Neither creation. he will think it dishonourable. If it occurs. Secondly it is such a work the negation of which seems impossible. but the people will be questioned (21: 33). If every sin is done against the will of God. 114 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 115 God says : If God willed. knowledge becomes ignorance. The Mutazalites hold the contrary view. If it is said that these animals would be raised up again and awarded for this which is incumbent upon God. It is impossible. (7) Seventh basic Principle. When it is established that all actions of men are creations of God. because there is nobody to question Hlim what He does but men are subject to questions. All say What He' wills occur and what he does not will does not occur. it becomes an impossibility. Slaughter of animals is infliction of pain on animals and men. It is that God does with regard to men what He wills and it is not incumbent on Him to do whatever is good for them. If the power of a village chief is curtaited. He will think it derogatory to his position if actions are conducted according to the wishes of his enemy in the village. Thus if a master beats his salve. He who thinks that God does not will sins and evils as they are evils and that it is the devil who wills them is cursed. He would have guided all men aright 13:30. Thus it is said that the existence of a thing which is known is necessary because if it does not exist. The people prayed : 0 our Lord. How will it be limited by compulsion? The object of compulsion is one of two things.

Mutazalites say that it is incumbent upon God to do whatever is salutary for men. such as splitting up the moon into two parts. (8) Eighth basic Principle. while reason in realising that what Shariat foretells thinks it possible and urges that precautions should be taken against'aify possible punishment. 1 116 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP (9 ) Ninth basic Principal. He shall give life to them who gave them life at first-36:78. Though the Prophet was illeterate and did not learn how to read and write. The object of these verses is to prove the truth of the messenger of God by miracles. It is that to have knowledge of God and to obey His commands are compulsory on men. God said Your creation and your resurrection are like a single soul-31:27. God said : They will be exposed to Me morning and evening and on the . (10) Tenth basic Principle. If a man warns by saying : A lion stands behind you. It is to believe in the punishment of the grave as it have come in Shariat. The Prophet used to hear the words of Gebriel and see him but the men surrounding him did not hear his words or see him. The necessity of Prohets for men is like that of the physicians for men. (3) Third basic Principle. Some say that there had been no use in sending -then. The beginning of creation is the proof of its resurrection. For instance God says : You will enter the sacred mosque if God wills having your heads shaved and your hair short-48:27. As God did not give them such power of sight and hearing. The verse : The Romans have been vanguished in a land nearby but after their defeat they will defeat them in a few years-30:1. as the beauty of the language throughout the Quran is unparalleled and the Arabs could not surpass it inspite of their eloquence and rhetoric. because reason renders it unnecessary. as the stillness of the dead man's corpse nor its failure to hear the questions put to it will refute it. not on account of the reason as the Mutazatities say. bcause a sleeping man is openly still and dead-like but his soul feels pain and and pleasure at that time in dream. It is that sending Prophets to men is not impossible. The open miracle with which he guided the Arabs is the Quran. The informations which he gave about the previous nations in the Quran being an illiterate person. This is false. Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 117 Resurrection is the second stage of men and is possible like the first stage of creation. It is the question of Munkar and Nakir which has been mentioned in traditions and therefore to believe it is compulsory. they did not see and hear. This is possible naturally. But reason itself does not lead to that knowledge of harm. yet God informed him in the Quran about the histories of the previous nations. the prophecies he made about the future events and the clue he gave to the unknown things are his miracles. FOURTH PILLARS OF FAITH To believe the Hadis of the Prophet involving ten basic Principles (1) First basic Principle. Shariat declared poisonous serpents beyond death. God said : People say : Who shall give life to bones when they are rotten? Say. he should at once take to his heels without searching reason. It is to believe in the Resurrection of the dead and the Day of judgment as in the traditions. Christians and the Sabians and God helped him with opem miracles and wonderful signs. It is that God sent Muhammed as the last Prophet and as an abrogator of all previous laws of the Jews. Its effect can beseen when he wakes up from sleep. because reason does not support the actions which will lead to salvation in the hearafter just as it does not guide them to discuse the medicines which are useful for health. the praise of the pebbles causing the mute animals to speak. It is a settled fact like the beginning of our creation. (2) Second basic Principle. but on account of Shariat. The integrity of the physicians is known by experience and the truthness of the Prophets is known by miracles. The second life will be in such a place where he willbe questiond. water flowing from his fingers etc.

The supporters of Pharaoh will be given severe punishment-40:49. Vol-I 118 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 119 (7) Seventh basic Principle. This proves that Pradise and Hell are created. and those whose balance willbe light will be losers -7:7. (5) Fifth basic Principle. (1) Another man will be reinstated in his place or the post will remain vacant. mature and intelligent must have five other qualities-(1) he must be a male. then Omar. As to the struggle which took place between Muwayiah and Ali. then Osma. thinner than a hair and sharper than the edge of a sword. It is to believe the excellence of the companions in accordance with their chronological order in which they succeeded the Prophet and the real excellence is in the sight of God and that it did not come to anybody except to the Holy Prophet. God said : I will set up just balance on the judgment day21:48. It is the belief that Paradise and Hell have been created by God. It is possible. It is that if a man who is invested with the. (4) he must be competent. In the first case. (3) he must be learned. He who believes in these things follows Ahle Sunnat or the people of the ways of the Prophet. The qualties of leadership are for the greater good of the people. Those who oppose the majority of the people are rebels and it is incumbent to bring them under control. God said : Those whose balances will be heavy will get salvation. it was the result of differences of opinion to discover truth by Ijtehad. because if he is removed. the harms which will be caused to.Resurrection Day. in addition to his qualifications of his being a Mulsim. two conditions will arise. prepared for those who fear God-3 : 127. as they will be questioned-27:23. (6) Sixth basic Principle. then his rule will stand. When these qualities are found in a man. It is to believe that the rightful Imams after the Prophet are Hazrats Abu Bakr. (4) Fourth basic Principle. God said : Guide them to the bridge of Hell and tell them to wait there. God said : Vie in haste for pardon of your Lord and a Pradise. Several verses to that effect in praise of the companions were revealed and there are a number of traditions. It is to believe that an Imam. Hazrat Ali considered that the mode of punishment of the murderers of Osman was to be belated as they got relations in the army. It is to believe in the Bridge which is spread on the back of Hell. (5) he must belong to the tribe of Quraish as the Prophet said : The leaders are from the Quraish. It is to believe that the Balance is true. vast as the heavens and the earth. Animals have got special organs to feel pains and pleasure even though they aree eaten by ferocious animals. This is possible and to believe it is compulsory. he is fit to become an Iman or ruler provided majority of the people swear allegiance to him. (2) he must be a God fearing man. Hazrat Muwayiah considered that their arrest was better as their influence might help further blood-shed. These four pillar involving forty basic principles are the articles of belief. SECTION 4 RULES OF ARTICLES OF BELIEF This section comprises three questions-(1) significance of the words 'Belief' and 'Islam'. (8) Eighth basic Principle.the Muslims in general will be greater than the harms of one who has got no God fear and learning in him. Hazrat Muwayiah did not do it for leadership. (10) Tenth basic Principle. because He who make the birds fily in the horizon can take the people to travel on the Bridge. (9) Ninth basic Principle. and the Ali and that the Prophet's attention was not upon any particular Imam. . power of rule is found lacking in God fear and learning and if there is fear of distrubance and trouble in case of his removal.

120 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I (c) the third meaning relates to rules of Shariat which governs the two terms : One relates to the hereafter and another to this world. The Prophet said Belief increases and decreases. Some say it is actions according to Islam. if you believe God. there is no doubt that such a person will remain forever in Hell. or (c) in two meanings mixed together. So there is action . This is the first meaning. The Prophet said : Islam is built upon five pillars. rebellion and disobedience. Heart is the special seat of Iman or confirmation of truth and tongue is its interpreter. (2) Second question. Islam means submission and surrender and avoidance of unbelief. Regarding verbal confession by tongue of Kaleima Shadadat but not confirmation by mind. then put your trust in Him if you are Muslim-10:84. (a) Literal meanings. Regarding confirmation of truth by mind at death before verbal confession by tongue. he ceases to be a believer at the time. This law is applicable to every attribute of mind. It is again said that he who combines in himself all these three elements will be taken out of Hell. but say : We have accepted Islam-49:14. words and actions. a man will also be taken out of Hell although he committed some major sins. God said: 0 my people. He also said When a fornicator fornicates. God said : You have not brought faith in Me-12 : 17. (b) in two meanings.(2) whether belief increases and decreased. The word 'Islam' is more comprehensive and 'Iman' is a special term. So there is existence of Iman which increases by good deeds and decreases by evil deeds. It increases by good deeds and decreases by evil deeds. Islam means submission and surrender and confirmation by tongue. He answered it when questiond about Iman. (a) The one meaning is supported by the verse : I have taken out the believers who were in the city and I did not find in it but only one house of Muslims-51: 35. you have not believed. Iman is a part of Islam. Gebriel once asked the Prophet : Whatis Iman and what is Islam ? The Prophet replied in two different meanings. The third element is confirmation of faith by mind and attestation by tongue but not followed by action. the Prophet said : Belief has got more than seventy branches. (b) The second question relates to interpretation of the words Iman and Islam. but there are three questions in that connection-(a) literal meanings of the words (b) their technical meaning in the Quran and traditions and (c) functions of the terms according to jurisprudence. He who has seen both the worlds perceived the real nature of things. Regarding the second meaning of increase and decrease of belief. Iman is Islam. meaning you do not believe Me as true. God said : The desert Arabs say: We have believed. With regard to the second element. (3) and the meaning of 'belief' according to the early Muslim sages. Mind appertains to the unseen spiritual world and the actions of organs appertain to this world. while Iman is an action of mind or to confirm truth by mind. (b) As to the two meanings of the words. This shows that they surrendered outwardly. The Prophet said : Whose has in his heart the belief to the weight of an atom will be brought out of Hellfire. The former is to bring out men from Hell fire and not allow them to remain there forever. Shariat used the words in three diffrent ways both (a) in one meaning. Iman is subject to increase and decrease. There is existence ofa thing which has got increase or decrease and nothing grows or diminishes of itself. Islam is the work of mind. There is subtle tie between these two worlds and some men think that the two worlds are the same. Iman means belief or confirmation of truth. Say. God says : He increased their belief God says : In order to increasse their belief along with their belief. but every Iman is not Islam. These meanings are mixed together. In fact there was only one family of Muslims. (1) First question. He is called Fasiq or a great sinner. What sort of Iman is this ? Some say it is inward belief and some say it is verbal confession. There is difference of opinion regarding the meanings of Islam and Iman. such a man also will betaken out of Hell as the Prophet said: He who has an atom of belief in his heart will be taken out of Hell.

These are the truthful-94 : 15. Vol-I FOUNDATION OF BELIEF 121 (3) Third question It is with regard to the answer I am a believer if God wills' on a question put to one-"Are you a believer"? The reply should! not be "I am a true believer or I am abeliever to God". The object of the actions is to adorn the mind with praiseworthy qualities and religous firm faith. 58:12. The second reason for the use of these qualifications is courtesy and to entrust all actions to the will of God. These are therefore the different reasons for qualifying answer to the question : Are you a believer ? -0CHAPTER III MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS The Holy Prophet said : Religion is founded on cleanliness. To purify the mind from these evils comprises half of its actions and the first half is prerequisite for the second. God says : Have you not seen those who hold themselves to be righteous 4 : 52? A certain wise man was asked : What is detestable talk? He said : To prasie oneself. In this sense. There can be no two things in mind at the same time and God also has not created two minds in the same man. These qualifications are correct or put forward for four reasons. good or bad. He said: Cleanliness is the key to prayer. God says.' The third meaning keeps connection with doubt when one says : I am a true believer if God wills. This is the stage of the Prophets and the saints. (4) The fourth stage is the purifications of the innerself from everything except God. For this reason. God said : God desires to make you clean and to complete His favours on you-5:7. Nobody will attain a higher stage unless he first . it is sure and certain belief which can be seen by Kashf. expansion of breast and deep insight. So to purify the bodily limbs from the prohibited things is the first half and to strengthen it with religous acts is its second half. It has been expressed also in verses-2 : 172. The Prophet said : Cleanlines is one half of belief. It is the fear of bad end. It is well known that the mind will not be adorned with those qualities till the blameworthy evils and false faith reign in it. Those who possess insight understand by these sayings that the most important thing is the purification of the heart.along with belief which shows that it increases and decreases. Mind is not satisfied till it has got faith like the fact that two is more than one. by way of instruction to the Prophet (18: 23): Don't say of anything 'I will do it tomorrow' without saying if God wills. The Prophet said : Belief has got seventy branches. Regarding its third meaning. These are the stages of Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 123 belief and every stage has got its rank. that fire burns and that the world is created. In reality God's knowledge is not attained unless the heart is purified of all things other than God. (2) The second stage is the purification of the bodily organs from sins and faults (3) The third stage is the purification of the heart from evil traits and evil vices. God said : Therein there are men who love purity and God loves the pure9:109. The first reason which does not come form doubt is the care taken for fear of showing oneself pure. If the tradition 'cleanliness is one half of faith is limited only to the external cleanliness of physical organs by water and not also to the purification of the heart which may entertain evil designs and thoughts. two of them come from doubt and two donot come from doubt. because the object of the actions is the glorification and greatness of God. God said Say 'God' then leave them to play in the useless falks-6:91. 57 : 10. Every item of cleanliness is half of action. PURITY HAS GOT FOUR STAGES (1) The first stage is the purification of the external organs from excrements and fifths. purity is said to be half of belief. There is doubt whether the man is a perfect believer because God said: True believers are those only who believe in God and His Apostle and afterwards do not doilbt and who fight with their lives and properties for the cause of God. The fourth reason arises also from doubt. God says: Don't inpute purity to yourself. for no one knows what will be his end. So this isthe highest stage of belief after increase. its meaning then will be distant and it is impossible.

These things have now changed. removal of the hairs of pubes and the like. they walked barefooted. circumcision. As to inanimate objects. all except dogs and pigs and their young ones are pure. He can attain real purity of heart till he purifies it from the blameworthy vices and adorn it with the praiseworthy qualities. One group spend most of their times in beautifying their bodies just like a new bride but their minds are full of evil thoughts. walks on the rugs without leather over shoes or makes ablution with water belonging to an old woman. The second is what is changed . when an animal dies. dead animals which have no flowing blood like flies. in cleanliness of cloth. It is said that the first four innovations after the Prophet were the use of sieves. it is of two kinds. They used to eat bread of coarse wheat which the animals trod with their feet and sometimes polluted with their urine. He who is blind to these stages of purity will not undersand the above mentioned four stages.goes through the lower one. become impure after death. fish. body and in the use of water and thinks that the noble puity comprises these outward and external cleanliness. soap. self conceit. Even Hazrat Omar. show and hypocrisy. prays in mosque on the floor. beetles and the like. the first is what is cut off from an animal and its law is the same as that of dead bodies. He can't purify the heart till he purifies his organs from prohibited things and makes it firm with religous acts. They made no efforts to avoid small impurities. animate objects and parts of animate objects. Bones. The efforts of the companions were towards the purification of the heart to the extent that some one among them said : It is better to say prayer with shoes than without shoes because when the Prophet look off his shoes with uncleanliness at the advent of Gabriel. The people termed cleanliness for ironed cloth and say that it is the foundation of religion. Abu Hurairah and some immates of Suffa said : We ate meal and when the prayer time came. He who cleanses with-stones after calls of nature. ignorance. is attacked furiosuly and he is termed as impure. He told them: Way have you taken off your shoes? One of them named Nakhyi said : Perhaps someone in need may pass by and 124 MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS Vol-I take these shoes. pride. In fact. however. He understands that the outer cleanliness is the desired object and makes exaggeration in it and spends much time and wealth in abstersion (Istinja). walks barefooted in mud. Asto purity from inanimate objects. the more difficult is the attainment of that object. Hair is not impure. it becomes impure except fivelocusts. SECTION 1 PURIFICATION FROM IMPURITES There are three matters in this. tables and eating to satiety. The longer is the road that leads to it. It is like the outer husk of a crop or like skull in relation to brain. we wiped our fingers against thepebbles and proceeded to say prayer. such as pairing of nails. prayed directly on the floors of the mosque. The following are three matters of external purity-(1) purification from impurities. The early Muslims concentrated their entire ?attention and energies on the puification of their hearts and were lenient in their outward cleanliness. As to animate objects. our towels. sat on the mud and sand. cutting off hairs. They used to say prayer kneeling and prostrating directly on the ground in the mosque and walk barefooted on the roads. That which shall have to be removed is of three kinds inanimate objects. The more honourable is the object. being placed in a high position. the companions also took off their shoes. all are pure except wine and intoxicating things. Hazrat Omar said : We did not know the use of soap at the time of the Prophet and the hollows of our feet were. He will understand the lowest stage of cleanliness. the things to be removed. They used to use pebbles after calls of nature. worms in foodstuffs. Don't think that this can be attained with ease and without efforts. the greater are the obstacles. made abbution with the water from a jar which belonged to a Christain woman. The companions were accustomed not to wash their hands after eating from the remains of fat and food but to wipe them out against the arches of their feet and regarded the use of soap as innovation. the means of removal and the meaning of removal. (2) purification of the body from excrements and (3) purification from bodily growths.

Hazrat Omar said : While I was urinating standing. The condensed or solid things are pebbles of abstersion. On leaving it. eggs. Nothing is exempted of these impruites except five things (1) the remains of odour after abstertion with pebbles are exempted. if less. don't pass urine standing. Only pure water can remove impurities. It should be hard. under a fruit tree. They are all impure. He should take utmost pains in cleansing his penis from urine by shalking it to and for three times. MANNER TO REMOVE IMPURITIES: If the impurity is not a matter of touch. such as saliva. urinate in stagnant water. (3) what is attached to the leather socks of impurites of the streets is exempted after it has been wiped against earth. The Prophet said : When water is sufficient to fill two pitchers.impure things and becomes changed. Blood. it carries impurities and does not remain pure. He should not wash his private part with water in the first place. it indicates the persistence of the physical matter. it is exempted provided it is thoroughly rubbed. when mixed with impure thing and changing not its colour is pure. he should advance his left leg first and then his right leg and should not urinate while standing. The following words of the Prophet support it : Water was created pure and nothing makes it impure except that which changes its colour. The following are the rules of answering the calls of nature. Things which have a fixed seat and are subject to change are impure. it carries no impurities. he should say : All prise is due to God who has removed from me what was harmful to me and left for me what is useful. If one is pressed by calls of nature. or in a hard surface and windy place. THE MEANS OF REMOVAL OF IMPURITIES The means of removal of impurities are either condensed or liquid things. it is sufficient to run water over all its parts. he should go from the view of men and take shelter behind something. If flowing water mixes with. None should take with him anything which contains the name of God or His Apostle. On entering room. We are now stating the manner of their performance in the prescribed order. the Prophet told me 0 Omar. he should say: I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil. feces. He should not sit in a meeting place of the people. mucus of nose except the seedof of life like Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 125 semen. He should sit on his left leg. When entering a room. The water. (4) the blood of fleas and the like little or much on shirt is exempted except when it goes beyond the oridinary limits. but if its colour taste and adour are changed. If taste persists.after entering into body. (2) whatever cannot be avoided. he should take pebbles with him. The same is true of the persistence of colour. Pebble purifies it if it is itself pure and dried. such as mud in the streets and the dust of dung inspite of their impurity is exempted. Before sitting. If it sticks. pus. The Prophet said : Let nobody among you urinate in a bathroom and then make ablution as many machinations come from it. ablution. taste and smell. urine are impure. . taken into consideration by the Prophet. He should not uncover his private parts before he sits down and should not face or keep back Ka'ba sun or moon but there is no harm when he is within a room. it should be removed. Some incidents together with urgent need and necessity strengthen the belief that only change in water was. the pernicious. If flowing water mixes with impure things and does not remain pure. Liquid thing is water with which impurities are cleansed. If the impurity is physical. pure. they impure. it becomes impure. Hazrat Ibnul Mobarak said There is no harm in urinating in abathroom if the water goes out flowing. What emits from the body not after change is pure. (5) and the blood of itches and pimples is exempted. This is applicable in case of stagnant water. dry and free from illegality. bath and purifiaction with sand. the persistence of its physical matter is perceived. the abominable. it becomes them impure. the filthy. If its taste remains. This is applicable in case of stagnant water. such as sweat and tear. 126 MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS Vol-I SECTION 2 PURIFICATION OF BODY FROM EXCREMENTS It comprises abstersion.

help me to read Thy Book and glorify Thy name. make my face white and bright with Thy light on the day when Thou will make the faces of Thy friends bright. MANNER OF ABLUTION He shall commence with the use of tooth stick. He should then wipe his neck with fresh water because the Prophet said : Wiping the neck from behind will save one from breach of trust on the Resurrection Day. writs and ankles from the effect of ablution. He said : Had it not been difficults for my followers. place it in the fore part of his orifice and run it over with horizontal and circular motions to the rear part. Thus it will continue from the rear part to the fore part. He prohibited us to clear with bone. Thrice he should do it and say : 0 God. When he will finish . I ask Three for luck and blessing and seek refuge to thee against illluck and destruction. or dung or face the Ka'ba. he should say : 0 my God. Taking the third stone. He should then move to another place and perfrom the act of abstersion with water. The Prophet said : Use tooth stick. Then he shall take up water and cleanse his nose thrice and say : 0 God. he should then wipe his ha nd against earth or wall till odour is removed therefrom. He should then wash his arms upto the elbows three times. it is good and if not more stones may be used. he should run it around Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 127 the orifice. The use of stones and water are both desirable. He said : Why should I not see you with yellow teeth ? The Prophet was accustomed to use tooth stick several times every night. He shall rinse his mouth thrice with water and say afterwards : 0 God. cover me with Thy mercy and shower upon me Thy blessings. as it purifies the mouth and please God. At the end of abstersion.Hazrat Salman said : The Prophet taught us everything even how to cleanse after calls of nature. he should say : I seek refuge to These from the stench of Hell and from the evil of the world. before and after sleep. The believers will come on the Resurrection Day with brightness on their foreheads. the most Compassionate. At the time 128 MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS Vol-I of throwing dust from nose. It is related that when God revealed the verse (9 : 109) : "Therein are men who love purity and God loves the pure. After the use of tooth-stick face the Ka'ba for ablution and then say : In the name of God. grant me to enjoy the fragrance of pardise while Thou art pleased to promise it with me. MANNER OF ABSTERSION He will perform abstersion wtih three stones. The Prophet said : Prayer after the use of tooth stick is better than prayer without its use by seventy five times. The Prophet said : Let one who uses stones use odd numbers. the Merciful. As he washes his face. He shall then wipe his ears both outside and inside with fresh water thrice. He shall take stones in his left hand. It is desirable to use the tooth-stick before every prayer and every ablution. Hazrat Ali said Use of tooth stick increases memory and removes phlegm. The Prophet said : Your mouths are the pathways of the Quran. that is complete ablution. The Prophet said Whose is able to cleanse the fore part of his head. The Prophet said : There is no ablution for one who does not take the name of God. he should say : 0 God. He will then wash his face thrice from ear to hear and from flat portion of head to the fore part of the chin. I would have ordered them to use tooth stick before every prayer. let him do so. Then he should wash his right foot thrice and left foot thrice.' the Apostle of God said to the people of Quba : What is the purity for which God has praised you ? They said : We are accustomed to use both stones and water after calls of nature. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The Prophet has so repeatedly commanded us to use tooth stick that we thought that soon a revelation would come for its use. If the orifice is cleansed there with. after eating anything of unpleasant smell. The companion of the Prophet used to keep tootch stick in their ears even at the time of journey. Cleanse them therefore with stick. He should then wipe his head by soaking his hands in water. purify my heart from hypocrisy and make my private part pure from indecencies. He should then wash his hands three times and should say : 0 God.

Then he goes to the mosque and prays. even from his eye brows. after masturbation and after child birth. even from his two ears. in case of emission of semen. Those become additional. the sins come out of his feet. He said : soon there will appear among my people those who will exaggerate in ablution and invocation. The Prophet said : Ablution after ablution is like a light. the sins comes out of his head. He shall then rub his body infront and back including beard and hairs. Friday. MANNER OF BATH One shall place the vessel with water to his right and then after taking the name of God wash his hands thrice and remove any impurity he has from his ' body. If the use of water does harm to a person. the sins fall down from his face. when he wipes his head. Whose performs ablution well and then says looking to the sky : I testify that there is no deity but God and He has no associate and I testify that Muhammad is the Apostle of God. in case of copulation. When he washes his feet. The Prophet said. at the time of Ihram. The Prophet said : When a Muslim in ablution rinses his mouth. after recovery from swoom and after washing a dead body. When he washes his two hands. When he blows his nose. over the right side thrice. at the time of conversion to Islam. Then he shall again place his . the sins come out of his nose. He is not required to make ablution after bath provided he has performed it before bath. then he should wait till the time of compulsory prayer comes. goes out of his sins in such a manner that he comes out as it were from the womb of his mother. He performed ablution after pouring water twice on each limb and said: God will reward him twice. Other baths are sunnat. It should be done only once. The Prophet said : Whose makes ablution after ablution. at the farewell circumbulation. He shall then perform ablution in the manner already described with the exception of washing of feet. When he washes his face. or if he is ill. He shall then pour water on his head thrice. wipe it and intend to observe prayer. the sins fall down from his two hands.ablulion thus. He repeated it three times. the sins come out of his mouth. on the last three days of pilgrimage. or has got wound and water will do harm. he should raise his head towards the sky and say I testify that there is no deity but God. Bath is compulsory in four cases. The Prophet said after washing each limb: God does not accept prayer except this ablution. 130 MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS Vol-I MANNER OF TAYAMMAM The manner of purification with sand is as follows. over his left side thrice. He should put his right palm over the sandy soil and lift it to his face. or if the water is even insufficient to quench thrist. I testify also that Muhammad is the servant and Apostle of God. He is one and there is no patner for Him. There are several undesirable things in ablution-to wash each limb more than three times. even from beneath his toes. ten merits are recorded for him. He performed ablution of each limb thrice said : This is the abluation of the Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 129 Prophets before me and of Abraham. is not purified except those places where the water was applied. There is in another tradition : One who makes ablution is like a fasting man. This the "bond". The Prophet said : Should I not inform you what atones sins and raises ranks ?performing ablution in distress. at the time of entry into Mecca. to step towards the mosques qpd to wait for the next prayer after a prayer. God purifies his whole body and he who does not remember God. eight gates of Pardise are opened up for him and he will enter therein through whichever gate he wishes. He should then proceed to use pure soil with intention of Tayammam. The Prophet said : Whose remembers God at the time of his ablution. if water is not found on search. even from be neath his finger-nails. at the time of waiting at Arafat. or if the water is in possession of another and the price is high. The Prophet said : Whoever goes beyond three times transgresses. EXCELLENCE OF ABLUTION: The Prophet said : Whoever makes ablution well and prays two rak'ats of prayer in such a way that nothing of the world occurs in his mind. such as baths on two I'd days. or if there is danger in reaching the place of water such as fear of ferocius beast or fear of enemies.

The Prophet said : Cut off your moustaches. manicure your nails as the devil sits therein when they are long. (2) Filth which collects in the holes of ears. The Prophet said : Circumcision 132 MYSTERIES OF CLEANLINESS Vol-I is sunnat for a male and meritorious for a female. There is no harm in shaving the hairs of head for one who desires to be clean and there is no harm in keeping them provided he oils them and keeps arranged and combed. combing and the use of ointment. Once revelation stopped coming to the Prophet. (1) That which attaches to the hairs of head such as dirt and lice should be removed by washing. The Prophet said : Cut off your moustache along a tooth stick. trim your moustaches and spare your beards. By this Tayammam. (7) The filth which collects in nails of fingers should be removed. It means : Keep them clean of filth and arrange them. The naval cord is cut off at the time of birth of a child. he asked him the reason and Gebrail said : How can revelation come to you when you have not cleansed the filth from your knuckls and nails and filth of mouth by toothstick? (8) Filth of the whole body collected through perspiration and dust of path ways should be removed by bath. Once a man came to the Prophet with dishevelled hairs and fuffled beard and he said : Has he got no oil wherewith to arrange his hairs ? Then he said : One of you comes as if he is a devil. In another naration. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah. (2) Hairs of moustache. (3) Hairs of armpits should be removed once every forty days either by plucking or by shaving (4) Hairs of pubes should be removed once every forty days either by shaving or by the use of a depilatory.left'plam over the sand and wipe his right hand and then place his right hand to the elbows over the sand and then wipe his left hand up to the elbows. SECOND KIND OF FILTHS These are bodily growths and are of eight kinds. the discharges and the wet excretions of the body and bodily growths. (1) Hairs of head. (3) Filth in the nose should be removed by inhaling and exhaling. The Prophet said : Do the opposite as the Jews used to spare their moustaches and trim their beards. in another naration. only one prayer at a time can be done. Excess should be avoided in the case . SECTION 3 CLEANSING THE EXTERNAL BODILY GROWTHS AND DISCHARGES These are of two kinds. spare your moustaches. The Prophet used to oil his hairs and comb them on every alternate days and ordered his followers to do the same. (4) The filth which collects between the teeth and the tip of the tongne should be removed by tooth stick and the rinsing of mouth. These excretions are eight in number. There is no harm to enter public bath room for that. There is no harm in leaving the ends of moustaches to hang down. (5) Filth which attaches to the beard should be removed and the beaid should be combed. (6) The filth which collects in finger joints should be removed and the Prophet ordered his followers to cleanse them specially after eating. There is a well known tradition that the Prophet either at home or Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 131 in journey never parted with his tooth stick. (6-7) Navel cord and foreskin of genital organ. Hazrat Ayesha said that the Prophet said: God loves a man who adorns himself whenever he goes out to meet with his brethren.. comb and mirror. The Prophet ordered that the manicuring of nails. This filth should carefully be caleansed. When Gebrail came to him. The Prophet said : Spear the beard and let it grow. Shaving of moustaches was never mentioned in the tradition. In other words. He also said : Let one honour his hairs. The Prophet said : Oil your hairs on every alternate days. while trimming so closely as to resemble shaving has been narrated by the companions. let your moustaches extend to the upper lip. (5) Nails should he manicured because of their ugly appearances and also because of the dirt which collects underneath them. plucking the hairs of armpits and shaving the pubes should be done once every forty days.

The Prophet said : The hand of the Merciful remains on the head of a Muazzen till he finishes his Azan. be moderae in circumcision and cut off only a small portion of clitoris. (8) Length of beard. plucking the grey hairs. making it grey to attract honour and dyeing it red or yellow. there is no covenant . CHAPTER IV PRAYER Prayer is the pillar of religion and safeguard and root of religious belief the chief of religious actions. Dyeing it with black colour is prohibited as the Prophet said : The best or your youths is he who follows the old among you and the worst of your old is he who follows the youth among you. So also plucking grey hair because the Prophet prohitited it as it is a light for a believer. say what Muazzen says. augmenting its size. for it is better to preserve feminity and more welcome to masculinity. say 'May God establish the prayer and keep its tongue so long as the heaven and earth exist. means and honour to Muhammad and raise him up to the of glory which Thou hast promised him. the smaller the intellect. The Prophet said to Omme Atiyyah : 0 Omme Atiyyah. grant position. Hazrat Omar and some Tabeyins used to do it. To shave beard is Makruh or undesirable. keeping it dishevelled. The chapter is divided into seven sections. there is'covenant for him from God that He will admit him in paradise." 134 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I EXCELLENCE OF COMPUSLORY PRAYER God says: Prayer is compulsory on the believers at the appointed times." When he says : prayer has begun. who is better than him in preaching ? This was 'revealed regarding a Muazzen. They will not get the fragranc eof Paradise. Hasan Basari and Qatadah said that to spare it to grow long is better as the Prophet said : Spare your beards. The Prophet said : There will appear in latter ages people who will dye their beards black like the peak of pigeons. Bleaching the beard with sulpher to give the appearance of advanced age to attract venration and to have their testimony accepted is undesirable.of a female. When at the time of Fajr prayer it is recited 'prayer is better then sleep'. SECTION 1 EXCELLENCE OF PRAYER EXCELLENCE OF AZAN: The Prophet said : Three persons will remain on the Resurection Day on the mountain of black musk. bleaching it with sulpher. and strength except through God. God says : If a man calls towards God and does good. Dyeing the beard yellow or red is permitted. If a man observes them and does not leave anything out of their duties. Some say that it is to be kept up to the grip and there is no harm in cutting beyond the grip. say 'you have spoken the truth. The Prophet said : God has made compulsory for His servants prayer for five times. plucking it. There are ten undesirable practices regarding beard. These are dyeing the beard black. Say at the time of Haia-alassalat "There is no might. It has been said that the bigger the beard. making it black for show of youth. The first man who used black dye was Pharaoh. (3) One who is given trouble in the world regarding his livelihood but does not give up the actions of the next world in searching it. (2) One who proclaims 9zan in a mosque for pleasure of God and call the people towards the path of God. If a man does not observe them. The Prophet said : If a man. There are differences of opinion regarding the length of the beard. trimming it. combing it for show of people. The "Prophet said When you hear Azan. he will testify for him on the Resurrection day. jinn or anything hears the Azan of a Muazzen. (1) One who recites the Quran to seek the pleasure of God and leads the prayer of the people who remain pleased with him.' Say when the Azan is finished : 0 God. you have spoken good and given admonition. They will have no fear of account and they will have no anxiety till they become free from what is near men. Henna can be used for red dye and saffron and phillyrea for yellow dye. The Prophet said : Yellow is the colour with which the Muslims dye their beards and red is the colour with which the believers dye their beards. Lord of this perfect invitation and ever living prayer. The Prophet said : Black dye is the sign of the inmates of Hell.

The Prophet said : He who prays a prayer in congregation fills up his neck with divine service. The Prophet said God will not look to a man on the Resurection Day who does not make his backbone erect between his bow and prostration. Had there been anything better than it. If a man does not pray at its appointed time. The Prophet did not see once some persons joining prayer in congregation and said : I wished that I should give order to some one to lead the prayer and oppose those who have not joined in prayer and burn their houses. he would have fixed it for the angels. The Prophet said : The word thief applies to one who steals in prayer. The Prophet said : He who gives up prayer intentionally becomes an infidel. They took from Him the organs of prayer. it will become bright and rise upwards and say : May God guard you as you have guarded me. The Prophet was once asked : Which action is best ? He said : To pray at the appointed times. He may punish him and if He wishes. God will not look towards his virtues. The sage Waseh said : I want three things in the world (1) such a . The Prophet said : He who give up prayer intentionally. Vol-I PRAYER 135 EXCELLENCE OF FULFILLING THE DUTIES OF PRAYER: The Prophet said: Compulsory prayer is like a scale. Will you see any impurity in his body ? They said : No. he becomes near coming out of faith as his. some sit. does not make ablution well and does not make perfect his ruku and prostration and God fear. it seems that their prostrations are the same but the spirit of their prayer is like the distance of the heaven and earth. He takes bath five times daily in it. some stand. establishes ablution. The Prophet said : Prayer is the pillar of religion. The Prophet said: Prayer is a key to paradise. If a man among them had known what rewards there are in night prayer. becomes free from the convenant of Muhammad. it will become dark and rise upwards and say : May God destroy you as you have destroyed me. He who gives it up destroys the pillar. The Prophet said: Prayer for five times expiates the sins of a man till he does not commit major sins. EXCELLENCE OF PRAYING IN CONGERGATION The Prophet said : The rewards of a prayer in congregation is twenty seven times more than the prayer said alone. makes his bow and prostration perfect and has got God fear. He may admit him in paradise. God will turn his face in to that of an ass. so prayer for five times removes sins. The Prophet said : The distinction between us and the hypocrites is our presence at morning and night prayers and their absence at these two prayers. enjoin on the members of your family to pray as you can't conceive wherefrom God will supply you provision. The Prophet said : If a man says prayer at its appointed time. he would have surely been present at night prayer. these will be proof and light for him on the Resurrection Day.from God for him. (2) such . He who destroys his prayer will rise with Pharaoh and Haman. firm tie becomes loose and his pillar falls down just as when a man comes near a town it is said that he has reached the town and entered it. There is in Hadis : He who remains at night prayer prayed as it were half the night. The Prophet said : If a man meets God after destroying his prayer. some prostrate. If He wishes. In another narration : I oppose those persons who do not pray in congregation and order that their houses should be burnt with fuel.brother who will keep me straight if I become crooked. Hazrat Sayeed-b-Musayyeb said : I reached the mosque before Azan for 20 years consequitively. He said : God has not made anything compulsory dear to Him for this servants after Tauhid than prayer. The Prophet said : As water removes impurities. The Prophet said : If a man turns his face towards another direction in prayer. The Prophet said : If two men of my followers stand in prayer. Some make bow. In other words. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah. God will keep it folded as old cloth is kept folded. There is in Hadis : He who remains at night prayer. He who measures out in full takes full. He hinted at their God-fear. The Prophet said : If a man protects his prayer for five times with full ablution and at appointed times. The Prophet said : Prayer five times is like a flowing canal of pure water by the side of one's houes. He who remains present in the morning prayer prayed as it were the whole night.

Some say that it means attachment to the world.136 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I livelihood as can be earned without begging and (3) such a prayer in congregation of which the faults are forgiven to me and excellence is written for me. The Prophet said : God does not respond prayer of a man who does not observe it with his mind and body. This is the correct view.don't know what they say in prayer. Prayer is monazat or invocation. Some say that it is the light of God-fear as it is expressed outwardly from a secret place. there is Hell for me. I have made prayer compulsory. There is in earlier scriptures that God said : I don't accept the prayer of every one. The Prophet once saw a man in prayers sporting with his beard and said : If he and his mind had God fear. he did not as it were recognise us and we also did not recognise him. It is narrated of Moslem-b-Yasar that whenever he wished to pray. the devil goes away from him weeping and saying : Also ! he has been ordered to prostrate and he has prostrated. How can it be with heedlessness ? Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet used to talk with us and we also used to talk with him. When the sage Sayeed Tanukhi prayed.one corner of the mosque once suddenly fell down for which the people gathered there. EXCELLENCE OF GOD FEAR: God says : Pray to remember Me. I have been ordered to prostrate but as I have disobeyed it. I will not hear you. the voice of his mind could have been heard from a distance of two miles. God says : There are signs in their foreheads as an effect of prostration. Some say that it is the light that will be seen on their forehead on the Resurrection Day on account of ablution. God says : Fear God and know that you must meet Him. The Prophet said : Prayer is the Vol-I PRAYER 137 embodiment of modesty. does not take boast in doing My service and gives food for My sake to the hungry and the poor. A man asked the Prophet : Pray that I may be included within the party of your intercession so that He may give me mercy of your intercession in paradise. So there is Paradise for him. as we remained busy in declaring the glory of God. It is said that this sign is effected as a result of dust that is attached to forehead at the time prostration. I accept the prayer of one who humbles himself before My glory. is a cheat. God says : Don't be one of the heedless. He will teach you. The Prophet said : If a man prays in congregation for forty days and does and lose even Takbir. his two eyes used to shed tears which flowed down. He said : Fear God. 0 God" He who does not do it. entreaties. Hazrat Abu HUrairah said Prostration takes a servant near God and he makes invocation at that time. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : He who does not respond to Azan does not hope for good and no good is expected from him. what is the value of your Zikr ? The Prophet said When you pray. as God says Prostrate and seek nearness. When the time for prayer came. God says : Don't come near prayer when you are intoxicated till you donot understand what you say. The Prophet said : He who does not restrain himself from indecency and evil deeds in prayer keeps away God. The Prophet said When a man prostrates. The Prophet said : There is no such Muslim whom God does not give a rank in lieu of his one prostration and remove one sin from him. The Prophet said One who prostrates will gain the nearness of God. humility. repentance. raising of hands and utterance of words "0 God. Some say that intoxication means a great anxiety. The Prophet said : If a man prays two rakats without any thought of the world therein. When the time . his beard. When the Prophet Abraham stood in prayer. EXCELLENCE OF PROSTRATION: The Prophet said There is nothing except secret prostration which can take one near God. There are many worshippers who do not drink wine but they . It is narrated that the Caliph Abdul Aziz used not to make prostration except on the ground. his organs also would have God-fear. It is said that when he was praying in the congregational mosque. his past sins are forgiven. If you have got no fear of God in your mind. pray in such a manner that you are bidding farewell. but he could not know it till he finished his prayer. ordered for Haj and Tawaf for My remembrance. he used to say to his family members : You hold conversation. God writes for him two salvation-(1) one salvation from hypocrisy and another from Hell.

He said : When you find a man visiting mosque always.your look. passes his life in My remembrance. bear witness that he has got faith. praying cloth in the world and his good deeds raised high in the sky weep for him. The Prophet said : If a man loves mosque. He said : There is no prayer for mosque except in mosque. angel of death behind me and think that this is my last prayer. performed ablution. cast it to your place of prostration. controls his passion for My sake. the heart of Hazrat Ali used to tremble and his colour became changed. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The word weeps for him for forty days. His family members asked him. His simile among the people is the smile of Ferdous in high gardens. place. remembrance in his carelessness and light in his pride. forgive him till he keeps his ablution or gets out of mosque. come to the praying place and wait there till my neighbours come there. Keep your head erect or bend a little and close the eyes. 0 God. Hazrat Ali said : When a man dies. When Hazrat Jainal Abedin. make Ruk'u with humility. what has happened to you ? He said : It is time of trust of God which was entrusted to the heavens. Good news is for one who keeps his house pure and then meets Me in My house. who lives in your house 138 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I PRAYER 139 and from whom you accept prayer ? God revealed to him : The man who lives in My house and from whom I accept prayer is one who humbles himself before My glory. let him pray two rak'ats before he sits. What troubles you at the time of ablution? He said Don't you see before whom I am going to stand ? Hazrat Daud used to say in his Monazat:0 my Lord. There after recite the formula : Glory to Thee. prostrate with fear and sit on my left waist and spead my sole of feet and keep my right side on my toes. They say : 0 God. He said : Random talks in mosque consumes virtues as animals eat grass. I respond to him if he calls me. Once Hatem Asem was asked about prayer and he said When the time of prayer comes. I make full ablution. 0 God. have mercy on him. recite Takbir. He was questioned : 0 Commander of the faithful. His river does not become dry and his face does not become changed. send blessings on him. They will like to talk of this world and its matters. I give him patience in his ignorance. Don't sit with them. make ablution facing the Ka'ba and keep some open space between the two feet. Then make niyyat. Then he said : The heaven and earth did not weep for them and wait for them. angels and the bearers of the Thone seek forgiveness for him till the light exists in the mosque. SECTION 2 OPEN ACTIONS IN PRAYER After the removal of the impurities of body. Paradise by me right side and Hell by my left side.God is greatest. but I am bearing it when it has come to me. son of Hazrat Hussain. God has got no necessity of them. He said: When one of you enters a mosque. I don't know whether my prayer has been accepted or not. The Prophet said : There will be some people among my followers who will come to mosque and sit in groups. if you cast . He said : Angels like one of you until he keeps seated in his praying place. I accept it. entertains a stranger and shows kindness to the aggrieved. Then I stand for prayer. If he invoke Me. cloth and places of shame. then raise both the hands up to the ears uttering Allhaho Akbar . His light will sparkle like the rays of the sun in the sky. Then I stand between fear and hope. God loves him. EXCELLENCE OF MOSQUE AND PRAYING PLACE God says: Those who have got faith in God and the next world inhabit God's mosques. He said God said in some of His books : Mosques are my houses in the world and My neighbours are those people in them who are habituated to go there. The Prophet said : If a man constructs a mosque for God. his colour turned place. He constructs for him a place in Paradise. face the Ka'ba with Bridge under my feet. there is Thy priase and blessed is Thy name. earth and mountains but they became fearful of it and refused to bear it. exalted is Thy Majesty and there is no deity .of prayer came. Hazrat Anas said : If a man gives a light in a mosque.

Then recite the opening chapter of the Quran and then at least three verses of the Quran. mighty. Monazat with inattention is not considered as Monazat. earnestness of mind is the life of prayer. Thus finish one unit of prayer. The Prophet said : There are many praying men who do not gain anything in their prayer except fatigue and efforts. If you recite in prayer : Show us the right path. Body is tried by the troubles of pilgrimage. Surely Thou at the 140 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I PRAYER 141 praised. bless Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad as Thou did bless Abraham and the followers of Abraham. The Prophet said : Nothing is written for a praying man except what he understands in his prayer. Sifiyan Saori said : The prayer of one who has got no God-fear becomes void. The prayer of a heedless man has been spoken there. Its speciality is that there are entreaties and seekings to God in prayer. The object of fasting is to bring under control belly and sexual passion. Then sit down and then again fall prostrate and recite the formula as above mentioned and then stand erect. bow down and recite three times 'Glory to my Lord the Great' and then fall in prostration on the ground and recite three times 'Glory to my Lord.' Presence of mind is opposed to absence of mind or heedlessness. how can he say prayer with the purpose of remembering God ? God says : Don't be of the heedless. blocks. The Prophet said : If a man does not refrain from thought of absence and evil things. The sage Abdul Wahed said : The portion of prayer which is said with humidity of mind is accepted. If that object is not attained. the portion of prayer which is said with attention is only written. If one is heedless throughout his prayer. There are God's remembrance in prayer. The object of word is to talk and it does not occur except in mind. I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil and I begin in the name of God.. In short. there is no use in prayer. prostration. Then if you do not pray four such units make the following invocation 0 God. He says: 'Prayer is modesty and humility. it is only the movement of your tongue and nothing else. Troubles are given to mind if Zakat is paid out of wealth and thus mind is tried. standing and sitting. make Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad successful as Thou didst make successful Abraham and his followers. In other words. but if his mind remains absent at that time and does not know that He is present with whom he is speaking. for surely Thou art the praised. prohibitions and. Without them. There is no don't that the object of these religious acts is to remember God. This is the consensus of opinion of the sages. as it is very easy to move the tongue with inattention.besides Thee. 0 God. or else it ends in depriving this body from food and drink. sit and recite: All invocations are for God and all services and pure things. the mighty. The object of Quran reading and God's remembrance is to praise and glorify God and to entreat Him and invoke Him with humility of spirit. bow. the Great. They close up the service followed by an innovation of your choice. and the mercy of God and His blessing. Then saying God is greatest. I bear witness that there is no deity but God that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger. . Then praying another unit in this manner. Quran reading. SECTION 3 INTERNAL CONDITIONS Prayer should be observed with humility of mind. God's remembrance means prayer and Monazat to Him.' Therein there is injunctions. it must be understood that his tongue moves only owing to habit but he is far away from the object of prayer to enliven God's remembrance and with that to make firm the tie of faith. it does not add to it but distance. It does not exist in mind without humility of spirit and presence of mind. Peace be on thee 0 Prophet. God says 'Pray to remember Me. The Prophet said : There are many praying men whose prayers are written to the extent of one sixth or one tenth. Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of God. and if you are inattentive at that time.' There are two kinds of prayer of a heedless man. it ends in voice and tongue. Hasan Basari said : The prayer which is not said with attention hastens towards punishment. the most Compassionate the most Merciful.

Nobody will get salvation except one who comes with a sound mind.An individual will be forgiven in the next world according to the qualities of his mind and not of his body. The medicine of removing various thoughts that come in mind in prayers is to cut the root or to remove the reasons which cause different thoughts. I took oath upon Myself that I shall remember one who remembers Me. When you stand before Me. God revealed to him : Tell your disobedient followers to remember Me. So there must be firm belief that prayer is a stepping stone to the next world which is everlasting. (6) Shame arises out of knowledge of neglect in divine service and inability to fight for God. honour. it does not remain idle and is concentrated to the thoughts of the worldly affairs with which it is immediately concerned. Vol-I PRAYER 143 Although the strength of his mind will be according to the strength of his faith. (2) To understand the meaning of words uttered and to engage intellect to understand their meanings.LIFE OF PRAYER AND ITS INTERNAL CONDITION There are many works signifying the life of prayer. It is narrated that God said to Moses : 0 Moses. remember Me in such a way that your limbs tremble and that you hold Me dear at the time of remembrance and rest satisfied. When Abraham stood for prayer. It is to be seen along with that whatever dangers and difficulties God gave to His Prophet and friends. there is earnestness or presence of mind. that a believer will declare God's glory and fear Him. He who loves a thing remembers that thing. hope and shame. humility of mind. (1) The meaning of humility or presence of mind is that the action and word must be the same in mind and there should be no other thought therein. When you remember Me. PROFITABLE MEDICINE FOR MAKING MIND HUMBLE Know. stand before Me with fearful mind like the meanest slave and speak with Me with the tongue of a truthful man. From the knowledge of these two things. knowledge of His creation and remembrance of Paradise through prayer. The second thing is to think 142 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I oneself helpless and insignificant. absence of mind in Mozazat and absent-minded ness in prayer. when you want to remember Me. For this reason Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet talked with us and we also talked with him but when the time of prayer came. the more would be the fear of God. rulers and emperors. It rises out of acquaintance of two things. understanding what is said. because the mind of one who does not firmly believe in His glory. 0 dear reader.* (5) Hope in God rises out of firm faith in the following matters-knowledge of God's mercy and gifts. For this reason. hope in Him and be ashamed to Him for his sins. he who loves things other than God is not free from diverse thoughts in prayer. The medicine of keeping the mind present is to remove all thoughts and primarily to remove the root of these thoughts. modesty and fear of God arise and as a result honour for God arises in mind. (2) When mind is not present in prayer. these are different from those on kinds. The first thing is the knowledge of the glory of God. This is the root of faith.. After his faith. random thoughts. (3) Honour of God is a condition of mind. . Human mind becomes humble in proportion of certainty of faith. helplessness. keep your tongue behind your mind. You must have knowledge that if God would have destroyed all past and present. The more the knowledge about God. a believer will not be free from these conditions. nothing of His sovereignty would have reduced. There are two bases of this root and the external root. (4) Fear of God is a condition of mind which rises out of knowledge of God's power and His rewards and punishments. When there is no other thing in mind which is concentrated only to one thing. yet there is no other cause except the following ones for the absence of his mind. Presence of mind is gained only when it is realised and the world is considered as a merely temporary abode and insignificant. This heedlessness in prayer arises out of engagement of mind in various thought. heedness. he could not recognise us and we did not recognise him. is not given encouragement to honour Him. voice of his heart was heard from a distance of two miles.

It is said that Hazrat Abu Tallaha once prayed in his own garden which pleased him so much that he forgot how many rak'ats he prayed. I wish to gift this garden. but he who is weak falls a prey to it. In a certain tree numerous sparrows used to make tremendous noise as they had their nests in it. The Prophet said : Give it to whom you like. So cover the faults of your . will get reply°with mercy on that fearful day. Its medicine is to cut off these roots and to shut up the eyes. This is the medicine for cutting the root of the disease of mind. The following illustration is given. Once a man was praying in his garden in which dates were hanging. Hazrat Osman purchased it for fifty thousand coins. the primary cause of all losses. he should cut off all attachments of the world. Thus they used to cut off the root of their thoughts and expiated the loss in prayers. it does not do them any benefit. If one wants a peaceful mind in prayer. The meaning of covering private parts is to cover your private parts from the sight of men.EXTERNAL ROOT: Thought catches what the ear hears or the eye sees and mind turns towards that thought. So keep your mind on Azan. The Prophet had a ring of gold in his hand before it was unlawful. The Prophet once told Osman-b-Ali Shaiba: I forgot to tell you to cover the screens of variegated colours in the room. The thoughts of worldly matters are not confined to one subject. Make it pure of impure ideas and thoughts as far as possible. This causes to produce other thoughts. He put on it and said prayer. So make your heart pure as it is the object of sight of your Lord. Afterwards he took it off and said : Take if to Abu Zaham as it has diverted my attention from prayer. Attachment to the world is the root of all thoughts. That is to cut off the root cause of the disease. INTERNAL ROOT is very difficult. It goes from one thought to another. narrow and unaspious rooms. God looks to your heart. not to keep anything in front which may attract attention and not to pray in a decorated place or a decorated and painted praying cloth. If they shut up their eyes. Similarly attachment to a thing may temporarily be removed from mind. He mentioned it to Hazrat Osman who said : Spend it in the way of God. For this reason the sages used to do divine service in dark. If one is engaged in worldly matters. The way to remove them is to take one's mind to understand what is recited in prayer and to stick to it after giving up all other thoughts. don't be indifferent to make your mind pure. because there should remain nothing in the house which can divert attention from prayer. MEANING OF DIFFERENT ITEMS OF PRAYER'AZAN': When you hear the call to prayer. If the rise of thoughts is not stopped by this method. to pray in a dark room. but it will come again and disturb the mind. It he wants to get himself relieved of the noise permanently. So the root of thought is eye and then the root of one thought is another thought. It pleased him so much that he forgot how many rak'ats he prayed. The sparrows will make noise till the tree lasts. To bring sexual passion under temporary control is not so benefiting. Its root must be cut as it baffles the whole prayer. A traveler began to drive them away being disgusted with their noise. Those who respond in haste to this call. They fled away for the time being but came again to make greater noise. he should cut the tree. Repent for what you have failed to do and determine not to do it in future. He threw it away when he was on the pulpit and said : My sight has fallen on it. he should not expect to get taste in invocations. then there is another easy method to prevent it. He whose niyyat is fine and aim high cannot be diverted by what occurs in his organs or limbs. It has been narrated that Abu Zaham presented a valuable dress of variegated colours to the Holy Prophet. think of the general call on the Resurrection day and look to your external and internal matters when replying and make haste. MEANING OF CLEANLINESS: When you make your praying cloth pure and clean and your body clean of impurities. He mentioned it to the Prophet and said : 0 144 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I PRAYER 145 Prophet of God. Meaning of covering private parts.

God protects one who has got no deity but God. You should then take firm resolution to take refuge to the fort of God giving up the fort of the devil. the Most Merciful'.heart and know that it is not secret from the sight of God.' understand then that there is no sovereignty except His sovereignty and fear His judgment. When you utter-'My life and my death are for God'. When you utter-'I seek refuge to God. Stand before God just like a fugitive slave who returned to his master being repentant with humility of spirit and bent down head. MEANING OF QURAN READING: Regarding this matter. 'when the sky will . MEANING OF TAKBIR: When your tongue utter Takbir. he comes out of his prayer as on the day his mother gave birth to him. MEANING OF OTHER ITEMS: When you utter-'I begin in the name of the Most Compassionate. let him do good deeds and do not set up any partner in His divine service: This was revealed with respect to a person who wants divine service and also the praise of men.' your mind harbours then 146 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I secret shirk as God says : If any body wishes to meet with his Lord. let not your mind speak falsehood. Move the external organs to move your secret mind and keep them under control of mind. If you have got in mind something which is greater than God. how you talk and for what matter. (2) he who moves his tongue and his mind follows his tongue. MEANING OF NIYYAT: Promise firmly that you will respond to God's orders through prayer. MEANING OF OPENING DOS: 'I turn my face towards the Creator of heavens and earth. your limbs should tremble and the colour of your face should become changed. He who takes his low desires as his deity lives in the fort of the devil and not in the fort of God. towards the Almighty after giving up all things. Tongue will give expression of mind. At this time your head should perspire. Keep the face of your mind towards God along with the face of your body. shame and fear will expiate it. Know that you are standing before the mighty and greatest Emperor. face and mind towards God. The Prophet said : When a man stands iri prayer and directs his hope. MEANING OF FACING THE KA'BA: The meaning of turning your face towards the Ka'ba is to turn your mind towards God after taking it off from all directions and all evil thoughts. You fear king but you don't fear God although He is fit to be feared most. He who enters My fort is safe from My punishment. men are of three classes-(1) he who moves his tongue but his mind is heedless. God exists every where and so to turn towards the Ka'ba means to turn towards the only object of your life. When you recite 'I am not of the polytheists. You shall ` bend down your head which is higher than your other limbs. The meaning of this bending down of your head is to bend down your.' To turn face towards the Ka'ba means to turn it towards God. Express your helplessness by saying "Thee do we worship' and understand that religious acts do not become easy except with His assistance. MEANING OF STANDING IN PRAYER: Its external meaning is to stand before God with body and mind. seek first the favour of God. For this reason Hazrat Abu Bakr asked the Prophet : How should we be shameful to God ? He said : You should be shameful to God just as you become shameful to see the most God-fearing man among you. mind free from all self-conceit and pride. Your repentance. this is the rank of the fortunate. When you say 'Thou are the Lord of Judgment day. make it perfect and make niyyat sincerely for Him and keep an eye with whom you are speaking secretly. Your mind should correspond with your tongue in declaring Him to be the greatest. So take care of this shirk. he fell down senseless and died.' you should give up your low desires and temptations. It is said that when Zan:ah-b-Auf finished reciting 'when the trumpet will be blown. The Prophet said God said 'There no deity but God' is My fort. know then that this condition is of the slave who safeguard the existence of his master in lieu of his existence. When Ibrahim Nahhyi heard this verse. God will attest that you area liar. (3) he whose tongue is directed first towards understanding the meaning and then his minds take his tongue as its servant.

. Keep the fear of God within your mind. they will directly see divine light and they will enjoy the happiness of nearness.be rent asunder' he began to tremble seriously. Fear grows in the Vol-I PRAYER 147 148 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I PRAYER 149 mind of one who knows this and it is not limited only in prayer. Ibn Masud sat near his head up to the prayer time but still he did not regain his senses. remember then that God sees your condition. In other words. Some used to remain in Ruku like a motionless stone. when he remains alone and even at the time of calls of nature. If you are absent minded at the time of monazat. Whenever his female slave saw him. that God-fear is the result of real faith and belief. fears God in and out of prayer. so mush so that birds sat on his head. If tongue is moved with inattention. Then He praised them with their speciality of prayer. As it is your duty to protect your head and eyes. so it is compulsory on you to restrain your mind in prayer from thoughts other than God. because he who fears God knows it well that He knows the condition of mind and his sins and faults. The doors of heaven are opened up for aa praying man and God takes pride before His angels for the praying man. having in mind fear and shame owing to defects in prayers. Whenever he used to knock at the door. Then He says : They will inherit the garden of Ferdous. the female slave would come to him and see him with closed eyes. he at once fell down senseless. as God says Those who guard their prayers. It is connected with God fear. There is in Hadis that when a man stands in prayer. from above the horizon. Then he described the qualities of those who got salvation through prayer. God lifts up the screen between Him and His servant and faces him. The saint Rabi-b-Khasem used to close up his eyes so tightly that the people would think that he was blind. They will abide therein. There is written in the Torah : 0 son of Adam don't be baffled to stand up before Me in prayer in weeping state. STORIES OF THE PRAYERS OF GOD-FEARING MEN Know. Your blind friend has come. When His nearness is not the nearness of space. The angels climb upon his two shouldes and pray in horizon along with him and says 'Ameen' along with his invocation. One day he went with Ibn Masud to the shop of a blacksmith. They spread virtues over the scalp of his head. He who has keen given it. he would not have looked to and fro. Had the Prophet seen you he would have surely been pleased with you. At this Hazrat Ibn . So read the Quran slowly and attentively so that it becomes easy to understand. because then I come near your mind and you also see My light unseen. It is narrated that a sage did not raise up his head for forty years being ashamed and fearful of God. The Prophet said : God remains with the praying man till he does not look to and fro. When you look towards any other thing. it is very bad. there is no meaning of it except the nearness of mercy. 0 dear readers. Hazrat Ibn Masud told him : Give good news to those who are humble By God. A proclaimer Proclaims: If this invoker had known to whom he is invoking. and fear that your prayer may not be accepted and that it may be thrown on your face with your express and secret sins. God says : Those believers got salvation who fear God in their prayers. bespeak of the advent of God in his mind. Then he bore him to his house and he did not recover sense till his prayer for five times passed away. can this reward be achieved ? The praying one will inherit the gardens. Masud used to laugh. she used to say to her master. his Kashf is opened. weeping and victory which a praying man feels in his mind. Hazrat Abu Bakr used to stand in prayer just like a statue. Ibn Masud sat by his head and said : By God this is real Godfear. guidance and removal of evils. He said: The softness. When he saw him blowing and fire coming out. So the doors of heaven are opened up for him and the face of God comes before his face. He used to go to the house of Ibn Masud for twenty years. The Prophet said : Pray as if it is your farewell prayer.

If you wish to purify your prayer. half. One day of a just ruler is better than divine service for seventy years. go out of the world. They then said : We have considered that prayer is a pillar of . The sage Hasan Basari said in its explanation : He forgets the time of prayer. their opinion should be followed. one of its corners fell down but he did not come to know of it. one fifth. it goes against him and against them also. Hesaid:Whatissaid inprayerwithunderstandingisonly written for him. Moslem-b-Yasar was one of them. an Imam would be elected by a majority. The Prophet said : An Imam is a surety for his followers and Muazzen is an object of trust. it thinks about its stay before God and going from this world into another world. If they differ. If the minority are religious and good. (2) a woman whose husband is displeased with her. The limb of a certain pious man was damaged and it required operation but it was not at all possible. Abid Ahiya was onceasked: Whatis the meaning of heedlessness in prayer ? He said : One commits mistakes in his prayer and does not know how many rak'ats he has prayed. it is said that while he was one day praying within a mosque.The saint Rubi said : I did not observe such prayer in which I had other thing in mind except what I uttered and what was said to me. He was asked: How does it occur ? He said: His God-fear. He said : The Imam is an object of trust. his daughter beat drum and the women of the house hold conversation but he did not hear them. one-fourth.. as they stand between God and His servants. Hazrat Omar once said from his pulpit : The head of two sides of a man becomes grey. Hazrat Amer-b-Abdullah feared God in prayer verymuch. but he gains My nearness by doing optional duties. (2) When a man is given option between Azan and Imamate. so that his mind becomes free from thoughts. and (3) an Imam with whom his people are dis-satisfied. show the straight path to the Imams and forgive the Muazzens. Some earlier sages said : There is no better man after the Prophet than the learned except the praying Imams. When you enter prayer. If there is defect in it. one sixth or one tenth. He was told : Do you see what we generally see about the affairs of the world ? He said : I consider it better that my teeth should go from one side to another than what you see. it is for him and for them also. By this proof. yet he does notobserve prayer for pleasure of God. the pillar of religion. Yes. One day he was told : Does your mind think any matter in prayer ? He said. The Prophet said: God says : My servant will not get salvation till he fulfills the compulsoryluties. Some said : When he prays. This is not attention in prayer. He who proclaims Azan for 150 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I PRAYER 151 forty years 'will enter into Paradise without account. Some said : Prayer belongs to the next world. modestyand his self-surrender for God do not become perfect. The Prophet said: The prayer of a man is not written except its one third. Hazrat Abu Darda said : It is the rule of religion that when a man goes to prayer. the Prophet said : 0 God. he will not be able to feel its pangs. The Prophet. SECTION 4 IMAMATE There are six duties of Imam before prayer. For. When he bends down. this reason. Hazrats Abu Bakr and Omar used to fix salary for an Imam. Some say that Azan is better as there are many merits of Azan. they prostrate. some with learning and some with prayer. He said : Your Imam are representatives of God on your behalf. the companions elected Abu Bakr as their Imam. (1) He shall' not be an Imam of people unless they give consent to it. The Prophet said : Your Imams are your intercessors. The Imam is a guarantee for his followers. the followers bend down and when he prostrates. Jesus Christ said : God says : My servant gets salvation by observing compulsory duties. Accordingly the limb was operated while he was engaged in prayer. The Prophet said: Paradise becomes sure for one without account who is Imam for seven years. The Prophet said. he should prefer Imamate as the office of an Imam ii better than that of a Muazzem. some with Prophethood. he should perform all his necessary things. place in front the best man among you. There is in Hadis : The prayer of three persons will not go up beyond their heads (1) a fugitive slave. When he prayed. He said : When he fulfills the prayer.

The Prophet said Osman-b-Affan : Appoint such a Muazzen who will not take remuneration for his Azan. The heavens and angels have been given names on this day. One should do it even at the time when he prays alone. 0 dear readers. The Prophet said : The Imam who prays at the last time of a prayer. The Prophet then said : You have done better. If he is deprived of that. The Prophet said : When the Jumma day is safe. There is a Hadis that God will release six lacs of men from Hell on this day. When he recites Ameen with voice. The Prophet said : A Muazzen should wait between Azan and Aqamat for so long as an eater eats or a man passes calls of nature. (6) An Iman shall raise his voice in the time of Takbir Tahrima and other Takbirs as well but a follower will utter it in a low voice. He said: 1 can't do it He said : Then pray behind an Imam. God saves him from a greater calamity or a like calamity which has been decreed on him. It is not good to delay prayer in expectation of a greater number of men. They did not select Bilal as the Prophet selected him for Azan. many additional things are given to him in that connection. God puts a seal in his mind. Do it always. The Prophet said : Gebriel came to me with a clean mirror in his hand and said This is Jumma. (3) The Imam shall observe the times of prayers and shall pray for pleasure of God in their earliest times. In another narration :'He throws Islam on his back. I said : What good there is for us in it ? He said : You have got an suspicious time in it. The companions did not wait for the Prophet when he made delay in making ablution. or cursed man. This day is a day of blessing to God. God has promised that He will give it to him. SECTION 5 MERITS OF JUMMA PRAYER Know. It is reported that a man asked the Prophet: Give me clue to such an action which will lead me to Paradise. The Imam has got three duties at the time of Quran reading in prayer. So he prohibited to retain urine and stool. He ordered to finish dinners for peace of mind before Isha prayer.religion on whom the Prophet was pleased for this pillar. but what he misses in its earliest time is better than the world and its treasures. there was some delay for the morning prayer on the part of the Prophet when he was in a journey. all the days remain safe. The Prophet said : If a man loses three Jumas without any excuse. God descends on His Throne in Illyyin and sheds His lusture and they look on towards His august face. does not miss it. the Muslims. or an invocator or a fugitive slave. He . If any man wants to save himself from any evil on that day. he said : Then be Imam. that Jumma day is a holy day. so that it may be a festival for you and after you for you followers. Jumma day is the best day to us and we shall call it on the Resurrection day as the day of grace. He died on this day and Resurrection will take place on this day. run towards remembrance of God and give up buy and sale. Azan guides to the path of prayer and it is better not to receive its remuneration. or one disobedient to parents. Isha and Magrib. honoured Islam therewith and gave glory to. He said : I can't do it. Hazrat Sufiyan said : Pray behind a religious or irreligious man except behind habitual drunkard. When the Jumma day comes. I asked him : What object is there in calling it as the day of grace ? He said: Your God has made a valley in paradise made of white musk. He entered 152 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Paradise first on that day and he was thrown in to this world on that day and his pensance was accepted on that day. the followers will recite it loudly. (1) He should recite the opening Doa and Aauzobillah in silent voice and recite loudly the Fateha and Suras in congregational prayer of Fajr. God says : When there is Azan for prayer on the Jumma day. The Prophet said : The sun rose for the first time on the best Jumma day and Hazrat Adam was created on that day. One day. The Prophet said : God has made compulsory on you on this day of mine and in this place of mine. (5) Don't utter Takbir till row is arranged straight and look to right and left. God has made it obligatory on you. He said : Be Muazzen. (4) Act as an Imam for the sake of God and fulfill with good manners the trust of God in the other conditions of prayer and act as an Imam with sincere intention and don't take for it remuneration. If a man seeks anything to God at this time. God.

God takes out disease therefrom and gives him cure therein. He who goes at the fifth stage gets the reward of the charity. record is folded up and pen is lifted up. (5) It is commendable to go to the congregational mosque. the Prophet said to him: What prevented you to pray with me? He said: 0 Prophet of God. he said : Let one male or female who attends Jumma prayer take bath. have you not seen me? The Prophet said: I have seen you coming late and giving trouble to the people present. (6) Ranks of entering a mosque: Nobody should go to the front row of the mosque crossing the necks of men. CONDITIONS OF JUMMA PRAYER Ten rules should be observed on the Jumma day. The Prophet said: He who goes to Jumma in the early part gets rewards of the sacrifice of a camel and he who goes at the second time gets the rewards of the sacrifice of a cow and he who goes at the third time gets the reward of the sacrifice of a Vol-I PRAYER 153 goat and he who goes at the fourth time gets the reward of the sacrifice of a cock. He said : Let one who attends Jumma take bath. The Prophet said: On the resurrect on day such a person will be made a bridge and the people would tread over him. It is a matter of regret that the Jews and the Christians go to their synayogues and churches at dawn on Saturday and Sunday respectively and the worldly people go to markets for buy and sale at dawn but those who seek the next world cannot go to mosque at dawn. Regarding purity. The Prophet said: There are three things. Pass Thursday night by reading the Quran and praying. It became obsolete afterwards. He said: 0 Prophet of God. To use turban is commendable. After finishing prayer. I prayed with you. to be pure and to use scent. the pathway became full of men from early hours up to dawn. wear white dress as it is dear to God. cut your hairs. It is said that the innovation of giving up the practice of going to the mosque at dawn first entered into Islam. The Prophet said: It is better for any man to be powdered to earth to 154 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I . In another narration. After Asr of Thursday. The Prophet said: His waiting for 40 years is better than his going by the front of men. The Prophet said : It is obligatory on every mature man to take bath on Friday. Regarding dress. keep wall or pillar or stick in front when praying so that the people may not pass by your front. turn attention to invocation. (1) It is better to prepare for the Jumma day from Thursday. slip-your mustache and -do everything necessary for purity. If the people had known what good there is therein. takes bath and causes the baths of others (3) Take bath 'in the morning of Friday. the Prophet called him and said: 0 such a person. of an egg. The prophet used to come out with light and the mosque became filled up with men like the day of I'd. they would have come to search it like a camel-Azan. seeking forgiveness and Tasbih as the merits of this time are equal to those of the auspicious unknown time of Friday. what prevented you to pray Jumma with me today. in the morning. When the Imam gets up for khutba. first row and going to the congregational mosque at dawn. the rewards of one martyrdom are written for him and the punishment of grave is forgiven. The Prophet said: Have I not found you to cross over the necks of men? He hinted by this that his action has become void. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: If a man manicures nails on the Jumma day. (2) Make your clothes clean on this day.said : If a man dies on the Jumma day or night. (4) If is commendable to take recourse to beauty on this day to take fine dress. The Prophet said : God shows mercy on the man who rises in the morning and awakes others. The angels gather together wear the pulpit and hear the Zikr of God. (7) Don't go to the mosque by the front of a praying man. Once when the Prophet was reciting khutba. use scent and keep your mind free from anxieties so that you may rise up with a free mind on Friday morning. In the first century. The Prophet said: God and His angels bless those who wear turban on the Jumma day. In other words you have delayed to come at dawn and have given trouble to those present. cleanse your teeth. Try to fast on this day as there is a great merit in it. he noticed that a man was advancing towards the front row after crossing over the necks of man.

This is the correct view. Some say it is at the last time of Asr prayer. What a man prays willingly for pleasure of God other than the above prayers is optional. tuberculosis and the trials of Dajjal. There is ahadis that to remain present in an assembly of learning is better than optional prayer of one thousand rak'ats.up to the next Jumma from the devil. The Prophet said: If a man recites the chapter Qahaf on the Jumma day or night. he holds useless talk. There is in Hadis: If a man takes bath and tells another to take bath. if a man rises early and makes another awake early and goes near the Imam and hears. A certain sage said: He who does this remains safe. The Prophet said: Two rak'ats of Sunnat prayer . Some say it is at the time of sun-rise. This is supported by the following Hadis: There is a day among your days when your Lord gives out breath. pleurisy. God forgives his minor faults for eighty years. When the jumma is finished. The Jumma of one who holds useless talk is not performed. (6) It is commendable to give charities on Juman day. (7) Keep yourself engaged in divine service for the whole Jumma day after giving up worldly duties. (8) Try to take seat in the first row.forenoon prayer. bless Muhammad. He was asked: 0 Prophet of God. the sins which he has committed between two Jumma and additional three days become expiration for him. He is saved from diseases. Mustahab prayer is such prayer of which the excellence has been described by Hadis and which the Prophet did not observe always. The prophet said: If a man says to another at the time when the Imam delivers address 'Be silent'. Tahajjud prayer and prayer between Magrib and Isha. Sunnat prayer is such prayer which the Prophet observed for all times.. it is at the time of Azan. he is given such light which is visible from Mecca and his sins are forgiven up to the next Jumma and the merits of three days in addition are given to him and seventy thousand angels bless him till dawn. 'Falaq' seven times and Nas seven times. The Prophet said: If a man sends Darud to me eighty times on Jumma day. There is in an well known Hadis: There is a time on Jumma day in which a Muslim is granted what he seeks. what is Darud upon you? He said: Say: 0 God. The Prophet said: He who prays such. SUNNAT PRAYER: There are eight Sunnat prayers among which five are said along with five times of prayer and. Be prepared for that day. (10) Follow the Imam in Jumma. This is Jumma day among the days. GOOD DEEDS ON JUMMA DAY (1) Be present at the assembly of learning at dawn or after prayer. such as the prayers after obligatory prayers. (2) To medidate well for the auspicious moment. three in addition .Vol-I PRAYER 155 be blown off by air like refuges than to cross the front of a praying man. some say. Some say it is when the Imam gets upon his pulpit and begins his address. Thy Prophet and Thy Apostle. Nafl prayer is such prayer which does not fall within the first two categories. 'Ikhlas' seven times. Some say it is intermingled with every time of Jumma day. (1) Two rakat sunnat before Fajr prayer. There is difference of opinion about this auspicious moment. The merits are increased manifold. Mustahab (commendable) and Nafi (optional). (9) Prayer should be stopped at the time when the Imam gets upon the pulpit. will not die till he is shown his place in paradise. Some say it is after noon. (4) Recite the Quran more in this day specially chapter Qahaf. Some say it spreads for the day like the Blessed night. pains of stomach. There is in another Hadis: He who prays does not lose it. the illiterate Prophet. (5) It is commendable to recite Darud at the time of entering mosque and not to sit till one prays four rakats reciting therein Ikhlas fifty times in each rakat.Sunnat. SECTION 6 PRAYERS OTHER THAN OBLIGATORY PRAYERS There are three kinds of other prayers . So one who seeks it should remain in meditation throughout the day. Thy servant. (3) It is commendable to recite Darud this day on the Prophet. recite before talk the chapters 'Alham do Lillah' seven times.

four rak'ats before Zuhr and two rak'ats after it. When the sun rises up . (4) Two rak'ats after magrib. Shaban and Ramzan. (7) Forenoon prayer. OPTIONAL PRAYERS IN WEEKLY DAYS SUNDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays four rak'ats on Sunday and recitesa in each rak'ats the opening chapter and Amaner Rasul. your actions have been accepted and your future sins forgiven. (6) Bitr prayer: Hazrat Anas said: The Prophet used to pray three rak'ats of Bitr after Isha reciting therein 'Sabbehesme Rubbihil Ala' in the first rak'at. innumerable merits are written for him like the number of Christian males and females. years will be forgiven. four rak'ats before Asr. Nas and Falaq. (5) Four rak'ats after Isha. Many learned men said after collecting all traditions that there are seventeen rak'ats of Sunnat prayers . THURSDAY: The Prophet said: If a man recites between Juhr and Asr two rak'ats with fateha and Ayatul Qursi in the first rak'at one hundred times. WEDNESDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats after rising on Wednesday and recites in each rak'at Fateha and Ayatul Qursi once and Ikhlas three times. The Prophet said that this prayer is included with the prayer of Awabin. Fateha and Ikhlas in the second rak'at one hundred times and Darud one hundred times. Ikhlas once. Ayatul Kursi once. It is up to eight rak'ats.two rak'ats before Fajr. (3) Four rak'ats before Asr.two'rak'ats before Fajar. The Prophet said: 0 God.for him and seek forgiveness for him up to night. TUESDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays ten rak'ats in the early part of Tuesday with Fateha and Ayatul Qursi and Ikhlas three times in each rak'at. a building will be built for him in Paradise . 4 rakats before Zuhr and two rak'ats before Asr and two rakats after Magrib. God forgives all his sins. The first reward that willbe rewarded to him is one thousand dresses. Falaq once and then after salam Istigfar twelve times and Darud twelve times. Nas once. two rak'ats after Magrib and three rak'ats after Isha. Kaferun in the second raka't and Ikhlas in the third rakat.' a proclaimer will proclaim near the Throne. he will be said on the Resurrection day: 0 son of so and so.before Fajr is better than the world and what is in it. seventy thousand angels pray. FRIDAY: The Prophet said: There is a prayer on the Jumma day. The Prophet said: Proclaim the unity of God by many prayers on Sunday as God is one and there is no partner for him. God will reward him with fasting of Rajab. (8) Prayer between Magrib and Isha. The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats daily besides the obligatory prayers. his faults will not be written for seventy days. he dies a martyr and his sins for seventy. each three times. Hazrat Ayesha said that the Prophet used to pray four rak'ats in the forenoon and sometimes increased it. rise up and take rewards from God. Punishment of the Resurrection day will be lifted up from you and you will be given the actions of a Prophet on that day. One lac angels will greet him and each angel will have one present and they will accompany him and they will carry him to one thousand palaces of light.the rewards of one Haj and innumertable virtues will be written for him. one throne on his head and he will be said: Enter Paradise. Hazrat Ayesha reported that the Prophet used to go to bed after praying 4 rak'ats after Isha. 0 servant of God. The Prophet said: There are six rakat prayers between Magrib and Isha of which the merits are great. Vol-I PRAYER 157 MONDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays two rak'ats in the early part of Monday reciting Fateha once in each rak'at. 156 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I (2) Six rak'ats of Sunnat prayers of Zuhr-four rak'ats before it and two after it. The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats on Monday and recites in each rak'at Sura Fateha and Ayatul Kursi and when he finishes prayer recites Ikhlas 12 times and Istigfar 12 times. have mercy on the man who prays four rak'ats before Asr. The Prophet said: He who prays four rak'ats after declining of the sun and makes Ruku and prostration well and recites the Quran well. If he dies on the last day.

Jesus is the Spirit of God and Muhammad is the friend of God. God will write for him for every word one Haj and one Umrah and one year's fasting and prayer for each word and he will reside with the Prophets and martyrs under the Throne of God. prayers are four . he will get merits as innumerable as the persons who made calumny against God before and who did not make calumny and on the Resurrection day he will be raised along with the believers and it will be the duty of God to admit him in Paradise along with the Prophets. OPTIONAL ANNUAL PRAYERS Such.(1) Prayers of two I'ds or festivals.to one bow's distance or more and if a . SATURDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays 12 rak'ats between Magrib and Isha. seventy thous-and angels come down for him from every heaven and write for him rewards upto the Resurrection Day. Nas and Falaq once in each rak'at and recites Istigfar one hundred times and recites Istigfar for himself and his parents and Darud one hundred times and takes refer to God by realizing himself from his own strength and then says: I bear witness that there is no deity but God and I bear witness that Adam is the chosen one of God and His natural creation. God will open for him in Paradise 800 doors and forgive all his sins. will get ample rewards. a mansion is built for him in Paradise. Fatiha and Ikhlas twenty times in the second rak'at. . FRIDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays 12 rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with Fatiha and Ikhlas 11 times. OPTIONAL PRAYERS IN WEEKLY NIGHTS SUNDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: If a man prays 20 rak'ats in the night of Sunday with Fatiha and Ikhlas 50 times. believing man makes full ablution and prays two rak'ats with faithand hoping for reward. God will release him from Hell and it will be for him on the Resurrection day guide and proof. SATURDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays four rak'ats on Saturday with Fateha once and Ikhlas three times and then Ayatul Qursi in each rakat. If a man prays 158 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I four rak'ats.1he prophet said: Send many Daruds in Jumma day and night. God gives him what He gives to the siddiqs and martyrs. The Prophet said: If a man on Jumma day enters the mosque and prays four rak'ats after Jumma prayer with Fateha 50 times and Ikhlas 50 times in each rak'at. Nas 15 Vol-I PRAYER 159 times. (3) Prayer in Rajab. Moses is Kalimulla. God writes for him two hundred virtues and effaces from him two hundred sins. he gets rewards of charity to each male and female. (2) Tarawih prayers. Ayatul Qursi 11 times. The Prophet said : He who prays two rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with Fatiha and Ayatul Qursi five times. gets release from the Jews and it becomes the duty of God to forgive him. he will not die till he sees his place in paradise or it is shown' to him. Falaq five times. prays as it were for 12 years for the nights and fasted for the days. WEDNESDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays two rak'ats in Wednesday night with Fatiha and Falaq ten times in the first rak'at and Fatiha and Nas ten times in the second rak'at and then after finishing it reads Istigfar ten times and then Darud ten times. He accepts his invocation. obeys his duties towards his parents although he was disobedient to them before. Fatiha and Ikhlas thirty times in the third rak'at and Fatiha and Ikhlas forty times in the fourth rak'at and then returns salam and afterwards recites Ikhlas 75 times and seeks Istigfar for himself and his parents 75 times and then prays for his needs to God. MONDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: If a man prays 4 rakat in the night of Monday with Fatiha and Ikhlas ten times in the first rakat. and (4) Prayer in Shaban. Istigfar 15 times. The Prophet said: He who prays in Tuesday night two rak'ats with Fateha in each rak'at followed by chapter Ikhlas seven times. 1200 merits will be written for him and 1200 sins will be effaced from him and there will be for him 1200 doors in Paradise. THURSDAY NIGHT. that Abraham is His friend. If a man prays 12 rakats. Falaq 15 times. Nas five times and after prayer Istigfar 15 times and bestows them for his parents. TUESDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays two rak'ats therein with chapters Fatiha and Ikhlas 15 times.

I'd charity is to be given before prayer. This should be preceded by fast for three days and then on the fourth day prayer be said in the open field in congregation for rain with the greatest humility of spirit and earnestness of mind and then invocation should be made in the following manner: 0 God. So accept our invocation as Thou hast promised us. (3) PRAYER IN RAJAB: The Prophet said: One who fasts five days in Rajab. The prayer of one who prays in a corner of his house and knows nobody than God is better than all these prayers. The Holy Prophet sometimes prayed it alone and sometimes in congregation. (6) prayer of ablution. He said. When you see it. (2) TARAWITH PRAYER: It consists of twenty rak'ats. 0 God. Go by one way and return by another. FOURTH KIND OF OPTIONAL PRAYERS These prayers are connected with causes and they are nine in number (1) Prayer of solar and (2) lunar eclipses. The time runs from sun-rise to sun decline at noon. I fear this prayer may be imposed on you as a compulsory duty. It is better however to pray Tarawih in congregation as Hazrat Omar did it. They do not occur for birth or death of anybody. The Imam will then deliver sermon and then make Monazat. He used to order the servants. The time for animal sacrifice on Idul Azha runs from 160 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I after the prayer to the end of the 13th day of Zilhaj. slaves and women to come out for prayers on these days. (4) PRAYER IN SHABAN: It is observed in the night of the 15th Shaban. The Imam will pray two rak'ats with six Takbirs in addition. The form of prayer runs as follows. his invocation is accepted. The Prophet used to observe it. The Prophet said: As it is more meritorious to observe compulsory prayer in mosque than in houses. prays twelve rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with a unit of two rak'ats (which certain formalities as prescribed). The Prophet said: The merits of one rak'at prayer in this mosque of mine is one thousand times greater than observing it in other mosques and the merits of one rak'at of prayer in the mosque of the Ka'ba is better than one thousand times than observing it in my mosque. (8) two rak'ats at the time of coming out of house for journey and two rak'ats at the time of entry into house after journey and (9) prayer for seeking good called Istakhara prayer. Thou hast commanded us to invoke Thee and Thou hast promised us to accept it. PRAYER FOR RAIN: The Prophet used to observe this prayer coming out in the open field when there was drought and want of rain for a continued long time. It maybe said also in congregation.(2) PRAYER OF TWO I'DS: They are Sunnat Muaqqadah and there are several duties in them. three in the first rak'at and three in the second.. There are one hundred rak'ats of prayer with a unit of two rak'ats. We have indeed invoked Thee as Thou hast commanded us. It was Hazrat Omar who directed the Muslims to observe it in congregation. turn towards the remembrance of God and prayer. It is better to pray I'd prayers in open fields except Mecca and Baitul Muqaddas. (7) two rakats between Azan and Aqamat. Take bath in the morning of I'd day. It is . He said it when his son Ibrahim died and people ascribed it to the above ' cause. take dresses and use scents. FUNERAL PRAYER: This prayer is Farze Kefaya or binding on community as a whole. so it is more meritorious to observe optional prayers in houses than in mosques. Vol-I PRAYER 161 PRAYER FOR SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSE: The Prophet said: Solar and lunar eclipses are two signs out of the signs of God. shower blessing on us with Thy forgiveness and accept our invocation by sending us rain and giving us ample provision. (3) prayer for rain. (4) funeral prayer (5) prayer for entering into mosque. The earlier sages used to observe this prayer.

(9) PRAYER FOR TASBIH: It is also called Doa.' To spend means here to pay the compulsory duty of Zakat. as Thou knowest and I don't know and Thou knowest the unseen. Follow the bier after prayer up to the grave and recite the following after entering in the grave-yard. We shall reach you if God wills. (2) to keep up prayers. ISTAKHARAH PRAYER: This prayer is said before an action is undertaken to know whether it will be good or bad. 0 God. open and secret evils? Pray four'rak'ats (as prescribed). if you do. if he is a virtuous man. . and to bear witness to this formula. Ahnaf-b-Qais said: We were with a party of the Quraish. Thou art powerful over all things. Then standing by the side of the grave of the person just buried. it goes without blessing. Masurah. CHAPTER V ZAKAT God placed Zakat next to prayer and it is the second pillar of Islam out of five pillars. The Prophet said: When any special work is not begun with the name of God. Peace be on you. let him pray two rak'ats. forgive him. will be a cause for God to forgive your past and future sins. The Prophet said: It forty Muslims who do not set up partnership with God attend the funeral prayer of a Muslim. I wish to know its good or bad with the help of Thy knowledge and I pray for strength from Thee and I pray for Thy abundant mercy. 162 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I At the time of coming out of the house and entering it after journey. give me blessing therein and then make it easy for me. (3) to pay Zakat. name the project and invoke with the above invocation. (8) PRAYER FOR NECESSITY: If a matter becomes necessary for his religion or for his world. The Prophet said to Hazrat Abbas: Shall I not make gift to you? Shall I not show kindness on you? Shall I not love you with such a thing which. (4) to fast and (5) to make pilgrimage. if Thou knowest that this affair will be for my worldly or next worldly good and for the result of my affairs sooner or latter. pray two rak'ats. If Thou knowest that this affair of mine will be bad for me for my world. The punishment of those who do not pay Zakat has been mentioned in this verse: 'Give good news of grievous punishment to those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend in the way of God. in the prayer.and chapter Ikhlas in the second and at the end with the following invocation: 0 God. God accepts their intercession for him. The Prophet said: I saw Bilal in Paradise and asked him: For what action have you entered Paradise before me? He said: I know nothing except the fact that I prayed two rak'ats after every ablution. PRAYER AFTER ENTRY INTO MOSQUE: It is two rakats or more and prayer after ablution is also two rak'ats. Be kind to him and show him mercy. let him invoke as prescribed. It is of two rak'ats with Chapter Kaferun in the first rak'at . recite the following: 0 God. Hazrat Abu Zarr. remove the earth from his two sides and open the doors of heaven for his soul and accept it with good acceptance. The Prophet said: If any man among you proposes to do a thing. God says: Keep up prayer and pay Zakat. while passing by that way said: Give good news to those who hoard up wealth that such firm impressions will be put on their backs which will come out after piercing their sides. The Prophet said: Islam is founded on five pillars (1) There is no deity but God and Muhammad is His servant and messenger. 0 God. let him pray twelve rak'ats for fulfillment of his necessity with Ayatul Qursi and Ikhlas in each rak'at and at the end of the prayer of two rak'ats. give strength to me. 0 God.optional only for one who is exempted owing to the presence of some members of the community. turn me from it and it from me. increase his virtues manifold and if he is a sinner. Thy servant has returned to Thee. The Prophet said: Pray two rak'ats when you go out of your house so that you may be saved from the harms of going out. that such firm impressions will be put on their forehead that it will come out of their forehead. next world and the result of my affairs sooner or latter. 0 the inmates of these house of the believers and Muslims. May God show mercy on those who have gone before and who have come latter. old and new sins.

cattle. of 120. pulse. there is no Zakat due on him as he is not a solvent man. one calf of one year. there is no Zakat for it. Zakat is to be paid for camels. one she camel or one he. there is no Zakat according to Imam Abu Hanifa. tanks. then one twentieth is due on crops. (a) They are to be grazed in the grazing fields. of cattle thirty.camel of full one year. This punishment has been described by Sahihs Bakhari and Muslim. In case of 30 cattle. Sheep and goats. He said to me: By the Lord of the Ka'ba. This will continue till the people are brought for judgment. SECTION 1 DIFFERENT KINDS OF ZAKAT There are six subject matters of Zakat . (D) One must have full ownership and full power of sale of the animal. Those who have got camels. mules. For ornaments of gold and silver which are for use. This proportion will continue in case of the value of gold and silver or of things made of them if they are in possession for full one year. Cattle. of goats and sheep forty. (3) Zakat of gold and silver. in their fronts. sane or insane. in their right sides. (4) ZAKAT ON MERCHANDISE: Zakat on merchandise is like that of gold and silver. deers and young ones of goats. of 40 cattle one calf of two years. This applies also in case of exchange of goods. (c) They must be in possession of full one year. If any animal is sold within one year. asses. They will attack them with their horns and will tread upon them by their hoofs. In case of 25 camels.Abu Zarr said: I came to the Prophet who was then seated in the shade of the Ka'ba. but their numbers are few. The Prophet said: Zakat is not due on any property unless in possession of full one year. sheeps and goats and who do not pay their Zakat will meet with these animals in huge forms on the Resurrection Day. drains. The minimum number of camels is five. 164 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I (1) ZAKAT OF ANIMALS: It is compulsory on a free Muslim whether major or minor. (e) One must be the owner of Nisab or fixed number of these animals. Zakat is also payable on profits of commodities along with the commodities at the end of a year. (5) Zakat of mines and (6) Zakat of Idul Fitr. (2) ZAKAT OF CROPS: If anybody has got twenty maunds of rice. It the debts of a man is such that all his properties are not sufficient to clear them. of 60 cattle two calves of one year. One year should have elapsed from the date of their purchase and if it reaches nisab. There is no Zakat of animals given in pawn or mortgage.(1) Zakat of animals. Zakat is due on money on loan after the loan is paid. another party will come. of 46 camels one she-camel of three years and so on. So the details of Zakat should be learnt. In case of 36 camels. (C) Animals must be in possession of full one year. If one party go away. (A) Among animals. There are five conditions of Zakat which is obligatory in case of animals. two she goats and so on. This is the nisab fixed for which Zakat is Vol-I ZAKAT 165 due. they are undone. I asked: Who are they? He said: Those who increase their wealth and not those who spend in this way. those which are lost or snatched by force. sheep and groats but not for other animals like horses. (3) ZAKAT OF GOLD AND SILVER: Zakat of Silver is one fortieth of pure silver if not less than 52 1/2 tolas and gold and less than 7 1/2 tolas. in their backs. Zakat of one tenth of the crop is compulsory on him. (2) Zakat of crops. In case of 40 sheep or goats. dates or such food stuffs by which a man can maintain his livelihood. in their left sides. There is no Zakat on fruits and cotton. one she camel of 2 years. wheat. CamelsZakat of one she goat or he-goat of full two years for every five camels above four. No Zakat is due for less than 20 maunds. If fields are watered by artificial means by taking water from canals. (d) One must have full ownership on them. (B) There is-no Zakat of domestic animals which do not graze purely in fields. A'solvent man is one who has got surplus wealth after necessary expenses (E) One must possess required number of animals. one she goat of one year. (4) Zakat of the commodities of Business. cattle. maize. . (b) They should not be domestic animals.

They do not deny that Zakat is not compulsory on them. Fitr charity is payable on the day of I'd before I'd prayer. Sacrifice of properties is easier than sacrifice of life which has been also mentioned here to gain the love of God. Promise reaches perfection when a unitarian has got no object of love except One. This is payable on behalf of all the members of the family and near relatives and parents who are maintained by him. There is little benefit in uttering Kalima Shahahdat by tongue only and the trial is in giving up of other objects of love except God. (1) Intend to pay Zakat at the time when it falls due and fix properties and things for payment of Zakat. If he loses his property after it is due. (1) THE MEANING AND OBJECT OF ZAKAT: Zakat is the purification of properties. This was said with regard to Jihad. Zakat should be paid with the thing for which Zakat is due. For this reason. Hazrat Omar brought half of his property. Hazrat Abu Bakr brought all his properties to the Prophet when he called for charities in the way of God. (a) The first reason is to appreciate the two words of Kalema Shahadat. From this angle of view. The guardian of a minor or an insane man shall pay Zakat on his behalf.ZAKAT AND ITS CONDITIONS Zakat is to be paid having a look to the following five things. To the people. He asked Hazrat Abu Bakr: What have you left for your family? He said: God and His Prophet. This is just like booty gained in war. it is compulsory to spend all our properties. Zakat of two years can be paid in advance. Zakat is soon due at the rate of one fifth. silver should not be paid for 166 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I gold and gold for silver. Their Zakat is of one fortieth after clearance and after it reaches Nisab and completion of possession of one year. They spend their wealth at the time of . (3) One should not pay Zakat on valuation of properties. There is no condition of possession of one year or of nisab. wealth and properties are objects of love as they are the instruments of earthly pleasures and getting love from others. (6) ZAKAT OF ID'UL FITR: This charity is compulsory on every Muslim who has got food in excess of one day and one night of I'd at be rate of 21 /2 seers of principal food stuffs or one sa'a per head. They do not hoard wealth. There are three reasons for its being a pillar of Islam. SECTION 2 PAYMENT OF. fulfill their promise and spend their properties in the way of God. as love does not admit a partner. The Prophet said: The difference between you is in your replied.(5) ZAKAT ON MINES AND BURIED TREASURERS: If gold and silver of the non Muslims are found buried. Vol-I ZAKAT 167 (2) The second class of men are lower in rank. SOME SUBTLE RULES OF ZAKAT There are some subtle points for a payer of Zakat and for one who travels in the path of the next world. (5) Zakat is to be paid to eight classes of persons as described in the Quran and will be discussed in section 3. to take Tauhid firmly and to witness the unity of God. The ruler or his officers can collect Zakat (2) At the completion of one year. For this reason God says: God purchased from the believers their lives and properties in exchange of paradise for them. Rather they say: For us. For instance. the responsibility does not cease. Those who claim the love of God are tried and their objects of love are snatched away from them. The above is the opinion of Imam Shafeyi and not of Imam Abu Hanifa according to whom it is lawful. he disobeys God. (4) It is better to pay Zakat to the people where the Zakat payer resides permanently as the poor and the destitute of that place look to him for help. The Prophet said to Hazrat Omar: What have you left for your family? He said: Half of my wealth. Zakat falls due and it should be paid without delay. men can be divided in to three classes. There is no Zakat of the things taken from mines except gold and silver. The Prophet said: Give the charity of Fitr of all the persons you maintain. If a man makes delay in payment of Zakat. (1) The first class of men recognise Tauhid as true.

In secret charity. God says: Spend out of what I have provided you. The last ten days of Ramzan month and the first ten days of the month of Zilhaj are days of excellences. A secret . It removes show and greed for fame. A certain learned man said: There are three matters in the secret wealth of good works. attached to riches and their love for the next world is weak. They don't reduce the amount of Zakat. The Prophet said: God will give shade to seven persons on the day when there will be no shade except the shade of God. The gratefulness for the gifts of body by doing divine services and the gratefulness for the gifts of wealth by expense of wealth are expressed. or rebukes after charity. or discloses his charity and thereby seeks name and fame and or gives charity among the people for show. The Prophet said: If a man wants fame by incurring the pleasure of men. one of them is secret charity. it is the duty of the rich to remove his want. God says: And if you give charity sincerely. The Prophet said: There are three destructive guilts-to obey miserliness. The devil enjoins on doing evil deeds and shows fear of poverty. orphans. did you not hear the verse of God: Being prompted by divine love they spend wealth for their near relatives. They transcend the limit of time. God writes it secretly as secrecy is not maintained if it is disclosed. How unfortunate is he who sees no means of livelihood of a poor man and till does not give him charity inspite of his begging and who rather expresses gratefulness. Zakat should be paid in the month of Muharram. This is an additional charity besides Zakat. The Prophet said: If a man acts secretly. There is chance of falling into sin if Zakat is paid late and not in time. There a well-known Hadis about show in open charity. Many Tabeyins like Nakhyi. This means that whenever you will find a man in want. it is also better for you. God says: Those who are saved from miserliness have got salvation. the poor and the travellers. (3) The third class are those persons who rest contended by payment of only Zakat. In this way. There is in another Hadis: Secret charity appeases the wrath of God. Zakat is the cause of purification of properties.' There is a wide gulf of difference between those who sacrifice their lives and properties for God and those who are defamed for miserliness. Ata and others held that there are additional duties on wealth besides Zakat. that God saved him from wants. (2) The second cause is to be pure from miserliness as it is one of the cause of destruction. one who gives charity in such a manner that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given in charity. (3) The third cause is to express gratefulness for the gifts of God as God's gifts on His servants are unbounded. you become miser. The sage Shubi was asked: Is there any additional duty on wealth besides Zakat? He said: Yes. This is the lowest rank and the general people adopt this course as they are naturally miser. one can be safe from the danger of show. They do not pay more or less. The object is hoarding is not to enjoy pleasure but to spend in proportion to necessity and to spend their excess wealth in good deeds. The heart of a believer is within the two fingers of the Merciful and there is no delay in its change. (3) Third subtle point: It is to pay Zakat in secret. God Says: 'If they beg of you and press for it. Shubi. to follow low desires and self-conceit. Willingness to do good deed comes from angels and it should be considered a cause of fortune.necessity. the first month of Hijra and one of the pure months or it should be paid in the month Ramzan as the Prophet paid most of his charities in this month and there is the excellence of the Blessed night in this month and in the month of pilgrimage. The correct opinion according to theology is that whenever expense is necessary. This is supported by the following verse: They spend out of what I have provided them with. God will not accept his charity. 168 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I ZAKAT 169 (2) Second subtle point: It is to look to the times and the rules of payment of Zakat. The Prophet said: The best charity is in secret charity of a poor man to a man in want. to spend is Farze Kefayah as i t is not legal to cause harm to the Muslims. The religious men pay Zakat before it becomes compulsory.

Its medicine is a mixture of knowledge and action. If a man spends money in the construction of a mosque. and when a sin is considered great. 'Mann' comes in when the giver understands that he has done some benefit to the receiver of charity. because he purifies the giver and gives him release from Hell fire. Some say that its meaning is to take boast for giving him charity and 'Aza' means to drive him away and to rebuke him by words. Secondly. (6) Sixth subtle point: Think charity as little. to do it soon and to keep it secret. to use harsh word and to humiliate the receiver of charity. . service. prayer.does not become perfect without threg things to think it little. God says: Don't make your charity void by 'Mann' that is giving trouble. it came of no use to you. but there is no 'Mann' or 'Aza' in it. Abu Zarr asked: Who are undone? He said: 'Those who have got much wealth. Sufiyan was asked: What is Mann? He replied: To remind it repeatedly and to discuss about it. Its secret meaning is unwillingness to withdraw hand from wealth. the Prophet said: By the Lord of the 170 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Ka'ba. The Prophet said: Charity falls on the hand of God before it falls in the hand of a beggar. it means that the giver thinks himself superior to the receiver and thinks him inferior for his wants. There are differences of opinion for the meaning of Mann. The Prophet said: God does not accept the charity of one who does 'Mann'. Many learned men said that the giver should not even know the person who takes charity. it grows self-praise which destroys an action. Mann has got roof and branches and it is expressed in tongue and limbs. it becomes little to God. These are the secret meanings of 'Mann'. Some say that any good deed. The following Hadis establishes it.charity is free from the above faults. because the poor earn their livelihood by their industry. Care should be taken in open charity about show. it becomes great to God. Unwillingness to give charity is sign of foolishness. For this reason. God says: 'hen your great number pleased you. Some of them handed it over to the blind. The Prophet said: There is no prayer for a man except what he understands therefrom. they are undone. This is like God fear in prayer. Some say that its meaning is to remind charity to the receiver and that 'Aza'means to disclose it. The roof of 'Mann' is to think oneself as the benefactor of one who receives charity. Now it appears that the giver places his charity first to God and thee the beggar receives it from God. The pious men among the rich will go to Paradise five hundred years after the pious poor men. increase their provisions and preserve them with difficulties. because who is more foolish than one who is reluctant to spend one dirham in lieu of one thousand dirhams in the next world? It appears from this that the object of charity and expense is to get the pleasure of God and to get merits in the next world. to disclose it and to hope to get from the receiver gratefulness. The charity of the giver is to request the receiver. Gazzali explains it thus. honour and to wish that he should be followed in his actions. These are the conditions of charity and Zakat. rebuke after charity and not to break the secrets of a poor man as most of the beggars do not wish that anybody should see them as beggars. because if it is considered great. God says: Spend what I have given you secretly and openly. It may be called self-pleasure or self-praise. 'Aza' means to rebuke.' Then how can the poor be held in contempt? God keeps the rich only for the poor. So think that the rich are servants for the livelihood of the poor. (4) Fourth subtle point: It is good to give charity openly in a place where the people are encouraged to give charity by seeing it. So the meaning of 'Mann' is to discuss about charity. to think to give charity as troublesome. The rich give charity according to the requirements of the poor and guard the excess wealth. He said: God does not accept the charity of one who gives trouble to the receiver. Rather the receiver should consider that he has shown kindness to the giver by accepting his charity. (5) Fifth subtle point: It is not to destroy charity by rebuke and giving trouble after charity.' Some say that when one considers a religious action little. it is possible for him to think it great. God says: Don't make your charity void by mentioning it and by giving trouble.

. Give charity to such a person who is truthful and sincere and has got knowledge of God-fear and Tauhid. Loqman advised his son: Between you and God. spend of the good things you earn and what I grow for you out of the earth and don't intend therefrom. In other words. (8) Eighth subtle point: Search for Zakat such man that if he is paid Zakat. Hazrat Juaid came to know of it and gave him some capital and said: Use it as your capital and don't give up your business as it is not an unprofitable concern for a man like you. The sage Ibnul Mobarak used to show kindness to the learned. puitand the most lawful thing as God is pure and does not accept but pure wealth. Regarding action. They were asked: It would have been better if your charity would have been given to all poor men'. The Prophet said: Give your food to the God. There is in Hadis: One dirham gains over one lac dirhams. Their tongue spread this falsehood and that this is good for them. They said: No. (1) God fear: Seek such Godfearing men who have renunciated the world and adopted the business of the next world. He will leave no property except what he gives in charity. charity should be given after being ashamed as you were miser is not giving the entire property given to you by God. If he gives bad things to his guest for eating. A wise man should not place others above himself. sensation is generated in their . It should be paid to those of them who have got these six qualities. entertain one with your food whom you love for the sake of God. God says: '0 those who believe. the thoughts of these people are about only for God. He said: I don't know whether after prophethood the rank of any man other than that the learned is superior. don't consider anybody as the giver of gifts and the gifts of another on you as loan. he becomes surely displeased with him. What he eats finishes and what he enjoys of his property becomes a past thing. He Vol-I ZAKAT 171 172 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I was asked: It would have been better if you have given charity to all. When they are hungry. it becomes pure. (7) Seventh subtle point: Give in charity that is best. Some learned men did not give food except to the poor people of 'Suffa'. There is no doubt that there is Hell fire for them. The Prophet said: 'Good news to the man who earns wealth without committing sin and spends therefrom. (2) The second quality is education as it helps knowledge.Knowledge comes in the fact that he will not get the highest rank as he has not gifted his entire wealth in charity and so he should be ashamed. The most honourable divine service is to remain busy in the acquisition of learning with a good and sincere intention. it is impertinent on his part as he reserved the best thing for his family members and loved the worst thing for God. impure things: Don't take it without dislike and shame. The eight classes of men have been mentioned in the Quran for Zakat.' If he does not spend out of his best properties.fearing people and show kindness to the believers. Once a pious man was about to give up his business and he was going to be a pauper. The man used to carry on the business of vegetables and did not take price when he sold them to the poor. God says: They keep for God what they do not like. The Prophet said: 'Don't eat the food of anybody except that of the God-fearing men and do not feed anybody except the God learning men. He who expresses gratefulness to others except to God has not recognised his benefactor and all the people are powerless except through His help. So don't love to give to God impure and bad things. Had not God . for this wealth belongs to God and He gives it to whomsoever He pleases along with Taufiq to spend it in charity. (3) The third quality is truthfulness. The reason is that such men help religion.hearts. His Tauhid is this that when he accepts charity he praises God. Its cause is that a man gives one dirham in charity with pleasure of mind after taking it out from mostly his lawful earnings and another man gives charity of one lac dirhams from his unlawful earnings. expresses gratefulness and understands that all the gifts come from God and not from any intermediary.

without a partner and not to Muhammad. To give him one hundred dirhams is dearer to me than to set free a slave. The Prophet did not deny it though the verse declaring the purity of Ayesha was revealed to the Prophet. the hearts of those who have not brought faith in the next world become sad. To give him twenty dirhams in charity and to keep blood connection with him is dearer to me than the charity of 200 dirhams to a stranger. Hazrat Ali said: To give one dirham to my brother is dearer to me than to give twenty dirhams to a stranger. I shall not do it and I shall not praise God also for this. You will know them by their signs. They are honourable men. that there is no Zakat for anybody except a Muslim who must not belong to the Hashemite dynasty. It cannot be paid to an unbeliever. The Prophets have gone away but their honour remains. slave. God says regarding these people: The fools think that they are not in want on account of their refraining from begging. they are confined in the way of God for members of his family or for scanty means or for correction of soul or those who cannot roam on account of their defects in hands and feet are entitled to receive charity. God says with regard to these people. The Prophet used to give charity according to the number of the members of a family. boy or an insane man except though his represenatative. The Prophet said to a man: Make repentance. The fifth quality is to have a big family with no earning. When the verse dealing with the purity of Hazrat Ayesha was revealed. The man informed the Prophet of his invocation and he said being satisfied: I know that he would say this. Give charity to such a person who has got a big family or who is diseased. he would not have given charity and God intilled into his mind that the well-being of his temporal and spiritual world lies in his charity. (6) Another quality is near relationship. give up Ayesha. Zakat and charity should be paid to those who try to conceal their wants from the eyes of men and do not complain of their wants. you have not forgotten the man (himself) and don't allow him to forget you. In another anarration.' Seek such people in every locality and give them charity. 'When this belief becomes strong. The Prophet said: 0 Abu Bakr. The Prophet said: He has recongnised the right of One to whom it is due. one quality is necessary for a receiver of Zakat. It is said that the Prophet sent a man with charity to be given to a poor man and he said: Remember what he says: The poor man accepted it and said: Praise be to God who does not forget one who remembers Him and does not destroy one who expreses gratefulness to Him. 'Those poor men who are confined in the way of God and cannot move in the world.compelled the giver. They used to live in comfort. Hashemite. The '174 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP descriptions of the eight classes of people who can receive Zakat are given below. as charity to a near relative brings reward of keeping the tie of blood connection or relationship. Hazrat Abu Bakr said: 0 Ayesha. SECTION 3 FITNESS FOR RECEIVING ZAKAT Know. God says: When God is remembered. 0 dear readers. He said: I repent to God . They do not press the people for begging. It will increase reward. or is confined to the corner of his house on account of any other reason. his will becomes strong. Hazrat Ayesha said to Hazrat Abu Bakr: Praise be to God and not for you and not for your friend. Vol-I ZAKAT 173 (4) The fourth quality is to conceal wants. Hazrat Ayesha said: By God. He who does not purify his heart from the idea of an intermediary is not free from secret-shirk.' In other words. Out of eight qualities. kiss the head of the Prophet. (1) THE POOR: A poor man is one who has got no wealth and properties and who has got . Then he said: 0 God. The abvoe are the qualities which should be sought in giving charity to a person. It is the fault of the unbelievers to see other things besides God.

(2) MISKIN OR DESTITUTE: A man is called Miskin or destitute whose expense is greater than his income. If he has got power and strength to earn his livelihood. So divine service should be the centre of thought of men. If God loves a man among the rich. (3) COLLECTORS OF ZAKAT. Zakat receiver should invoke for the payer 'thus: May God purify your heart and include you among the pious. The Prophet said: He who is not grateful to men is not grateful to God'. The . (5) SLAVES BY AGREEMENT: There may be agreement between a master and a slave that if the slave can pay a certain sum to the master. They cannot be paid in excess of their requirements. he is turning to God . there is possibility of their coming to Islam. The Prophet said: To seek lawful earning is compulsory after compulsory duties. If a man runs into debts for having committed sinful acts. one who takes measure and one who copies registers are included within these staffs. Writer. collectors of Zakat may be paid. pray for him and praise him. Out of the earnings of Zakat. He said: How good is the servant. No proof of these wants is necessary. (6) DEBTORS. DUTIES OF ZAKAT RECEIVER: A Zakat receiver should look to five matters. he cannot be called poor. (4) THOSE WHO ARE INCLINED TO ISLAM. One who goes abroad with good intention from his country may get Zakat if he requires money for his travels. This money can legally be paid out of Zakat fund. If he has got one day's food and wearing cloth. Zakat may be paid to clear off debts of a person who has got no means or clear them or who has property which is not sufficient to clear them. Zakat cannot be paid to him unless he repents. he can be helped with Zakat. Those soldiers who get no salary from the state Treasury are entitled to get Zakat even if they are rich. A poor man does not go out of poverty if he has got habit of begging as begging is not a source of livelihood. (8) TRAVELLERS. he caii get freedom. he goes out of poverty. but still he is a destitute under the above circumstances. Hazrat Omar said: A doubtful earning is better than begging.38 : 30Q. They are non-Muslim leaders whose hearts are inclined to the religion of Islam. He may be owner of one thousand dirhams. The poor man should know that Zakat is a gift from God to him realised from the rich. God Himself praised men for his good actions though He is the creator of actions and deeds. If he is a technician but has got no instrument or money to purchase it. (2) Be grateful to the Zakat payer. The rich man should not feel satisfied as he is only an intermediary to help the poor with the gift of God. so that he may find time for divine service. If a man is maintained by his parents. The people follow them and therefore if they are inlcined to Islam. They may be relied on their verbal words. May He purify your actions like the actions ut the good and may He include your soul among the souls of the martyrs. He saves him from the world as a physician saves his patient. There is mention in it of earning livelihood by industry and trouble. Vol-I ZAKAT 175 (7) WARS IN THE WAY OF GOD. he is not a poor man but a miskin or destitute. He gives wealth to men that it may remove their wants and they may get opportunity of doing divine service.no ability to earn. (1) He should know that God made Zakat compulsory so that his thought is concentrated in one object God says: I created Jinn and man with no other object except that they shquld worship Me.

He said: Each man will remain under the shade of his charity till God finishes his judgment of the people. He said: I have got anothe dinar. until he. The Prophet said to Abu Darda's: When you cook curry. The Prophet said: He who begs inspite of his being rich will appear on the Resurrection Day with his face with scratches and wounds.Prophet said: If a man does good to you. He said spend it for your wife. He was asked: what is the limit of a rich man? He said: 50 dishrams or gold of equivalent value. If you cannot do it. He said: I have got another dinar. The Prophet was once asked: Which charity is best? He said: Your charity at the time when you are sound. read this verse: They do not come to man begging. It is the impurity of the people. (4) Give up the charity from earnings of doubtful nature and take up to your necessity. if you cannot do it. . (3) Don't accept charity if it is not from lawful wealth. the Prophet said: Give charity. do not accept in excess of your remuneration. The Prophet said: He who is driven away by you not even with two dates is not a destitute but a destitute is he who refrains from begging. Jesus Christ said: Angels do not enter the house of a man for seven days who turns out a beggar from his door disappointed. even by uttering a good word. increase its soup and present something of it justly to your neighbour having a look to his family members. when you do not wish to spend. He said. do good to him. God gives blessing in the property left by him. If you are a Zakat collector. Our Prophet did not entrust two duties to anybody-to collect his water of ablution for his prayer at night and to give charity to the poor. The Prophets said: If a man gives charity in a good manner. He said: Spend it for your children. God says: If a man fears God. The Prophet said: Zakat is not lawful for the family Voi-I ZAKAT 177 members of Muhammad. The Prophet said: If a Muslim gives charity from his lawful earning (God does not accept but lawful thing). If you are a traveller. don't accept in excess of what is necessary for your journey. SECTION 4 OPTIONAL CHARITY AND ITS EXCELLENCE The Prophet said: 'Give charity of even a date as it appeases anger and wipes out sins just as water extinguishes fire? He said: Save yourself from Hell-fire even by giving in charity half a date. The Prophet said: He will not get salvation who refuses a beggar who speaks the truth. If you wish. It is the duty of the giver to think charity as little and the duty of the receiver to think it great. spend it for you He said: I have got another dinar. If you are a needy man. One day. He said. Charity appeases the wrath of God. He said: I have got another dinar. He said: Return the rebuke of a beggar by giving food even to the measure of the head of a bird. Don't make delay in giving charity lest you may say when you will be dying: I give this thing to such person and this thing to such person. He said: Your look is best for it. it is near God fear. pray for him so that he may understand that you have done him return good. He will find out a way for him and provide him from a source which is beyond his conception. He said: Spend it for your servant. God accepts it with His right hand and maintains it. If it is for one day. One man said: I have got a dinar. when you hope to live long or when you fear hunger. This is the last limit. The Prophet said: A Muslim who gives a cloth to another Muslim is in protection of God till the cloth remains upon his body. you may accept what is Vol-I 176 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP sufficient for your provision for a year at most. he may accept it. The Prophet sometimes stored up provisions for his family members for a year. Don't take it until you know for certain whether you can legally accept it or not. God maintains it till it rises up to the mountain Uhud just as one of you raises up his child. possess nisab. It is equivalent to a provision for one year. He who gives charity from his abundant wealth is not better in rewards than one who takes it at the time of his need.

BENEFITS OF OPEN CHARITY: (1) If it is given with sincerity and honesty. I don't like that it should have any defect. God says: They give food out of His love to the destitute. a man will get hungry not being hungry. In open charity. Mujahed explained this verse by saying that they did it out of eagernes.) Secret charity helps the giver to conceal his charity. The after returned the cock and the knife to him without sacrifing it. I am inclined more to this disciple as his look is always towards . This gave trouble to his other disciples. ali' would have been rich and nobody would have been poor among you. God will give food to one who gives food for the sake of God. thirsty not being thirsty and naked without being naked. He did not accept it. (2) Honour is removed and humility is exposed. as the excellence of secret charity is greater than that of open charity. Hazrat Obaid-b-Umair said: On the Resurrection Day. The saint Nakhyi said: When a thing is given in charity for God. Hazrat Ibn Masud said that a man did divine service for seventy years. He will give water to drink to one who gives water to drink for the sake of God. (2) The receiver remains safe from the tongues of the people. the receiver is hated by the people in case of open acceptance of charity. that they may do benefit to the needy.Wise sayings: Harat Urwah-b-Jubair narrated that some time Hazrat Ayesha gave charity of 50. but He wishes to try you by one another. It is not the duty of a believer to humiliate anybody. One man gave charity to a Sufi in presence of the Prophet. his manliness is curbed and his want is exposed. To help the perfection of a good deed is also a good deed. BENEFITS OF SECRET CHARITY (1) It protects the secrecy of the receiver of charity. ophans and captives. Caliph Abdul Aziz said: Paradise has got three secret tresures to conceal disease. Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz said: Prayer will take you to half of the royal path. fast will take you to the royal door and charity will take you to the king himself. give charity. The guide then said to his other disciples: For this reason. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: If God willed. Many a time. then all become cosharers in the present. one can be safe from change of condition and show. Then he passed by a poor man and gave a bread to him for which God forgave him and returned Lim the rewads of the divine services for seventy years. (4) There is no disgrace in accepting secret charity. Then he committed a grievous sin for which his entire good deeds were rendered 'Void. Hazrat Ihya-b-Muaz said: I don't know whether a seed except a seed of charity is heavier than a mountain. A certain learned man refused to accept charity openly as he said that it disgraces learning. Ibn Abi Zaidan said: Charity shuts up 70 doors of evils. It is narrated that a spiritual guide was inclined to one of his disciples more than to anybody else.000 dirhams though her shirt was stitched. give riches to the good among us. The secret charity gives no encouragement to begging. (5) Secret charity removes the doubts of a cosharer. The spiritual guide said to him: They have brought the cocks according to my instruction but why did you not bring it accordingly? He said: I have found no place where nobody could see me as God sees me in every place. The Prophet said: The best charity to a brother is his giving food or money. The spiritual guide intended to expose the supremacy of his favoured one and therefore he gave to each of his disciples one cock with a knife saying: You will sacrifice it so that nobody sees it. Hazrat Omar said: 0 God. Loqman adviced his son: When you commit a sin. The Prophet said: If a man is given present in presence of some men. The sage Abu Ayub said: I gave up putting on new cloth for fear of creating hatred in the mind of my neighbour. The excellence of secret charity is seventy times more than that of open charity and secret charity destroys seventy evils. Each of them went to a distant place and sacrified his cock except the disciple whom he loved. He will give cloth to one who Vol-I 178 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I ZAKAT 179 gives cloth for the sake of God. (3. to conceal charity and to conceal troubles and difficulties. (3) One can remain safe from Shirk in case of open charity.

It appears from this that rewards will be open for the fasting men and they will not be kept for measurement as it is only for God.one joy at the time of breaking fast and another joy at the time of meeting with his LQrd. proclaim it. found says: The fasting man gives up sexual intercourse. He attached it with miserliness. faith increases in his mind. Fast is the gateway of worship.39 :13. God says: The fasting man gives up sexual intercourse. All worships are for God but the honour of fast is like that of the Ka'ba. The excellence of fast is known from the following Hadis: The Prophet said: By One in whose hand there is my life.*look to My servant. God says: Those who are patient will be given rewards without measure . honour him. the sunnat of gratefulness is expressed. (4) In case of open charity. God says: As for the gifts of your Lord. He said: The sleep of a fasting man is worship. The Prophet once was pleased with a man when he heard of his quality and said: There is surely a charm in oratory. This is the reward for what they have done'. If a man conceals what has been given to him by God. God rebukes him. The Prophet praised a man. The Prophet said: Paradise has got a gate named Rayyan. you are to Me like some of My angels. .The Prophet said: Everything has got a gateway. God says: Those who are misers and tell the people to be misers and conceal of the gifts which God has given them. as God says: The Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 181 patient will be given rewards without account (39: 13). To conceal a gift is like rejecting it. let him tell him of -it.God. food and drink for My sake. 0 Messenger of God. the devils are put in chains and a proclaimer proclaims: 0 seeker of good. as it will give him encouragement to do good works. The Prophet said: There are two joys for a fasting man .' The Prophet said: If God gives a gift to a servant. He said: When the month of Ramzan comes. God has promised His vision as reward of fast. the fragrance of the mouth of a fasting man is dearer to God than the fragrance of musk. The Prophet said about a fasting man: God says: 0 My angels. we fear that they would take all rewards. God says: Eat and drink'cheerfully for what you missed in past days. . Sufiyan Saori said: Praise cannot injure a man who knows his mind. The Prophet said: When a believer is praised. When you have understood about the benefits of open charity and secret charity. He likes that it should be expressed by him. The Prophet said: God says: Every good action except fast will be rewarded from ten to seven hundred folds. The Prophet said: The gratefulness that you express to them for every matter and your praising them are your return good. as the Prophet said: Fast is half of patience and patience is half of faith. It has been said regarding the verse that this action was fast. God says: 'No soul knows what has been kept concealed for him pleasing to his eyes. the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of Hell are shut up. So it depends on the state of your mind at the time of charity. because he knew that it would not injure him. In other words. you have come to know that the differences arise out of conditions of mind. Its reward transcends account. eat and drink cheerfully for what you were deprived in your tasting days. Fast is half of patience. his food and drink for My pleasure. Of all the regulations of religion. The Prophet said: When anybody among you finds a good attribute in his brother. 0 seeker of evil. come back. The Prophet said: God will make His angels view with an ascetic saying: 0 young man who has suppressed his passions for My sake and who has spent his youth for My sake. None except a fasting man will enter Paradise by that gate. The Refugees asked the Prophet once about gratefulness. CHAPTER VI FASTING Fast is one-fourth of faith. He once said to a man: When any honourable man of a tribe comes to you. but fast is only for My sake and it is I who will reward him for it. They have divided their wealth and properties among us. fast keeps special connection with God. advance. his pleasures. we are guests of the Ansars and we have not seen better people than them. So fast is kept only for My sake and it is I who will reward him for it. he has given up his sexual passion..

(1) Making amends. If a man gets cupping. For this reason. as it is the action of the mind and secret from public eye. (3) Imsak or refraining oneself from food drink. God says: If you help God. . the inhabitants of each place will decide the case separately. it will break fast. If water enters the belly unwillingly. For this reason. it will not spoil his fasting. failing that to feed sixty poor men with one meal.47: 8. One need not keep Qaza fast consequitively. a fasting man has got sexual intercourse. A menstruating woman must compulsorily keep fast on other days. It is compulsory on every major Muslim to keep fast on other days for break of fast in Ramzan. it is compulsory on him to refrain from food. So at the beginning. SECTION 1 SIX COMPULSORY DUTIES OF FAST (1) To seek the new moon of Ramzan. If there is no niyyat of compulsory fast. drinks something and does any such act. God will help you and will make your feet firm . Then its connection remains with only God. it is punishment for the enemy of God as the way of the devil is sexual passion and it increases through the help of food and drink. God says: I will show certainly My path to those who strive hard for us (29: 69). (3) No to admit anything outside in the body willingly during fast. God says: God does not change the condition of a people unless they change their own condition (13: 12).182 FASTING Vol-I Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 183 while the moon of I'dul Fitr is based on the evidence of two just pious Muslims. it will breakfast. The Prophet said: If the devil had not moved in the human minds. The sight of the new moon of Ramzan is based only on the evidence of one just man of intellect. If the enemy of God is controlled. The devil moves in it till it is fertile. but all other actions fall within human eyes. drink and sexual intercourse for the remaining portion of the day. its secret and open conditions and its rules and regulations should be known and they will be discussed in three sections. the Prophet said: The devil runs through human body like the circulation of blood. God's light is not disclosed to the person in whom he moves. (4) Fidya or expiation: if a . If through mistake. If a man eats something. (5) Abstinence from deliberate emission of semen. If however the distance is more. The speciality of fasting is forbearance and sacrifice. (4) Abstinence from sexual intercourse during fast. and from sexual intercourse. If there is cloud. (2) TO MAKE NIYYAT OF FASTING: To make niyyat every night with firm faith is compulsory. specially when fast controls the devil. For this reason. Secondly. If the new moon is seen in one place and is not seen in another place and if the distance between the two places in less than about two miles. She asked: How? The Prophet said: With hunger. (2) Kaffara or Atonement is not compulsory except in case of sexual intercourse in which case one is to set free a slave or fast for two consequitive months. it will he considered as optional fast. So niyyat should be made every night. it will not spoil fast. the Prophet said to Ayesha. One niyyat for full Ramzan month is not sufficient. it will be helping God. If deliberately semen is emitted. thirty days of Shaban must be completed. ' (6) Abstinence from deliberate vomiting. Curb it by hunger. they could have surely known the mysteries of heaven. it is compulsory for the inhabitants of both the places to keep fast. it will not spoil his fast. shut his path and make narrow his passage.Everything in the world has got a speciality. For this reason. ATONEMENT FOR BREAK OF A FAST There are four modes of compulsory atonement of fast if it breaks. fast is the door of worship and its shield. Nobody sees fast except God as it is a secret action with sincere patience. This change is said to be due to increase of sexual passion as it is the grazing field of the devil and a place for his movement. Wilful vomiting breaks fast. a servant will make efforts and then hope for reward of God. If a man breaks fast carelessly but without excuse. Knock at the door of Paradise. When the excellence of fast is so wide.

SUNNATS OF FAST ARE SIX: (1) To eat Sehri latter..falsehood. slander. (1) To restrain eye sight from what is evil and from things which divert attention from God's remembrance. Hazrat Muzahed said: Two things spoil fast. The two women back-bited the people and ate their flesh.of God and reciting the Quran. (2) Fast of the few select Muslims. (5) to recite the Quran. In other words. The Prophet said: Fast is like a shield. they don't think of anything else except God and the next world. . He used to stay in the mosque without coming out of it except when pressed by necessity such as calls of nature. The Prophet said: Eye sight is a poisonous arrow out of the arrows of the devil. (6) and to observe I' tekafin a mosque in the last ten nights of Ramzan month. The fasting of select for pious men rests on six duties for gaining perfection. These people keep fast of mind. sight and other limbs of body. There is in Hadis: Two women kept fast at the time of the Prophet.9: 139. God placed the eater of unlawful food and the hearer of unlawful words on the same level. If a man wants to assault or make quarrel. back-biting. (3) Fast of the highest class. For this reason. one refrains himself from sins of hands. In this kind of fasting. This was the habit of the Prophet of God. abusive speech. This is the lowest kind of fast. This highest class of people are the Prophets and the near ones of God. let him not rebuke and dispute. (3) not to cleanse teeth after mid-day (4) to give charity. perjury and sight with sexual passion. SECTION 2 SECRETS OF FAST Know. A certain sage said: One sin is written for one whose efforts during the day are made only to prepare for breaking fast. They think only of the world with the intention of the next world as it is the seed ground for the future. he may compensate each fast by giving food crops of one Mud for each day.5:46. feet. obscenity. feet and other organs from sins. One of them vomitted fresh blood and fresh flesh which filled up half of the cup. Another vomitted similarly and filled up the cup. If a man gives it up.verse: Say God and then leave them sporting in their vain talks (6:91). God says: You are then like them . (1) fast off the general Muslims. it is compulsory on her to give its compensation by giving one Mud food-stuff to a poor man and she will have to fast Qaza in addition. to adopt silence and to keep the tongue busy with the remembranc. (4) To save hand. 0 dear readers. If a man keeps fast. This kind of fast is kept after sacrificing oneself and his thoughts fully to God. false-speaking. Thus said the Prophet: The back-biter and the hearer of back-biting are equal cosharers in sin. They were sent to the Prophet so that he might order them to break fast. If an old-man of age is unable to keep fast. The sage Sufiyan Saori said: Back-biting spoils fast. The Prophet then said: The two women fasted with lawful food but broke it with unlawful food. He sent a cup for them telling them that they should vomit in it what they ate. slander. he prepared himself for greater divine service for the remaining days of Ramzan and ordered the inmates of the house to do the same. let him say to him: I am fasting. They were so much overstickens with hungers at the end of the day that their lives were about to end. (2) to break fast before Magrib prayer with dates or water. backbiting and falsehood. (2) To restrain the tongue from useless talk. God says: Why do not the Godfearing men and the worldly renunciated men prohibit talking sinful words and unlawful eating . It is to restrain oneself from eating and drinking and from sexual passion. hypocrisy and enmity. When the ten nights of Ramzan remained. God says: The hearers of falsehood and eaters of unlawful food . The Prophet said: 184 FASTING Vol-I Five things destroys fasting . This is the meaning of the . from evil deeds and to save belly . back-biting. that there are three classes of fast. besides the above things. (3) To restrain the ear from hearing the evil talks because what is unlawful to utter is also unlawful to hear. God gives him such a faith of which the taste is tasted by his mind.5:68? To remain silent at the time of back-biting is unlawful.pregnant or suckling woman does not keep fast for fear of her child.

there is no fast up to Ramzan. but his rank is lower than that of an angel as his passion is strong and he is tried by it. This should be the case for every divine service. There is in Hadis: When half of Shaban passes. He who fasts and does evil deeds is like a patient who restrains himself from eating fruits for fear of disease but who swallows poison. Zil-Haj is the best among them as there is therein the day of Haj and fixed days. the first ten days of the month of Muharram and all holy months. the days of Ashura. Muharram. sexual passion rises high and greed and temptation reign supreme. A sin is like eating poison. This nearness keeps connection with attribute but not with space. The Prophet used to fast most in the month of Shaban. On being asked the reason. (6) To keep the mind of a fasting man between fear and hope. When he read this verse. he said: He refrains from eating lawful food and breaks fast by eating human flesh by back-biting. If it had not been a trust of fasting." he placed his hands on his ears and eyes and said: Ear is a trust and eye is a trust. "God orders you to give trust to its rightful owners (4 : 61). Those which occur every year are the days of Arafat. 0 dear readers that additional fasts are sunnat if observed in the days of good and excellence. Muharram and Rajab are the holy months. There is no meaning of fasting if it is kept with lawful food and broken with unlawful food. A fasting man eats in full at the time of breaking fast what he could not eat during day time. The object of fast is to anoint one with one of the divine attributes.is a fool. Zil-Haj. I have kept my tongue as trust for saving it. Its little does benefit and its much spoils. In other words. The Prophet said: If a man fasts for three days. Angels are near God. (5) To eat even lawful food so much at the time of breaking fast that it fills up the belly. It is not lawful to keep fast for two or three days before Ramzan. He is like a man who destroys a town for constructing a building. Friday and Saturday in the holy month God writes for him divine service of seven hundred years in lieu of every day. The Prophet said: One day's fast in the holy month is better than the fast for thirty other days. Thursday. An unlawful thing is like poison and-it destroys Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 185 religion and a lawful thing is like a medicine. Fast of one day during these . That attribute is Samadiat meaning to be bereft of hunger and thirst and to follow the angels as far as possible being free from passion. It is now open to you to observe both the secret and open matters or to observe either of them. whether he will be near God or not. The object of fast is to keep belly vacant in order to control passion and to increase God-fear. There is in Hadis: Divine service for the first ten days of Zil-haj is dearer to God than that in other months. 186 FASTING' Vol-I SECTION 3 OPTIONAL FAST AND ITS RULES Know.from doubtful things at the time of breaking fast. Rajab and Shaban are the months of excellence and Jil Qaedah. the first ten days of the month of Zilhaj. Some of these days occur every year. The Prophet said: There are many fasting men who do not gain by fasting except hunger and thirst. He prepares different kinds of foods. He said: God made this month of Ramzan for running in which the people will be running for good deeds and competing With one another. There is in one Hadis: Of all the fasts after the fast of the month of Ramzan. That is unlawful. It is also injurious to eat lawful food in excess and hot to eat it little. some every month and some every week. Let everyone of you keep that trust. Zil-haj. A belly filled up with too much lawful food is hated more than all other reservoirs. He who drinks this poison . If the belly remains full from morning to evening. because he does not know whether his fast will be accepted or not. The rank of a man is far more superior than that of a lover animal as he can control his passion by dint of his intellect. How can I give it up for replying you? So it appears that for every affair there are secret and open matters. The Prophet said: Fast is a trust. Once Hasan Basri was passing by a party of men who were playing and sporting. That attributes. the best fast is in the month of Muharram as it is the beginning of the year and founded on good and most dear for blessing. the Prophet would not have said: I am fasting.

The Prophet said: The treasures of the world were presented to me. middle day and the last day of every month. Qatadah said: God ordered Hazrat Abraham. God created a house. dishonoured and disgraced as on the day of Arafat.days is equal to fast of one year and one night's prayer is equal to the prayer of the Blessed night. The cause is that he sees God's blessings descending and His forgiveness of great sins. I rejected them and said: I shall remain hungry for one day and take food on another. He who dies at Mecca or Medina. It has been reported that the Prophet sometimes continued to fast in such a way that the people thought that he won't break it and sometimes he continued to keep no fast till the people thought that he won't keep fast. make pilgrimage for it. God mentions the devil as saying: I shall sit for them in your straight path. The Prophet said: Fast for one day and break fast on the following day. ANNUAL FAST: The best way is to keep fast for one day and break it on the following day. God says: 'that they may witness benefits for them'. The Prophet said: there is some sins out of sins which are not forgiven except without waiting at Arafat. The Prophet . It is reported that the Prophet did not fast any full month except Ramzan. The Prophet said regarding it: He who dies without making pilgrimage. He said: I shall be able to fast more. In addition. therefore. there will be written for him the rewards of one pilgrimage and one Umrah up to the Resurrection Day. Thursday. They asked: Is the reward better than that of Jihad? He said: Not that of even Jihad in the way of God. The Prophet said: The best fast is that of my brother Daud. SECTION 1 EXCELLENCE OF PILGRIMAGE: God says: Proclaim Haj among the people. MONTHLY FAST: The days of month in which fast are to be kept are the first day. When I Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 187 shall take food. The Prophet said: He who makes pilgrimage without doing any obscene deed and without making quarrel comes out of his sins as on the day when his mother gave birth to him. there is the fast of Ayyam Biz on the 13th. He has forgiven them. CHAPTER VII SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Pilgrimage is one of the pillars of Islam. WEEKLY FAST: In every week. He fasted for are day and broke it on the following day. These are the days of excellence. It will. the beauty of divine service for the whole life. 14th and 15th of the moon. Some say that the devil will be sitting in the paths towards Mecca to prevent the people from making pilgrimage. He slept sometimes in such a way that the people thought that he won't rise from bed and sometimes he kept wakeful in such a way that the people thought that he won't sleep again. Friday and Monday are good. our Prophet and all chosen servants Proclaim Haj among their people. the perfection of Islam and the foundation of religion. so that they may come to you on foot or upon every camel coming from every distant place (Quran). God revealed the following verse: Today I have perfected your religion for you and made My gifts perfect on you and I am pleased to give you Islam as a religion 5 : 3. but the reward is equal to that of the Jihad of a man in which his horse is wounded and he himself is martyred. It means trade and rewards in the next world. I shall praise thee and when I shall remain hungry I shall seek humility from Thee. The Prophet said: The devil does not become so much humiliated. Then he proclaimed: 0 people. he discussed in three sections. He said: I wish to keep better fast than this. The Prophet said: If a man comes out of his house with the intention of making pilgrimage or Umrah. A certain sage said about it: By Lord of the Ka'ba. the end of actions. Then the Prophet 'said: There is no better fast than this. On the day of pilgrimage. dies willingly as a Jew or a Christian: So how important is that divine service without which religion does not become perfect and one becomes a Jew or a Christian or a misguided one. The Prophet instructed Abdullah -b-Amr to fast thus. will not be presented for account and no account will be taken from him and he will be said: Enter Paradise.

It will be raised upon the Resurrection Day. God forgives them. forty for those who pray and twenty for those who visit the Ka'ba. A certain sage said: If the Arafat Day and the Jumma Day occur on the same day. If their number becomes less. Thus its reward increases to one lac. sought blessings from them and they hastened to do these things before they would commit sins. There is in Hadis: The Black Stone is a jewel out of the jewels of Paradise. If they invoke. It will bear witness for those who fulfilled their promise and against the infidels for infidelity. their invocation is accepted. There is in Hadis: One Umrah during Ramzan is like pilgrimage with me. If they intercede. The Prophet said: Forgive one who has come for pilgrimage. bestowed My favours completely on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion-5: 53. the day of Arafat and. On that day the farewell pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet took place and on that day. He said: I shall be the first man who will burst out of his grave. He asked: In what way? He said: When God took promise from the descendants of Adam. Whose makes Tawaf in rains for a week. Then he said to Hazrat Ali behind him: 0 Abul Hasan. There is in Hadis: He who makes Tawaf for a week barefooted and bare bodies will get the reward of setting free a slave. Hazrat Ali said: 0 Commander of the Faithful. If they pray. God will fill the number by angels. Jumma day and he was then waiting at Arafat. his past sins are forgiven. He wrote a scroll on them and impressed it on this stone. If they seek forgiveness. welcomed the pilgrims. The Prophet said: Those who make pilgrimage and Umrah are guests and neighbours of God. The Ka'ba will proceed towards Paradise till it enters it and they will also enter paradise. The people of the Book said: If the verse would have been revealed upon us. to make Tawaf at first before Haj and Umrah is commendable. Then the inhabitants of Jannatual Baqi will resurrect with me. Safar or the first part of Rabiul Awal. take advice and intercede. forgive one who seeks forgiveness for a pilgrim. it is accepted.To-day I have perfected for you your religion. Hazrat Omar said: A pilgrim is forgiven and also the man for whom he seeks forgiveness in Zilhaj. The Prophet said: 120 blessings descend everyday on this Ka'ba sixty for those who make Tawaf. kissed on their foreheads. He was then making Tawaf riding and he placed his staff in his hand on it and kissed one end of it. It will bear witness for everyone who kissed it and testified its truth. I would never kissed you. it has got benefits and harms. It was the custom of the ancient sages that they broadcasted the stories of warriors. There is in another Hadis: He whose sins are greatest is a person who thinks at Arafat that God has not forgiven his sins. adorned with ornaments like a newly wedded bride and those who made pilgrimage will be busy in covering it with cloth. There is in Hadis: Make much Tawaf because it is such a great thing that you will find it in your book of deeds on the Resurrection day and for which people will envy you. your prayer will be accepted. The Ka'ba will be presented on the 190 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I Resurrection Day. Hazrat Omar said: I bear witness that this verse was revealed on the Prophet on the day of two festivals. It will have two eyes and one tongue with which it will speak. Muharram. it is accepted from them. the verse was revealed . then the . every person at Arafat is forgiven and that is the best day in the world. Then he wept and raised his voice high.Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 189 said: There is no rewards except Paradise for an accepted Haj. Hasan Basari said: One day's fast therein is equal to one lac fast and charity of one Dirham is equal to that of one lac dirhams. 0 God. It was narrated that Hazrat Omar once made prostration over it. The Prophet used to kiss it much. EXCELLENCE OF MECCA AND KABA The Prophet said: God promised that every year six lacs people will make pilgrimage. Had I not seen the Prophet kissing you. He said once after kissing it: I know certainly that you are a mere piece of stone and you can not do any benefit or harm. we would have observed it as a day of festival. For this reason.

one prayer in Baitul Muqaddas is equal to one thousand prayers and one prayer in the mosque of Mecca is equal to one lac prayers. Hazrat Omar assembled them and said: 0 inhabitants of Yemen. the angels saw him and said: 0 Adam your Haj has been accepted. (1) Fear of being equal to Ka'ba. For this reason. The Prophet said: If a man bears hardships of Medinah. He said: To commit seventy sins at Ruqia is better to me than to commit a sin at Mecca. The Prophet said: God says: When I will wish to destroy the world. (2) Eagerness for visiting it again owing to separation. go to Yemen. as to be equal from the point of honour is harmful.the third time. it brings abundant rewards. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: To store up food stuffs at Mecca is said to be excessive oppression within the precincts of the Ka'ba. go to Iraq. as guarding the frontiers of Islam is necessary from the enemies and their excellence is great. There is in Hadis that God looks to the inmates of the world every night. After Medinah. (3) Not to live at Mecca for fear of sins and guilts is better than honouring the place. EXCELLENCE OF MEDINAH There is no such better place as Medinah after Mecca. When the Prophet returned to Mecca. I shall be his intercessor on the Resurrection Day. let him do it because if a man dies at Medinah. It is better to live at Mecca if anybody does not commit any sin. There is in Hadis: Before its lifting. God made the Ka'ba as a refuge of the people and a safe place. This is the case with all other good deeds. Thn he read this verse: If a man wishes therein to do. excessive oppression.' After these three places. as look towards the Ka'ba is worship and if a good deed is done there. The Prophet said: 'If a man can die at Medinah. The rewards increase much if a good deed is done at Medina. The Ka'ba was twice destroyed and it will belifted up at. EXCELLENCE OF HABITATION AT MECCA The God fearing men disliked to live at Mecca for three reasons. We built the Ka'ba two thousand years before you. there is the place of Baitul Muqaddas wherein a prayer brings rewards five hundred times more than that in other mosques. the Prophet . Hazrat Ibn Masud said: There is no such city except Mecca wherein the people will be punished for niyyat before actions.Meccans and then the people between the two Harams (Mecca and Medinah). nobody will make its pilgrimage for seven years. When this sort of Tawaf will end. He forgives one whom He sees making Tawaf and forgives one whom he sees standing towards the Ka'ba and forgives one whom He sees praying in the Ka'ba. Some people feared so much that they even responded not to their calls of nature in the sacred enclosure. he turned his face towards the Ka'ba and said: 'You are the best place to me among the places of God and you are the dearest city to me among the cities of God. 0 inhabitants of Iraq. it will be the cause of being lifted away from the world. He looks first to the inhabitants of Mecca and out of them first to the inhabitants of the Ka'ba. This is only foe Ka'ba. A friend of God said: The sun does not set in unless an Abdal makes Tawaf of the Ka'ba and it does not set in unless a friend of God makes its Tawaf. The Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 191 192 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I Prophet Said: One prayer in my mosque brings rewards one thousand times more than the prayer in other mosques except the mosque of Mecca. Then the people will see in the morning that it has been lifted away andthey will find no sign therein. all places are equal except the frontiers of Islam. Ruqia is a place between Mecca and Tayef. the Ka'ba will be circumbulated always. I will begin it first with My house and will destroy it first. he will be given grievous punishment. When the pilgrims finished pilgrimage. The Anti Christ will appear and Jesus Christ will come down and will kill Anti Christ. I shall be his intercessor on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said: If one prayer in the mosque of Medinah is equal to ten thousand prayers.' This is true in case of all good deeds done here. Then immediately after it the world will be destroyed. as. I would never come out of it?' Why should it not be. He said: I fear lest the people inhabit too much in the Ka'ba. There is in Hadis that when Adam performed all rites of pilgrimage. Then after'it. Had I not been ejected from you. Then the Resurrection will come near.

(2) to be a free man. sock. (3) to make Umrah in the months of pilgrimage. (2) to throw pebbles at Mina.(1) Ifrad. If a man gets a source of income. (5) It is unlawful to kiss. it is prohibited to put on shirt. (5) to stay at Mina. MODES OF HAJ: Haj can be performed in three modes . These are also compulsory in Urnrah except waiting at Arafat. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: If a man dies without Haj and without paying Zakat. to make Sayee. (4) to be major. SIX WAJEB OF HAJ: To make lhram at the appointed place. (4) He shall not have sexual intercourse before the end of Ihram. A son may not take money from his father to make pilgrimage on behalf of his father. to wait at Arafat and then to shave hairs. (2) In the Qeran Haj. the mosque of mine and the mosque of Baitul Muqaddas. everything can be enjoyed even sexual intercourse with wife. turban. it is compulsory for such a pilgrim to sacrifice a goat. When there is no Ihram. he again makes Ihram and breaks it after Haj and thereafter makes Tawaf. (3) to be intelligent and able. SECTION 2 . trouser. (3) In Tamattu Haj. DUTIES OF HAJ Two things are necessary for the health of Haj-Time and Islam. (4) not to go to a distance for making Ihram for Haj. embrace or to marry or get married during Ihram. to make Tawaf.(1). (2) to make Umrah before Haj. (6) and to make Tawaf of the Ka'ba at the time of farewell. FIVE COMPULSORY DUTIES OF HAJ: To make Ihram. Live in th place you like and praise God. If a man dies before making pilgrimage inspite of his solvency. (4) to spend the night at Muzdalafah. he should not change it. PROHIBITED THINGS IN HAJ AND UMRAH (1) During Haj and Umrah. Ibrahim Nakhyi. If he cannot do it. (2) Qeran and (3) Tamattu. but now I say: Visit graves. to be a Muslim. we did not say funeral prayer for him. first Ihram is made for Haj before it actually takes place. he should stick to it. he must send his representative with expense to make pilgrimage. Ihram is made at the fixed place and then the pilgrim comes to Mecca and breaks it. he will fast for seven days in the same manner.(1) not to be included within th people of Ka'ba. There is in Hadis: If a man gets blessings in a thing. (5) to make Haj and Umrah by the same person. The mode of making pilgrimage by Ifrad is the best. Muzahed and Taus said: If we knew that a certain man died without making Haj. he will pray for return to the world.said: Don't tie your camel except in three mosques. The Prophet said: I had prohibited you before to visit graves. just before Haj. There are some conditions in Tamattu Haj . but don't say 'Hazran' (I gave up). One should not cover his head as head is included within Ihram. He must have ' sufficient money to go and to be back from journey and for the maintenance of the family in the mean time. If a man is unable to make pilgrimage on account of his physical illness or bodily infirmity from which he has got no hope of recovery. (5) to make Haj in time. One must be of sound health and the route must be safe and sound. A woman can wear stitched cloth but her 194 face will remain uncovered. the mosque of the Ka'ba. Ihram is made for both Haj and Umrah at the same time. Then he read this verse: 0 my Lord. till that source of income is changed. there will be grievous punishment for him. send me again that I may do good deeds which I left undone. Ifrad is a kind of pilgrimage in which Ihram is made with the sole intention of Haj and not Umrah and Ihram is broken after the necessary duties are performed. Hazrat Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 193 Sayeed-b-Jubair. (3) to wait at Arafat till sunset. There are five conditions of Haj which are obligatory . (3) He shall shave the hairs of head and not manicure nails. (2) He shall not use scents of any kind. he will fast before sacrifice for three days separately or unitedly and when he returns home. Then Ihram is made for Umrah. The Prophet said: All places belong to God and all are servants of God. (6) It is unlawful to sacrifice game of land except game of sea. A wearing apparel without stitch and sandal may be used.

Lord of seven heavens and that which casts shade. there is no power and might except in God. We would not have found guidance if God did not show us guidance. raise your two hands and seek blessings with this Doa: 0 God. Lord of air and on what it blows upon. nor I may ascribe ignorance to anybody. The loss of a prayer is more severe than the loss of a pilgrimage. as the earth becomes narrow at night and not at day.EIGHT DUTIES OF HAJ FROM FIRST TO LAST (1) There are eight duties when one comes out of his house till he makes Ihram. Whatever God wills comes into being. Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 195 Don't deprive us and them of your blessing and don't change your kindness on us and on them. I seek from you in this journey virtues. (8) When you get on a high place on the way. I seek refuge to Thee from their evils. recite seven times: All praise is due to God who showed me path for it. The Prophet used to pray for the man who wished to perform'Haj: May God keep you in His protection. pay compensation to the oppressed and clear off his debts and give expenses of maintenance for his family members till his return. you are my friend in this journey. the Great. Thine is all praise and all glory when you get down. When you land at any place. He will seek your good and help you.H). Don't walk alone and don't go out of your company and keep a watch at the time of your sleep at night. He shall spend something in charity before he starts. say in the name of God and with God. . I seek refuge to you from the troubles of journey. God fear and actions pleasing to you. religion and safety of properties and take us for pilgrimage of your House and for visiting the grave of your Prophet Muhammad (P. Thy honour is above all honours. Spread out your hands if you sleep at the early part of night. make my journey easy and give me provision of health of body. place your head on the palm of your hand. (3) Pray two rak'ats of prayer before starting from home with Fateha and Sura Kaferun in the first rak'at and Sura Ikhlas in the second rakat. I seek refuge to Thee from all these matters. (7) You should not travel during day time. May He forgive your sins. save me and them from all calamities. 0 God Thou art our carrier on backs and Thou art helper in all our affairs. Lord of the devil and those whom they misguide. (5) When you get on board of your conveyance. (6) Most of your journey should be at night. 0 Lord. God has made this conveyance subservient to us. that I may not be oppressed or that I may not oppress anybody. There is no power and no might except in God. 0 God. The Prophet paid: You should travel at night. I rely on God. Sleep little during the night that you^may be helper in journey. that nobody may ascribe ignorance to me. I seek refuge to Thee that I my not be misguided. (a) He shall make Tauba. Take farewell from relatives. We shall have to return to our Lord. Lord of sea and what it blows upon. May He give you provision of God fear. Lord of seven earths and that which reduces it. that I may not misguide anybody. friends and neighbours and seek their blessings and give your blessings to them by saying: I am entrusting to God your religion and your trust and the end of your actions. (4) When you will come near the door of your house. recite Takbir thrice and then recite: 0 God. say: In the name of God. When you finish your prayer. you are my successor for my properties. and may He keep your face towards good wherever you are. 0 God. say: 0 God. from change of conditions and from the evil looks of the family members and friends. If you sleep by the latter part of night. God is greatest trust on God. the destitute and the weak. give us and them the blessings of your nearness. He will remind you if you forget. pray two rak'ats. make the world narrow for me. recite Tasbih. (2) He shall seek a religious companion. that I may not slip or that I may not cause anybody to slip. He shall return the trusts entrusted to him and take legally earned money sufficient for his journey expenses till his return along with the additional sum for the poor. Thus the Prophet used to sleep in his journey in order to guard against the loss of a prayer. 0 God. the Mighty. children and friends. When you sit on the conveyance. When you reach a high place. I seek good of the inhabitants of this place. 0 God.

recite the following: There is no deity but God. burden. It is as follows: 0 God. I am present to Thee. this is Thy house. Bear witness of my fulfillment. (3) Recite at the start of Tawaf: In the name of God. in the way of God and upon the religion of the Apostle of God. (5) When you enter the Ka'ba. accept my repentance. testifying to the truth of Thy Book. After crossing the Black Stone. Thou bast made is sacred and honourable. I am present to Thee. respect and awe. Thy mercy and I inform Thee of the invocation of one afflicted. from God. 0 God. this is Thy sanctuary and this is Thy house. fulfilling promise with Thee and following the ways of Thy Apostle Muhammad (Peace be on him). towards God. God is greatest. Use scent in body and cloth. 0 God. The Prophet said: He who makes Tawaf of the Ka'ba seven times and . Now make niyyat of either Ifrad. 0 God. There are other invocations also. from Thee peace. this House is Thine. then recite: 0 God. Thus there are recitations at every point round the Ka'ba as prescribed and you will go round the Ka'ba seven times. 0 possessor of glory and honour. there is no partner for Thee. Tawaf is like prayer except that conversation is allowed therein. all praise and gifts are for Thee. I am present to Thee. pray two rak'ats at Maqame Ibrahim following the Prophet and make invocations. It shall be done with Ihram dress as prescribed. (2) Then wait at the Black Stone which is the preliminary point of circling the Ka'ba. descending. Qeran or Tamattu Haj and say Talbiyah-present to Thee. help me in fulfilling its duties. Save me from Thy chastisement on the day Thou wilt resurrect Thy servants and include me in the company of Thy friends and those subservient to Thee.SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I 196 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I DUTIES FROM MIQAT TO THE ENTRY INTO MECCA (1) Take bath with the intention of making Ihram. I seek Thy forgiveness and"Thy pleasure. I make niyyat for pilgrimage. this safe place is Thine and this place is the place of refuge from Hell to Thee. So increase its honour. All praise is due to God who has taken me to His sacred House. there is no partner for Thee. open for me the Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 197 doors of Thy mercy and admit me in Thy Paradise and give me refuge from the accursed devil. White cloth is dearest to God. In other words be pure from all sorts of uncleanliness and cover your private. my hairs and my body from Hell. (3) Enter Mecca by the high place of Mecca and come out of it by its low place. (5) It is commendable to recite Talbiah in a loud voice at the time of ascending. Take journey if you walk on foot. 0 God. accept it from me. and Thou abode is the abode of peace. So save my blood. comb your hairs and head. this is Thy sacred sanctuary. recite the following: 0 God. reduce my. (2) Put on two pieces of unsewn Ihram cloth. Thou bast got no partner. the life of the next world is true life. gifts and lordship are for Thee. he used to say: Labbaik. God is greatest. Thy safe place. recite when you reach the door of the Ka'ba: 0 God. forgive my faults. (2) When you enter the first boundury of Harem outside Mecca. I have fulfilled Thy trust and my promise. Whenever anything astonished the Prophet. clip your mustache and do everything as described in the chapter on purity and cleanliness. Blessed art Thou. There is no partner for Thee. 0 God. (3). (6) Then touch the Black Stone by your right hand. this sanctuary is Thine. This is Thy city. who has made it the refuge of men and their safe place and a guide to the universe. FOURTH DUTY TAWAF (Circumbulation) Observe seven rules in Tawaf: (1) Observe the conditions of prayer in Tawaf. kiss it and recite: 0 God. (4) When you enter Mecca and come near the Ka'ba. (7) After finishing Tawaf. present to Thee. 0 God. enter it through the door of Banu Shaibah and recite: In the name of God. I am Thy servant. All praise. (4) When you enter into Ihram. Thou art Peace. 0 God. recite: 0 God.parts. DUTIES AFTER ENTRY INTO MECCA TILL TAWAF (1) Take bath to enter Mecca. I began this circling after putting faith in Thee. make it easy for me. riding on conveyance. with God. When you will come near the Ka'ba. manicure your nails. I beseech.

Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 199 EIGHTH AND NINTH DUTIES UMRAH. enter me a true entry and take me out a true taking out and.Safa and Merwa seven times and recite the following before doing it: There is no deity but He. Reaching at Arafat. being sincere to Him in worship though the polytheists dislike it. He also said: Whose does not come to me except with the object of visiting me. 0 God. Thou art majestic and honourable. put on Ihram dress and make Ihram from its appointed place. There is no deity but God. make Tawaf of the Ka'ba seven times before you start for home and seek forgiveness from God and express gratefulness for getting opportunity of making Haj and Umrah. There is no partner for Him. When you enter Mecca. should send much blessings upon the Prophet on his way to Medinah. take to running between the two hillocks . So make it a shield for saving me from Hell and a safe place from punishment and bad account. His promise. SIXTH DUTY-WAITING AT ARAFAT The waiting time at Arafat is from noon of the 9th Zil-haj to the early dawn of the 10th Zil-Haj. Then it ends with the shaving of head. 198 FIFTH. Next day. When the wall and trees of Medinah fall to his eyes. he will recite: 0 God. start for Mina and reach the place of stone throwing and throw seven stones there as prescribed. it is duty of God that I become his intercessor. He also said: He who wishes to visit Medinah. Then return to Mecca and make Tawaf of the Ka'ba. Make me one of those who have sought from Thee and Thou hast granted them. TAWAF OF FAREWELL He who intends to make Umrah before or after Haj. recite: 0 Lord. helped His servant and honoured His army and routed the allies. go round the Ka'ba seven times reciting the prescribed invocations and run between Safa and Merwa. He giveth life and taketh life and He is eternal without death. TENTH DUTY-VISIT TO MEDINAH The Prophet said: Whose visits my grave after my death has met me as it were during my life time. Then pray Magrib and Isha together with one Azan and two Aqamats. He is single. this is the sanctuaryof Thy Apostle. SEVENTH DUTY OTHER INSTITUTIONS OF HAJ At sun rise the next day. let him take bath. our Lord. bestow grace on me as Thou hast bestowed grace here on Thy friend and those who were obedient to Thee. His is the kingdom and His is all praise. Then pray two rak'ats after entering the mosque and then wait near the face of the Holy Prophet and send profuse Darud and blessings on him as prescribed. start from Arafat and reach Muzdalafah and recite the following: 0 God. give us good in this world and good in the hereafter and save us from Hell. Then sacrifice an animal and then shave your head. this is Muzdalafah. When you enter Medinah. He has proved true. 0 Lord. recite the following: In the name of God and upon the religion of the Apostle of God. people of different tongues have gathered here seeking different necessary thiis from Thee. forgive and show mercy and pardon what Thou knowest. He also said: He who does not visit me inspite of having means oppresses me. There is no deity but God.then prays two rak'ats will get the rewards of setting free a slave. Stay here for one night as it is included within the institution of Haj. The Prophet said: The place between my . After reaching Mina. DUTY-SA'YI: (Running between Safa and Merwa) After finishing Tawaf. this is Mina. All good is in His hands and He is powerful over all things. fix your tent and wait there with a great penitent mind and recite invocations and supplications as much as possible and seek forgiveness and mercy of God. Then return to Mina again. send for me from Thee a strong helper. Then at the beginning of running. recite the following: 0 God. After finishing all rites of Haj and Umrah.

as for each step of such a pilgrim there is written 700 rewards out of the rewards of Haram. To receive remuneration for Haj by representation in like the receipt of remuneration of the mother of Moses and there is no fault in it. There is in Hadis: In the latter days. Imam Baquie. Quarrel is opposed to good words and the Prophet termed good words as good deeds of Haj. Then visit the grave of the Prophet when leaving Medinah. but it will not be legal to perform Haj as an agent with the object of getting remuneration. Don't inflict trouble on anybody and adopt good conduct. the people will go for Haj but their object will be four. Take the middle course for expenditure. perform Haj by walking on foot. quarrels and disputes. expense is most pure and sure faith is best. no reward is acquired for Haj. Some chief of Mecca and some Sarcars of Arabia remain busy in keeping the people away from the path of Haj. as I shall be an intercessor for one who dies at Medinah. The Prophet said: He who makes Jihad in the way of God is like the mother of Moses. specially when one goes as a representative for Haj. This is the injunction of the Quran. Hands will be free from trades and commerce and all thoughts will be centered round one God and the mind will rest satisfied with the Zikr of God and its signs. (4) Give up indecent actions. talks of intercourse with them as they increase desire of intercourse. It will go out of the limit of Haj.one who makes death-instruction of doing Haj. the rich for trade and commerce. Imam Jafar Sadeq. There is no good in excessive expense and there is no excessive expense in good things. Evil actions mean such actions which take away from the religion of God.grave and pulpit is one of the gardens of paradise and my pulpit is upon my fountain. it is therefore named Safa. Save yourself from taking delicious food and drink. Indecent actions mean indecent and useless talks including such talks with females. As journey discloses the character and conduct of a man. the place of burials of the martyrs and of Hazrats Osman. Then observe prayer at the Qubba mosque as the Prophet said: He who comes out of his house and comes to the mosque of Qubba and says prayer there. (3) Take sufficient money and provision with you so that you may not feel difficulty for charity. the poor for begging and the learned for name and fame. The Prophet was asked : 0 Apostle of God. rather to accept remuneration with the object of performing Haj is legal as the mother of Moses did. Try to save yourselves from their hands and if you are unable. one who follows this custom and one who performs it on behalf of his brother. He was . Then visit Jannatul Baqiy. Quarrels and disputes give rise to hatred and envy. evil actions. God gives the world on account of religion but He does not give religion on account of the world. what is an accepted Haj? He said : The pilgrimage in which good words are uttered and food is given. To entruest them with properties is to help oppression. Hazrat Ibn Omar said : To have good provision in journey is honour. All things which give encouragement to do prohibited things are also prohibited. Abdullah-b-Abbas instructed his sons at the time of his death : 0 my children. A certain wise man said : To give provisions in the path of Haj is considered as expense in the way of God. Sufiyan said : He who talks indecent words destroys his Haj. The Prophets said: He who can die at Medinah should do it. (5) It is better to perform Haj by walking on foot. There is no misuse in excessive charity. These things can be earned but if Haj is performed with these objects. This is an innovation. SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I 200 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I SECTION 3 TEN SECRET THINGS OF HAJ (1) The money for expense will be lawful. Hasan Jainal Abedin. it is better to return home than to help oppressors. the rewards of an Umrah are written for him. The Prophet said : There is no reward for an accepted Haj except paradise. (2) Don't help the enemies of God by keeping the properties in trust. The Prophet said: God will admit three persons in paradise for one Haj . The rulers will go to increase their power. Hazrat Fatema. He used to Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 201 say : The best is the pilgrimage in which sincere intention is perfect. She took remuneration for suckling her son.

It is said that if one gives up sins and bad company and takes up good company and gives up assembly of useless talks and takes to the assemblies of Zikr. Hazrat Omar sent instructions to his generals Put on old clothes and habituate yourselves to bear hardships. as the best of three things is that which is best in price and most valuable to the seller.questioned : What are the rewards of Haram ? He said : One good deed brings one lac rewards. to clip mustaches and to manicure nails. Ali and Ibn Masud explained His verse in the above way. This gives relief to the camel. they are the signs of acceptance of Haj. You will take it to the destination. Abu Darda'a said to his camel at the time of his death : 0 camel. . There is in Hadis : There is reward for every hair of the sacrificed animal and for every drop of blood and it will be weighed near God. Try to sacrifice an animal which is strong and strout. Bear with Pleasure sacrifice of the loss that is caused in the matter of properties or the occurrence of any calamity. The Prophet said : Don't make the backs of your animals seats. as I took hire of this camel. The Prophet said : Learn your institutions from me. The Prophet said : Nothing is dearer to God on the day of sacrifice out of the actions of men than the sacrifice of an animal. God says : Make Haj and Umrah perfect for God. This is explained by saying to sacrifice stout and strong animal. and to descent from their backs morning and evening is commendable as it gives rest to the animals. It is better to walk from Mecca to Arafat and from Arafat to Mina. The Prophet said Sacrifice a good animal. If sacrifice is compulsory. That is the reward of bearing hardships in the way of Jihad. so that the people might follow him in his action. (8) Show kindness to the riding animals and don't take anything on them beyond their strength. as it will be your carrier on the Resurrection Day. The ancient people did not press for price of three things-animals of pilgrimage. Once a man said to the sage Ibnul Mobarak : I am giving this letter of mine with you.' This means to shave hairs. Nothing is spoiled near God of any trouble which is foreborn and every loss which is sustained. (6) Don't ride without keeping the balance of burden behind and keep the things separate if possible. (1) To spend with a cheerful mind. hairs dishevelled. because it is a proof of the acceptance of Haj. (9) Seek nearness of God by sacrificing an animal. as the Prophet enjoined his followers to remain then without beauty and with dishevelled hairs. So purify your soul by sacrifice. It will come on the Resurrection Day with its hoof and horns and its blood falls in a place near God before it falls on the ground. The Prophet made pilgrimage riding on conveyance and even he made Tawaf riding.' He said : I will ask the owner of the camel about it. The friends of God did not sleep on the backs of animals. The Prophet was asked : How is Haj accepted ? He said : By A'z and Sa'z. indifferent to pride and attachment for the world. The object is not the increase in meat but to purify from the guilt of miserliness and to adorn it for God with honour as its flesh and blood will not reach God but He will accept from you God fear. Thus he feared to carry it on account of God fear and piety. Sleeping over their backs gives them trouble and gives a sense of heaviness to them. The Prophet said : A 202 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 203 pilgrim is dressed dishevelled and his body is dust laden. you may eat its meat. setting free of slaves and animals of sacrifice. To proclaim Talbiah loudly is called A'z and to sacrifice a camel is called Sa'z. body laden with dust. They have come to Me with hairs dishevelled and with body dust-landen from every distant part of hills. So give good news. don't eat its meat and if optional. as I did not burden you with load beyond your strength. God says : 'Then perform the institutions of Haj. God says : 'Whose honour the signs of God'. The troubles and calamities on the way to pilgrimage is like expense in the way of God and the expense of a dirham at that time is equal to the expense of seven hundred dirhams. Hazrats Omar. (7) Keep your countenance unsmooth. God says : Look to the visitors of My house. A perfect Haj is one in which niyat is taken when one comes out of his house for Ihram and to walk on foot. don't dispute with me near your Lord.

The object of obeying orders is nothing but to serve God. The Prophet said regarding Haj : I consider Haj thus a veritable truth. honoured the ancient House as His House fixed it as the object of desire of the people. Every visitor comes to the Darbar from every distant and inaccessible place dishevelled in hairs and laden with dust and in the most humble spirit. whether it contains any meaning or not. The object of prayer is also understood. Don't hope to return home and make wasiat to . running between Safa and Merwa. that you will intend to be separate from your home and family by the help of your firm determination and turn your face towards visiting the House after giving up comforts and pleasures of home life. Every oppression has got a compensation and every compensation is due to somebody. so that their love. H. nor can it bear the brilliance of His light. So the institutions which cannot be understood by intellect are the perfect divine services for making the heart pure. The meaning of coming to it is to see God there. 0 dear readers. Know. The light of eye in the next world will be permanent and will be free from the causes of destruction and change and then it will be of for glimpse of the Lord. But one can be fit to earn it by not visiting His House. This earthly eye has got no power to have a glimpse of the Divine light. It is an act of wisdom to obey God in places where intellect cannot enter and which it cannot comprehend. He madeit as the Darbarof the greatest Emperor. restrain yourself from all enjoyments and pleasure. When they began to live contrary to it and gave up loneliness for divine service and mixed with the people to fulfill their low desires. The object of fasting to restrain sexual passion and low desires is understood. But by these acts. throwing of stones at Mina. For this reason. full servitude is expressed. that you will not be able to reach God till you can control your passions and low desires. He knows that no house can encompass God and no town can cover him and yet he does it to make his divine service and his allegiance and obedience perfect.) to reawaken the paths of the next world and to call them to the aways of the Prophets. keep distant from name and fame and make your intention sincere and pure. because to act contrary to nature and to return from habits is the real servitude and slavery. For this reason. made Arafat an opening space as the precincts of His House and 204 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I honoured the place by prohibiting hunting and cutting off trees therein. For this reason. the friends of God of yore used to live far away from the localities of men and lived in lonely places in caves of mountains and hills. The object of the payment of Zakat is understood. the Prophet said : God gave us in lieu thereof Jihad and Takbir in every elevated place (Haj). DESIRE FOR HAJ: The Ka'ba is the House of God. So desire to meet Him will lead you to the causes of visit without doubt Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 205 FIRM DETERMINATION OF MAKING HAJ Know. God says about them in the Quran : Because there are hermits and those who renounced the work among them and they are not proud. It is however true that true servitude is a separate thing and to serve God means that one should conduct himself according to the order of God. On being questioned by the religious people about the life of a hermit. made its surrounding place pure to show honour to the House. He who desires to visit the Ka'ba in the world should have his object not to be deprived of it. Know in your mind the honour of the Ka'ba and the exalted rank of its Owner. running between Safa and Merwa and other institutions do not come within understading or seem good. Make your firm determination only for God. nor they come within understanding. Servitude to God is expressed fully when you understand a thing or not. The Prophet said : God gave this gift for this people and made Haj as their monkery. TO CUT OFF TIE IN HAJ: It means to pay compensation to the oppressed and to make sincere repentance to God from all sins. But no satisfactory reason is ostensibly found in the throwing of stones. God sent the Apostle Muhammad (P. make short your necessities and work only for the sake of God.SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERNAL ACTIONS OF HAJ KNOWLEDGE: The first thing of Haj is to know everything in connection with Haj. His object should be his look to the countenance of God in His permanent abode. 0 dear readers.for God might be deep. He did not say this with regard to prayer and other divine services. servitude in reality and slavery of the highest order.

Hope in mind to reach the Ka'ba and that your Haj may be accepted. remember all the great events when you will leave the world up to the Resurrcetion Day. As you wear tow unsewn pieces of cloth to go near the House of God and change your habit of putting on fine clothes. He was asked : Why are you not uttering Labbaik ? He said : I fear lest I may be said : You have no Labbaik and fortune. so you will not be able to meet with God after your death unless you take clothes contrary to the clothes of this world. Imam Sufiyan Saori said that Imam Jainal Abedin son of Hazrat Hussain made pilgrimage. Abu Solaiman Darani did not utter Labbaik even after walking a mile. remember then the questions of Munkar and Naqir.your children in writing and think of this journey as the journey for the next world. it will help to meet Him being His guest as God says : If a man goes out of his house and makes emigration to God and His Apostle and then death overtakes him. The Prophet said : The Black stone is the right hand of God in the World. When he recoverd from his swoon. ENTRY INTO MECCA: Remember at the time when you enter Mecca that you have reached safely in the sacred place of God and hope from God that you will be safe from punishment on account of your entry into Mecca. This is for those for whom God opened this door. Tawaf of Ka'ba's like prayer. Remember that you are visiting a funeral prayer in the journey towards the next world. he suddenly fell in swoon and remained long in that condition. KISSING: When you kiss the Black Stone. remember the biting of snakes in graves. he said : 0 Ahmad. When you look at the Ka'ba remember its glory and hope to meet its Owner. This visible world leads to the world unseen. SAYI BETWEEN SAFA AND MERWA: Sayi between these two hillocks in expectation of . Be grateful to God that you have got a conveyance to carry you and your loads. When you remember the danger of crossing the way. If you cannot reach the Ka'ba 206 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I and die on the way. This is your last object and it will help you towards that object. so God also handshakes with the people by means of the Black Stone. Don't think that the object of your Tawaf is the Tawaf of your body round the House but its object is the Tawaf of your mind with the rememberance of God. woe to you. know that you are going on a journey to God after separating your family and friends. Regarding conveyance. The affairs of Haj are like journey to the next world. As a result. his reward is upon God 4:100Q. Know that an honourable Tawaf is the Tawaf of mind before God. Remember Him between hope and fear and depend on the mercy of God. Ihram cloth When you put it on. God is in the unseen world. TALBIAH AT MIQAT: Know that Talbiah means to respond to the call of God. to whom are you going. think that it is a sign of allegiance and kiss His hand. the Ka'ba. STARTING FROM HOME: When you come out of your home. Then he fell down senseles. so there is no stitching of Ihram cloth. If you see the ferocious beasts on the way. remember the coffin cloth with which you will be clothed. Remember at the time when you utter Labbaik the condition of the people on the day of congregation. Bring this consolation in mind that if you visit the Ka'ba you may get glimpse of its Owner. Soul is a thing of the spiritual world as body is of the material world. As there is no stitching of cotton cloth for burial. He who is not seen by external eye appears there. Don't depend on your good deeds and believe firmly in the mercy of God. The Ka'ba is the outward darbar of a king. his face became changed and he had no strength to say Labbaik. Think that the Ka'ba is the exact prototype of the Baitul Mamur in Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 207 heaven. Be firm in your will that you are fulfilling your promise. PROVISIONS OF JOURNEY: Seek provision from your lawful earnings and think that your good deeds are the provisions of your next world and these will go with you after your death. When he made Ihram. i fear lest I may be said : There is no Labbaik and fortune for you. When you reach the Miqat or the fixed place for Ihram. Think then in your mind what is your object. Remember then that your Tawaf is like the Tawaf of the near angles who are making round the Throne. to meet whom do you hope ? You are going to meet the greatest emperor and for that you have surrendered and you have responded to it. he could not wait at Arafat. The angles make Tawaf of Baitul Mamur and the people of. When he uttered Labbaik. As a man handshakes with his brother.

God established the religion through the successors of the Prophet. the animal for sacrifice should be stout and strong. they are my companions. When Wais Qarni entered the mosque of Medina and began to wait at the door. The meaning of Haj is to obey God's. When it will be finished. Obey God's command by throwing stones and show sincerely and honestly your servitude to God even though it does not come to your understanding. When you will reach the mosque. you will be far away from him. Don't touch his grave and don't kiss it and know that God knows your mind. He fought with the enemies here and preached Islam up to his death. The more it is stout and strong. The wait in Arafat. walk on straight path becomes easy as the commands and prohibitions were expressed there in . It is a revelation from the Most High. By its help.commands without argument and without exercising intellect. CHAPTER VIII RECITATION OF THE QURAN All praise is due to God who showered blessings on His servants by sending revealed books and Prophets. Then intend to follow the deeds of Abraham who drove away the devil by throwing stones at him when the latter wanted to misguide him and not to sacrifice his dearest son Ismail in obedience to God's command. God will save your every limb from Hell-fire. God will send ten Daruds on him. remember that God selected the place for the Prophet and the earliest Muslims. you will remember the case of the great congregation on the Resurrection Day that each people will gather there with their respective Prophet and each people will except intercession of their Prophet and -remain busy to know whether his intercesion was accepted or not. This is the place of the 208 SECRETS OF PILGRIMAGE Vol-I promulgation of God's compulsory ordinanace and the ways of the Prophet. After seeing the vast concourse of people of different climes and tongues. 0 Muhammad.getting His glimpse is just as a mna goes forward and backward in getting a glimpse of his emperor. How will it be in case of that man who left his home and family and relatives and journeyed in difficult places and hills and came to visit the Prophet? The Prophet said: If a man sends one Darud on me. Enter it in fear and hope. At once he fell in swoon. the Almighty. For this reason. When you will remember this. Then come to the pulpit of the Apostle of God and think of his standing thereon and his sermons to his followers. think whether your Haj has been accepted or not as He does not accept Haj of one whom He does not love. Think that Safa is the scale of good deeds and Merwa of bad deeds. When he regained his senses. Whose sends salam to him out of his followers he will take it to him. SACRIFICE OF ANIMAL: Sacrifice in a mass scale brings the people near God. He will say: You don't know what evil deeds they have done after you? I will say: Then be off from me. Hope that in lieu of every limb of the sacrificed animal. he said: Take me out of this. the more you will be free from Hell-fire. Then think of the foot-steps of the Prophet in the city and take steps with care and honour." If you have not followed the Prophet. This has been said with regard to that person who will not be present before his grave. think which of the scales becomes heavy. MEETING WITH THE PROPHET: Meet with him as if he is alive and that you are standing before him. he said: This is the grave of the Holy Prophet. still you will hope for the mercy of God. This Quran does not contain any false stories of yore or future. VISITING MEDINAH: When your sight will fall on the wall of the city of Medinah. your standing and your salutation. By running between these two hillocks. I will say: 0 Lord. I have got no taste in the place where the Prophet has been buried. The Prophet said: God appointed an angel in his grave. Throwing of stones. Don't go very near his grave as you would not have gone to him if he were alive. The Prophet said: God will present before me many people. Therein there is food for reflection for those who are thoughful and there is true stories of former nations. remember that God selected this city for His Prophet and took him there. keep your mind engaged in the rememberance of God. They will say: 0 Muhammad. because blind obedience of a slave to his master gains the love of the master.

The Prophet was asked: 0 Messenger of God. This hanging book will not deceive you. He said: Two persons will stand in the mountain of musk on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said: The best of you is he who learns the Quran and teaches it. He said: Rust falls on heart as it falls on iron.clear terms and the lawful and unlawful things made clear. Imam Ahmad-b-Hambal said: I saw God in dream and asked him: 0 God. Wise saying: Hazrat Abu Omarah Baheli said: Recite the Quran. The provision of the inmates of a house in which the Quran is not recited becomes straitened. writting it in papers. how can the rust be removed? He said: By reciting the Quran and by remembering death. burning fire will not go near t. found guidance. It will be discussed in four sections. angels go out of it and the devil comes in. he loves God and His Prophet and if he disrespects the Quran. God says: I have revealed it and I will certainly preserve it. for what thing one can come near to Thee! He said: 0 Ahmad. Those who advised according to it told truth. The Prophet said: God hears the recitation of the Quran more attentively than the master ofa singing girl. The Jinn heard it and warned their classes. God misguides one who seeks knowledge other than that of the Quran. God destroyed those who opposed it. but no revelation will come to him. SECTION 1 EXCELLENCE OF THE QURAN The Prophet said: If a man thinks that what has been given to others is better than it considered little the dearest thing of God. God will not punish one who commits it to memory. How 210 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I fortunate are the tongues which broadcast them. Beware. clear light and firmest tie. he disrespects God and His Prophet. angels. Hazrat Amr-b-A's said: Every verse of the Quran is a door of Paradise and a light in your house. There is everything in it. The modes of preserving the Quran are the following committing it to memory. Lam and Mim' is a word but Alef is a word. It is a guide for the past and future. He said quoting the saying of the Prophet: You will get ten rewards in lieu of each word of it. their welfare diminishes. He said: God says: If a man cannot pray or invoke Me on account of his being engaged in reciting the Quran. angels remain present there and the devil goes out of it. They will have no fear and will render no accounts. We believe in it and did not set up anything with our Lord. even they will be free from the wants of men . nor touch it. It is a light and therein there is cure of the diseases of mind. The Prophet said: Recitation of the Quran is the best divine service of my followers. The Prophet said: A reciter of the Quran belongs to the family of God and is His sincere servant. If he loves the Quran and remains satisfied with it. by means of My Kalam the Quran. It is a firm rope of God. to explain it and comment on it. I asked Him: 0 Lord. I will give him better rewards than those who express gratefulness. to recite it always.(1) He who recites the Quran for pleasure of God. When the angels heard them. (2) He who becomes the leader of a people who remain satisfied with him. He said: Prophets. or anybody else cannot be better intercessors in rank than the Quran. They said: We heard a wonderful Quran. their good becomes more. Those who acted up to it got salvation. Those who held it firm. He said: He who recites the Quran opens as it were the door of Prophethood by his two sides. He said: God recited chapter Toaha and Easin one thousand years before creation. It is a guide. to read it in prayer. Hazrat Abu Hurairah said: The provision of the inmates of a house in which the Quran is recited increases. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: When you wish to acquire knowledge select the Quran as it is the embodiment of the knowledge of the previous and future generations. I am not saying that 'Alef. He said: If the Quran is kept within skin. Lam is a word and Mim is a word. How fortunate are those who commit them to memory. small and great. He said: Let nobody among you ask anything about himself except the Quran. by means of its understanding )r not? He Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 211 . they said: How fortunate are they on whom they will be revealed. There is no end of its miracle. It is ever fresh and new to the reciters.

Hazrat Ibn Masud said: The Quran was revealed to you for doing actions. fast and recitation of the Quran. If a man reads the Quran without ablution. If he reads it in the evening and dies in that night. they will remain silent when the people will hold useless talks. every condition has been said in order of excellence-first standing. Abu Solaiman Darani said: The angels of Hell will arrest those who commit the Quran to memory but become disobedient to God. then sitting and then lying state. So translate your recitation into action. Amr-b-Maimum said: If a man reads one hundred verses of the Quran after morning prayer. They will weep when the people will laugh. ten rewards are written for him for every word.said: Yes. There is in the Torah: God 212 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I said: 0 My servant. Imam Sufiyan Saori said: When a man recites the Quran. have you considered it more mean than your friend's letter? I am present to you. In this verse. it will not be considered as your recitation. He read out to him: God enjoins you to do justice and good. the seal of martyrdom is imprinted on him. If it does not prohibit you. therein there is sweetness. Hazrat Ali said: If a man recites a portion of the Quran in prayer standing. Hazrat Ali said: Three things increase the power of memory and removes scum. Hazrat Abu Zarr Geffari said: To make much prostration at day time and to pray long at night are better. fifty rewards are written for him for every word. one hundred rewards are written for him for every word.stick. God will give him rewards of the actions of the inhabitants of the world. He should not forget the Quran as others do. twenty five rewards are written for him for every word. The Prophet said: Recite the Quran till it prohibits you to do evil deeds. PUNISHMENT FOR HEEDLESS RECITATION Hazrat Anas said: There are some men who recite the Quran. Have I become more mean to you than your friend? SECTION 2 EXTERNAL RULES OF RECITING THE QURAN There are ten external rules for the recitation of the Quran. He said to the Prophet: Recite again. I am speaking with you but you have turned your mind from Me. There are men among you who recite the Quran from first to last and do not omit a single word therefrom but they donot translate it into action. God says: They remember God standing. (1) After ablution. its upper has got fruits and it is not the words of a man. face the Ka'ba without showing pride in sitting with head downwards just like the sitting of a student before his teacher. but them. If a man reads the Quran outside the prayer with ablution. He read it again and then said: By God. Once Khalid-b-Oqbah came to the Prophet and said: Read out to me the Quran. Hazrat Hasan Basri said: By God. whether you understand its meaning or not. He should not hold useless talks with those who hold such talks. you at once come toa side of the road and read with an attentive mind every word and sentence of it and you do not omit anything from it. tooth. Fuzail said: If a man recites the last portion of chapter Hashr and dies on that day. the seal of martyrdom is imprinted on him. The Prophet said: He who knows the unlawful things of the Quran as lawful does not believe in the Quran. Fazil-b-Yeaz said: One who commits the Quran by heart is the bearer of the standard of Islam. heightness. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: Those who committed the Quran to memory should get acquainted with the night when the people remain asleep and should be sorry when the people commit sins and make enjoyments during day time. But you have turned your face from it. The best way of Quran reading is in prayer standing in a mosque. sitting and lying on their sides and ponder over the creations of the heaven and earth. are you not ashamed of Me? If a letter from your friend comes to you in your journey. but I sent My Book to you and I am seeing with what attentive mind you are reading it and how you have followed its commands and prohibitions. If a man recites a portion of the Quran sitting in prayer. 0 My servant. an angel kisses on his forehead. its lower portion has got bases. there is no greater wealth than the Quran and there is no want after the Quran. .

and give me provision of reading it day and night and make it a proof for me. Saleh Marbi said: I recited the Quran in dream before the Prophet. Prostration is perfect when Takbir is recited therein. The best way is what the Prophet said in this Hadis: He who finishes the Quran within less time than three days cannot gain the knowledge of the rules of religion as hasty reading cannot clearly be recited.(2) THE QUANTITY OF QURAN RECITING: There are different rules for the readers about the quantity of the recitations of the Quran. assume weeping attitude. some thrice and some once in a month. then fall in prostration. (2) once in a month. The mode of bringing sorrow is to ponder over the words of warnings and punishments in the Quran. There are fourteen prostrations in the Quran. say: 0 God. The Prophet ordered Abdullah-b-Amr to finish the Quran once a week. Hazrat Ayesha said of a man who recited the Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 213 Quran hastily: This man neither recites the Quran. God says: Fall down in prostration and glorify the praise of your Lord. make prostration but do it not without ablution. The meaning of reciting is that you will hear yourself what is recited. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: I prefer to read chapter Baqr and chapter Imran slowly and to ponder about them than to read them hurriedly. Ibn Masud. remind me what I have forgotten therefrom. teach me what I do not know therefrom. He said: 0 Saleh. a light. If you do not hear it. nor remains silent. prostrate. In another narration: Reading the Quran with sound is like open charity and silent Quran reading is like secret charity. Some of the companions followed this rule. Recite Takbir for prostration. Some finish the whole Quran in a day and a night. The Prophet explained every word and every sentence separately. If you hear the verse. There is in Hadis: don't recite the Quran with loud voice in between sun-set and night . Read it with such sound in prayer as you yourself may hear it. some twice. The Quran was first free from I'rab or dots above and below. Then recite chapter Nas and Fateha. If you read the verse of prostration. 214 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I When you begin to recite the Quran. (3) once in a week with seven equal portions a day. so secret Quran-reading brings more reward than open Quran reading with sound. (1) once in a day and a night. Fulfil your duty to every verse. The object of the Quran reading is to ponder and there are fixed places therein for slow-reading. recite: I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil. Weeping at the time of recitation of the Quran is also commendable. They were Hzrats Osman. The mode of weeping by force is to bring sorrows to the mind. make it for me a guide. The Prophet said: He who does not read the Quran with sweet tone is not of us. from another. 0 Lord of the universe. then raise up your head with Takbir and then return salam. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: There is no harm in giving I'rab to the Quran. The Prophet said: What gives consolation is a good provision and secret Zikr is the best Zikr. There are conditions of prostration like the conditions of prayer to cover private parts. When you read it. If you cannot weep. be in a sorrowful mode. Zaid. to face the Ka'ba. The Prophet said: The Quran has been revealed for sorrow. It is commendable to read the Quran slowly. TO RECITE THE QURAN WITH SOUND: Recite the Quran with such sound as you may hear it. let him weep by his heart. A follower will follow the leader in prostration without reciting the Quran. Obai-b-Ka'ab and others. your prayer will not be valid. to have the body and cloth pure. If the eyes of any one of you do not shed bears. where is your weeping in reciting the Quran? Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: When you read the verse of prostration. as the Prophet said: Recite the Quran and weep.b-Sabet. When you finish the Quran. don't prostrate soon till you weep. He who can bring sorrows to the mind can also bring weeping. So there are several modes of finishing the Quran. The Prophet said: As secret charity brings more reward than open charity. a leader and a mercy. There is in Hadis that the reward of a secret deed is seventy times more than that of an open deed. show mercy on me for the Quran. 0 God.

He said: He who does not read the Quran with sweet voice is not of us. let him hear the Quran-reading of Ibn Omme Abd. When the prayer time came. Hazrat Abu Musa said on hearing it: 0 Prophet of God. there will be a light for him on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said: If any of you stands to pray Isha (night prayer). God's word is self-existent attribute and mixed with His being and He expressed that attribute in human forms and words to mankind. This is not because of the strength of its words but the Glorious God made it fit for human use dressed with words.reading of Hazrat Ibn Masud with Hazrat Abu Bakr and Omar and there they remained for long time. The Prophet said: If a man hears a verse of God's Book. he could not have remained without falling into swoon after hearing His words as the mountain has no power to remain steady being attacked with His Brilliance. All praise is due to God who created such a man among my followers. It is better to recite the Quran by seeing it as to look to the Quran is also worship. let him read his Quran openly. The Prophet heard one party of his companions reciting the Quran with loud voice in night prayer and considered it right. (1) To realise the superiority and excellence of the Quran. While passing by Hazrat Omar. Then the Prophet said: If anybody wishes the Quran to be read with sweet voice and slowly. they mix some of their words with some . I would have read with sweeter voice. If all the angels try to made a word short. as the angels and the inmates of the house hear Quran reading and pray for him in lieu of his prayer. he who fears show should read it silently. When the companions of the Prophet gathered together. Open reading awakens the mind and centres the thoughts to one thing. One night. He asked him about it and he said: I am waking up the heedless and the sleeping men and driving the devil. he said: I am mixing good. For this reason. When passing by Abu Bakr. The Prophet asked her: Who prevented you from coming? She said: 0 Prophet of God. Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 215 To read the Quran with sweet voice and slowly is sunnat. the eyes of the Prophet began to shed tears. the slave of Abu Hurairah. When he was reading the Quran before him. SECTION 3 INTERNAL RULES OF THE QURAN-READING There are ten internation rules of reciting the Quran. The Prophet said after hearing the Quran reading of Abu Musa. He said: He with whom I speak hears it. the heaven and earth could not stand to hear His words and all things between them would have been smashed to pieces. he heard him reciting the Quran with loud voice. Hazrat Omar was reminded of the prayer to which he said: Are we not in the midst of prayer? There is hint in this verse of God: God's rememberance is greatest. This voice has been given to him from the sweet voice of David. The Prophet said: God did not order sweet voice for anything except for the Quran. verses with good verses. 216 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I When the people become unable to appreciate the attribute of God. If God had not made Moses patient and steady. He said: 0 Prophet of God. The Prophet came to him and heard his recitation for a long time and said: The name of this man is Salem. If the glory and excellence of the words of God could not have been made understandable in the garb of words. he heard him reading silently and asked him about it. they told one another to recite the Quran. He began to read the Quran before him. In other words. It is narrated that the Prophet was waiting one night for Ayesha as she was late in coming. I was hearing the Quran-reading of a man. the Prophet heard the Quran. I never heard such a sweet voice. they are unable to do it till the guard of the Guarded Tablet lifts it up and makes it short by order of God. A wise man said : We saw in case of human beings that when they wish to make their domestic animal understand something. The Prophet said to Ibn Masud: Read out the Quran to me. I am reading it has been revealed to you. The Prophet said: I wish to hear it from you. There is in Hadis that ten rewards are written for him. The Prophet said: Each one of you has one well. a friend of God said : Every word of God kept in the Guarded Tablet is higher than the mountain Kaf. Hazrat Omar once asked Abu Musa: Remember our Lord.they are able to understand it through the mean of this own attributes.prayers. The Prophet passed by Bilal and found him reading some verses silently and some with sound. The Prophet saw his three companions in different conditions. On being asked. if I had known that you would hear it.

He recited the same verse again and again. It has been said that once the Prophet read 'In the name of the Most Compassionate. realise in a beautiful manner divine glory and think that what you recite is is not human words.judge and dear witness It orders and prohibits There is no such strength of a void thing As shade is unable to stand before the brilliant rays of the sun. the stories of Prophets. When Hazrat Akramah son of Abu Jahl opened the Quran. Similar is the case with men. the word of God is like an unseen Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 217 emperor in the deepest cover whose face is not visible but yet whose order is prevalent The word of God is like the sun of wl ich the rays are open but its constitution is secret like radiant star By its help the paths of journey are seen. He takes so much rays of the sun as he can see and know his necessary things In short. Merciful. dignity. Abu Solaiman Darani said : I stood in prayer in four or five night 218 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I reciting only one verse. For this reason it should be read slowly as slow reading makes thinking possible. Therein there are the descriptions of God's attributes. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : The Prophet prayed with us one night. God says : None shall touch it except the pure ones. hold fast by God's Book. as a lower animal can understand the thought of men by their hints and voices The root meaning of wisdom lies concealed in these words and voices but still it is honoured on account of its meaning Words are the bodies of wisdom and their meaning is the soul of wisdom and voice is their life. and that He gives them Provision. His wonderful creations. Hazrat Ali said: There is no good in the divine service in which there is no knowledge of religion. That is this If Thou punisheth them. they are merely Thy servants and if Thou forgiveth them. so its secret meaning and wisdom are shut up from the internal mind if it is not free form all impurities and not illuminated by the light of honour and gravity. (5) To understand the Quran. till he knows that He is the Creator of all things in Heaven and earth. As the external papers are preserved from touch of impure hands. Thou art Forgiving. It means that he should follow the Book with industry and perseverance He who remains busy in an enjoyment does not think of any other thing. The word of God Or the Quran is an invaluable treasure or an ever lasting drink of life which prevents death or it is such a medicine for a disease which leaves no ailment if it is taken. God says: 0lhya. the Most Merciful' twenty times thinking about its meaning. (2) Honour the Quran containing divine word At the time of reciting the Quran. He is seeing. the Prophet made them understand in such a manner as man conducts his animal by a strange language.unexpressed words of the animal and create some language to guide its nature. beauty and solemnity of God's words. As the pages of the Quran cannot be touched by every body. (3) To recites the Quran attentively after giving up one's own ideas. so a man has got no power to enter into the deepest recess of wisdom. he fainted and said : This is the word of my Lord. A certain sage of yore passed six months by reciting only the chapter Hud. . Sayeed-b-Jubair once read the following verse repeatedly standing in prayer : 0 the guilty. It can under-stand'it' by instinct and act accordingly. GOD'S ATTRIBUTES: God says: There is nothing to be compared to Him. the fate of the liars and how they were destroyed and the descriptions of Paradise and Hell. It is just. To honour His word is to honour Him and He is not honoured till His attributed and the mysteries of His creation are not pondered over. Realise true and correct meaning of every verse. Though they are unable to understand the perfectness. The thoughts of the Quran were stated with such words that men can understand the wisdom of the Quran. so a man is unable to stand before the words of wisdom of the Quran. As human body is honoured for its internal soul. so every tongue can not utter the words of the Quran and every heart cannot grasp its meaning. As eye sight is unable to stand before the scorching rays of the sun. Thinking comes after attention. so the word of wisdom is honoured for its voice The word of God revealed has got high rank. be separate to-day. (4) To think about the Quran.

Compassinate. should seek it in the Quran. Then all honourable attributes have been placed in itpower of hearing. He recites the words repeatedly and yet he understand that he has not pronounced it correctly and rightly. Almighty. etc. Guardian. FOUR IMPEDIMENTS OF UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN (1) To remain busy in extracting words from the root of words The devil works in this matter. He should therefore ponder over these verses : Don't you look at what you saw? Don't you look at what you throw semen ? Don't you look at the water you drink ? Don't you look at the fire you enkindle ? So think in these lines at the water. The real thing is that God has given some people to understand them and they remain desirous of understing them. The reason is that the devil closed the door of their hearts for which they are deprived of the. He . he will exist and if he walks freely he will not exist. feet liver. The real meaning of the Quran appertains to the unseen world. If he walks in the path of servitude. He says that He is pure. hands. Samud. It is only a drop of semen. power of smell. Look at its different compositions-bones. HIS ACTIONS: God says : He created the heaven and earth and other things.hearing. Similar is the case with the meaning of the Quran. Hazrat Ibn Masud said : He who desires to acquire the knowledge of the previous and future peoples. If he sees his being due to the existence of God. How can the meaning of the Quran come to him in these circumstances ? (2) The believe the sects blindly. Think of the condition of the liars like the A'd. veins. Ponder over the elements with which a man is created. secret meanings of the Quran. The substance of what has been said is that care should be taken to understand and interpret the Quran.it would become dry before it described the attributes of my Lord. flesh. God says: Does man not consider that I have created him from a drop of semen and he is then an open adversary ? CONDITION OF THE PROPHETS: Think how the Prophets were given wonderful qualities for which they were oppressed. and Glorious. Then it has been given attributes like anger. power of seeing. God says : If the sea were ink to describe the attributes of my Lord. there are inner meaning. Majority of the people do not understand the meaning of the Quran. There is no such new or old think which is not in the Quran. Think of the meaning and significance of these names. The Prophet said : If the devil would not have roamed over the hearts of men. For this reason. he will see that he has come from God and with His power. Some of them were murdered and attributed falsehood. The Quran-reader praises the mazhabs or sects and follows the opinions he heard from others. Merciful. and none but the God gifted people can understand them. In this way. He who can recognise real truth sees it in everything as all things come from Him and return to Him and everything is founded on truth for Him and for His help He who'does not see it in every visible thing cannot recognise Him. Behind them. sexual passion. He who can know Him knows that everything besides Him is void and everything except He with be meeting will destruction. wisdom. (6) To be free from the impediments of understanding. Think how the rejecters of truth were punished and take advice from their fate. Hazrat Ali said : If I wish. heart etc. This is the root of spiritual insight. One who recites the Quran should learn from it His attributes and His glory. fire crops and semen. He believes them without ascertaining the truth or otherwise of the opinion of the sects and follow them blindly. Hinting at this Hazrat Ali said : The Prophet did not inform me of any secret thing which was not disclosed to men. I can load seventy camels with Tafsir of the chapter Fateha. all his thoughts are centered round the pronunciation of words. He keeps attached with every Quran reader to keep him away from understanding its meaning. The thing which is outside the grasp of the five senses and cannot be grasped except by the light of sharp insight appertains to the unseen world. they could have seen the mysteries of the unseen world. pride etc. head.

let him seek his abode in Hell fire. God says : This is deep insight and reminder for every penitent servant. Mohammad-b-Ka'ab said : He who reads the Quran speaks . God says : 'I settle your mind therewith. This is a guide for the people. God says : Follow the best out of what has been revealed to you from your Lord. God says : Only the wise remember. Hazrat Ibn Abbas.' So the people should think that by describing the stories of the Prophets. The greater is passion and greed amassed in mind. they will be deprived of the blessings of revelation. and the lighter is the worldly burden on mind. fear of Islam will disappear from their hearts. in other words to give speciality to every call of the Quran. Don't you then mind it? God says : I have revealed the Reminder to you that you may explain to the people what has been revealed upon them. In these verses. When. God says : None but a repentant man remembers. Mind is like a mirror and greed and passion are like dusts in mind. His look is directed towards what he heard. How will you not be able to do it when the Quran was not revealed only for the Prophet alone but it is a medicine for all diseases. you hear the stories of the Prophets and early persons. For this reason. blessing for all light for the whole universe. then there arises difference therein. guide for all. the greater is the light of understanding. the Prophet said : When my followers will consider their wealth as great. a guide and a bless for those who believe firmly. made him firm in religion so that God's victory can be seen by him. think that it is not merely a story for your information but you are asked to take lessons from it and to take what is necessary therefrom. (5) To give. They are like dusts on a mirror and screen to radiant star of truth. God says : I have revealed upon you all such a Quran in which there are descriptions of yore. the greater is the screen over the mind. The readers of the Quran are also among them.Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 219 221 220 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I then becomes chained with the chain of belief of the sect and does not try to remove them. (3) To commit a sin repeatedly or to be proud or to remain immerged in worldly passions.speciality to every verse. Sufiyan Saori said : Sometimes learning becomes as it were a screen. So God has directed all men to get blessing by the help of the Quran God says : Remember the blessing of God on you all and what has been revealed to you all from the Book and wisdom with which you admonish them. a guide for its followers and an admonisher. For this reason. all people have been addressed and not a particular man. When they will give up enjoinging good and forbidding evils. There is surely some benefit for the Prophet and for his followers in the subject matter of the Quran. If you hear commands and prohibitions of the Quran. He gets understanding whom God gives it. If open meaning is accepted. God settled the mind of the Prophet. Fuzail explained it by saying that they will be deprived of understanding the meaning of the Quran. (4) To accept open meaning and to believe that there is no inner meaning except external meaning of the Quran. A man of firm faith sees it as a snare of the devil and keeps away therefrom. consider that it has come about you. It is a great screen of heart." This is a great obstacle. think thus . God made a condition of the acceptance of Tauba on understanding and repentance. God says : The Quran is explainer to the people. Muzahed and other companions said that there is provision for explaining it according to individual opinion. gave him patience to bear troubles and hardships. For this reason. This command has been given to me and this prohibition has been directed against me. He understands learning as the opinion of his sect. If you hear any warning. their object will be as God says : This Quran has been revealed on me that I may warn you there with and those to whom it reaches. "If anybody explains it according to his opinion.

Raise up your mind by reciting the Quran so much that you are hearing the words of God. Mind influenced by reading As there are different verses. forgiveness is based on four conditionsrepentance. God says °. good deeds and guidance. his order is hated and he becomes an object of wrath of the king. God says : How many signs there are in the heaven and earth which pass by them but they turn there aces from them. A wise man said : Whose recites the Quran and does not imbue himself with that idea. He said to me: This is sufficient now. When I reached this verse : How will it be when I shall bring every people with a witness and bring you as witness over them ? I saw that his eyes were shedding tears.. their faith increases and they rely over their Lord. When the Prophet expired. This verse is also applicable to him: This My verse came to you but you forgot it. do good deeds. there is narrow provision for him and he will be raised up blind on the Resurrection Day. There are three excellences in reciting the Quran. faith. A certain learned man said : This Quran is an embodiment of some letters which have come to us with His promise. day inasimilarmanner. If he does not read the letter and acts contrary to the order of the king. God says to him : What connection have you got with My word ? You have turned your face from me. Sufiyan Saori said : By God. God says : When God is remined to them. Close it when this condition does not remain. Those were God-fearing people who used to faint when they heard some verse of the Quran and even somee of them met with instantaneous death. How bad is that which they purchase. (8). if a man reads the Quran in the morning and brings faith in it. He mentioned four conditions even in this verse. You should find forgiveness and blessings attached with some verses and a wise man tries to get it as God says : I am forgiving to one who is Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 222 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I repentant. You will be forgotten to. God says : God's blessing is near those who do good to the people. You should have change of condition and thoughts according to the meaning of each verse. their hearts become soft and when the verses are read out to them. The Prophet said : The sweetent voice in reciting the Quran is of that a man who fears God when he makes it recitation. his actions increase and his comforts decrease. Therein there is order to him for making his reign firm but he remains busy to recite it and thinks that to read the letter is sufficient. They moved their tongue very little as the Quranreciters without action are fit to receive rebuke according to the following verse If a man turns away from My remembrance. hope etc. my mind became filled up with fear. The Prophet said: Recite the Quran till you pay attention to it and till the skin of your body is alright. The lowest excellence is that a man should think that he recites the Quran standing before God and . so that we may understand them in prayer. his sorrows increase. So in your mind there should be feelings of sorrows. his happiness decreases. The Quran is not heard from anybody so sweet as it is Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 223 heard from the God-fearing men. so different thoughts should fall in your mind. He said : I began to read the chapter 'Women'. The Prophet said once to Ibn Masud : Recite the Quran to men. The sinner who reads the Quran repeately is like a man who reads the letter of the king repeatedly. fear. This. he left behind him twenty thousand companions out of whom only six committed the whole Quran by heart Majority of the companions committed to memory only one or two chapters. It is a cure and a blessing for the believer and it increase nothing but loss to the oppressors. has got faith and does good deeds and who finds guidance. Seeing this condition. advice one another with truth and for patience. (9) To raise up mind. so that we may ponder over them in loneliness and admit them in our religious affairs and sunnat which is followed. The Prophet said.with God as it were. Malek-b-Dinar said : The Quran is the fountain of a believer just as rain is the fountain of earth. God says : Man is surely in loss except those who have got faih. He who acts contrary to the commands of the Quran is guilty according to this verse : They threw it behind them and took small price in lieu of it.

My body could not stand at His glory. God disclosed His light for His servants in His words but they do not see it. Imam Jafar Saleq said with regard to the highest rank : By God. At this time. I can load seventy camels with Tafsir of the chapter Fateha' What is it meaning? Hazrat Abu Darda'a said: Nobody can be Fagih till he accepts the Quran in different forms. (10) To be free from ones own strength and ability and not to see towards himself with the eye of pleasure and purity. as it contains the stroires of your predecessors and successors and decisions about what you differ. Don't set up partner with God. When 224 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I you read the words of praise of pious men. my followers will be divided into seventy three sects in matters of the fundamental principles of religion and Jamaat. hold firm to the Book of God. The spirit of the above Hadis is that the Quran should be interpreted according to the sayings and doings of the Prophet. Secondly your mind will bear witness at the time of reciting the Quran that God sees you and He is speaking secretly with you. Thirdly. The sage Sabet Bonani said : I bore hardships for 20 years and have been getting His gifts for the last 20 years. Whose search learning other than the Quran. limits and different steps. one can get sweetness in invocation. Thelearned men who explain it according to its literal meaning accuse the Sufis for their explanation. When he regained his senses. he should ponder over the Quran. I seek forgiveness from you for my sins and infidelity. you will see God in the recitation of the Quran and His attributes. think that it was said about you. Hazrat Ali said : If I wish. Hazrats Osman and Huzaifah said : If the mind becomes pure. The Prophet said: Read the Quran and search for its unknown matters. When it will occur.' He who does not see Him in his every action. When you read the verse of the punishment of the transgressors. Hazrat Ali said : God has given His servant the understanding of the Quran. The meaning of the Quran is wide to the wise. The Prophet once recited 'Bismillah' twenty times. They explain the verse of the Quran which Ibn Abbas or other companions did not make. The reciter who is outside these three things gets the rank of the heedless. Therefore the explanations of the Quran are unlimited. secret meaning. open light and . but hope that God may include yourself among them. To see nobody in any action except God is sincere Tauhid. It is not acquired by only external Tafsirs. One can become fit for this verse on account of his sight of the author of words : Flee towards God. Difference arises when it is believed that there is no meaning of the Quran except its open meaning. he should invoke and pray.200 learning as every word is a learning and it is increased four times. If the mind is rasied high.that He sees and hears his recitation. Every word has got its external and internal meanings and has got high. SECTION 4 TO INTERPRET THE QURAN ACCORDING TO INDIVIDUAL OPINION The Prophet said : If a man explains the Quran according to his opinion. Whose opposes the Quran among the transfressors. If it is not without the Tafsirs of the early sages. God misguides him as the Quran is the firmest tie. For what purpose was it nead repeatedly except for its inner meaning ? Hazrat Ibn Masud said : If a man desires to gain knowledge of the earlier and future peoples. He once fell in swoon in prayer. don't include yourself among them. higher and highest steps. The Quran speaks of His glory and might which are unlimited. Hazrat Ibn Omar used to say 0 God. what is the meaning of this understanding ? The Prophet said : There are surely for the Quran open meaning. A certain learned man said There are sixty meanings of every verse Another learned man said : The Quran is the embodinent of 77. it cannot rest satisfied only with the recitation of the Quran. seek his abode in Hell'. sees someone else and he who looks to anything besides God sees towards secret Shirk. The Prophet said about Hazrat Ali : By One Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 225 who sent me with truth. God punishes him. Every sect will be misguided and call towards Hell. You should apply your full mind to it and be careful of its understanding. Another verse. he'said : I was repeatedly reciting the verse of the Quran in my heart and I then heard it as it were from its author. let him.

What is then the meaning of his special prayer for him if interpretation cannot come except from his saying? (4) 'Those who discover meaning by their intellect know it certainly'. This is interpretation according to one's own misguided opinion. So how can it be said that they interpretated them by hearing every thing from the Prophet? (3) The Prophet prayed for Ibn Abbas by saying : 0 God. For this reason he thinks that his interpretation is correct and lawful. The Prophet said : He who interprets the Quran according to his own opinion should seek his abode in Hell Thus he prohibited individual interpretation according to his own opinion. There is hint in this that the Quran contains all the learnings. Regarding the external meaning of the Quran. One reason is that a man has got his own individual opinion with regard to every matter and actually he is inclined to that opinion. Everybody did not interpret it after hearing it from the Prophet. When the Prophet told Huzaifa of different sects and differences. So it appears that it is incorrect to impose condition of Tafsir only in all interpretations and it is lawful to discover the meaning of the Quran according to the limit of one's own intelligence and intellect. God says : I gave Soloman knowledge. as there is salvation in it. (1) One condition of interpretation is that it should rest upon the interpretation of the Prophet. He belongs to that class Vol-I THE BOOK WORSHIP 227 of men who interpret it according to their opinions. he asked him : 0 Prophet of God. To discover open meanings is different from what is heard. not to discover new meanings and to give up independent thinking. Tafsirs of Ibn Abbas and Ibn Masud cannot be accepted as they had their opinion also therein. It was not possible for them to be unanimous. (2) To discover the meanings of those verses which are not understandable and short without Hadis and Tafsir. it is void for the reasons given below. What has been given to him was termed as wisdom and learning. The Quran says: Go to Pharaoh as he has transgressed the limit. there is necessity of Hadis . The speciality which has been given to him is learning and it has been given to him before wisdom. If one follows it. The tradition regarding the interpretation of the Quran is opposed to this verse. If it is accepted. there are innumerable sayings of the Prophet.benefiting medicine. then their own opinions are fit to be rejected. If anybody holds it firm. The second object is other than that. Hazrat Ali said : He who understands the Quran acquires all the learnings together. There is no cutting of the miracles of the Quran and it does not become old for repeated readings. At first. The first object is to limit it in Hadis and Tafsir. it protects him. Hazrat Ibn Abbas explained this word wisdom as the knowledge of the Quran. Hazrat Abu Bakr said : If I interpret the Quran according to my opinion what world will give me protection and what sky will give me shade ? This prohibition has got two objects. He recites the Quranic verses to support his opinion. It is well known that the interpreters extracted many meanings by applying their intellect. They interpret it as Zikr in place the real meaning tiffin. He who is not expert in external meanings and discovers their meanings only by intellect commit many mistakes. wisdom and learning. Even they had seven interpretations of the abbreviated words at the beginning of a chapter. it gives him salvation. The Quran says : He who has been given wisdom has been given abundant good.in this verse. There are however two reasons for the prohibition of interpreting the Quran according to one's opinion. The Prophet said : Eat pre-dawn tiffin as there is blessing in it. He also interprets the Quran according to his wish and desire to serve his own end. to discover meanings by exercise of intellect by the learned men has been spoken of. if I get that time. what do you order me to do ? He said : Learn the Book of God and act upon it. If its object is that a man cannot interpret the Quran except according to the standard Tafsirs. give him knowledge in theology and give him learning of interpretation. They interpret the word 'Pharaoh' as heart. 226 RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I (2) There are different opinions regarding the inter pretation of some verses among the companions. Thus he decries his adversary and he knows that this is not real meaning.

The word 'punishment' has been omitted in this verse. meanings come out from intellect. the word "Ummat" has got different meanings in the Quran. God says : It has become heavy in heavens and earth. It means angel in this verse : His companion (angel) said : He who is near me is a rebel. For instance. God say : The month of Ramzan in which the Quran has been revealed. RECITATION OF THE QURAN Vol-I all virtues. God says : On account of their infidelity. CHAPTER IX ZIKR AND INVOCATIONS God says : Remember Me. This lies in the deep ocean of spiritual knowledge. In other words: It has been made secret for the inhabitants of the heavens and earth God says You make your provision such as if you are telling lies. It Means an age in this verse : Up to a fixed age. These internal meanings are not opposed to the external meanings. This verse first speaks of revelation by night. Here to think 'dear' has been omitted.H. essential. This verse does not disclose when it was revealed. they thought the worship of calf as dear on account of their indfidelity. but its internal meaning is one secret as there is therein the meanings of both throwing arrows and not throwing arrows which are contradictory to each other. The reason for which it is said that you did not throw arrows but God threw arrows is in the following verse : Fight with them God will punish them through your hands. In Tafsir. To learn open meaning is like learning a language. So the knowledge of the reason of throwing is. Then the next versesays : I revealed it in a blessed night. 'It' means here sun. God says : You have not shot arrows when you shot arrows but God shot arrows. God says : I have revealed it in the Blessed night. The latter word means Elias.). Then to take internal meaning of a verse. know that the action of a man is tied up with his strength and that strength is tied up with the power of God. Tafsir is not sufficient. day or night. It means the devil in this verse : His companion (devil) said : 0 otir Lord. Here the word 'sign' is omitted. I have not misguided him. It means the followers of a Prophet in this verse: We belong to the followers of Muhammad (P. God says : Till it became covered with screen. The word 'inhabitants' have been omitted. In other words: I gave you the taste of severity of punishment of life and of death. God knows best. Every verse of the Quran similarly has got a secret meaning. It is clear to those whose hearts are clear of impurities of thoughts and ideas. God says: I gave you to taste of life on the taste of death. It means the possessor of all virtues in this verse : Abraham was possessor of 228.and Tafsir for external meanings in order to be free from mistakes and then with the advancement of knowledge. He will interpret it openly by saying that the she camel had power of sight and was not blind. The word 'Qareen' has got different meanings. God says : Ask the city where we were and the mountain to which we proceeded. It means a group of men in this verse : He saw a party of men to give drink of water. Then this verse was revealed : I revealed it in the blessed night. He who claims to have internal meanings of the Quran without at first being expert in its external meanings is like a man who claims to have reached the interior of a house without first approaching its door or like a man who claims to have understood the object of a Turk syithout understanding his language. Similar is the case with the meaning of the word "Ruh " (6) To interpret the same subject gradually. Firstly. Similarly. God says : I gave to the nation of Samud a she-camel as open sign but they made oppression on account of it. So open Tafsirs are not sufficient for understanding the internal meanings of verses. In other words. I will remember you. He ordered His servants to pray and to . The external meaning of the sentence is clear. hi other words. there is explanation of also internal meanings. I have revealed the Quran in the Blessed night. In other words : You express gratefulness for your provision. dring of calf was given to their hearts. In other words. God says : Peace be on AI Yasin. Ask the inhabitants of the town and the mountain.

I remember Him silently. it expiates all his sins. sitting and lying on a side. greatest to your Lord. They asked him : 0 Prophet of God. He was asked Which action is best ? He said : Your meeting with death in the condition of your tongue being saturated with Zikr of God. in health and disease. So there is nothing better than God's Zikr and invocations to Him. I shall remember you.invoke by this verse : Invoke me. He says : I am near. adviser and friend. God says: Remember God too much. openly and secretly. The Prophet said : God says : If a man refrains from invoking Me because of his remaining busy with my remembrance I give him better than those who invoke Me. When he comes to Me on foot. in solvency and want. The people asked him How do you know ? He said : He remembers me when I remember Him. sinners. sitting. near and distant ones should pray to God for fulfillment of their desires. I respond to the invocation of one who invokes Me. A wise man said : God says : If I see My Zikr prevailing in the mind of a man. and lying on your sides. remember God near Mashaiu~ Haram and remember Him as God has given you guidance. When he remembers Me among the people. The Prophet said : On the day when there will be no shade except the shade of God. He said : One busy in Zikr in the midst of the heedless is like a warrior in the way of God in the midst of those soldiers who fled away. not even jihad in the way of God? He said : Not even jihad in the way of God. you will have no sin morning and evening. The Prophet said : If anybody wishes to enter the garden of paradise. highest in rank. The sage Sabet Bonani said : I know when my Lord remembers me. When he comes to Me a cubit. Muaz-b- . There is no action of 230 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I man except Zikr of God which can give him salvation. except that it will give salvation only when it is cut to pieces owing to your strike by your sword and then it is again cut to pieces owing to your strike by your sword. He said : God's Zikr morning and evening is better than attack with sword in the way of God and giving wealth in charity. Wise sayings. Hasan Basari said : Zikr is of two kinds-(1) God's Zikr in your mind and (2) better than this is to remember God at the time of commission of an unlawful action. God says : When you finish prayer. I take the administration of his affairs and I become his companion. Another reason is that God's remembrance is better than all other divine services. remember God standing. God says Remember your Lord in your heart with humility and in fear silently morning and evening and be not of the heedless. The Prophet said : Saturate your tongue with the Zikr of God morning and evening. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : This is for two reasons. Some said that every soul will come out of the world thirsty except one which remembers God. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : Remember God day and night. what is it? He said : Constant remembrance of God. God says rebuking the hypocrites : They remember God very little. So the religious. The Prophet said : God says: I remain with a servant till he remembers Me and moves his lips for Me. The sage Fuzail said : We have been informed that if a man makes God's Zikr one hour after the morning prayer and one hour after the Asr prayer. on land and water. God says : Zikr of God is the highest. He says : When you return from Arafat. I go to him hastily. The Prophet said : God says : When My servant remembers Me silently. The Prophet said : Shall I not inform you of an action dearest to God. SECTION 1 EXCELLENCE OF ZIKR God says : Remember Me. God says : They are wise who remember God standing. I advat to him a cubit. I will respond to you. God says : When you finish the institutions of Haj. HADIS: This Prophet said : One engaged in the Zikr of God among the heedless is like a living tree in the midst of dry trees. I go to him two cubits. in jounery and habitation. This will be discussed in five sections. God will give shade under His shade seven persons-one who remembers God sincerely and shed tears for fear of God etc. remember God more than you remember your parents at that time. I remember him among a party better than them. When he comes to Me half a cubit. One reason is that God's remembrance of you is better than your remembrance of God. let him remember God much. better fruitful than charity of your gold and silver and your striking with sword the necks of the enemies of God and the strike on you necks ? They said : 0 Messenger of God.

God says : What action of My servants have you seen ? They say : We saw them praising 'Three. The Prophet said : If a party of men makes Zikr of God for pleasure of God a proclaimer proclaims from heaven : Your sins have been forgiven and you have been given virtues in lieu of your sins. but the properties left by the Prophet are being distributed inthe mosque. God says : What do they seek. He asked What then have you seen ? They said : We found a party of men making Zikr of God and reciting the Quran. they would have desired it more. The People went to the mosque but saw no distribution of any property. They then went to Abu Hurairah and said : 0 Abu Hurairah. they proclaim : Come with your actions. one hundred rewards are written in his record of deeds and one hundred sins are wiped out from him and he remains safe from the machinations of the devil on that day up to night. The Prophet said : An assembly of virtue of the believers expiate two thousand assemblies of sin. Prophet David said : 0 my Lord. glorifying Thee and declaring Thy purity. He is One. The Prophet said : He who recites this Doa one hundred times 'There is no deity but God. as it will be a gift cast upon me. God says : How will it be if they had seen it ? They say : If they has seen it. there is no partner for Him and I bear witness that . I will take them to you catching their necks. so the inmates of heaven see a house of the inmates of the world wherein God is remembered. break my feet under their feet. They say : Paradise. God says : If they had seen it. God says : If they could have seen Me. He said : This is the heritage of the Prophet. mercy encompasses them and He remembers them before His near angels. They say : A certain man did not come to them with that object except for his own personal needs. Hazrat Abu Huraiah said that he went one day into the market and said : I see you here. They come with their actions and they take them towards the heaven. If they see a party of believers making Zikr of God. God says to them : From what thing do they seek reguge ? They say : From Hell. Sufiyan-bAynah said: When a party of men gather together and remember God. we find no distribution of property in the mosque. The devil says to the world : Don't you see what they are doing"? The world says : Leave them as when they will be separate from one another. The Prophet said : Some angels of God roam in the world and write down additional record of deeds. EXCELLENCE OF TAHLIL The Prophet said: What I said first and also my predecessor prophets is this--'there is no deity but God. Hazrat Abu Hurairah said : As you see the stars. there is no partner for Him. God says : Do they see Me? They say : No. God says : I bear witness before you that I have forgiven them. The Prophet said He who makes ablution and reads 'Doa after looking towards heaven-"Ibear witness that there is no deity but God. The Prophet said : If a party of men make no Zikr of God sitting together and send no blessing on the Prophet. kingdom is His and all praise is His and He is powerful over all things". EXCELLENCE OF THE ASSEMBLY OF ZIKR The Prophet said : If a party of men are engaged in the Zikr of God. He who does more than this. how will it be? They said : If they could have seen Thee they would have rectied 232 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 233 Thy Tasbih. God says : They are such party whose companion will not be unfortunate. his rewards are more and nobody acts-more virtuou ct than it. He is single. the angels surround them. when you see me joining the heedless after giving up the assembly of Zikr of God.Jabal said : The Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 231 inmates of Paradise will not grieve for anything except for the time which passed without remembrance of God. the devil and the world become separate from them. the single. they will be repentant on the Resurrection Day. there is no partner for Him. the rewards of setting free ten slaves are written for him. what would they have done? They said : If they had seen it. God says Have they seen it? They said : No. Tahmid and Tamzid more. they would have fled away more from it.

and He is powerful over all things" all his sins are forgiven even though they are innumerable like foams in a sea. word of purity. praise is His. is forgiven of his sins and if he prays after abulution. The Prophet said : If a man goes to the market and utters 'There is no deity but God. He is single. the virtues which you do will be weighed on the Resurrection Day.' The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah. The Prophet said : Everyone amongst you will enter Paradise except one who denies it and turns his face from God like the turning of the face of a she-camel. tell the dying man to attest-'There is no deity but God'. as it is a word of Tauhid. 0 God forgive me. who denies and turns his face from God? He said : That person who does not utter 'There is no deity but God'. Utter much "There is no deity but God" before hindrance comes between you and it. The Prophet said : If anybody commits sin on the surface of the earth after uttering 'There is no deity but God'. his prayer is accepted-"There is no deity but God. this is for the dying man. if you read this Doa one hundred times. there is no partner for Him. His is the kingdom and His is all praise. The Prophet said : If a man utters ten time-"There is no deity but God'. all praise is due to God. I said : 0 Prophet of God." 234 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I SECTION 2 TASBIH. The Prophet asked him: Where do you stay? Don't you know the Doa by the blessings of which angels and men get livelihood? He said: 0 Prophet of God. there is no deity but God. acceptor of gratefulness. God will forgive him. the world will itself turn to you and God will create one angel from each . He is single. the mighty. because if it is weighed in a scale and the seven heavens and seven earths and what is in then both are placed in another scale. The Prophet said : He who wakes up at night and utter the following Doa. word of God fear. He is powerful over everything"-God writes for him one lac virtues. nobody will be able to go before him and nobody will catch him after him except one who does actions better than those of his. 'Alham do Lillah' thirty three times and 'Allaho Akbar' thirty three times and then utter once "There is no deity but God. He is single. (3) A man came to the Prophet and said: The world has forsaken me and I have been rendered poor and I am without means." the reward of setting free a slave is written for him. all praise is His. there is no partner for Him. TAHMID AND OTHER ZIKERS . word of sincerity. He was asked : 0 Prophet of God. The Prophet said : He who utter the aforesaid Doa ten times. their heads are emerging from earth and they are uttering 'all praise is due to God who removed sorrows from us. God says: Is there any reward for doing (Ihsan) good except good ? It is said that Ihsan of this world is-'There is no deity but God' and the Ihsan of the next world is Paradise. the scale of "There is no deity but God" will be heavier. The Prophet said : If a man utters a day two hundred times the above mentioned Doa. I am seeing them as it were when they utter it loudly. will get the rewards of setting free four slaves belonging to the dynasty of Hazrat Ismail. there is no partner for Him. there is no partner for Him. forgives one lac sins and builds for him a house in Paradise. The Prophet said: If a man utters at the end of each prayer 'Sobhan Allah' thirty three times. He gives life and takes life. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah. What are the rewards for a man who is alive ? The Prophet said He who utters with sincere heart-'There is no deity but God' will enter Paradise. the doors of Paradise are opened up for him and he enters it by whichever door he likes. calling towards truth and the foundations of Paradise.Muhammad is His servant and apostle". as it destroys sins. kingdom is His. knogdom is His. there is no might or strength except in God. God says : Those who do good will get good reward and still more. the great. what is that Doa? He said: After dawn and before Fajr prayer. The Prophet said : Those who utter-"There is no deity but God" there will be no loneliness for them in their grave or after their resurrection from the grave. (2) The Prophet said: If a man utters everydays one hundred times 'Glory be to God and all praise is his' all his sins are forgiven even though they are innumerable like the foams of a sea. God is greatest. and He is powerful over all things. Our Lord is forgiving. he is single. Glory be to God. the kingdom is His and praise is His and He is powerful over all things. but the attestation of 'There is no deity but God' will not be weighed.

of its words who will be engaged in reading Tasbih up to the Resurrection Day and you will get its reward: Glory be to God with all praise, Glory be to God, the great. I seek forgiveness of God. (4) The Prophet said: When a servant utters "Alhamdo Lillah", he fills up what is between heavenand earth. When he recites it for the second time, he fills up seven heavens and seven earth. When he utters it for the third time. God says: Pray and it will be responded to. (5) Hazrat Refa'a Zarki said: Once we were praying behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bow, he said: 'God hears one who praises Him', one uttered from behind the Prophet: 0 our Lord, Thine is all praise, innumerable and pure, full of blessings therein. When the Prophet finished his prayer, he asked: Who has uttered this Doa just now? He said: 0 Prophet of God, I. The Prophet said: I saw more than thirty angels competing as to who of them will write rewards. (6) The Prophet said: The following words are called ever-lasting good deeds: 'There is no deity but God. "Glory be to God'. 'All praise is for God'. 'Allah is greatest. There is no might or strength except in God'. Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 235 (7) The Prophet said: There is no such servant whose sins are not forgiven even though they are as innumerable as the foam of the sea if he utters these words: There is no deity but God. God is greatest. Glory be to God. All praise is for God and 'There is no might or strength except in God.' (8) The Prophet said: If Zikr is recited glorifying God, and Tasbih, Tahmid and Takbir are recited, humming of voices are heard like the humming of bees round the Throne. They make Zikr along with them and nobody among you ceases to make Zikr of God. (9) The Prophet said: I recite the following Doa and love it better than all the things upon which the sun sheds rays: Glory be to God, all praise.is due to God, 'there is no deity but God, God is greatest. (10) The Prophet said: To God, four words are dear Sobhan-Allah, Alhamdo-Lillah, La Ilaha Illallah, Allahu-Akbar. By whichever of these you begin, it will not harm you. The Prophet said: 'Sobhan Allah' is half of faith, 'Alham do Lillah' fills up the scale. 'Sobhan Allah and Allaho Akbar' fill up what is between i.eaven and earth. Prayer is light, charity is proof, patience is radiance and the Quran is proof for you or against you. Every man gets up at dawn ad either sells his soul and destroys it or purifies his soul and frees it. (11) The Prophet said: Two. words are easy to be uttered but heavy in scale and dear to the Merciful 'Sobhan Allah Wa Behamdihi, Sobhan Allahul Azim. Abu Zarra said: I asked the Prophet: Which word is dearest to God? The Prophet said: That word which God selected for His angels He quoted the above formula. The Prophet said: God selected this word: Sobhan Allah, walhamdo Lillah, wala Ilaha Illallah, wallaho Akbar. When a man utters 'Sobhan Allah' twenty rewards are written for him and twenty sins are wiped out. When he utters 'Allaho Akbar' similar rewards are written. The Prophet said: If a man utters 'Sobhan Allah wabihamdihi,' a palm tree is planted for him in paradise. (12) Once the poor said to the Prophet: The rich take the rewards. They pray like us and fast but they get rewards from their additional properties. He said: Has not God enjoined on you charity? Every Tasbih of your is an act of charity, every 236 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Tahmid and Tahlil are acts of charity, every Takbir is an act of charity, every enjoining good and forbidding evil is an act of charity, the morsel of food you lift up to the mouth of your wife is an act of charity, your sexual intercourse with your wife is an act of charity. He said: 0 Prophet of God, does one of us coming to his wife out of passion get rewards? The Prophet said: Don't you see that if he throws his semen unto lawful things will he not commit sins? He said: Yes. He said: Similarly if he throws it in lawful thing, he will get rewards. Hazrat Abu Zarr said: I asked the Prophet: The rich have already taken rewards. They do whatever divine service we do but they spend and we cannot. The Prophet said: Shall I not give you clue to such an action which if you do, you will get the rewards of the actions of those before you and you will get the rewards of those who will come after you-33 times 'Sobhan-Allah' at the end of each prayer, 'Alhamdo Lillah' 33

times and 'Allaho- Akbar' 34 times. The Prophet said : You shall recite Tasbih, Tahlil and Taqdis, Don't be heedless and count them with fingers. The fingers will speak on the Resurrection Day. (13) The Prophet said: When a man utters at the time of his death 'There is no might or strength except in God' the fire of Hell will not touch him, The Prophet said : Will not some one of you gain one thousand rewards daily? It was replied: 0 Prophet of God, how can it occur ? He said : Utter Tasbih one hundred times, then one thousand rewards will be written for you and one thousand sins will be effaced from you. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Musa, shall I not inform you of a jewel of Paradise under the Throne ? He said : Yes. He said : Utter-There is no might or strength except in God. (14) The Prophet said: He who utters at dawn the following, it becomes the duty of God to please him on the Resurrection Day: I am satisfied with God as Lord, Islam as religion, the Quran as a guide and with Muhammad as a Prophet and Apostle. Know, 0 dear readers, that if you question that it is easy to utter words by tongue and is no such difficulty in Zikr of God, then how is it that it is better than all other divine services? Know that its secrets are not understood except with the spiritual knowledge. Of all the learnings relating to worldly affairs, the most profitable and fruitful is constant Zikr with humility of spirit. If the mind is heedless at the time of Zikr with tongue, it brings much less rewards, If there is no attention of mind at the Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 237 time of Zikr, there is little benefit therein, but constant Zikr with attention or at most times is above all other divine services. This is the end of divine services regarding actions. There is beginning and end of Zikr. There is love at its beginning and love at its end. At first, a person feels great difficulty in turning his mind towards God. If it lasts with the grace of God, it begets love for the Beloved. There is no wonder in it. For this habit, he makes Zikr in a lonely place far away from the bustles of the world. Thus constant Zikr he gets love towards Him and so he loves more and more Zikr. Then it grows into habit. A wise man said: I have been reading the Quran for the last twenty years and getting its blessings. This blessing was not possible without I've. This trouble has now grown into habit. Man is a slave of habit and his habit turns into his nature at the end. When there is eagerness for Zikr, he forgets other things except God and it exists tilt his death God's Zikr will go with him in his grave and not his children and properties. For this reason, the Prophet said: The Holy Spirit infused into my soul: Love what you like but you shall have to give it up at the end. In other words, sever all connections with the world and it will end with death. Don't deny that Zikr of God will go with you even after your death. It is said how it is possible when there is the end of a man after his death? There is no end of man after his death, so there is no end of Zikr. He goes from the outside world and enters into spiritual world just as a child comes out of its mother's womb and falls into this world. The Prophet hined at it by saying: Grave is a hole of Hell or a garden of Paradise. The Prophet said: The souls of martyrs lie in the wombs of green birds. Addressing the polythiests by names, the Prophet said: 0 such person, 0 such person, have you found true what your Lord has promised you? I have found true what my Lord has promised me. Hazrat Omar asked the Prophet: 0 Prophet of God, when they have become dead, how can they hear and how can they reply? The Prophet said: By One in whose hand there is my life, you do not hear my Words better than them, but they cannot reply. The Prophet said: The soul of the believers and the martyr remain with in the bellies of green birds hanging under the Throne'. So the existence of Zikr cannot be refused from the hearts of the above persons. God says: Don't think those who are martyred in the way of God as dead but they are alive before their lord and they are given provision. They remain satisfied with what God has given them and give 238 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I good news to those who could not earn that'. They get the honour of martyrdom on account of the honour of God's Zikr as their object is death in good condition and they return to God after renouncing the world. Their thought are for the sake of God and they become prepared for real life after giving up his children

and properties. EXCELLENCE OF MARTYRDOM: There are many traditions regarding the excellence of martyrdom, some of which have been narrated below. When Abdullah-b-Ansari was martyred at the battle of Uhud, the Prophet said to his son Jaber: 0 Jaber, shall I not give you good news? He said: Yes, may God give you news of good. He said: God has given your father life and kept him seated near Him and there is now no screen between him and God. God said to him: 0 My servant pray to Me whatever you wish. I will give it to you. He said: 0 God, if Thou wiseth, send me again to the world till I am martyred for thee and for Thy Prophet. God said: Order has gone from Me that a dead man cannot return'. To be martyred in this condition is his death in good condition, because if he would not have been a martyr and livedfor sometime, sweetness of the world would have returned to him and it would have diverted his mind from the remembrance of God. For this reason, the greatest fear of a God fearing man is at the time of his death, as mind may change at that time even if Zikr of God keeps attached to it. One dies in the condition in which he ends his life and his resurrection takes place in that condition. Thus the mind of a martyr becomes prepared only for God after all connections with the world are cut off. Hence the reward of martyrdom is greatest. Every object of desire is deity and every deity is an object of worship. When a martyr has got no object of desire except Him, he says bythe tongue of condition 'There is no diet but God: He who utters this by his tongue but his condition does not help him, his affair is upon God and he can't be safe from harm. For this reason the Prophet gave superiority to 'There is no deity but God' to other Zikrs. Whoever likes to meet with God. He also likes to meet him and whoever does not like to meet wit Him, God also does not want to meet him. This is the secret of Zikr. EXCELLENCE OF DOA AND RULES God says: When My servant asks of Me to you, say: I am near. I respond to one who calls Me when he calls Me. So invoke Me. God says: Invoke God with modesty and secretly. He does not love the transgressors as God says: Call Me, I will respond to you. Those who refrain from My remembrance out of vanity will enter Hell abased. God says : Say : God has got good names by whatever names you call Him-Allah or Rahman. The Prophet said: Monazat is divine service. Then he recited: Call Me, I will respond to you. The Prophet said: Monazat is the narrow of worship. He said: There is nothing more honourable than Monazat. The Prophet said: Let no man forget to invoke either of these three things-forgiveness of his sins, hastnening of good for him or preserving good for him. The Prophet said: Seek favour of God, as He loves invocation. The best worship is to wait for compulsory prayer. TEN RULES OF INVOCATION (1) Choose the best time for invocation, for instance on the day of Arafat, in the month of Ramzan, on the Jumma Day and the last portion of the night. God says: They seek forgiveness by the latter part of the night. The Prophet said: God descends every night at its last one third portion in the heaven of the earth and says: Who will invoke Me that I may accept his invocation? Who will seek from Me that I may accept his prayers? Who will seek forgiveness from Me that I may forgive him. Hazrat Eakub used to make prayer with his children for forgiveness in the after part of the night standing in prayer. God then said to him: I will forgive them and make them Prophets. (2) To take advantage of honourable condition. Hazrat Abu Hurairah said: The doors of heaven are opened in Juha in the way of God, at the time of concourse of men in rows of prayer, at the time of rain fall and at the time of Aqamat of compulsory prayer. Invoke at that time. Muzahed said : You should invoke at the end of prayer. The Prophet said Invocation is not rejected in between Azan and Aqamat. He said : 'The invocation of a fasting man is not rejected.' The best times are the time of Sheri, purity of mind and sincerity, the day of Arafat, the time of prostration. The Prophet said: A man becomes near God at the time of prostration. Invoke much at that time. The Prophet said : I have been prohibited to read the Quran in Ruku and prostration. Proclaim the glory of God in Ruku and take trouble of invoking in prostration, as it is the appropriate time of its acceptance.

Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 239 240 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 241 (3) Invoke facing the Qibla and raise up your hand so high that the whiteness of the hand is visible. It is stated that the Prophet waited facing the Ka'ba on the Arafat Day and kept on invoking till the sun set. The Prophet said : Your Lord is bashful and honourable. Whenever anybody raises up his hands. He feels shy to return in empty handed. Hazrat Anas reported that the Prophet used to raise up his hands so high that the whiteness of his hands could be seen. Once the Prophet saw as man making invocation and hinting by his two fingers. He said : one, one. He hinted to make it short. Hazrat Omar said that the Prophet extended his hands and did not take them down until he touched his face with them. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said that whenever the Prophet invoked, he united the front potion of his hands and rubbed his face with the interior of his palms. The Prophet said : Let not the people look towards the sky at the time of invocation or shut up their sight. (4) Keep your voice between expression and silence. Hazrat Abu Musa Ash'ari said : When we came near Medina with the Prophet, he recited Takbir and the people also recited Takbir Loudly. The Prophet said : 0 people, He whom you call is not deaf and not absent. He whom you call is between you and your necks. Hazrat Ayesha said : God says : Don't raise your voice high in prayer, nor keep it concealed. God praised His Prophet Zakariyah when he called his Lord by silent voice. (5) Don't use ornamental words in invocation. He who invokes should be humble. The Prophet said : Soon a people appear who will exaggerate in invocation God says : He does not love the transgressors. This is in reference to those who use ornamental words in invocation. Pray for what is good. The Prophet said : Give up ornamental words in invocation. It is said that the learned and Abdals used not more than seven words in their invocation. (6) Invoke with fear and hope and with humility and modesty. Humility and modesty are dear to God. God says : They hasten in good deeds and invoke Me with hope and fear. The Prophet said : If God loves a man. He tries him till he sees in him humility and modesty. (7) Believe that your invocation will be accepted and hope therein for truth. The Prophet said : When a man invokes, let him not say : 0 God, give me if Thou wiseth. Be firm in invocation as there is nobody to reject it. The Prophet said : When one of you invokes, make your hope great as there is nothing great to God. The Prophet said : Invoke God and entertain a firm belief that your invocation will be accepted and know that God does not accept the invocation of a headless man. Sufiyan Saori said : Let nobody prevent you to make invocation with what you know as God accepted the invocation of the worst being of the creation, the devil. When he prayed : 0 God, give me respite up to the Resurrection day. God said : Your prayer is accepted. (8) Invoke firmly three times. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: Whenever the Prophet invoked, he invoked thrice. Don't be hasty to see your invocation accepted as the Prophet said: The' invocation of any of you is accepted if not sought hastily. Don't say, 'I invoked' but it has not been accepted. When you invoke, invoke too much, as you are invoking to the Merciful. A certain wise man said: I have been invoking God for the last twenty years but He is not accepting my invocation, yet I hope, my invocation will be accepted. The Prophet said: When any of you prays to his Lord and gets sign of its acceptance, let him say: All praise is due to God under all circumstances. (9) Begin invocation with Zikr of God. Don't invoke at the start. Hazrat Salma said: 14id never see the Prophet invoking without first saying: Sobhana Rabbial Ula wal wahhab. Abu Solaiman Darani said: If a man wishes to invoke God for any necessity, let him begin with blessings on the Prophet and then pray end and then end it with such blessing as God accepts the invocation of those who send blessing on Prophet. The Prophet said: When you invoke God for any necessity,' begin it after blessings on me as the Merciful God fulfills one of the two honoured necessities and reject another. (10) Observe the internal manners and if is the root of acceptance of Tauba, means of

preventing oppression, means to seek nearess to God and a near cause of acceptance of invocation, Ka'ba-b-Ashab narrated that there was a great famine'over the people at the time of Moses. He came out with the children :of Israil for invoking for rain but it did not come. Then God revealed to Moses: I will accept not your invocation and the invocation. f your companions as there is a back-biter amongst you:' Moses asked: Who is that man? We shall eject him from our company God revealed to him: 0 Moses, I have prohibited you back-biting..fow shall I be a back-biter? Then Moses said to the children of Israil: 242 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 243 Make repentance for back-biting and return to your Lord: They all repented. Then God sent down rain upon them. The sage Sufiyan Saori said: I have come to know that the children of Israil suffered famine for seven years, even they began to eat dead animals and young children. God sent revelation to their Prophet: If you come to Me walking on foot and enliven your tongues by invoking Me, I will not accept your invocations and will not show kindness at your cries till you pay compensation to those whom you have oppressed. They did so and there was rain upon them. Malek-b-Dinar said: There was once a famine over the children of Israil. They came out several times invoking for rain. God then revealed to their Prophet: Inform them that they have come to Me with impure bodies and unlawful food in their lies and they raised the fronts of their hands which shed unlawful blood. My wrath upon them is therefore great. Once Hazrat Solaiman came out invoking for rain. At that time an ant raised up its leg towards the sky and said: 0 God, we are Thy creation and we have got necessity of provision. Don't destroy us for the sins of others. Then Solaiman said to the people: Go, you will get rain as a result of the invocation of others than you. Once Jesus Christ came out invoking for rain. He said to the people: Let the transgressors go out of this assembly. None but one remained with him Jesus asked him: Have you got no sin? He said: By God, I don't know anything. One day I was praying when a woman was passing by me and I had a glance at her. When she went away, I plucked out me eyes. Jesus said to him: Invoke God for acceptance. Then he invoked and there came down heavy shower of rain. Hazrat Ata stated that when he came out one day for praying for rain, he saw a mad man near a burial ground. The mad man prayed and owing to his prayer there was profuse rain. Then the made man recited these poems: The ascetics and worshipers have found guidance, For their Lord, they keep their bellies hungry,. Their eyes remain awake being pressed by love. They spend the whole night without sleep. In meditation and, divine services of their Lord. But the people think them fools and mad. EXCELLENCE OF DARUD OR BLESSINGS ON PROPHET God says: God and His angels send blessings upon the Prophet. 0 those who believe, send blessings on him and Salam. It has been narrated that the Prophet said being satisfied: Gebriel came to me and said: 0 Muhammad, are you not satisfied that if one of your followers sends one blessing upon you, I send ten blessings upon him and if he sends one salaam on you, I send on him ten salams. The Prophet said: If a man sends blessings on me, the angels send blessings on him. So increase or reduce blessings on me at the time of sending it. The Prophet said: He who sends much blessings on me is best to me. He said: It is sufficient miserliness on the part of a believer that if 1 am mentioned to him, he does not send blessings on me. The Prophet said: Send much blessing on me on the Jumma Day. He said: If a man among my followers sends one blessing on me ten rewards are written for him and his ten sins are forgiven. He said: If a man utters after hearing Azan and Aqamtat "0 God, Lord of this perfect invitation and lasting prayer, send blessings on Muhammad, Thy servant and Thy Apostle and give him means, excellence and high position and intercession on the Resurrection Day", it becomes incumbent on me to intercede for him. The Prophet said: If a man glorifies me

by writing books, the angels pray to God for his forgiveness till the book exists. He said: If a man sends salam on me, God sends his salam to me and I respond to his salam. He was asked: 0 Prophet of God, how shall we send blessings on you? He said: Say, 0 God, send blessings on Muhammad, Thy servant, and upon his family and wives and descendants as Thou hast sent blessings on Abraham and upon the family of Abraham. And give abundance to Muhammad, his wives and descendants as Thou hast given abundance to Abraham and the family of Abraham. Thou art the Most praised and glorified. After the death of the Prophet, Hazrat Omar began to weep and said: 0 Prophet of God, my parents be sacrificed to you. You used to deliver sermon to the people standing on a wood of grape. When there were large numbers of people, you have taken a pulpit to make them hear but the wood began to tremble at your separation. It became quiet when you placed your hand on it. At the battle of Hunain, your followers were innumerable but they became attached to you. May my parents be sacrificed to thee. 0 244 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Prophet of God, your excellence has reached God as God will be obeyed if you are obeyed. God says: He who obeys the Apostle of God obeys God. 0 Apostle of God, may my parents be sacrificted to you, your excellence has reached God. He gave you the news of pardon before the news of sin. For that God says: God has forgiven you for what you enjoin them. 0 Prophet of God, my parents be sacrificed to you. Your excellence has reached God. He sent you as the last Prophet but He described you before all. For that He says: When I took covenant from you and the Prophets etc. 0 Prophet of God, may my parents be sacrificed to you, your excellence has reached God. The dwellers of Hell will wish how good it would have been if they had obeyed you. When they will receive punishment in different stages of Hell, they will say: Alas, had we obeyed god and His Apostle! 0 Apostle of God, may my parents be sacrified to you. Moses, son of Imran, made to flow a stream of water from a stone. Is it not more wonderful that water flowed down from your fingers? 0 Prophet of God, may my parents be sacrified to you. God made the wind subservient to Solaiman. He went one month's journey at dawn and one month's journey at dusk. Is it not more wonderful than the above that you travelled one night riding on a Buraq the seven heavens and said prayer at the Ka'ba the same very night? 0 Prophet of God, may my parent be sacrificed to you. God gave miracle to Jesus Christ, son of Mary, to make a dead man alive. Is it not more wonderful than it that cooked mutton mixed wit poison spoke with you? Don't eat me. I have got poison mixed with me. 0 Prophet of God, may my parent be sacrificed to you. Noah prayed to God about his people: 0 my Lord, don't leave a single house of the unbelievers in the world. If you had prayed against us in a similar manner, we would have been destroyed. Your back was burdened, your front teeth were martyred, yet you did not invoke against them but for good and said: 0 God, forgive my people, as they know not what they do. 0 Prophet of God, may my parents be sacrificed to you. Noah was not followed by so many people during his long stray as you have been followed in a short time. Innumerable people believed you. 0 Prophet of God, may my parents be sacrificed to you, if Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 245 you had not permitted people lower in rank than you to come to you, we could not have taken seat with you. If you had not married women except those of equal rank with you, we would have no connection with you. If you had not taken meal except with the people of equal rank with you, we could not get the honour of taking food with you. By God, you kept company with us, married in our families, put on sufi dress, rode on asses, took companions behind, ate in cups of earth and licked your hands after eating. EXCELLENCE OF ISTIGFAR OR SEEKING FORGIVENESS God says: When they do obscene acts or oppression on their souls, they remember God and seek forgiveness for their sins. Hazrat Abdullah-b-Masud said: There are two verses

in the Quran. If a man recites them after committing a sin and seeks forgiveness to God. God forgives him. God says: He who does an evil or oppreses on his soul and then seeks forgiveness to God, hh will find Him forgiving and merciful. God says: Glorify your Lord and seek forgiveness to Him. He accepts repentance. God says: Those who seek forgiveness by the latter part of night etc. The Prophet used often to say: Thou art pure with Thy praise, Thou doth accept repentance, Thou art merciful. The Prophet said: If a man seeks forgiveness much, God gives him solace in every trouble, makes his narrow space wide and gives him provision beyond his conception. The Prophet said: I seek forgiveness to God and I make repentance to Him 72 times every day. He used to do it inspite of his past and future sins being forgiven. The Prophet said: Consolation does not come to my mind till I seek forgiveness one hundred times a days. The Prophet said: If a man recites thrice the following at the time of going to bed, God forgives his sins even though they are innumerable like the foams of the sea, or like sands in a desert, or like leaves in a tree or like the days of the world 'I seek forgiveness to God the Greatest, there is no deity but He, the living, the every subsisting and I turn to him penitently." The Prophet said: The sins of one who utters it are forgiven even though he flees away from Jihad. Hazrat Ayesha said: The Prophet said to me: If you are attributed any guilt of sin, seek forgiveness to God, make repentance to Him, be penitent and seek forgiveness from sin. The Prophet used to say about 246 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I forgiveness: 0 God, forgive me of my sins, my ignorance, my extravagance and what you know of me. The Prophet said: If a man commits a sin and then prays two ra'kats of prayer with ablution and then seeks forgiveness to God, God forgives his sin. The Prophet said: When a believer commits a sin, a black spot falls in his heart. If he is repentant, returns and seeks forgiveness, it is wiped out of his heart. If the sin increase, the black spot increases. At last his heart becomes enveloped with black spots. This is 'Ran' which has been spoken of by God in this verse: Never, rather rust (Ran) has fallen in their hearts for what they have done. Then the Prophet said: God created ranks in Paradise for His servants. He says: 0 Lord, is this rank for me? God says: This is your reward for prayer of your son. the Prophet said: 0 God, include me among those who receive good news when they do good deeds and seek forgiveness when they do evils. The Prophet said: When a servant commits a sin and says: 0 God forgive me, God says: My servant has committed a sin and he knows that his Lord will punish him and so he seeks forgiveness for it and works for My pleasure, I forgive him. The Prophet said: If a man did no virtuous act during his life but he looks towards sky and says: 0 Lord, I have got my Lord, forgive me, God says: I have forgiven you. The Prophet said: If a man commits a sin and then understands that God is seeking him, he is forgiven though he does not seek forgiveness. The Prophet said: God says: 0 My servant, all are sinners except one whom I forgive. So seek forgiveness to Me, I shall forgive you. One who understands that I have got power to forgive, I forgive him without care. The Prophet said: If one says: 0 God, I have oppressed my soul and I have done evil, forgive me, there is none to forgive except Thee, God forgives him even though his sins are innumerable as ants. The best Doa of forgiveness is this: 0 God, Thou art my Lord and I am Thy slave. Thou hast created me. I am upon Thy covenant as far as possible. I seek refuge to Thee from the evils Thou created. I turn to Thee with the gifts Thou hast bestowed on me. I turn to my soul with my sins. I admit my sins. So forgive my sins. I admit my sins. So forgive my past and future sins. None can forgive sins except Thou. SAYINGS OF SAGES Hazrat Khaled-b-Madan said: God says: The dearest of My servants to Me are those who love one another for My sake, Vol-I ZIKR AND INVOCATION 247 whose hearts keep attached to mosques, who seek forgiveness at the latter part of night. I remember them when the inhabitants of the world want their punishment and turn it back from them. Hazrat Ali said: It is a wonder that one is destroyed even if he has got means of salvation. He was questioned: What is it? He said: To seek forgiveness. He also said: God forgives one for search of forgiveness even though He wishes to punish him.

The sage Fuzail said: Seeking forgiveness without giving up sins is the Tauba of the transgressors. The sage Abu Abdullah said: If your sins are so innumerable as the drop of water and like the foams of sea, they will be forgiven if you invoke God with a penitent and sincere heart with the following: 0 God, I seek forgiveness to Thee from every sin etc. SECTION 3 SELECTED INVOCATIONS The Prophet used to pray after morning prayer: 0 God, I seek mercy from Thee, such mercy with which Thou wilt guide my mind, unite my virtues in me, remove my dangers and difficultes, adorn my religion, protect my things in my absence, purify my actions, make my face bright, my path radiant and protect me from all evils. 0 God, give me true faith, such a faith after which no infidelity will last, such a mercy with which I can acquire the honour of Thy glory both in this world and in the next-up to the end. Invocation of Hazrat Ayesha: She said: The Prophet advised me to invoke with the fallowing: 0 God, I seek from Thee good, sooner or latter, known or unknown. I seek refuge to Thee from all evils. I seek from Thee paradise and the actions leading to it, sooner of latter, known or unknown. I seek refuge to Thee from Hell and the actions leading to it, sooner or latter, known or unknown. I seek from Thee good with which Thy servant and Apostle Muhammad seeks good from Thee. Invocation of Hazrat Abu Bakr: The Prophet instructed him to invoke with the following: 0 God, I pray to Thee by the help of Thy Apostle Muhammad, Thy friend Abraham, Moses with whom Thou spoke, Thy word and Spirit Jesus Christ, the Torah of Moses, Injil of Jesus, Jabur of David and the Quran of Muhammad (peace be on all)-up to the end. 248 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I Invocation of Qabisah: The Prophet instructed Qabisah to invoke in his old age after morning prayer and to recite it thrice: Glory be to God and all praise is His, Glory be to the great God. There is no might and power except in God, the great, the mighty.. The Prophet said: When you invoke therewith, you will be safe from anxieties, troubles, diseases and tuberculosis. Regarding your next world, invoke with this: 0 God, guide me from Thy guidance, show me favour from Thy favour, show me mercy from Thy mercy and shower on me Thy blessing. Invocation of Prophet Abraham: 0 God, this a new creation. Open it on me on account of my allegiance to Thee and end it with Thy pardon and pleasure. Give me rewards therein and accept it from me. Purify it, make it weak for me and forgive me the evils I commit in it. Thou art forgiving, merciful, magnificent and beloved. Invocation of Prophet Jesus Christ: 0 God, I have risen at dawn. I am unable to remove what I dislike, I am unable to get benefit of what I like. Affairs are in Thy hand, but I rise at dawn by mortgage of my actions 0 God, there is none more needy than me. 0 God, let not my enemy be glad over me, let not my friend think bad of me. Don't give trouble in my religion, don't make my earthly anxiety great and don't entrust me to those who will not show kindness on me, 0 Ever living, Eternal. Invocation of Khizr: In the name of God, with the will of God, there is no might and strength except in God and what He wills. Every gift is from God what He wills. All good is in His hand what He wills. Nobody but God removes evils. Invocation of Prophet Adam: 0 God, Thou knowest my secret and open matters, so accept my excuse. Thou knowest my necessities, so accept my invocation. Thou knowest what is in my mind. So forgive my sins. 0 God, I seek from Thee faith giving good news to my mind and true sure faith till I know that nothing may afflict me except what Thou hast recorded against me and what Thou hast allotted to me, 0 possessor of glory and honour.

CHAPTER X DIVISION OF TIMES FOR ACTIONS God has made the world subsevient to men not to live in its elevated places but to gather provision there from sufficient for their permanent abode, sufficient for rewards of their souls, so that they may save themselves from deceits and deceptions of the world. All

Their first abode is cradle and last abode is grave and their real abode is Paradise or Hell The term of life is noting but the distance of journey. Surely good deeds remove evils. His wonderful creations and that there is no existence of any thing apart from His existence. Mind feels difficulty in passing half the time in divine service. God says: You have got great occupations in day time. So think that movements are not only for the worldly actions but also to ascertain the measure of time by their help and to do business of the next world by dividing time. let him spend most part of his time in doing good deeds. His attributes.his time for worldly pursuits. God says: Waking at night is the firmest foot step and fruitful in invocation. so that they may earn the nearness of God and live in comforts in the day of the greatest danger. Then I draw it easily towards Myself. If any man wishes to make his scale heavy with good deeds. EXCELLENCE OF DIVINE SERVICE BY DIVISION OF TIME Know. Say: Are those who are wise equal to the ignorant? God says: Their sides turn over their beds and they call their Lord in hope and fear. If anyone wishes 250 ZIKR AND INVOCATION . Love is the fruit of constant remembrance of the Beloved and to work with that end in view. God says: Or that man who expresses obedience by prostrating during the whole night and saying prayer who fears the next world and hopes for the mercy of his Lord. God says: Glorify Him in some portions of night and some portions of day. Little time is allotted to divine services. God says: Remember your Lord morning and evening and make prostration to Him in a portion of the night and glorify Him long at night. Nothing is fulfilled if time is not divided and divine services are not done according to fixed times. so that you may find consolation. every day Is a mile. Vol-I to enter paradise without rendering any account. 0 dear readers. let him spend his whole time in religious actions. The above verses make it clear to you that the easy way of getting God is to engage yourself in thoughts of God and to do all actions regularly after division of time. If a man spends more than half of. God says: The sun and the moon go on according to a measure. For this reason. Its temptations and greeds are tumbling block in its path. Its religious action is a wealth and its time is the root of its wealth. God says: Establish prayer at two ends of the day and a portion of night. One can get acquaintance with Him if one thinks constantly of Hi. its profit is vision of God in the abode of peace and its loss is to be distant from Him and to stay in the lowest depth of Hell being tied up with chains. God says: Don't drive away those who call their Lord for His pleasure at dawn and at dusk. the Prophet said: Those who look at the sun. God says: Glorify your Lord before sunrise and before sun-set and glorify Him after prostration at night. For that the friends of God give up the comforts and pleasures of the transient life of the world and remain engaged day and night in divine services after division of times. So divide time in to several divisions. The following verse is its proof: He created the day and night alternately for one who wishes to remember Him or wishes to express gratefulness. God says: They sleep very little at night and seek forgiveness at the latter part of night. every month is a furlong. The only means to meet Him is to face death being imbued with love for Him.men are travelling in this world. He would have made it stationary and made the sun proof therein. God says: Praise your Lord when you stand up and read his Tasbih at the setting of the star at night. that there is no salvation without meeting with God. It does not become easy if one does not give up the world except what is necessary for him. he may be included more towards the world. He who is indifferent to his breaths will be so sorry on the Reurrection Day that there will be no limit to it. God says: It is He who made the stars for you. moon and shade to remember God are dear to God. So remember your Lord at night and be engaged with undivided mind towards Him. Its every year is a station. God says: Have you not looked towards your Lord how He extends the shade? If He wished. that they may show paths in the darkness of seas and lands. That is the time for the greatest dangers and dreadful questions. every breath is a step. This means that what the day makes .

He has no death. Night has got five divisions two divisions from sun-set up to going to bed and three divisions from mid-night to dawn. the single. This is the honoured time as God says: By oath of early dawn when it gives out breath. (f) 0 God. There are four kinds of recitations upto sun rise-(1) Doa and Zikr. etc. Praising this time. (2) two divisions from sun-rise to mid day. His power has been manifested by suppression of shade at this time as God says: Then I take it to Me easily. Thou art peace. (3) Quran reading and (4) to ponder over the creations of God. (d) Glory be to God. 0 our Lord. the Ever subsisting. one reward is written for his every hair of his body-and the reward of one accepted Haj is given to him. Hazrat Hasan Basari said that the Prophet had said: God said: 0 children of Adam. (2) Tasbih. Kingdom is His and all praise is His. God says: Say. send blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and also Salam. God says: I have created day and night as two signs. Now I shall narrate the divine service during these divisions of day and night. so that you may seek grace from your Lord and may count year. there is none to reject what Thou bestoweth and non to give what Thou doth reject and no man of honour can give benefit and benefit comes form Thee alone. 0 possessor of dignity and honour. 0 our Lord and the Lord of angels and Ruh. Thou art blessed. (b) Glory be to God and all praise is due to God. there is no deity but He. He has got no partner. make My Zikr for one hour after morning prayer and for one hour after afternoon prayer. (g) There is no . the Great. (e) I seek forgiveness to God. remember God by saying: All praise is due to God who gave me life after He made me dead and to Him is the return. make Monazat by saying: 0 God. (2) TASBIH: It'is a collection of some formulas and each formula should be repeated from three times to one hundred times. God says: Glorify your Lord with His praise before sun-rise and before sun set. one lac rewards are written for him for each rak'at. The Prophet said with regard to the morning prayer: If a man goes to the mosque for prayer after ablution. so that the people may see clearly. the Bestower of gifts. You should not miss morning and night prayers in congregation as there are good rewards therefore. I seek return to Him. He gives life and takes it. make us live with peace and admit us in the abode of peace. This reward is increased to ten fold. keep seated till sun-rise with Zikr of God. (4) two divisions from afternoon to sunset. the Ever living. pure. RULES OF THIS TIME: After getting up from bed. There is no deity but God. There is no deity but God. I take refuge to the Lord of early dawn. These formulas are generally ten. Then recite the following which the Prophet used to recite: Glory be to My Lord. one reward is written for each step he takes and one sin is forgiven. the Highest. There is no other thing between Zikr and gratefulness. 0 God. proclaim the glory and purity of God. If he sits waiting for the forenoon prayer. (c) He is glorious. When he finishes the prayer at the time of sun-rise. (3) two divisions from the declining of the sun to afternoon. What is acquired in between these hours will be sufficient for you. it is dear to me than the manumission of four slaves. There is no might and strength except in God. FIRST DIVISION: This covers the period from the morning twi-light up to sun-rise. The Prophet said: If a man keeps seated till sun-rise 252 ZIKR AND INVOCATION after morning prayer and remains busy in Zikr. NUMBER OF DIVISIONS OF TIME There are seven divisions of day-(1) one division from early morning up to sun-rise. the Mighty. (a) There is no deity but God.Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 251 towards loss is compensated by the night. the Great. God says: Remember the name of your Lord morning and evening. There is hint of reciting Tasbih at this time in this verse: When there is dusk and when there is dawn. (1) DOA AND ZIKR: When you finish your prayer. At the end of prayer. I make the sign of day clear by removing the sign of night. the great and all praise is His. all good is in His hands and He is powerful over everything. God is greatest. as mentioned above. The more you recite them.. from Thee peace and to Thee peace returns. He is ever-living. the more efficacious they are. Then make ablution with cleansing teeth and pray two rak'ats of prayer in your house and then go to the mosque and pray two rak'ats of compulsory prayer.

for your parents and for the male and female believers and (5) then utter seven times the Doa as prescribed. open and secret. (b) Think of profitable things in the spiritual world and that of the gifts of God. Remove the obstacles to good deeds and think of doing good for yourself and general Muslims. to be present in the assemblies of the learned and to do good to the Muslims. or 8 rak'ats Zoha prayer when the sun-rises very high and before noon. the Sovereign. Ikhlas. the Knowing from the accursed devil. there is the prayer of Zoha and next after three hours. There are two duties therein. 6. there is the prayer of Zuhr and next after three hours. It is better to pray Ishraq of two rak'ats just after sun-rise and 4. Regarding the second duty. (i) 0 God. These screens are one above another and the brilliance of their lights has got degrees just like the difference of the lights of the stars. as love does not grow unless there is firm honour for Him in heart. there is no deity but God and God is greatest' (3) Then send blessings on the Prophet seven times and (4) then seek forgiveness seven times for yourself. 0 Lord. Ibrahim Taimi saw in dream the Prophet and asked him about the Doa that Khizr had dictated to him and the Prophet said: It is true. One duty is to observe Ishraq and Zoha prayers ad another duty is to do all actions in connection with the people and for their good. This pondering is the best divine service as it contains the remembrance of God and two sincere things. God says: Oath of Zoha and darkness of night. (2) The Second division of day begins from sun-rise to a little before mid-day. If a than recites it. (1) Read each seven times-Fateha. moon and sun. the Hearing. Don't give it up any time before sun rise and sun set. The fruit of meditation is acquaintance or Ma'arfat. Aref sees God's glory with the inner light Vol-I 254 ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I of his mind and Abed sees it with the outer light of his eyes. The Prophet said: God has got seventy screens. There is order for prayer after every three hours. Kaferun and Ayatul Qursi. among other rewards. Nothing in the world and heaven can do harm if His name is remembered and He is Hearing. (2) The second thing is the increase of God's love. None observes it except one who has been made fortunate by God and none forsakes it except one who has been made unfortunate by Him. there is Asr prayer and next after three hours there is Magrib prayer. all praise is His. read before the sun rise and sun set the Doa which Khizr taught Ibrahim Taimi called "Musabbhatul Arsh" which is as follows. to join funeral prayer. Khizr has spoken the truth. but there is limit to the external eye sight. and then (2) recite seven times 'Glory be to God. Glory of God is not opened to the mind unless one is acquainted with God's attributes and His wonderful creations. Think of the God's rewards and punishments. it is to visit patients. (3) The Third division of day begins just before noon and declining of the sun. Thy servant and Prophet and Apostle. Falaq. (4) GOOD THOUGHTS. In the mean time. (1) The first thing is' the acquisition of knowledge about God as contemplation is the key to the earning of spiritual light.deity but God. Knowing. the brilliance of God's face would have destroyed what one could have seen. He knows the dwellers of the world and he is the best of Abdals. There is a prayer after sun-rise. If He had disclosed them. Doa and Quran reading together. God will forgive him and will lift His anger from him and order the angel in his left side not to write his sins for one year. There is difference between Abed and Aref. I seek refuge from the machinations of the devil. The former is like one who hears about a thing and the latter is like one who sees that thing with his eyes. After three hours. one can do worldly business. the illiterate Prophet. the open Truth. Nas. He is one of the soldiers of God in the world. What Khizr says is true. (i) I seek refuge to God. send blessings on Muhammad. (h) I begin in the name of God. Honour grows from acquaintance and love grows from honour and deep attachment grows from love. (a) Think of your past sins and try to remove them. (3) The Fourth division of day begins from the declining of the sun after noon and ends . Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 253 (3) QURAN READING: If you wish to get the rewards of Zikr. to do good works. There is no limit to the inner light of mind.

When the sun sets. The object of the following verse is this: 'Their sides roll in their beds". There is a great reward for waiting for the next compulsory prayer after finishing one. (1) to laugh without any wonderful thing. The Prophet said: When a man sleeps with ablution. This happens in all cases. Then pray four long prayers and then continue prayer till the setting of the red hues in the western horizon. his soul cannot reach there and he cannot see dreams which are true. (3) Sleep at night keeping a written wasiat near your head as it is no wonder to meet . For this Reason. The excellence of prayer at this time is like that of night prayer as it is the first stage of night. after that 13 rak'ats and then Bitr prayer. A certain wise man said: Three things are not dear to God. How then is it regarding special persons and sages? Secrets are disclosed to them during sleep. (2) Keep tooth stick and ablution water near the head so that you may stand for prayer when awake. The Prophet said: If a man goes to bed with this intention that he would pray at night and his two eyes prevail upon him nd he sleeps till dawn. pray four rak'ats Sunnat prayer. Thus one third of life is lost in sleep. opportune time. This was the habit of the former sages. The Prophet said: There is half reward in saying prayer sitting than standing and half reward in saying prayer lying than sitting. Sleep is considered as Ibadat if certain rules are observed. This may be done at the earlier portion of night or latter portion.after Zuhr prayer. I swear by the night fall. Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 255 (6) The Sixth division of day begins from Asr prayer. FIVE DIVISIONS OF NIGHT (1) The First division of night. God says: Glorify Him at two extremes of the day. pray two rak'ats Sunnat and then 2 or 4 rak'ats Nafl. There is no prayer after Asr. glorify Him. When asked about this verse the Prophet said: It is the prayer between Magrib and Isha as it removes the sins of useless talks of day time and makes its end good. The Prophet used to cleanse teeth may times at night specially when he awoke from sleep. Perform four rak'ats of Sunnat prayer before Azan and Aqamat and then pray four rak'ats of compulsory prayer. The Prophet said: When a man goes to bed after making Zikr with ablution. The Prophet said: When a man sleeps with ablution. To sleep for 8 hours during 24 hours is sufficient. God has taken oath of this time: Nay. God says: Glorify God in one portions of night. After Zuhr prayer. Make it long and this is the time of acceptance of invocation. It is a most . God says: I swear by night and what it brings (darkness). An angel enters . This was mentioned to the Prophet who said: Mu'az has got good knowledge of religion. This is the prayer of Awabin. Hazrat Mu'az said: I sleep and then pray and what I do in my sleep. pray Magrib and remain busy in Zikr between two prayers. Before Zuhr. If he moves during sleep and makes Zikr. (2) The second divisions of night begins from the early time of Isha up to the sleep of the people. (7) The Seventh division of day begins when the sun is covered with dust and snow and is the time immediately before sun-set. God says: Seek forgiveness for your sins and proclaim the purity of your Lord with praise at dawn and at dusk. the Prophet said: The divine services of the learned and their breaths are Tasbih. his soul is taken up to the Throne. (5) The Fifth division of day begins from the end of Zuhr prayer till Asr or afternoon. God says: When it is dusk and dawn. his soul is hung up with the Throne and his dream becomes true If he sleeps without ablution. I think I do it in my wakeful state. THERE ARE TEN RULES OF SLEEP (1) Teeth cleansing and ablution. Pray two rak'ats after Magrib.his dress. He said: Up to the darkness of the night' Pray four rak'ats before compulsory prayer and two rakats after it and then four rak'ats. the 256 angel invokes for him and seeks God's forgiveness for him. (3) The third division of night is in sleep. (2) to eat without hunger and (3) to sleep at day without being wakeful at night. he is rewarded as in a state of prayer till he wakes up. whatever he intended is written for him and his sleep is a gift from God as it were. The end of this division is up to the setting of red hue in th western sky.

They used to say: Our bodies have been made of earth and shall have to return to earth. them. The dead persons will come to meet him and question him but he will not be able to talk. food little and talk necessary. It is like keeping a dead body in grave keeping the face towards the Ka'ba. There was nothing between the bodies of Ahle Suffa and earth. The Prophet was asked: A certain person prays at night. so also a sleeping man sees things which his mind cannot conceive in wakeful state.' As a man who is awake sees things which he does not see in sleep. He said: When it becomes easy to you at night. keep fast and break.0 our Lord and the Lord of all things and their owner. a man rises to pray Tahajjud. pray. Hazrat Ayesha said: When the Prophet went to bed. The. Lord of heavens and earth and what is therein. When sleep becomes strong. At this time. sleep. Recike special 'verses of the Quran. Don't pollute your mind by oppressing any man and don't be firm in committing sin after waking. the Single. Loqman asked his son: 0 dear son. This is my way. (7) Sleep facing the Ka'ba. Lord of seven heavens and Lord of the greatThrone. he will not be Permitted to talk in grave till Resurrection Day. When you stand up after rising from sleep. it is r Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 257. the Forgiving". he used to recite the following: There is no. He who wishes to stick to it firmly. I keep my side in Thy name and shall raise it up in Thy name-up to the end. the Almighty.. if you doubt about death. The Prophet said: Strive hard in actions as God does not inflict trouble over you until you inflict trouble on yourself. Sleep is the period between life and death as Barzakh is the period between this world and the next world. Wheat sleep prevails over him. said that they slept little at night even though it prevailed upon. (6) Don't sleep till it overtakes you. so you will die. He who does not follow my ways in not of me The Prophet said: Don't take too much trouble for religion as it is firm. Prophet prohibited him from that. That is the sign of love. always remember God. For this reason. (4) Sleep with sound mind after making Taubah for all sins and seek forgiveness for all Muslims. (5) Don't sleep in soft bed and your bed should be of middle kind. so you will wake up after your death. Sleep is a kind of death and rising is a kind of Resurrection. Sura A'raf. his sins are forgiven. (10) Doa after waking up. The Prophet said: If a man goes to bed with the intention of doing no oppression.with death during sleep. hatred and envy. ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I 258 ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I r(4) Fourth division of night begins from mid night and ends with the end of night except one sixth of it remaining. it will overcome him. When the Prophet woke up form sleep. think himself dead and say: 0 God. the last portion of Suran Badr. the Mighty. he keeps himself hanging with a rope. If a man dies without wasiat. As you wake up after sleep. deity but God. God says: God takes souls at the time of their death and the souls of those who do not die in their sleep. If you doubt about resurrection. don't sleep. The Prophet said: He who does religious actions easily is best of you The Prophet said: I pray and sleep. The Prophet was asked: Which time of the night is the appropriate time for exception of invocation? He said: Mid-night Prophet David said: 0 . Nas and 25 times of the following formula Sobhan Allah walhamdo lillah wala Ilaha Illallah and Allaho Akbar. (9) Remember God at the time of sleep. (8) Invoke at the time of sleep and say: 0 Lord. he used to place his head upon his right hand. As you sleep. The Prophet said: Don't take too much trouble at night. such as Ayatul Qursi. don't be awake. The sleep of Ahle Suffah was strong. Don't make divine service a burden on you. recite: All praise is for God who has given us life after He has made us dead and to Him is the Resurrection. Falaq and . God says: He it is who causes you to die at night. After rising. God says: I swear by the night when it is deep.

visits the sick and attends funeral service every day. The Prophet used to pray at least 13 rak'ats at this including Bitr prayer. he said to him: Attend the assembles of Zikr. your removing nuisance from the pathway is an act of charity. distaste of this world or such a learning which helps journey towards the next world and not that learning which helps increase of wealth and properties. His division of time is not like those of an Abed or worshiper. This is the time of departure of angels of night and the arrival of the angels of day. such as giving legal decisions. The Prophet said: When you see a garden of Paradise. (5) Fifth division of night. writing religions boos. The excellence of learning and teaching proves it. The Prophet said: If a man rises at dawn. some 30. Glory be to the strict Law-giver. Gory be to God. The learning which we speak of and which is above divine service is that learning which creates a desire for the Hereafter. (4) BUSINESS MAN: He who is required to do business for all times to maintain his family members. don't be awake in the early or latter part of the night as he who does not sleep in its early part sleeps at its latter part. Some finished the Quran once a day. When a man complained to Hasan Basari above the hardness of his heart. what is the garden of Paradise? He said: Assembly of Zikr. He has got 360 veins. as his reading and writing time.Bashrah used to make Tawaf of the Ka'ba 70 times at day time and 70 times at night. there is the duty of charity upon every vein of his body. the Begining. So a student should not turn away from such an assembly. During this time. Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 259 (2) A LEARNED MAN is he whose learning benefits the eo~~le. He should be busy up to sun. DIVISIONS OF TIME ACCORDING TO CIRCUMSTANCES (1) A WORSHIPER is one who has got no business except divine service. (3) STUDENTS: The Prophet said: To be present in an assembly of Zikr is better than prayers of one thousand rak'ats. and from noon to Asr in reading and writing books and from Asr to sunset in Hadis.000times. gives charity. your showing path to man is an act of charity. Tafsir and other benefiting subjects. keep alone with Me at that time and I also will remain alone with you and will raise up your necessities The Prophet was asked: What portion of night is best? He said: The middle of the latter half of night. The saint Ibrahim-b-Adham said as reported from an angel that he who recites the following will not die till he sees his place in Paradise: Glory be to the Highest Judge. he sits without occupation. some prayed from 300 to 600 rka'ts. He asked: 0 Prophet of God. are necessary and i` requires meat deal of me. Then he said: Two rak'ats of prayer before noon take away all rewards. The Prophet said: If a man fasts. your forbidding evil is an act of charity. attending one thousand funerals and visiting one thousand patients. Even he named Tasbih and Tahlil as acts of charity. there is the end of this division and the beginning of the divisions of the day. The companions did not miss a day without charity even though it be with a date or a piece of bread: as the Prophet said: A man remains under the shadow of his charity till he faces judgment. The Prophet said: Saveyourself from Hell by giving in charity even a portion of date.rise in Zikr and invocations and after sun-rise up to noon in teaching and learning. Some of the companions used to recite Tasbih 1200 times daily. roam in it. some twice a day. his sins are forgiven. The remaining portion of night is Sehri time. they finished the Quran twice every day and night. but what time is most opportune? God evealed to him: 0 David. Keep awake in its middle portion. the Merciful. God says: Seek forgiveness at Sehri time. should do it without engaging himself in divine service for all times with this .Lord. If one keeps awake at the latter part of the nigh he cannot remain awake at its early part. teaching. I love to do your service. pray by two rak'ats. your helping a weak man in bearing his load is an act of charity. When there is dawn. In another narration. Inspite of that. Your enjoining good is an act of charity. There are prescribed invocations to be recited therein. he enters Paradise. Glory be to One who effaces the night and brings the day. Karrah-b. glory be to One whom no affair can keep busy. If he gives up divine service. Others prayed at least 100 rak'ats a day and a night.

This is the rank of a Siddiq. Mugirahb-Shubah narrated that the Prophet used to stand so iong. j(5) AN ADMINISTRATOR is like a leader. SECTION 2 EXCELLENCE OF NIGHT WORSHIP The Prophet said: Sun-set prayer is best to God.. They should remember how the rightly guided Caliphs conducted themselves with heavy duties on their shoulders. There is another verses: I am going towards my Lord and He will soon guide me'.. (6) UNITARIAN: He is one who is engaged in the meditation of God. EXCELLENCE OF NIGHT PRAYER QURAN: God says: Your Lord knows that you stand up in prayer for two thirds of the night. Such a man need not observe the divisions of time but should keep company with God soon after the compulsory prayers with humility of mind. Once Obaidullah was asked: Did the Prophet pray except the compulsory prayers? He replied: He prayed between Magrib and lsha. one tie is unloosened. In other words there is lesson for him in whatever thoughts occur in his mind.condition that he must remember God in all his dealings and not forget Him and perform compulsory divine services. Hazrat Anas and Ibn Masud used to pray them always. The Prophet said: If a man prays two rak'ats in mid night. the devil knots three ties by his side and says to each tie: You have got a greater portion of night acrd so sleep. He was asked: What is it? God has forgiven all your past and future sins. It opens night prayers and ends day prayers. or a mutawalli or a person on whom the affairs the Muslims have been entrusted. his rewards will be unlimited according to a tradition. . God acce is it. He said: God has got much more and better. God says: Seek help with patience and prayer. etc. He . Hazrat Omar asked: 0 Prophet of God. etc. The Prophet said: If a man prays Magrib in congregation and two rak'ats in addition without talking any worldly things in between them and reads chapter Faitha and then verses from the first portion of chapter Baqr and two verses from its middle. another tie is unloosened. God says: He who says prayer standing and with prostration throughout the night and fears the next world. and chapter Ikhlas. I would have made it compulsory for them. If he prays. The Prophet said: There is a time at night which nobody should miss. If he awakes and makes Zikr of God. chapter Ikhlas 15 times and then makes Ruku and prostration and when he stands for the second rak'at and recites chapter Fatiha. The sage Abu Sloaiman Darani said that to pray this Awabin prayer is better than optional fast. The Prophet said: If a man says ten rak'ats of prayer between Magrigb and Isha. If he-prays at that time. It has not been reduced f or a traveller. Similar is the case of a judge.in prayer that his feet became swollen. that is the prayer of Awabin. Ayatul Kursi and three verse of chapter Baqr. The support of the above version is found also in the following verse: when you put them alone and they do not worship except God. 15 times. does not love anybody except God and does not fear anybody except Him. Then he rises up with pleasure or with displeasure. it is better for him than the world and what i t contains. If a 260 ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I man prays two rak'ats Magrib prayers. Mention was once made to the Prophet of a man who sleeps all the night and he said: The devil has passed urine in his ears. HADIS: Thee Prophet said: When one of you sleeps. there will be building for him in Paradise. Such a man flees towards God as God says: So flee away to God. He does not accept provision except from Him. two buildings will be built for him in Paradise. they take shelter to a cave and your Lord will provide them with space out of His mercy. This happens in all nights. God says: Those who pass the night for their Lord prostrating and standing in prayer. In between them. Had it not been difficult for my followers. God says: Divine service at night is the firm footstep and fruitful for invocations. there are trees which are sufficient for the inmates of the world to see after roaming. whatever sound falls in his ears and whatever things fall in his eyes. The distance of the two buildings is the path of one hundred years.our buildings then would be numerous.

As the dwellers of the earth see the brightness of the stars. so the inmates of heaven see the light of your house. the rewards of prayers are also written for him. my parents be sacrificed to thee. He was asked: Why do the aces of those who pray Tahajjud become brighter than those of others? He said: Because they stay with the Merciful in loneliness and get light from His light. Prayer at night brings one near God. Ibn Masud used to rise up and his voice used to be heard up to morning like the humming of bees. if you peep at the garden of paradise. The Prophet said: 0 Abu Hurairah. your fat will melt and you will shed blood after tears and you will get new skin after your old skin has melted. It has been narrated that there was a man at the time of the Prophet who used to stand in prayer when the people remained asleep and recite the Quran and say: 0 Lord of Hell. Hazrat Fuzail said: If you cannot keep awake at night and keep fast at day time. The Prophet said: If a man rises u at night and awakes his wife and both pray two rak'ats of prayers. Rubi said: I . The Prophet said to Abu Zarr: Don't you take luggage for your) journey? He said: Yes He said: Why don't you take properties for the Resurrection Day? 0 Abu Zarr. . The Prophet said: If a man prays at night though being prevailed upon by sleep. you have considered your house better than My house. He came and heard him saying that. getup at night and pray and seek the pleasure of God. diseases of body are cured and faults are prevented.if-you wish to get the mercy of God while you are alive and while you -are dead in grave. his sins are forgiven. Afterwards he used to pray at night. I will givenyou additional rewards. why don't you pray for Paradise? He said: 0 Prophet of God. The Prophet said: May God show mercy on the woman who rises up at night and prays and then wakes up her husband and he also prays. If he refuses. she throws water on his face. make pilgrimage for great works and give charity to thee poor. he said: Call me when he prays. he throws water on her face. pray in a corner of your house. he said to him: O man. 0 Ihya. save me from it. When it was mentioned to the Prophet. Hazrat zoynal Abedin said: Once Hazrat Ihya ate bread of wheat to his satisfaction and slept up to morning. know that you have been deprived of good and that your sins have become great. shall I not inform you what will benefit you? He said: Yes. your neighbour better than My neighbours. The Prophet was asked: a certain man prays at night but commits theft at dawn. If she refuses. your fat will be swollen to get it and your soul will proceed forward. The Prophet said. The Prophet said: After compulsory prayer. Sleep is an act of charity for him. When the people went to sleep.. He said: He will not do what he does. then wakes his wife from sleep and she also prays. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: I don't know whether i t is better to spend this property in charity than to keep awake at night. he worships as it were the whole night. If you look once to Hell. I rant read mere as my actions have not reached that stage Then Gebriel came down and said: Inform him that God has saved him from Hell and admitted him in Paradise. Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 261 0 Abu Hurairah. The Prophet said: If a man sleeps in his appointed time or in any portion of it and makes divine service between Falr and Zuhr. He prayed up to dawn.' its actions also become good. God says: If you are grateful. both we regarded as remembering ones. May God show mercy on him who rises up at night and prays. Sufiyan Saori ate one night with satisfaction and said: When an ass is 262 ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I given good grass. by My glory and honour. God then revealed to him: 0 Ihya. When it was dawn. Wise Saying: Once Hazrat Omar fell down agar reciting some verses at night and he was looked after for many days as patient is looked after. The Prophet said: You should pray at night as it was the habit of your earlier sages.said: Shall I not be a grateful servant? This shows that the additional worship is for additional rank as gratefulness brings additional rewards. Gebriel said to the Prophet How good lbn Omar would have been if he would have prayed at night? The Prophet informed him of it. He said: Fast in summer for resurrection and pray two rak'ats in the darkness of night for loneliness in grave. the best prayer is prayer at night.

I become sorry at the advent of men to me. This taste will give you encouragement to wake up at night. This is the food and life of their souls. To reduce stomach from the burden of food is good. don't eat much. Abu Zuairiya said: I stayed once at the house of Abu Hunifa for six months. If a man is Vol-I THE BOOK OF WORSHIP 263 engaged in worldly pursuits. When a man thinks of Hell and of the next world. Solaiman Taimi prayed Fajar for 40 years with the ablution of Isha. If you do it. you will love loneliness without doubt and tasto in monazat. He never kept his side on his bed for one single night. Abu . This taste should not be removed as wisdom and wise sayings testify it. I become glad in darkness as 1 can stay then with my Lord in loneliness.Solaim. Rabiy-b-Khasem. The open conditions are four-(I) Not to eat and drink much It begets sleep and there is trouble in prayers. he heard them say: This man keeps awake the whole night. It is narrated that Wahab-b-Munabbah did not place his side on bed for thirty years. Forviveness is to be sought for these faults to God. Ali-b-Bakar. Mosruq once started on pilgrimage and spent the whole night in prostration. it will increase your sleep and you will repent much at the time of your death. They sleep at day time when the people remain busy in worldly deeds. If he stands in prayer. said. He knows the condition of mind and sees whatever faults the mind has got. Wahab-b-Monabhah. those who get taste in monazat to Him.. He used to sleep very little at night. When there is love for God. Abu Solaiman Darani. (3) To know the excellence of night prayer and to hope for th M. The sage Fuzail. I found in dream a beautiful young girl with a letter in her hand saying to me: Can you read this letter? I said Yes. that night waking is difficult for many persons but it is easy for one who has got by God's mercy the secret and open conditions of night-waking. You will make enjoyment then with Hurs. So rise up from sleep it is best for you. At first he used to keep awoke for half the night. For this reason. After-wards he used to keep awake the whole night. This is the highest rank belonging only to the strong who are always engaged in divine service. thoughts of his worldly actions come in his mind. (2) Not to make too much labour at day time.b-yeaz said: When the sun sets in. A certain Sufi used toad vise his disciples: 0 congregation of disciples. Wahab-b-Ward. (2) to keep fear of God strong in mind and to lessen hope. Taus. Hakam. SIX STAGES OF NIGHT-WAKING (1) To keep awake the whole night. as too much labour brings too much sleep. A certain learned man said: "The pleasure which a Sufi gets in Monazat at night can be compared with that in Paradise. his sleep goes away and fear comes in his mind. there were Sayyed-bMusayyeb. He was questioned: What is that sin? He said: I said in my mind on seeing a man weeping: This he is doing for show of people.spent many nights in the house of Imam Shafeyi. They used to say morning prayer with the ablution of Isha prayer. The sage Malek-b-Dinar said: One night I forgot my duty and began to sleep. 0 dear readers. While passing once by ape Me' e. I have been deprived of prayer at night for five months. from innovations and the sorrowful thoughts of the world. SECRET CONDITIONS OF NIGHT WAKING (1) To keep the mind safe from hatred of the Muslims. This was the practice of some early sages and saints. Among them. She handed over to me the letter which contained: What! joy and hope have destroyed you! Has your mind forgot the hope of Hurs? You will stay in paradise without death. they feel easy to keep awake for the whole night. Reciting Quran in Tahajjud is better than sleep. as it makes the heart hard and creates barrier to get mercy of God. Sufi yan Saori said: On account of one sin. When it rises up. Sufyan-b. I don't do it. don't drink much. Abu Taleb makki narrate his from 4o narrators. it does not become easy for him to pray at night. Fuzail-b-Yeaz. as night prayer is nothing buttohold secret talk with God. (4) Love for God and strength of faith greatly entourage might wakefulness. (3) Not to give up a little sleep at day time as it is sunnat for night waking (4) Not to commit sins at day. CAUSES OF MAKING NIGHT-WAKING EASY Know.

God says: your Lord knows that you stand in prayer nearly two thirds of the night or half or one third. Hazrat Ayessha said: The Prophet used to get up on hearing the crowing of cock. Hazrat Ayesha said: I did not see the Prophet but in sleep after Sehri time. One is to pray one hundred rak'ats of prayer and recite Faitha. the Jumma day. Malek-b-Dinar. Their time of prayer was at mid-night and that is better for it. For this. The Prophet sometimes kept awake for one third of the night. ten times Ikhals in each rak'at. Such a man keeps awake at the first part of the night till sleep prevails over him. he keeps fast as it were for sixty months and God sends Gebrief on this day with His message). the 15th day of Shaban. The number of these nights is fifteen. he prays. The remaining nine nights are as follows: The first night of Muharram the night of Ashura. This was the habit of the Prophet. Such men were innumerable. Abu Asem. This happened in the last portion out of the six portions of the night. he goes to 264 ZIKR AND INVOCATION Vol-I bed. Six odd nights of the last portion of Ramzan including the Blessed night the night. he cannot make profit. If the month of Ramzan is saf.Abullah. Then there is the middle night of Shaban. Then there are the night of Arafat and the two nights of two I'ds. These nights are the following. invokes for himself what he wishes for him in this world and the next and gets up at dawn with fast. his soul will not die when all souls will die. the 15th night of Rajab. the day of Ashura. Abu Zaber Salman. If a man is indifferent at the time of season. God acceptall his invocations. ten days of Zilhaj and the day of Tashriq. they used to sleep u to mid night and then in the one sixth portion of the night. The Prophet said: One who wakes up in the nights of two I'ds. the day of 27th Rajab (If a man fasts on the day. the whole year is safe. Thus he gets up twice and sleeps twice during the same night. (4) To keep awake in one sixth portion of the night. When he again feels the urge of sleep. The Prophet said: If the day of Jumma is safe. (3) To keep awake for one third of the night. This is difficult buL better. the 27th night of Rajab as it is the night of Prophet's ascension to heaven. For this he gets the rewards of waking up for the whole night. sometimes two thirds and sometimes one sixth. Nobody should neglect these nights as these are the reasons of good deeds and the best time for trade in religion. he gets the rev ards of one hundred years He who prays 12 rak'ats in this night reading in each Rak'at chapter Fatiha and one chapter of the Quran Tashahhad once and sends blessings on the Prophet one hundred times. When he wakes up. some great companions and Tabeyins. of 17th Ramzan in which the believers and the infidels met Badr. There are nineteen days of excellence: The day of Araft. two day of two I'ds. To keep awake to the measurement of four or two rak'ats of prayer or to remain busy in Zikr and invocations for one hour. Muhammad-b-Mungader and others. Eazid Rakkashi. (2) To keep awake for half the night. (6) This is the lowest waking. Solaiman Taimi. (5) Not to observe any time of night for prayer. EXCELLENCE OF SPECIAL NIGHTS AND DAYS To do divine service in the nights which have got excellence is sunnat. Their habit was to sleep in the first portion out of three portions of night and the last portion out of six portions of night. They lied to sleep in the latter part of the night as the slumber of morning is removed by that. ====== THE END ====== . The Prophet said about this night of mercy: If a man does good deeds in this night. It is the middle of the later part of the night and before one sixth portion of the night. the 17th day of Ramzan (the day on which the battle of Badr was fought). all the days are safe. thee first night of Rajab. Abu Hazem. The Prophet said: Pray at night even through it is to the length of the time of milking a goat.

neighbours. Trade and. II CONTENTS CHAPTER I Rules of Eating and Drinking CHAPTER II Secrets of Marriage Benefits and harms of marriage Divorce Duties of husband and wife CHAPTER III Earnings. Commerce CHAPTER IV Halal & Haram Different stages of doubtful things Allowances and gifts of rulers CHAPTER V Love and Brotherhood Rights of friendship and brotherhood' CHAPTER VI Duties to relatives.VOL. Muslims Duties towards Muslims Duties towards Neighbours Duties towards Relatives Duties towards servants and Slaves CHAPTER VII Benefits and harms of seclusion and society CHAPTER VIII Rules of journey CHAPTER IX Music and Exctacy CHAPTER X Enjoining good & Forbidding Evil CHAPTER XI Conduct and Character of Holy Prophet .

SECTION I RULES OF EATING ALONE The rules of eating alone are three kind-(a) rules before eating (b) rules at the time of eating and (c) rules after eating. his food and drink are considered as divine service. The Prophet said : Wash before eating prevents poverty and wash after eating prevents frivolous thoughts. The Book of worldly usages is the second book of Imam Gazzali's world renowned master piece Ihya Ulum-id-Din or the Revival of religious learning. manners. some learned sages said that food and drink appertain to religion. rules and regulations concerning eating and drinking. The Prophet used not to take food in any plate except in a big dish with others. Four things were innovated after the Prophet- . If a man takes food for helping his learning and actions and God-fear. (3) Food shall be placed on the ground as it is the way of the Prophet. The book II deals with the worldly usages. The Holy Prophet said : A man can acquire virtues in all his actions. (1) The food must be lawful . The modes and the ways of food and drink are the lights of religion. music. REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS THE BOOK OF WORLDLY USAGES PART I CHAPTER I RULES OF EATING AND DRINKING. harms and benefits of seclusion and society.. God enjoined eating good and lawful food and prohibited bad and unlawful food. duties towards Muslims. The root of religion is lawful food which is the basis of all religious action (2) The hand shall be washed before eating. he should not spend his time uselessly and remain busy like a lower being which roams from field to field in eating and drinking. earnings and trade. God says: 0 8 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II believers. he kept it on the ground as it is the sign of humility. (a) RULES BEFORE EATING : There are seven rules before -eating. lawful and unlawful earnings. such food and drink which are absolutely necessary and which are taken according to prescribed rules. Whenever any food was taken to the Prophet. don't eat the properties of one another unjustly-2 188. This work is an attempt to translate the second part of the Ihya not too literally but in substance from the original written in Arabic. but it is not possible to stand constantly on them without a healthy body which is also not possible without food and drink. omit the unnecessary arguments of sects and things prevailing in the world and to omit the sayings of less important sages. I pray to the Almighty Allah that He may guide the people of the world in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah and the spirit in which the Ihya was written by Hujjatual Islam (the Proof of Islam).PREFACE. A literal translation is avoided in order to. neighbours." Dirts and germs that keep attached in hands as a result of manual labour can be removed by wash. enjoining good and forbidding evil and character and conduct of the Holy Prophet. A religious man must stick. Who increase the strength of animals by food and drink and Who nourishes religion and good deeds by good foods and drinks. even in a morsel of food he lifts up his mouth and to the mouth of his wife. marriage. etiquettes. God said Eat pure food and do good deeds-23:51 Q. The object of the wise is the vision of the Lord in the next world and the only way to gain it is learning and action and there is not other way. journey. So wash before eating is necessary as ablution before prayer is necessary. There is benefit in the former and harm in the latter. servants and slaves. For that. Who gives provision according to a measure. But no verse of the Quran or saying of Prophet has been omitted in this book. For this reason. to these ways and control his passion and greed for food and drink by weighing them in the balance of Shariat. a title received by Imam Gazzali and about which it has been said "If all the books of Islam were destroyed. All praise is due to God who conducts the whole creation in an orderly manner. it would be but a slight loss if only the Ihya of Gazzali were preserved".

0 God. he used to take from the nearest side of the dish. Whenever you eat a lawful thing. first take meal. He said : The food in which many hand participate is best. It has been said that he who licks his dish and drinks its water will get the reward of the manumission of a slave. nor from the middle. (5) One shall make niyyat before eating : I eat to gain strength in worship. the better. The Prophet said: Eat all together. Eat odd number of dates. but be patient till it becomes cold. The Prophet said : He who eats what lies on the dinning cloth will remain safe. Eat with the right hand and begin and end it with salt. recite chapters lkhlas and Lailafe. one should not extend his hand towards food if he is not hungry. Don't rise up till the dining cloth is lifted up. He said : Honour the principal foods as God sent them from the blessings of heaven. Express gratefulness to God sincerely for what God has given you to eat and take food as His gift. and when he Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 9 did not like it. as the Prophet prohibited it except for an excuse. The Prophet said : If any morsel of food falls down. The Prophet used not to eat single. Don't throw breath into pot or yawn. give us good food and engage us in good deeds. Take little morsels and chew each morsel well. Then make pick of teeth and don't swallow what comes out of teeth as a result of pick. lick the dish and drink its water. Take the name of God and drink slowly. The Prophet said: I don't leaning as I am a mere slave and I eat as a slave eats and I sit as a slave sits". Then wipe them with a towel and then wash them. he ate. Lift up the remnants of food. If . because you don't know in which food there is blessing. Food is honoured only when one does not wait for curry. (b) RULES AT THE TIME OF EATING: Being eating reciting 'Bismillah'-in the name of God and end it reciting 'Alhamdollah'-all praise is due to God. (c) to use soaps and (d) to eat to one's heart's content . Thereafter gurgle. When he liked a food. Don't cut bread or meat with knife. then say : All praise is due 10 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II to God under all circumstances. Don't extend your hand to a morsel till you swallow the previous one. He will take promise to eat little and not much as full belly prevents worship. will pass his life in solvency and his children will remain safe'. The Prophet said: Cut meat with your teeth. as there is blessings in it. grapes and such other fruits which can be counted. he did not eat it." If the niyyat or intention is true. Don't wipe out your hands with handkerchiefs till you like lick your fingers. God says : Eat of the good things which I have produced for you and be grateful for the gifts of God-2:168.(a) to eat on tables. The Prophet said 'Drink water drought by drought and not a time. (b) to sift food-stuffs by sieve. It is better and keeps stomach sound.' Don't drink water standing or lying. (4) One should take food sitting straight. (7) The more are the people to partake food. Alter meal. Except fruits. The Prophet said : Such quantity of food is sufficient for a man which can keep his backbone erect. the less is the greed for food. The Prophet said: Eat from the side of your front and not form every side. say: All praise is for God for whose mercy good deeds are completed and blessings descend. (6) Be satisfied with the food served and don't be greedy for varieties of curries. These things. one part of for drink and one part for breathing. are not good for an humble man. The Prophet used to recite after drinking water: All praise is due God who has made it delicious and sweet by His grace and has not made it either saltish or distasteful for our sins. let it not lead us towards Thy transgression. (c) RULES AFTER EATING: Lift up your hand before the stomach is filled up and lick up the fingers. The Prophet said : When the time of night meal and the time of night prayer come together. If he is unable to do it then one part of the belly is for food. To eat leaning is bad for stomach. 0 God. Don't speak of the defects of cooking.' Don't blow breath in hot food as it is prohibited. The Prophet never did it. Drink water with three breaths and at the end recite 'Alhamdolillah'all praise is due to God and at the beginning 'Bismillah'-in the name of God. If you eat doubtful things. The more the intention is pure for religion. though not unlawful. RULES OF DRINKING WATER: Don't drink water at the time of eating except when thirsty. take it up and clear off the dust attached to it and don't leave it for the devil.

(2) what is eaten for breaking fast and (3) what is eaten with a brother Muslim. Hazrat Ibn Omar said : To take good food in journey and to give it to the companions appertain to generosity. for his parents or for any other persons. remaining food. don't enter it suddenly as it is prohibited. it would have reached Me. beginning should be made from the right hand side. the outer sides of which are visible from the inner sides . SECTION 3 HOSPITALITY There is a great merit in showing hospitality and in entertainment of guests. He said : If a man gives food to his brother Muslim to his satisfaction and gives him drink till his thirst is appeased. pray for him and say : 0 God. eat' Eat according to your habit. I was hungry and you did not give Me food. These are for those who are modest in treatment. The Prophet said : Angels like one till there is food before him.you take food in the house of another person. He said. A servant should pour water upon the hands and throwing water from the mouth should be slow. If the same pot is used by all for washing hands. He said : No account will be taken for the food which he gives to his brother Muslim. When the host says : Take meal. say Give blessing in what Thou hast provided us and increase it for us. Then wash your hand with soap. The Prophet also said : Honour one who comes to see you. he should see whether it has been said . God will keep him away up to seven ditches from Hell. (5) It is no fault for one to wash hand in the dish and for all in the same pot. the chief guest should be honoured. (7) One should not do what appears bad to his companions and talk not such words as may offend them. (2) If a man goes to the house of another man for a necessity and if then the time of meal comes. RULES OF EATING (1) When enter the house of your friend to take your meal. (6) One should not look at the eating of his companions and should withdraw his hand before his companions finish eating. After meal. Hazrat Jaffar Sadeq said : When you sit with guests in the dining cloth. don't begin eating till he begins. (4) Eat in such a way that there remains not necessity of saying to your companion 'eat. SECTION 2 RULES FOR EATING WITH OTHERS . If you had given him food. There is in one Hadis : God will say to a man : 0 son of Adam. Some companions said : To eat together is the sign of good conduct. The Prophet said : Hell is better for the flesh which has been nourished by unlawful food. He will reply: How could I have given Thee food while thou art the Lord of the universe ? God will say : Your certain brother Muslim was hungry. There are many traditions to this effects. but you did not give him food. he should not take meal without being requested. (1) It there any elderly or honourable man with you. give food and pray at night when the people remain asleep. sit for a long time as no account will be taken of that time. the following rules shall be observed . (2) Don't remain silent at the time of eating and hold talks.drawn tiffin for fasting.: When your Muslim brethren lift up their hands after they finish eating. He said : There are high places in Paradise. The Prophet said He who gives food is best of you. give him abundant good and give him blessing in what Thou hast provided him. He also said : No account will be taken for three things-(1) pre. but not account will be taken of what one Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 11 spends for food of his Muslim brethren as God will feel shame in taking its accounts. If you drink milk. recite the following : All praise is due to God who provided us with food and drink sufficiently and gave shelter to our leader and chief. The Prophet said : He who joins a feast without invitation is a transgressor. (3) Don't wish to eat more than your friend. the distance of every two ditches is the path of five hundred years. God says : Don't enter the house of the Prophet at the time of meal without permission and don't look at the dish of food. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : Accounts will be taken of what one spends for himself. There should be no spitting n the pot. It is not lawful for you to eat more when food is equally disturbed unless your friends give you out of their own accords. no account will be taken of one who eats the.

Give better food to your guest than what you eat. (3) It is sunnat to demand food from the house of a bosom friend. The Prophet said about the entertainment of guests. I shall repay it in the month of Rajah. The sage Sufyan Saori said : When your brother Muslim meets you. The Prophet said God writes thousands of merits and forgives thousands of sins of one who gives taste to what his guest likes. I present to him whatever I have got. Hazrat Abu Bakr and Omar used to go to the house of Abul Haisam and Abu Ayub Ansari for 12 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-lI taking meal. The Prophet prohibited us to take trouble for a guest for what is not in our houses and ordered us to present before him what is ready. It causes trouble to the host. The Prophet said : The sins of one are forgiven who takes care to fulfill the desires of his brother Muslim. he should not join it. He gives it to whom He is pleased with. God gives him thousands of ranks and will feed him from three Paradises-Ferdous. lest you think bad of him.4 RULES OF ENTERTAINMENT OF GUESTS There are six rule of entertainment of guests-to invite. Place before the guest whatever you have got. I don't care to feed him as I don't inflict any trouble on myself for his sake. to present food. (2) don't hoard up what is in your house. When questioned about friends. If you have got measured food and you have no mind to part with it. (4) To present food before the guest Don't take too much trouble in preparing food . It has been reported of Prophet Jonah that whenever his friends came to see him. It is said that once when Hazrat Ali was invited. He who thinks bad of a guest. If it is said out of shame. Hasan Basri said : He is friend to whom mind finds peace and is pleased with. God said : There is not fault in taking meal in the houses of your friends. tell that Jew to give me a loan. (2) to treat with friends with pleasure and (3) to treat with the worldly men with good manners. I would have taken trouble for you. (5) A guest should not order his host to arrange meal or for a particular item of food. A woman who had some goats only entertained him by sacrificing a goat. and (3) don't give trouble to your family members. thinks bad of God and God also thinks bad of him. I don't welcome him. don't run into debt and don't inflict trouble on yourself. Hazrat Anas said that they used to present before a guest dried bread and dried dates and say : We don't know who is a greater sinner between the two-one who dislikes the food presented before. Once the Prophet took meal in the house of Barirah without her permission. show them the praying clothes. If you have got no food and also no money. don't say to him: What food will you eat ? What food shall I present to you? A certain Sufi said : When the poor come to you. The Prophet once passed by an owner of many camels and cattle who did not entertain him. to accept invitation. to take meal and then to depart. They used to take meal in the houses of Ansars in the beginning. A certain sage said: If any of my friends comes to me. give them food. A certain sage said : Feast is of three kinds (1) to eat with the poor with I' sar (sacrificing own interest). Hazrat Salman said . If I take trouble. Don't take trouble for a guest. The Holy Prophet.willingly or out of shame. God will Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 13 please one who pleases his brothers Muslim. he said : I can accept your invitation on three conditions-(1) don't buy anything from the market for me . if God does not curse upon those who take trouble. he used to place before them pieces of bread and vegetables of his garden and say Eat. When the learned come to you. SECTION . There are merits in giving food to the guest according to the wish of the latter. ask them about legal decisions. The Jew said : By God. the Prophet said : Look at these two persons and this conduct is in the hand of God . Once a guest came to the Prophet who said : As I have got a guest. to attend at the invitation. if you do . When the theologians come to you. it is not necessary to give food to a guest. him or one who dislikes to present what is near him. The host will ask his guest what kind of food he likes. At this. He also said : There is no good in one who does not entertain guest. Adan and Khuld Don't say to a guest : What food shall bring for you ? Present to him whatever food is ready. There is in a Hadis that the Prophet used to like the easier of two things.

Don't neglect the relatives in feasts as neglecting them produces their displeasure and the evils of the tie of relationship . For this reason. TO INVITE AND TO ACCEPT INVITATIONS Don't invite other than religious men and don't invite the transgressors . Not a single night passes there when one to three hundred guests are not entertained. Some say it is compulsory. I am trustworthy in heaven and trustworthy in the earth. I shall accept it. There is written in the Torah : Go to see a sick man even to a distance of one mile. Take my shield and give it to him as a pawn. The Prophet said : Giving food and praying at night when people remain asleep expiate sins and increase rank. the Prophet said : By God. If the latter accepts the invitation at last. Join a funeral prayer even to the of three miles and meet with a friend for the sake of God even to the distance of four miles. (2) Invitation should not be refused for distance. On being informed of it. If he gives me loan. Follow the ways of the Prophet in feeding and incur the pleasure of the believers. . sat with them on the ground. They said : 0 grandson of the Prophet. Don't invite except one who willingly accepts invitation. Now accept my invitation. The manager of this place 14 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II says that up to this day no night passed there without a guest. There are five rules of accepting invitation . was passing by a group of poor people who were begging by the side of a path way and were eating food in a dusty place. I shall repay it. The custom of entertainment of guest is still prevalent by the side of his grave as a commemoration of this attribute of his. Don't invite such a person who will not join a feast or the guests may suffer owing to his presence. He at once got down. I would have accepted it. Treat with the friends and acquaintances in such a manner as no other people are dissatisfied if special persons are invited. it helps sin. those who accept the invitation of the rich in comparison with that of the poor appertain to the class of proud people and are opposed to the ways of the Prophet . Hazrat Hasan was riding on a camel. ate food with them and them rode upon his camel and said: I accepted your invitation. Once Hasan. The Prophet once broke fast there in Ramzan and made his prayer short. The Prophet was once asked : What is faith ? He replied : Not to be miserly in giving food and in tendering salam. The Prophet said : The worst feast is that of marriage where the rich are invited and not the poor. Hazrat Anas said : Angels do not enter a house where a guest does not enter. he used to seek as guest to take meal with him up to the distance of one or two miles for which he was surnamed Abu Zaifan or father of guests. FIVE RULES OF ACCEPTANCE OF INVITATIONS To accept invitation is sunnat or the practice of the Prophet. and if a sinner is fed. It appertains to pride and is prohibited. If a religious man is fed. it helps his religion. The Prophet said : Had I been invited to a place in the village of Gamim (It is several miles off from Medinah). Whenever the Prophet Abraham wished to take meal. he commits two sins as he comes to him inspite of his unwillingness. Being asked about an accepted pilgrimage. son of Hazrat Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 15 Ali. The sage Sufyan Saori said : He who invites a person who does not accept it commits sin. join us in our food. (1) Don't distinguish between the poor and the rich. The Prophet used to accept the invitation of the slaves and the poor. They accepted it and he entertained them on a fixed date. The Prophet said : If I am asked to eat goat's thigh. There are many other traditions regarding the merits of entertainment. the Prophet said: Giving food and talking sweet words.not keep something as pawn. I will not give you the loan. The Prophet once prayed for a person thus : Let your food be eaten by religious men He said : Don't eat except the food of religious men and don't give your food to be eaten except by the religious men and invite the poor.

And from what they like out of fruits. as it is against good manners. So don't intend to do an unlawful thing. The sage Hatem Asem said : Hastiness comes from the devil except in five cases. Intend to meet a believer in order that you may love him as the Prophet imposed this condition for it. remove it if you are able or else go away expressing your dislike therefor. God said : He hurriedly went to his house and brought the meat of a roasted calf-I1 : 69. There are signs of entertainment of guest-to give antimony and scents or scented oils. Intend to be free from defamation. The Quran also gives instruction to eat fruits first. After fruit meat and sand which is a mixture of date and curry should be served. Don't attend it before the fixed time as the host may not prepare food beforehand. it will bring one to the nearness of God. Don't take pride in it and don't show bad conduct and don't hold in contempt your brother Muslim. (5) Don't accept invitation for satisfaction of belly. so that 'it may not be said that he did not attend 16 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II owing to pride. to clear off debt and to repent for a sin. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The best virtue is to eat with friends after breaking (optional) fast. don't act contrary to it. There is no effect of intention in unlawful things. These five cases are the ways of the Prophet-to give food to a guest. A certain sage said : I wish to have niyyat or intention in all my actions. God said about Abraham : Have not the news of the honoured guests of Abraham come to you? He honoured them by placing food before them without delay and did not make delay in bringing a cooked beef In another verse.(3) Don't refuse invitation owing to fast and attend feast and break fast so as to incur the pleasure of the host. The Prophet said : To remain satisfied with a little space for sitting for the sake of God appertains to humility. if any. (3) Don't sit in such a manner as causes inconvenience to others. (6) When a guest comes to a host. transgressor or innovator. as the guests may be waiting for you. places of calls of nature and ablution. to bury a dead man. his emigration is for God and His Apostle. (2) Don't make delay in attending an invitation. intend to honour your brother believer. The Prophet said : He who does not accept invitation . the latter should show to the former the direction of Qibla. (4) Don't accept invitation where you know or doubt that food unlawful earned will be served or irreligious acts will be performed such as unlawful food and wine will be placed. Therein there is meeting with each other and expense for the sake of God. (4). Acceptance of invitation is not lawful if the host is a tyrant. According to this Hadis. The Prophet said : All actions are judged by intention. he who emigrates for worldly gain or for marrying a woman will get that for which he emigrates. If there is any fixed place for you. Be careful of disobeying God. Don't look towards the place wherefrom food comes. Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 17 to give a grown up daughter in marriage. don't sit in the middle place and don't occupy the best space. Whose emigrates for the sake of God and His apostle. The Prophet said Your brother has taken trouble and you say: I am fasting. RULES OF JOINING IN FEASTS (1) When you attend an invitation. (5) Entertain one who sits by your side and hold talk with him. gold and silver cups and plates will be used or immoral songs will be sung. PRESENTATION OF FOOD BEFORE GUESTS THERE ARE FIVE RULES IN IT (1) Serve food before a guest without delay as it honours the guest. (7) Make delay after meal to wash your hands. Serve first fruits or fruit juice. Then God said : And what they like out of meat of bird. but intend to gain strength for acquiring merits in the next world. even in food and drink. sweets should be . Every man gets what he intends. (8) If you see anything opposed to Shariat. Intend to incur pleasure in the minds of the Muslim according to this Hadis : He who incurs the pleasure of a believer incur the pleasure of God . as the Prophet said : They superiority of sand over other fruits is like the superiority of Ayesha over other women. as they help digestion. After that. disobeys God and His Apostle . The Prophet said : Let one who believe in God and the last day honour his guest. as it brings greater rewards than that of optional fast. If one of the above intentions is observed.

should have little sexual intercourse and should put on simple dress. It was the custom of the earlier sages that they served all kinds. His companions said to him : 0 messenger of God. should not entertain a man with clarified butter. (3) Once Governor Hajjaj said to a certain physician : Tell me such a medicine which I shall use. A menu of food should be given to each guest. and if it exceed that. to give them farewell and to feed them complete honour. one bed is for his wife. Give farewell to the guest with a pleased mind 'even though he might have defects. The Prophet said : A man can earn the rank of a fasting man and a praying man in this way. The Prophet sail: Let him honour a guest who believes in God and the here-. we are sufficient for you. Before going after feast. as many a time a host is vexed with a guest for his long stay. This is against the way of the Prophet. milk has got cure and clarified butter has got medicinal effect. they honoured my companions and I wish to repay it. The habit of voracious eaters is that they first serve inferior foods and then better foods.host for more than three days. Don't eat much. The Prophet said : one bed is for his host.after . The Prophet said : Hospitality is for three days .served. At that time. (2) He who wishes to live long should eat in the morning. it is lawful for him to stay. of food before their guests. so that he may know the particulars of food to be eaten by him. wear shoes. Hazrat Abu Qatadah reported that when a deputation from the 18 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Negroes of Aby-sinia came to the Prophet. every worm of his stomach is destroyed. To honour guest by. Hazrat Ibn Masud said : We have been prohibited to accept invitation of one who takes pride in giving feast. They remnants of food should not be taken away till the guest finish eating. Fish melts the body. he began himself to serve them. Sufyan Saori said to him : 0 father of Ishaq. it . eat very little at night._will be considered as an act of charity. It is said that green vegetables increase beauty. One day varieties of dishes were served before the sage Ibrahim-b-Adham. observe three rules (a). The Prophet said : It appertains to sunnat to go up t4 the door to honour a guest. Hazrat Ali said : God removes seventy kinds of disasters from one who begins eating with salt. RULES AND PROHIBITIONS IN FEAST (1) To avoid eating in markets is good as far as practicable. (b) To welcome guests with a smiling face and with good words. don't you fear that it is extravagance? Ibrahim said : There is no extravagance in food. He who eats daily twenty one raisins of reddish colour will not feed any pain in his body . and Salwa (meat) 2:57. Serve before the guest sufficient quantity of food as it is against gentle manliness to present insufficient quantity of food before them. Quran-reciting and tooth stick remove scum. Meat begets meat. The sage Aozayi was asked : What is the meaning of honouring guests ? He said : To welcome with a smiling face and to use sweet words..Quran while narrating the story of Abraham. It is within the ways of the Prophet to go up to the door with a guest. one bed for a guest and the fourth bed is for the devil. Belly grows large if sweet things are eaten and two testicles hang down. He said : Never. (2) The best food should served first before guests. meat in instructed by the . There is no better thing than fresh grapes for a mother who just gives birth. If you are a guest. Fat comes out of disease like it . Don't eat except the meat of a stout Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 19 .. To serve meat first is a sign of honouring a guest. Meat and sweet things appertain to good things.' (c) A guest should not leave without the permission of the host and without satisfying him. He who eats daily seven dried dates. God says : Eat out of the good things I have provided for you 2:168. The physician said: Don't marry except a grown-up girl. Sarid (cooked dates with sugar) is a tiffin of the Arabs. It is sunnat to go with the guest up to the door. These are the injunctions also of religion. so that they may eat with satisfaction . A certain sage said : Sweet things after food are better than many curries.' If the host requests the guest to stay longer with sincere heart. to a child . don't reside with a. Beef creates diseases. The Prophet said : The best curry is meat. God said about good things of food : I sent down to you Manna (sweet thing).

Out of the Prophets. 0 dear readers. By this. Don't hold up stool and urine. CHAPTER II SECRETS OF MARRIAGE MERITS AND DEMERITS Know. that there are differences of opinions among the learned men about the merits of marriage. too much thinking. to eat pistachio and to eat water-fruit. Don't use medicine except in illness. (6) It is better to carry food to a house wherein a man has died. Four things increase wisdom-to give up useless talk. He also said : I don't see any better medicine than Banafsa for epidemic diseases. Four things reduce eye. just as everything around a stream is destroyed if it is held up. to look towards green colour and to keep the clothes clean. using scents. Four things appertain to divine service-to take steps with ablution. so a healthy man suffers if he takes a patient's diet. God says in praising the Prophets : I have sent Prophets before you and gave them wives and children. Eat what you like but don't drink water after it. to cleanse teeth. This is the height of God-fear. he did not take his meal for three days. Four things make the body idle-excessive sexual intercourse. it is wonder that he is alive. some say that to remain unmarried is a means of increasing divine service. to sleep on the right side is the sleep of the worshipers. God says : Marry your widows. to use antimony before sleep. to prolong prostration. Body is to be besmeared therewith and it is to be taken as a drink. He sent news to her : Your food is lawful. God knows best. Some-one said: he who takes care of his diet has got certainty of no disease and no doubt of sound health. (5) As a diseased man who gives up patient's diet suffers. to keep company with the learned and the pious men. give us such wives and children out of our descendants who will console our eyes and make the God. It is said that if urine is held up. (4) The rupture of a vein is a cause of disease and to give up dinner at night is the cause of old age. fearing among them leaders. When Jafar-b-Abu Taleb died. He had a foster sister who sent food to him through the guard of the prison. God gives superiority to marriage. Don't eat food unless it is chewed well. It is sunnat. to look to the female organ and to sit keeping the Qibla behind. If a man eats soon after cupping. but don't eat their best foods. Don't eat anything after drinking water. Sleep a little after breakfast and walk a little after dinner before going to bed but not less than one hundred steps. God says : Don't prevent them in taking husbands. It is reported that when the sage Zunnun Misri was sent to prison. A certain physician said to his son : Don't go out of the house without eating food in the morning as there is patience in it and it removes thirst and greed for food. eat a little . it is wonder that he is alive. He said also : If a man enters a bathroom after being hungry and makes delay in taking food soon after coming of it. Don't eat fruits unless ripe. taking much bath and putting on linen cloth. (8) Imam Shafeyi said : Four things make the body strong-eating meat. It is better not to be careful at the time of sound health. God says : They pray : 0 our Lord. to see one being hanged. He did not eat it. it is harmful to the body. The Prophets also prayed for good children. too much drinking of water when hungry and too much pepper. to sleep on the left side is the sleep of the rulers and to sleep upon the face downwards is the sleep of the devil. Don't eat food unless well-cooked.and strong animal. but it has reached me through the hand of an oppressor. the Prophet said : The family members of Jafar are busy owing to his death and cannot took food. Jesus Christ did not . to keep attached to the mosque and to recite the Quran much. Take to them what they eat.sight-to look to unclean and impure things. (7) Don't eat the food of a tyrant and an oppressor. to eat big Atri fruit. Four things increase the power of 20 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II sexual intercourse-to eat the meat of sparrows. Sleep is of four kinds-to lie ' with belly upwards is the sleep of the Prophets. Some say that for divine service marriage is better. If there is no alternative. Four things give power of eye-sight-to sit towards the Qibla. The following are the proofs that marriage is better.

your numbers will increase. Fasting brings weakness of body. HADIS : The Prophet said: Marriage is my sunnat (way). He said : Marriage is my way. He asked : Then why do you not marry ? He said : I have got no necessity of women.inability and being a sinner. He said : Let him marry who has got strength as marriage shuts up eye. The Prophet said to him for the third time : Will you not marry ? He said : 0 Prophet of God. give in marriage to him. Shall I be deprived of rendering service to you ? The Prophet remained silent. I don't wish to retain connection with any women. get me married. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : No divine service becomes complete without marriage. Marriage removes that disorder. Castration means to remove sexual passion. A religious issue is impossible without marriage. A man who will have no wife and children will be better. He again told this to him and he replied as before. If you do not do it. A time will come over men when he will be destroyed by his wife. I have got no means. parents and children. This he did. One of the two reasons of poverty is having too many persons. Hazrat Omar married many wives and said : I marry for children. You can engage yourself in divine service as you are alone.' Generally private parts and belly create disorder in the religion of a man. I am a poor man. This encouragement has been given fearing disturbance and disorder. Some one said : The rank of a married man in comparison with that of an unmarried man is equal to the rank of a Mujahid in comparison with a worshipper. The Prophet said : One of the two reasons of wantlessness is a less number of family members. He said : Let them marry who have got means.(1) a religions issue who prays for him. It is said that Hazrat Ali had four wives. Wise sayings : Hazrat Omar said : Two things prevent marriage. The companion then thought within his mind : The Apostle of God is well aware which thing will bring us near God and what will be our good in this world and the next. It appears from this that religion does not prohibit marriage. The Prophet said When a man comes to you whose religion and trust please you. He said : He who marries fulfills half of his religion. I will boast justly on seeing your numbers on the Resurrection Day in comparison with the followers of others. whose loves my conduct should follow my way. The Prophet said : The actions of a man come to an end except three. He said : He who does not marry fearing poverty is not of me. He also said : He who searches for three things becomes . sight and protects private parts. Abu Sulaiman Darani was once asked about marriage and he replied : Patience of not having a wife is better than having patience of duty towards her. REASONS FOR NOT MARRYING The Prophet said : After two hundred years. He said : I will give my daughter in marriage to you. I shall certainly marry. he asked that Prophet about it and he said : You have not married. He said to him : Will you not marry ? He said : 0 Apostle of God. there will be disasters and quarrels in the world. One rakat prayer of a married man is better than seventy rakats of prayer of an unmarried man. whose diverts from my sunnat is not of me. I have got no means to bear its expense. he will adopt such measures for which his religion will be ruined and he will be destroyed. Being grieved. He said : I am poor man. He said : Your prayer in the midst of your family is better than my entire divine service. A companion renunciated the world and stayed with the Prophet and passed nights with him. Let him fast who has got no means to marry as fasting is for him like castration.marry but he will marry after his second advent. He said : Unite in marriage tie. Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 23 They will give him such trouble which will be out of his capacity. (2) a 22 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II recurring charity and (3) a religious book. and the patience of duties towards her is better than patience at Hell-fire. In short. A certain hermit was superior for divine service to all the people of his time and when his case was mentioned to the Prophet of his age he said : How good he is but he has given up one habit. He said : He who marries and gives in marriage becomes entitled to God's care. A man asked Ibrahim-b-Adham : Good news to you. As a result. marriage is a part of sunnat and the practices of the Prophets. Let him fear God for the second half.

of My Muslim servant. There is in a Hadis Qudsi that God said : I feel no greater grief for anything than to take the life. These prove the objects of God. (b) the love of the Prophet is searched by increasing his followers. He says : I have created life and death. (3) to find peace of mind. If an issue is religious. This is the root for which marriage is contracted. God says : I will attach them to their issues and they will suffer no loss owing to their evil actions but their good deeds will increase owing to the good deeds of their children. It is clear that he becomes then an object of wrath of the master. but they express truth. He said : Among your woman. (4) Fourth object of children. (2) Second object of children : By marriage. (4) to increase divine service (5) and to get rewards of duties to family. Life and death though opposed to each other are within the will of God as love and hatred though opposed to each other are within God's will. QUESTION may be asked that when the object of God is to preserve dynasty. The object. This is the will of God. He said : It will be said to the child : Enter Paradise. The servant did not cultivate it. (1) To have children. God says : I have prescribed death among you. He does not keep him engaged in family and property. The Prophet also clearly proved it by saying Marry and keep dynasty. then why He prescribed it destruction by death. If anybody leaves a religious son or daughter.attached to the worldsearching for livelihood. He considers death as disliking to him and I don't like to trouble him. he will make intercession for his father or mother. but his parents are not punished for his sins as nobody bears the burden of another. There is in Hadis that the actions of a man end by death except his three actions. Take for instance that an owner of land handed over the seeds of crops and instruments of cultivation to a servant and gave him also the land for cultivation. He also created sexual passion in the male and female for creating child by using the instruments of their organs. kept the instruments useless and destroyed the seeds. his parents get the rewards of his pious actions and invocation as he is the earning of his parents. BENEFITS OF MARRIAGE There are five benefits of marriage (1) to have children.' He who does not marry destroys the seeds and keeps the instrument useless and idle and goes against the object of God. FOUR OBJECTS are fulfilled in having children-(a) Increase of mankind. Similarly God created man and women he created life germ for production of children in the back of a man and the breast of a woman. It is a natural truth and the following is its proof. He will go to the door of Paradise and say in an angry mood : I will not enter Paradise without my parents. God says : He does not love infidelity for His servants. He mentioned among them a religious issue. their intercession is sought. He said : An ugly woman with children is better than a beautiful woman having no children. There is another Hadis : He will draw his parents as I draw your Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 25 cloth. For this reason to kill the child and to bury it 24 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II alive have been prohibited. Hazrat Hasan said : When God wishes good of a man. If a child dies before his father or mother. marrying a woman and writing stories. the prayers of religious children are sought. is to preserve dynasty and the earth not existing without men. So the words of God-I have fixed death among you' and I don't wish to inflict trouble on him-these two verses are not opposed to each other. love is expressed towards the Prophet and efforts are made to increase his followers as he will boast for the increased number of his followers on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said : A prison in a corner of a house is better than a childless woman. the or she may pray for his or her dead parents. a lovely woman producing many children is better. The Prophet said : The invocations are presented like the layers of light of a dead man. It will . but there is no escape from death. (2) to control sexual passion. (c) after death. The Prophet said : A child will carry its parents towards Paradise. (d) If the issues die before death. The uterus is the fertile field and the male organ and the female organ are the instruments of cultivation. It appears from the above traditions that the object of marriage is to get children and not only satisfaction of sexual passion. First object is very subtle and not within easy comprehension of man. (3) Third object of children.

The pleasure which lies in sexual intercourse is only an example of next worldly happiness. He soon went to his wife Zainab and performed his necessity. I fear sin in most cases and many a time I take out semen by hand pollution. They will be waiting at the door of Paradise . Then they will make tremendous noise before Paradise. God will say : What is this cry for ? They will then disclose the above thing. 0 God I seek refuge to Thee from the evils of my ears. To get this pleasure divine service is necessary. They have got sins and faults for which they will be summoned and they will be called to account. so that they can take their parents to Paradise . Enter and there is no account on you . seek refuge from its evils. she comes as a devil. Got says that man has been created weak. and appearance. Is there any sin in it ? Hazrat Ibn Abbas turned his face from him and said : Alas ! it is better to marry a slave girl than it. They will say : Where are our parents? The guard will reply : Your parents are not like you. He said : I pray to Thee for purity of my mind and protection of my private parts. Faiaz-b-Nazih said When the male organ of a man stands erect. The Prophet said . Heart is the root of all actions of a traveller towards the next world. I have got no wife. The Prophet said : If the look of man falls on my woman. two third of his intellect go away. He said : God will admit out of His mercy one whose three issues who have not attained puberty predeceased him He was asked : 0 Messenger of God . There is no benefit in a thing of which there is no pleasure. . God says : When there falls the darkness of 26 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II night. The angels will be said: Take their children to Paradise. let him turn it towards himself and cohabit with his wife. We asked him : In your case also ? He said : In my case also but Got helped me over him and he submitted to me. Once a young man asked Hazrat Ibn Abbas : I am a young man. Hazrat Ali took a wife seven days after the death of Fatima.. Fear God for the remaining half. If a woman comes in front. Some of the companions had three or four wives and those who took two wives were many. to satisfy lust and to save private parts. God will say : Leave them all. This means : I have been saved from the machinations of the devil. The Prophet said to Hasan : You have got in you my character. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The worship of a man does not become perfect without divine service. They will be said : Welcome to the Muslim children. but it is better than fornication. Hazrat Akramah and Mujahid explain this that man cannot be patient regarding women. The sage Junaid said : Sexual intercourse is as much necessary for me as food in necessary. as fast for him is the means of controlling passion. The Prophet said : Hasan is from me and Hussain is from Ali. The marriage is a means of saving oneself from the oppression of sexual passion. A minor boy will not get any pleasure in sexual intercourse nor there is any benefit in it.then be said to him Admit his parents along with him in Paradise. let him come to his wife as what is near that woman is also near his wife. If one of you sees a woman who pleases him. After that he came out and said . nor there is any taste in it. my heart and myself. The Prophet said : Don't go to a woman in absence of her husband as the devil runs through your veins like the circulation of blood. God created pleasure of the world with this object that if the people have pleasure they will be eager to have lasting pleasure of the next world. There is in another Hadis : The children will be brought along with other men in the place of judgment. The Prophet said : he whose two children predeceased him will be safe from Hell. The Prophet said : let one who is unable to marry fast. half of his religion is saved. if two of them predeceased ? He said : Even if two predeceased him. It is said that Hazrat Hasan took many wives but not more than four at a time. Hazrat Jaber reported that once the Prophet looked to a certain woman. The Prophet said : If a man marries.. Sexual passion is so strong in some man that one wife cannot satisfy him and so there is provision of marrying four wives. (2) Second benefit of marriage is to be safe from the devil. A boy shall not find any taste in reign. Hazrat Ibn Abbas explain this by saying : Seek refuge from the devil when the male organ stands erect. in that case his evil desire will go away.

to try to do good to them. to bear the hardships of the family members.' To rule a family is no less task than a king. God says : He created you from a single person and created his mate from him. This peace of mind is necessary for divine service. The Prophet said If a man has got three daughters and he spends for their maintenance. the latter is the doll of my eyes. No wealth is compared as valuable to a man as a chaste wife. a remembering tongue and a chaste wife helping him for the next world. Hazrat Omar said : Noting better has been given to a man after faith than a virtuous wife. to have patience at the character and conduct of the wife. he takes accounts of his actions Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 27 at another time and he remains busy with his food and drink at another time.(3) Third benefit of marriage: Marriage brings peace in mind and there grows love between the couple. The Prophet said : On complaint to Gebrail about the lessening of my sexual passion. The Prophet said : He whose prayer is good. to earn for them lawful things and to educate the children. She gives leisure to her husband for doing divine service by performing household duties and satisfying his sexual passion. spreading of bed. There is in another Hadis that if the sins of the family members of a man become large. The devil-was disobedient to Adam but he submitted to me and he orders me nothing but truth. woman and prayer. he shall have to wait near the Balance and accounts will be taken from him of his wealth. There is Hadis that the there are three special times for a wise man . to earn the livelihood of this world and to take taste of lawful things. The Prophet said : Three things are dear to me among your earthly matter-scent. cleansing of utensils and other duties of livelihood. He said : God loves the poor man having a big family and refraining from begging. to show them the path of religion. of his maintenance and . he speaks secretly with his lord at one time. The Prophet said: I have been given superiority over Adam for two conducts. The Prophet said: One day of a just ruler is better than divine service for seventy years. whose wealth is little and who abstains from defaming the Muslim will live in Paradise with me like these two fingers. Hazrat Ali said : Give peace to mind as it becomes blind when it becomes disturbed. jihad and other good works to another learned man. A learned man mentioned about his actions regarding his pilgrimage. of his expenditure. so that he may find consolation in her. (4) Fourth benefit of marriage: Leisure is found for divine service. The Prophet said : There is effort in every action and there is langour in every effort. who has got a big family. The latter said : you are far away in comparison with the religious acts of Abdals. he advised me to take Harisah. Even if he lifts a 28 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II morsel of food to the mouth of his wife. HARMS OF MARRIAGE There are three harms of marriage: (1) Lawful earnings become difficult as a result of marriage. A chaste and religious wife helps here husband in this manner. God tries them therewith that they may be expiations of his sins. Solaiman Darani said : A religious wife does not only appertain to three things of enjoyments of the world. In another narration. he will get rewards therefor. The Prophet said : Let one of you have a grateful heart. He asked him : What are those ? He said Those are lawful earnings and expense for family. This comfort is necessary for peace of mind. He said : Be careful. God makes Paradise sure for him. The wife lessens the duties of a man regarding cooking of food. A certain wise man said There is a certain sin of which there is no expiation except patience at the trouble of maintaining a family. (5) Fifth benefit of marriage: There are some duties arising out of marriage which are considered as divine service-to maintain family. The Prophet said : What man spends for his family will be considered as an act of charity. Adam's wife was his helper in a sinful act but my wives are my helpers in my religious affairs. everyone of you is a ruler and everyone of you will be asked about his subjects. except one whose sin in not pardonable. He who takes langour goes towards my sunnat and guidance. There is in Hadis that if a man earns virtues to the height of mountain. a wise man in not desirous expect of three matters : to earn the livelihood of the next world. rather such a woman is one of the instruments of the next world.

mother's mother. (5) One should have intention to establish sunnat of the Prophet by marriage and to seek issues. (4) Proposals and acceptances of the bride and bridegroom are necessary. to lose patience at their character and conduct and no to forbear the hardship inflicted by them. father's sister. The sage Ibrahim-b. Ibrahim-b-Adham said : He who keeps sticking to the waist of his wife gets no benefit. Marriage is good for one who is not diverted from the remembrance of God and from the path of honesty and virtue.other matters. The Prophet married Ayesha in Shawal and took her in his house in Shawal. he did not teach us what we did not know and he gave us unlawful food to eat without our knowledge. take from him the account of his duties towards us. Whatever thing diverts attention from God is a cause of misfortune. The guardian of the girl will say : All praise is for God and blessing on God's Apostle. It is better that they should see each other before marriage (4).(1) Proposal of marriage is to be submitted to the guardian of the girl. God says : Save yourselves and your family members from Hell. They will inform the audience of the girl's consent. sister. grand daughter. took several wives and yet he did not not forget God for a moment. There are four conditions of a woman being lawful for a man. This means-She must not be the wife of another man. The Prophet said Nobody will meet God with a greeter sin than with a sin of keeping his family members uneducated. The Holy Prophet. The children will say to God on the Resurrection Day : 0 our Lord. fifth wife. placed in the highest rank among men. Some rules of marriage. His prayer and fast are not accepted till he returns. wife's previous husband's daughter. It cannot be performed during period of waiting. a woman who cursed her husband. These benefits and harms are by way of advice and they show path. The Prophet said : Sufficient for the sin of a man is not to fulfill his duties of maintenance for which he is responsible. foster mother. Two witnesses are necessary for marriage. She must not be within the prohibited degrees of the husband-mother. SECTION 2 RULES OF MARRIAGE There are some rules of marriage. marriage is necessary. (3) Two major witnesses. (3) The bride should be informed of the condition of the bridegroom. foster sister. (2) Second harm of marriage is the lack of duty towards family members. Very few people will get release from this danger. (1) Permission of guardian is necessary in case of marriage of minor boy and minor girl without which the marriage is void. whether she is unmarried or widow. Khutba must be recited before marriage along with proposal and acceptance.' He Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 29 who neglects to do his duty of maintenance is like a fleeing man even though he remains present. (6) It is good to perform it in the month of Shawal. Take compensation from him for these. . are necessary. Even he used to get revelation at the time when he was in the same bed with his wife Ayesha. She must not be infidel or retrograde. (7) The bride must be in pure state at the time of marriage. daughter.Adham raised objection to marry saying : I don't wish to let any woman do any fault and I have got no necessity for woman. I give my daughter in marriage to you. I accept her in marriage on this fixed dower. In the contrary case. will say : All praise is for God and blessings on His Prophet. Jesus Christ did not marry inspite of his high and lofty position as a Prophet. marriage is bad for him. She must not be a slave of another. To marry is better or not depends on the personal character of man. These are the benefits and harms of marriage. sister of wife who is alive or her mother's sister. Ruler or his representative is guardian in cases where there is no guardian (2) The consent of a grown up girl is necessary for her marriage. The 30 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II bridegroom. to encourage them to hoard up wealth and to search for objects of pride and boast. a woman no in Ihram state. If there is necessity of controlling sexual passion. (3) Third harm of marriage is to keep away the family members and children from the remembrance of God. He also said : The fleeing of a man from his family is like that of a slave from his master.

(3) a woman who is a sinner and unchaste and who has got friends (God says of such women Don't marry such women who take friends secretly) and (4) a woman who takes pride before here husband with haughty words. Hazrat Ali said : There are some conducts which are bad for a male but good for a female. who gives birth to a child without delay and for whom a small amount of dower is fixed. The Prophet said : Then keep her. The sage Malek-b-Dinar said: A man does not marry an orphan girl. The Prophet said : When any of you wishes in his mind to marry a women. He laid a great stress on her religious habits. A man came to the Prophet and said : 0 Messenger of God. God says : . He says : They look askance. The Prophet said . the best one is she who gives her husband pleasure when he looks at her. He did not wish comforts and pleasures. When a woman is miser.' meaning they are loving to the husbands and eager to have their company. (1) Religion : The bride should be religious and possess good conduct. The Prophet gave only ten dirhams as dower to some of his wives and some articles of household. One should not marry coveting many goods from the bride. One Azdi met Prophet Was who ordered him to marry and prohibited him to have recourse to mockery.to marry an Ansar woman. She obeys him when he orders her and protects her body and his properties when her husband remains absent. The Prophet said: If any of you wishes . as it generates mutual love. When a woman is coward. The Prophet said : Marry a girl for her wealth. This is the main quality of the bride. dresses. There is in Hadis that there is good in a woman who is given in marriage without delay. He prohibited dower beyond limit and one's capacity. Marry her only for her religion. Imam Ahmad married a deaf woman although he had a beautiful cousin. for her qualities and for her religion. The Prophet said Don't marry a woman only for her beauty. Mutual presents are commendable and signs of love. it is mustahab or commendable to see a bride before marriage.(1) a woman who always seeks dresses Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 31 without any reason. Don't marry her only for her wealth. it will beget mutual love and don't seek too much present from each other. pride and cowardice. she protects her wealth and her husband's wealth and properties. He gave some of them dower of two mads of wheat or dates or two mads of maize. as such a wife becomes a helper in religion. for her beauty. Hazrat A'mash said : The result of a marriage which is performed without mutual sight of bride and bride-groom is sorrow and anxiety. May your hands be covered with dust. (2) Good Conduct : If the wife is harsh and rough and ungrateful. my wife does not repulse any foreign touch. perchance her wealth will make her disobedient. (3) Beauty : Beauty is also to be sought of a girl as it saves one from fornication. she becomes soft and rejects doubtful talks. You should consider the attribute of her religion. There is in another Hadis : He who marries a woman for beauty and wealth is deprived of her beauty and wealth. Then he said to Azdi : Don't marry four kinds of women. The people marry girls of good fortune and wealth. Some of the companions of the Prophet fixed dower of a piece of gold for their marriage. God says : They are beautiful and good.miserliness. It is said that it valued 32 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II only five dirhams. (4) Dower. He said : Divorce her. Give present. When a woman is proud. let him look at her as there is something in the eyes of Ansars. If a man marries for protection of his religion God gives him the means of beauty and wealth. (2) a woman who boasts before other women regarding her wealth and riches. she keeps separate from her friends and fears to go to any place of defamation for fear of her husband. perchance her beauty will be a cause of her ruin.The following qualifications of the bride should be sought. but she remains pleased simply with food and clothes and there is less expense of her. For this reason. her harms are more than her benefits. He said : I love her.' It is said that they have got yellow colour in their eyes. but they demand fine foods. The Prophet said : The best woman is she who is beautiful and whose dower is little. The Prophet said : Of all your women. let him look at her.

feast on the second day is sunnat and feast on the third days is for show. The wives of the Prophet at times argued before the Prophet. Give feast with a goat. will he speak but truth ? Then she took refuge to the Prophet. There are three benefits if a virgin girl is married. she can educate her issues good manners and good conduct. (3) Make plays and sports with the wife after bearing hardships given by her. wife of Pharaoh. Once a wife of the Prophet placed her hand on the chest of the Prophet and gave him a push. Don't inflict trouble on one whom your right hands possess beyond his capacity . God will disgrace him. Hazrat Anas reported The Prophet once saw yellow colour on the body of Abdur Rahman-b. The Prophet said. The Prophet said : he who gets his daughter married to a transgressor. once Hazrat Abu Bakr gave her such a slap that blood began to ooze out from her mouth. God says in the fulfillment of their duties: I have taken a solemn oath from you. The Prophet said : Feast on Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 33 the first day is a duty. Soon after that. Then he said : 0 enemy. when they found Hazrat Abu Bakr as their judge. To have patience at the time when the wife gets angry and when she gives trouble is following the Prophet in good treatment with her. (2) The husband should treat well with his wife. And about your women-they are prisoners in your hands. He said : May God bless you both. God will give her rewards like the rewards which God gave to Asiyah. SECTION 3 SOME RULES AFTER MARRIAGE The husband shall observe twelve rules after marriage. It is not merely to restrain oneself from inflicting troubles on the wife. perform it in mosque and beat 'Daf' for it. It is commendable to proclaim marriage. Another benefit is that the love of the husband for his wife becomes perfect and the third benefit is that a virgin girl will not have occasion to grieve for a previous husband. his tongue was closed and his words stopped. (1) Marriage feast is commendable. The Prophet gave three instructions at the time of his death. The Prophet said: Marry lovely and childbearing women. as a vein is like an arrow. (5) Bride should not be barren if it is known . (6) Bride should be virtuous: The Prophet said to Hazrat Jaber : Why have you not married a virgin girl. God says Treat them with kindness . God will give him rewards like the rewards of Ayub which God gave him for his patience in disasters. taken them as trusts of God and you have made their private parts lawful with the words of God. Hazrat Ayesha said to the Prophet : You speak but don't speak except truth. The Prophet said : Choose woman for your semen.Don't give present in search of excessive presents. as she does more than this. prayer. (8) Bride should not be a near relative as in that case sexual passion becomes less. The Prophet 34 Secrets of Marriage Vol-If . You have. It is commendable to give blessing to the bridegroom thus : May God unite you both in good. If a wife keeps patience at the ill-treatment of her husband. If a man who does an act for show. He was saying-prayer. Once there was altercation between the Prophet and Hazrat Ayesha. he gave feast with grapes and wheat.Auf and said : What is it? He said : I have married a woman in lieu of a piece of gold. At. The Prophet said : Don't marry a near relative as in that case a child is born weak. The Prophet used to cut joker with his wives and come down to the level of their intelligence in their manual labours. her mother rebuked here. When the Prophet married Sufiyah. The woman who enjoyed husband is generally addicted to her previous husband. The Prophet said : Leave her. The Prophet said Distinguish between lawful and unlawful thing by proclamation or marriage by beating 'Daf' He said : Proclaim this marriage. cuts of his blood tie. This gives pleasure to the wife. At this. She loves her husband. so that you could have played with her and she could have played with you ? He married a previously married woman.: If a man keeps patience at the illtreatment of his wife. (7) She must come of a respectable family: If she comes of a good family.

the Prophet won it and said : This is the revenge of that day. but take to middle course. (5) Take middle course in case of anger. Hazrat Omar inspite of his sternest said : Stay in the house with your wife like a boy. 'It is said for her correction. The wise Loqman advised his son: 0 dear son. God has got wrath when a servant commits an unlawful thing. The Prophet said : The best of you is one who treats best with his wife among you. Don't give up your duties and strike some sort of fear in her mind at the time of doing evils. God says : Both (Julaikha and Eusuf) found the master (husband) of Julaikha near the door. he will unite your hearts. I am more wrathful than him and God is more wrathful than me. The Prophet said : Do you wonder at the anger of Sa'ad? By God. A desert woman described her husband after his death : By God. When the wife demands things from her husband. The Prophet said : The example of a religious woman among general women is that of a crow with white belly among one hundred crows. The Prophet said : God has got wrath and a believer also has got wrath. Imam Shafeyi said. The Prophet said : The most perfect believer in faith is one who is the best of them in good conduct. Fear the harms of women as they do not call towards good. In another narration. . When he will find your place vacant. Once the Prophet returned with his companions from a journey to Medina and said to them Don't go to your wives this night suddenly. Evils and little intelligence are strong over them. a Hadis Qudsi : God dislikes a man who is stem to his family and selfconceited. he was fond of sports and when there was darkness.ran races with Ayesha. fear unchaste wife. The Prophet said : He who becomes the slave of women is ruined. Beware of unchaste women. He prohibited to go suddenly to them. God termed the husbands as the maintainers of women and husbands as masters. he should stay like a man. There is it. The Prophet said: Seek refuge to God from three calamities. The right of a husband is that the wife should follow him and the husband should not follow her. Two of them went to their wives without paying heed to his words and found disagreeable things in their houses. If you go to make it straight. God said : If both of you make repentance to God . she will rebuke you." Hazrat Ali said : Don't get angry at your wife. she will be treacherous to you When the Prophet fell seriously ill and could not come out to the mosque for prayer. as she will make you grow old before you grow old. He said this regarding his good wives . old. The Prophet said : No nation prospers over whom a woman rules. He said for this reason that if a husband acts according to the wishes of his wife. The Prophet said to Jaber : Have you not found a virgin to marry ? You could have played with her and she with you. lest evils may come out. If you Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 35 don't go to her. If you leave it as it is. Some one said : Take advice from them but act to the contrary . Hazrat Ayesha said : The mind of my father is soft. he said to Abu Bakr to lead the prayer. as it is included within bad conjectures which have been prohibited "Some conjecture is sin. he remained silent. you have swayed towards your low desires being misguided from the right path. he becomes her slave and is thus ruined as God has made him her master. If you honour three kinds of men they will disgrace you and if you disgrace them. The Prophet said : When you prevent Abu Bakr to lead the prayer. To disclose guilts in proper place is necessary as it is praiseworthy. When the wives of the Prophet disclosed the secret talks of the Prophet . An unchaste wife will make you old before you get. He made unlawful both open and secret indecencies. The Prophet prohibited following the secrets of women. it will break. One day Ayesha won the race and on another day. There is a famous Hadis : A wife is like the crooked bone by the side of a husband. he will be perturbed. In another narration-If you go to her. For His wrath. it will be more crooked. he should treat like a man The wise Loqman said : A wise man should live in his house like a boy and when she stays among people. The Prophet said There is an action in anger which God hates-to get angry at the wife without entertaining any doubt. Don't make excess in enquiring into their secret matters. they will honour you-wife servant and Nabati. Hazrat Omar said: Act opposite to women as there is blessing in opposing them. (4) Don't sport with wife so much that her conduct is ruined and fear goes out of her mind.

Don't make me responsible for what is beyond my power and capacity and what is in Thy power and not within my power. The pride which God loves is the pride at the time of Jihad and self. nor spread it. . be separate from her from ten to even thirty days. The Prophet said : The best of you is who is best of you to is wife : The Prophet said : The best in reward of what you spend in the way of God. the husband should be mete out equal treatment to all.The Prophet said: I was taken to Paradise in the night of Miraj. for the poor and for your wife is what you spend for your wife. he would have prohibited them to come out. Don't change her face. I asked : For whom is this palace 7 It was said that it is for Omar. but equal love is not necessary as mind cannot be divided equally. nor spread it to its utmost. shall I be angry at you ? The Prophet said : There is such anger which God loves and such anger which God hates. Omar wept and said : 0 Messenger of God. God says : Save yourselves and your family members from Hell-fire. The Prophet once issued order to the women to be present in the mosques. but beat her mildly without causing any wound and do not leave her except in the hose she usually spends the nights. Some one said : Hazrat Ali had four wives. The sage Ibn Sirin said : It is commendable to give feast every week for family members. This should be done for one to three nights. If the husband puts on cloth. this is my efforts. If it does not bear fruit. articles of faith and all the questions of religion is necessary. he will appear on the Resurrection Day with of his limbs crooked. as all men have been given orders to save the members of their families from fire. The Prophet once asked Fatima Which thing is good for woman ? She said that she should not look at another man and another man should not look at her The Prophet drew her close to him and said : This daughter is worthy issue of a worthy father. The wife should be separated gradually and not all at once. So to teach religious learnings. If it does not bear fruit. Spending nights and giving presents to them both must be equal. I found a palace there. He considered her reply as good.conceit of a man at the first advent of danger. If they have got willingness to settle. He said : If the husband eats. beat her mildly but don't inflict physical torture on her. Hazrat Omar issued order : The females will stay within their houses if they dress well. don't shed her blood or slap her on the face. The Prophet was once asked about the rights of wife over her husband. The Prophet gave permission to women to come out for I'ds. The Prophet loved Ayesha more than any other wife. The Prophet once remained absent from his wives for one month. he should select her by casting lottery as the Prophet used to do it. he shall give her food. but keep the balance between the two. At first she should be given advice. The 36 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II anger which God loves is anger at things of doubt and the anger which God hates is anger at the things beyond doubt. (9) Appoint two judges from the side of the husband and the wife to arbitrate between them in case of disputes. God says : Don't make your hand tied up to your neck. If the husband wishes to take one wife with him in journey. (7) A husband will teach his wife religious matters. The Prophet used to divide the nights equally among his wives and said : 0 God. His wives knew it. Hazrat Ayesha said : If the Prophet after his death would have seen the condition of women. God will settle between them. God says : Eat and drink but do not be extravagant. There is such pride which God loves and such pride which God hates. God says : You Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 37 will not be able to treat equally among wives though you desire. He said : Habituate your women to stay within their houses. The pride which God hates is pride at an useless thing. The Prophet said : It a man has got two wives and if he is inclined more to one of them. He used to buy meat in every four days for one dirham for each of his wives. she should be seperated from bed. (8) If there is more than one wife. (6) Just expense : Don't make your hand of expense narrow in case of women. he shall give her clothes. get angry at her for not observing her religious duties and for this. I wished to see Omar therein and and remembered his anger.

The Prophet said : In three matters. let him not fall suddenly upon her but let him speak words of love and kiss each other. The Prophet also said so. Some one asked : What is the messenger ? 0 Prophet. both separating without enquiring about their mutual condition and health. Another party say that in case of female. There is virtue in producing a child but it is given up in Ajal. (4) The . A young husband should cohabit with his wife once in four days. shut up his mouth and say to his wife. make it a good issue. It is this. it is most hateable to destroy it. It is painful to her to be separated from her husband when her sexual passion rises high. lawful to enjoy her without sexual intercourse. Take peace. There is no difference in these three things. Before it. or to give up sexual intercourse after marriage or to give up ejaculation of semen after sexual intercourse. secondly. To us. let him keep his body sometime upon her breasts till her semen comes out as her semen comes out late. He said : Kiss and words of love. it is lawful and not in case of free women. because if a child is born like this he will get reward . It is also allowed to sleep with her during this time. not to return honour if it is shown to him. It is commendable to cohabit in Friday-night. the weakness of a male is expressed-firstly if a 38 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II lover meets his beloved. It is true that rewards are given up on these actions. To keep the character of the wife. He said this in consideration of reward.(10) Rules of sexual intercourse: At the beginning of sexual intercourse. There is no sin if they are not allowed to mix (2) If it is created into a clot of blood and a lump of flesh. There is in Hadis When anyone of you comes to his wife. God say : Come to your field where you wish . There are differences of opinion among the learned men regarding Ajal which means throwing of semen not in the uterus but outside it. The result is that the devil will not be able to injure the child that is born of such a intercourse. there are four stages-(1) to marry. it may be increased or decreased. (3) then to have patience to eject semen after intercourse. Don't face the Ka'ba at the time of intercourse and cover your body and the body of your wife . slaves. but absence of action is not unlawful. If Thou takes out semen from my back. It is however. When his semen comes out. or not to do any benefit. save me from the devil and save the devil from what thou hast provided us. middle and last dates of the lunar month. Let him send messenger before cohabitation. Though there is no clear verse regarding it. If both are mixed. One party say that Ajal is lawful under all circumstance and another party say that it is unlawful under all circumstances. Another party say that with the consent of wife. take the name of God by reciting "Bismillah' and read Takbir and Tahlil after chapter Ikhlas and say : 0 God. for producing a cause in the way of God. it is lawful . but it is not commendable for the reason that the merits of throwing semen in uterus were given up. (2) then to cohabits. it is sin to destroy it. the custom o f Ajal is lawful. To cohabit with wife at the time of her menstruations is unlawful . A child is born after semen is thrown into uterus. the reward of producing a child is written for him-such a child who becomes martyr fighting in the way of God. thirdly to cohabit with wife or female without talking with her or without kissing her and to be unable to restrain the ejaculation of his semen before that of the semen of his wife. It is not commendable to cohabit with wife on the first. For instance. It is not unlawful to give up marriage. The Prophet said : When one of you comes to your wife. The Prophet said : Let none of you fall suddenly upon his wife like a lower animal. The object is that not do a thing for which it is intended is Makruh. The Prophet used to cover his head. (3) If life is infused into that lump of flesh. The life of a child coming into existence has got some stages-(1) Semen in uterus should be mixed with female ova. it is more hateable to destroy it. yet it can be gathered therefrom by inference. (11) Birth-control: It is a rule of cohabitation that the semen should not be thrown out of uterus as with God decreed must come to pass. it is Makruh or not commendable if a person sits idle in mosque without remembering God. This is possible if semen is thrown into uterus. The Prophet said : If a man cohabits with his wife. Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 39 That birth-control by Ajal is lawful is supported by Qiyas or inference from the Quran. let him say 0 God. (4) then to throw semen into the uterus and then to stay in that condition till semen is settled in uterus.

(4) to protect the honour of woman. I infused into it life. If you question that the Prophet said. If there is proposal but no acceptance there is no sin in breaking it. five rules shall have to be observed. then the clot of blood into lump of flesh. it is condensed. Question: If there is no sin in throwing semen outside uterus. To maintain too many children is very difficult. This is in Shahihs Bukhari and Moslem. If with the above object. Then after some time the man came to the Prophet and said : The slave girl has conceived.last limit of this sin is to destroy the child when it is born. it will be committing sin. In other words. The ejaculation of semen is like a proposal and its throwing into uterus is like its acceptance. The verse of God guaranting maintenance of all creatures means perfection of God-reliance and perfection of merits and rewards but it is no sin to give up highest stage of merits just as it is no sin to protect wealth and properties and to hoard up for a limited period. Then he recited this verse : When one buried alive will be asked for what fault he was murdered. The Prophet said : If a man has got a daughter. then the lump of flesh into bones. milk is condensed. To throw semen out side the uterus with these objects is unlawful. teaches her good manners. Hazrat Ali Said : Life. to throw semen outside the uterus before it is mixed up with female ova is not sin. still it is bad as the object of semen is to produce a child and if it is not done. If semen is destroyed with these objects. The Prophet also said : There is secret murder in Ajal and he thereafter recited this verse : When those buried alive will asked for which sin they were killed. There is another Hadis reported by Jaber : A man came to the Prophet and said : I have got a slave girl. to keep her neat and clean and to save her from maintaining children. If it is thrown outside. as when something is mixed with milk. When this news reached the Prophet he did not prohibit us from it. then I created semen into clot of blood. The Arabs before Islam used to bury their daughters alive and they feared the birth of daughters. There is no animal in the earth of which the maintenance is not upon God. She serves us and gives water to the palm trees. "He who gives up marriage for fear of child-birth is not of us" the answer is that to do Ajal is like not to marry and the meaning of "he is not of us" is that our sunnat or way is better. There is no sin in it. 1) It is not good to be pleased with the birth of a son and displeased with the birth of a daughter. (2) To prevent birth of too many children. but these actions simply without that object are not sinful. It was prohibited by the Quran. Secret murder in the above Hadis means secret shirk. gives her good food and gives charity to her out of what God has given him. If semen is thrown not into uterus with the above object it will be sin. It is Makruh and not unlawful. There is in Sahihs Bukhari and Moslem that Hazrat Jaber said : We used to practice Ajal at the time of the Prophet and the Quran was then being revealed. Answer: There are four objects of Ajal : (1) To preserve the beauty and health of the wife and thus to enjoy her always . It is just like proposal and acceptance which constitute an agreement or contract. The Prophet said Practice Ajal with her if you wish but what has been decreed must come to pass. Both things are necessary for a contract. she becomes the cause of fortune to him and makes the path to paradise easy for him after saving him from Hell fire. (3) To take birth-control for fear of the birth of daughters. The . The Prophet said : What has been decreed must come to pass. it is not unlawful. The answer to the above verse is that there is an authentic Hadis about the legality of Ajal. then the bones covered with flesh and then I created it into another creation. comes into being after seven stages. Then he read this verse : I have created man from dried clay. then I placed it as semen in its resting places. it is not lawful. Vol-11 The Book of Wordly Usages 41 (12) If the child is born. I cohabit with her but I don't wish that she should conceive. marriage or sexual intercourse is given up. it is a secret shirk. Therefore. If the male semen is mixed with the blood of menses of a woman. This is unlawful . the proposal is lost. This is the 40 Secrets of Marriage Vol-11 meaning of the following verse of God.

she will have monthly menses and she will be pure. He is the first child born in Islam. He who incurs pleasure of his daughter will get rewards of weeping in fear of God. This is compulsory on the husband . she will not get the fragrance of Paradise. The Prophet said Don't unite my name and my surname. if a man has got two ? He said : Even if he has got two. DIVORCE Divorce is lawful. The Prophet said. God says : There is no fault in getting release on payment of wealth. its rewards are like those of charity. He said: 0 son of Omar. Then he may divorce her or take her back. If a man weeps for fear of God. If he is repentant within the period of waiting. Then he threw some of his saliva to his mouth. The Prophet said : If a Muslim goes to market. On the seventh day. (c) Give good name to the child. teach him "There is no deity but God". but my father Omar did not like her. make circumcision of his male organ. the Prophet said :The women who seek divorce are hypocrites. he and I will be in paradise like these two fingers. In another narration. He should first give it to the hand of his daughter and then to that of his son. God says : If they obey you. When the child begins to talk. Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 43 . give her divorce Hazrat Ibn Omar said : I loved my wife very much. The Prophet said : If a man takes a good thing for his family from the market. There is no harm if only one 42 Secrets of Marriage goat is sacrificed for a son. When he was brought before the Prophet. Then he besmearerd dates on the scalp of his head and prayed for him. I informed it to the Prophet. she maybe taken back : (3) After divorce.' If your father dislikes her.Prophet said : If a man has got two daughters or sisters and teaches them good manners up to their marriage. A man asked him : 0 Messenger of God. God will look at him and God will not punish one to whom He will look. God makes his body unlawful for Hell. The Prophet said : Give Azan to the right ear of the newly born child and Aqamat to his left ear. Hazrat Asma'a said : Hazrat Abdullah-b-Zubair was born at Kubba. There is such prohibition in authentic hadis. 'This should be his first word. When you give name. This is the period of waiting which God ordered. The Prophet ordered Hazrat Fatima to shave the head of Hussain on the seventh day and to give silver after weighing his hairs. Hazrat Omar divorced his wife at the time of her menstrual discharge. he prayed for him and besmeared dates on his body. The father of Rafe said : I have seen the Prophet proclaiming Azan into the ears of Hasan when he was born. The Prophet said : If a woman seeks divorce from her husband without any reason. The Prophet said: On the resurrection day. This shows that duty towards father is greater. The Prophet said to Omar: Tell him to take her back and keep her till her menstrual discharge ends. you will be called by your names or the names of your fathers. give name of slavery He said : The best of names are Abdullah and Abdur Rahman (slave of God) He said : Name according to the names of God and do not give surname according to my surname. God says Don't drive her out of your house till she does indecent action openly. divorce her. (5) Besmear the vertex of the child's head with dates or sweet things. (4) Two goats for a son and one goat for a daughter should be sacrificed which is called Aqiqah. The man again asked him : If he has got one ? He said : Even if he has got one. don't seek ways regarding them. (b) To give Azan to the ears of the child . the most detestable to God is divorce. God will admit him in Paradise. purchases something and after returning home gives it first to his daughters and not to the sons. It is sunnat to give in charity gold or silver to the weight of the hairs of the child . The Prophet said : If a man has got three daughters or sisters and keeps patience at the loss by supplying their demands. When he ordered me to divorce her. FOUR MATTERS AT THE TIME OF DIVORCE (1) The husband will divorce the wife in her pure state and not at the time of menstrual discharge. give maintenance to the wife and presents. (4) Don't disclose the secrets of wife at the time of divorce. but of all the lawful things. (2) Don't unite three divorces at a time. Thereafter. In another narration : Paradise is unlawful for her.

she will not refuse it even though she remains on a camel's back. The Prophet said : When a woman stays within her house. The Prophet said : I peeped into Hell and found that the majority of its inmates are women. give birth to children and show affection to the children. save your nose. He said : There are ten private parts of a women. she should not refuse. ears and eyes. Her prayer in the courtyard of her house is more meritorious than her prayer in mosque. she will enter Paradise. Asma's said to her daughter at the time her marriage : You are now going to spend such as life where you shall have to live long and you are going to the bed of such a person with whom you have got no acquaintance. two Vol-II 44 Secrets of Marriage Vol-II out of them are essentially necessary : The first one is to preserve chastity and to keep secret the words of her husband and the second thing is not to demand unnecessary things and to refrain from unlawful wealth which her husband earns. the angels curse him till she returns to his house or till she repents. Let him not hear from you except sweet words. The Prophet said When women prays five times a day. as duties towards him are many. Hur says : Don't inflict trouble on him. she will enter Paradise of her Lord. The Prophet said : A woman is like a private part. be near him. but what are the rights of the husband ? He said : When he wants her. 0 Messenger of God ? He said : They take recourse to much curse and deny relatives. Her prayer in room is better than her prayer in her courtyard. The Prophet said : Yes. She will not give anything of his house in charity without his permission. It was asked : Why. get married anti it is better. the devil holds her high. her husband keeps one private parts covered . they will enter Paradise. When he remains near you. There is in another Hadis : I peeped into Paradise and found that there are few women there. Let him not see in you except beauty. The Prophet said: It is not lawful to give in charity the food of his house without his permission but give such ready food as would be spoilt. Don't remain far from him.DUTIES OF WIFE TOWARDS HUSBAND (1) If the husband wants to enjoy her body. The Prophet said about women: They bear children. (3) She would engage herself in good works in the absence of her husband and make enjoyment in the presence of her husband. The Prophet said : If a woman inflicts trouble on her husband. If she goes out of his house without his permission. Even though they do not come to their husbands. Make for him such a world which will be heaven for you. A woman of Khasham tribe once came once came to the Prophet and asked him: 1 want to marry. it will not be accepted from her. When she gets married. When she comes out. grave covers others parts. She will not keep optional fast without his permission. (2) Don't spend extravagantly the properties of your husband but protect them. she becomes more near God. lest you become to him an object of hatred. The duties of a wife towards her husband are many. perchance he will leave you soon and come to us. they will enter Paradise if they pray. May God destroy you. You are going to love one with whom you had no love before. When he stays distant from you. I would have ordered a woman to prostrate before her husband. The Prophet said: It is not lawful for a woman who believes in God and the next world to grieve for more than three days except in the case of the death of her husband for whom she should grieve for four months and ten days and she should stay in her . Once a girl came to the Prophet and asked : I don't want to get married . If she does it. Now he is with you. fasts the month of Ramazan. Be such a slave for him that he might become your slave. The Prophet said : If I would have ordered anybody to prostrate before another. Let him not get from you except sweet smile. saves her private parts and obeys her husband. she will commit a sin and her husband will get rewards. The Prophet said : If the wife of a man dies while he is pleased with her. Don't go willingly to him. (4) Don't express sorrow for more than four months and ten days when your husband dies. I asked : Where are the women ? He said : Two things of reddish colour stood as a stumbling block against them-gold and Jafran (ornaments and varied dresses). and when she dies. prepare for him such a bed which will be a pillar for you. If she does it and becomes hungry and thirsty. the black-eyed. lest he may forget you.

God hates one who learns education thinking it a means of earning. He said The truthful tradesman will resurrect on the Resurrection Day with the truthful and the martyrs. God says : Spread out in the earth 'and seek the wealth of God. The Prophet said : God loves one who adopts the path of labour to save himself from depending on other. God says There is no fault in searching livelihood from your Lord. If he makes efforts for 46 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II livelihood of his weak parents or weak children. If he obeys the rules of Shariat in his business. he is in the way of the devil. So fear God and seek livelihood in a lawful manner. One day. will not keep you distant from paradise and bring you near Hell. when a stout and strong young man was going to his shop running by the mosque. God says : I have placed in it provisions for you. (5) She should do all household affairs to her utmost capacity. troubles and earnings. (2) Another kind of men makes the return to the next world as his sole object of life and remains busy in earning his livelihood therefor. God says : A party travel in the world to search for the grace of God. The companions said : Alas for this young man ! Had his body and health run in the way of God ! The Prophet then said : Don't say like this. he is in the way of God. He said. The world is the seed ground for the men (1) One kind of men forgets the return and makes the earning of livelihood as the sole object of his life. HADIS: The Prophet said : There is such a sin of which there is no expiation except anxieties of earning livelihood. CHAPTER III SECTION I EARNINGS AND TRADE AND COMMERCE God made the next world the place of reward and punishments and this world the place of efforts. because nine. He who does not adopt the straight path in earning livelihood will not get the pleasure of straight path. The Prophet said : I have left no such instruction which if obeyed will not bring you near paradise and keep you distant from Hell. if obeyed . because disobedience to God cannot bring what He has got. it is the greatest lawful earnings of his own. He said : Your brother makes better divine service than you.tenths of the source of earnings is in trade and commerce. (3) The third kind of men is near the middle path who keep his goal of return to the next world as fixed and takes to trade and commerce for livelihood . Merits of earning livelihood Quran: God says : I have created the day for earning livelihood. The Prophet said : The markets are the repositories of food of God. The Prophet said: God loves the believing businessman. The best lawful earning is that which one gets by his own lawful earning. Let nobody say : Give up to seek livelihood. I enjoin you to earn livelihood in a just manner. I have left no such prohibition which . he is in the way of God. He said : He who refrains from beggings. If he tries to show his health out of pride. Then he said at last : Let not the delay in earning livelihood give you encouragement to earn it illegally. the Prophet was seated in the mosque of Medina with companions. The trusted Spirit infused into my soul saying : No man will die till his provision does not finish even though he wishes it. The . He is one of those who will be destroyed. He who takes the world as the means of earning the next world adopts the rules and regulations of Shariat in search of it and gets the pleasure of the middle path. He asked : Who gives you food? He said My brother. making efforts for family members and being kind to the neighbours searches livelihood lawful by will meet with God with such a face which will be bright like the full moon. He who comes to them gets something therefrom. If this young man runs with the object of not depending on others and refraining from begging. Once the Prophet Jesus asked a man : What do you do? He said I make divine service. The Prophet said : Take to trade and commerce. You are grateful but little. Earning is not the aim of human life but it is hereafter and the door to enter it.husband's house during this time.

Lawful Earnings: Earnings can be searched in six ways (1) Bargaining in buy and sale. when Hazrat Abu Bakr became Caliph. rather he was directed to glorify God. it is better than to beg of men whether they give or not. The devil comes to him in the path of weight and measure and buy and sale. you will not depend on the people. (5) to do business through others advancing capital and (6) joint business in fixing shares. He said : If a man opens a door of begging upon him. justice.Prophet said : If anyone of you gathers fuels with a rope and searches livelihood by bearing it upon his back. (2) trade on interest. as he is in Jihad . (3) taking advance payment. The latter is the root of attachment to the world which is the basis of all sins. Wise sayings: The wise Loqman advised his son : 0 dear son. why are you taking such trouble ? Our brethren are sufficient for you. He advised his sons to return it to the Treasury after his death. He makes jihad with him. He said :0 Abu Amer. We shall describe them separately. Paradise is sure for him. He said They come out hungry in the morning and return with full belly in the evening. To know the rules of Shariat in these concerns is compulsory. (4) One who is busy in the administration of the affairs of the Muslims like rulers and kings. shut up poverty by lawful earnings. other companions advised him to give up his business and they fixed for him monthly allowance from the State Treasury. Hazrat Omar said : Let none of you retrain from earning livelihood and say : 0 God. (b) . God will open for him seventy doors of begging. For this reason. Once Hazrat Aozayi saw the sage Ibrahim-b-Adham to bear a load of fuels on his back and said : 0 Abu Ishaq. In other words. they come out in search of. Hazrat Omar said to him : If you do good. leave me alone in this matter. as to search knowledge is compulsory for every Muslim. (4) to work on wages for labour and to accept pay and rental. It will save your religion and you will be honoured by them.their livelihood. 48 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II SECTION 2 Four things are necessary in earnings-lawful. Depending on men for a necessity is a calamity. The Prophet was not commissioned to be a tradesman. It is sufficient to follow them. It is better for four persons not to beg : (1) One who is busy with physical divine service (2) The friend of God who is busy in exercise of soul and spiritual learnings. as I have come to know that if a man waits in a place of disgrace in search for earning lawful livelihood. because he who is poor earns three habits-laxity in religious actions. weakness in intellect and loss of manliness. It was reported that Omar used to visit the markets and instruct some inexperienced tradesmen on whipping them and say . (3) One who is Mufti (gives legal decisions) and one who is Muhaddis (one who teaches Hadis) and one who is learned and teaches. give me provision. These four kinds of persons remain busy in the affairs of the public or in their religious affairs. (1) Bargaining in buy and sale: There are three subjects in it. Once the Prophet asked about livelihood of beasts and birds. The object of trade and commerce is to gain either necessary livelihood or to gain enormous wealth. Greater fault than these three is to keep it secret from the people. Know it for certain that the heaven will not shower rain of gold and silver. the passengers of a boat asked Ibrahim-b. Hazrat Ibrahim-b-Adham was asked : Who is better of the two-a truthful merchant and a worshipper ? He said: A truthful merchant is dearer to me. Hazrat Omar said : No place is dearer to me than that where I search livelihood for my family members and where I buy and sell. earnings. kindness and fear of religion. When a strong tempest arose in the sea. Nobody shall carry on business in our markets who has got no knowledge of business. The companions of the Prophet used to do trade and commerce in land and sea and worked in gardens. Hazrat Jaber was once sowing seeds in Vol-II Trade and Commerce 47 his field.Adham Don't you look to this calamity? He said : I don't consider it a calamity.(a) Buyer and seller.

It is unlawful to sell a fixed quantity of gold or silver for a fixed quantity of more gold or silver on credit. To give wheat and to take in exchange bread on credit or in cash is unlawful. The contract for buy and sale must be expressed in clear and unambiguous terms. the thing or money shall be delivered. An inferior quantity of a thing cannot be taken in lieu of a good quantity of the same thing. The question of interest arises in only two cases. the principal thing or money shall be paid in advance. (1) These must not be impure. (2) Transaction of Interest: God made interest unlawful and there is strict order of prohibition regarding it. (1) The quantity and kind of a thing for which advance payment is made should be fixed. It is lawful to have transaction with an unbeliever but it is unlawful to sell arms to them. gold and silver and of food stuffs. (2) Things of sale should be beneficial and necessary. insane. the transaction is not lawful. no transaction is valid with a minor. teeth of elephant. Scorpions. It is not lawful to receive in cash the value of a certain thing which is to be delivered in future. pig. as there might be. (4) The weight and quantity of the thing given in advance must be fixed. such as dog. (7) The thing to be advanced should have no connection with another thing. If both of them become separate before possessing the thing. (2) In the place of contract. it is unlawful. meat etc. fat of impure animals. Auction sale is lawful if the terms are proclaimed before-hand.. not to hand in hand transaction and (2) if more in quantity is taken in lieu of less quantity of the same kind of thing. milk in udder cannot lawfully be sold. (3) Advance payment: Some conditions are to be observed in advance payment of money and things. (3) Commodities for sale must be in possession of the seller. Vol-II Trade and Commerce 49 (c) Contract for buy and sale. it will be unlawful. (5) Time of the delivery of the thing should be fixed. (8) Transaction of rare and precious things on advance payment is not lawful. it is lawful to exchange them and the rules of the same of things are applicable in this case. (3) If gold and silver are mixed and the quantity of each is not known. Instruments of songs. a beautiful slave or slave girl. If the buyer sells it before possessing it. because they are of different kinds of things and not of the same kind. No condition can lawfully be imposed by one party after agreement is final . in transactions of cash money. (3) The 50 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II thing that is given in advance must be an exchangeable commodity such as food stuffs. milk. No minor and insane man have got any sin. Transaction with a blindman is not lawful except with the consent of his representative. cotton. No transaction is valid with a slave except with the permission of his master. Intention plays an important part in it. (4) These should be fit for transfer according to Shariat. If milk is given to a milk trader and if in exchange clarified butter. (2) There is no-fault in selling silvers in more quantity in lieu of gold of small quantity. (5) Things for sale must be known. foetusin womb of an animal. snakes and worms and insects under the earth are unlawful for transactions. In the place of contract. that is. A fugitive slave. minerals. This kind of transaction is unlawful. slave or blind man. birds in air. the transaction will be unlawful. When food stuffs are of the same kind. difference of price in case of place where commodity is to be delivered. Clothes on which there are animal pictures are not lawful for sale. (1) Counterfeit coins of a great measure can not be taken in lieu of less quantity of pure coins. Three things are to be observed in case of gold and silver. . it will be unlawful. butter or cheese is taken. such as crops of this land.commodities for sale. (a) With regard to the first thing. fixed and certain and not un fixed and uncertain. (b) Commodities for sale. rats. fish in water. (c) and contract for buy and sale. dung. Imam Shafeyi held such auction as unlawful. Interest occurs in these two cases only under two conditions-(1) If sale is held on credit and not in cash. wine. There are six conditions in it. animal. If a man gives a goat and takes in exchange mutton on credit or in cash. (6) The place should be as certained in which the thing is to be delivered. fruits of that garden. toys idols of animals are not lawful for buy and sale. The food-stuffs of seller and buyer are of different kinds or of the same kinds. stool. such as transaction of rare jewel. (6) Things to be sold must be in the possession of the owner. Food-stuffs.

(b) Profit. The loss of the public is of many kinds. With regard to the principal in business. Hazrat Ali said : If a man hoards up food stuffs even for a day to gain increased price. Out of them three kinds are unlawful and the fourth kind only is lawful. Partnership business is of four kind. it will be unlawful. The Prophet said : If a man hoards up food stuffs when they are dear for forty days to get more price.(4) Wages. A certain pious merchant sent food stuffs on a boat in the sea to his agent at Basra with the instruction that he should sell it as soon as they reached him. equally from the shares with the profit divided equally among them. to bury or carry a deadman. It is unlawful to engage a week man in a work which is beyond his strength and capacity. SECTION JUSTICE TO BE OBSERVED IN BUSINESS It is unlawful to give trouble to the public by unjust dealings and oppression an by deceit and fraud. To give skin in lieu of taking skin from the body. In another narration : He will get the rewards of setting a slave free. 52 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II because they would bring greater profit. it must be fixed like the price of a thing sold.remuneration and profit. Principal is to be handed over to the managing agent. the merchants told him to hoard them for one week and then sell. is lawful. But it is lawful to make pilgrimage on behalf of another who is otherwise incapable to observe it. When the commodities reached Basra. to be an Imam in prayer for fixed term. (c) and kind of business. he is displeased with God and God also is displeased with him. This applies to hoarding up for getting more profit. (a) The remuneration of a work must be fixed. to give skin in lieu of carrying an animal and to give outer cover for cushing wheat are all unlawful (2) Profit. (a) Principal. its kind and quantity should be fixed. (c) No condition should be attached in a partnership business fixed commodities and fixed time. It is done with the object of getting enhanced price of food stuffs. It was not my wish to make loss in religion and gain . The Prophet said: He who takes food stuffs from one place to another and sells them on that day according to the market rate will get the rewards of charity. It is not lawful to let out a house on rent on condition that the tenant must construct the building or house as the expense of a house is unknown. to appoint warrior in Jihad. His master wrote to him : You have acted contrary to my wish. The Quran says : If a man intends to transgress the limits unjustly. One kind of public loss arises from hoarding of food stuffs. If the profit is fixed for the trade it is not legal. It is unlawful to divide the works in a joint business. Someone said that he commits sin of murdering all people. There is curse of Shariat on the hoarders of food stuffs. (5) Partnership business: There are three things in partnership business . his heart becomes hard. I will give him taste of a grievous chastisement. to proclaim Azan. to teach the Quran and such other things and to take remuneration for these works. for instance. The businessman becomes the representative or agent of business who can utilise the capital according to his wish in the business. (c) One must possess necessary strength to do a thing for which his salary is fixed. to maintain a garden of grapes in lieu of grapes and to take lease of a garden in lien of its fruits are unlawful . or to appoint a representative in divine service. To maintain an animal in lieu of milk. One kind of loss for the general public and another for some special persons. (b) The remuneration given to a broker is unlawful . If the remuneration is salary or rental. (b) It should be settled beforehand what share of the Vol-II Trade and Commerce 51 profit the capitalists should get and what share the businessman will get. There are two kinds of loss by deceit and fraud. it will be fixed and paid in cash. If the capital comes. Is is unlawful to advance things and not money as principal. (d) It is unlawful to appoint a representative in a compulsory duty. His agents did accordingly and sold them after one week with increased price and informed his master. If wages are in cash. The object of industry in business is to gain profit. There are two rules of wages . It is an oppression to the people in general. If a partner advances capital and another partner possessing honour uses only his influence in the business. salary and rental: Wages.

It is. therefore. The coin in which there is something of gold or silver cannot be called counterfeit. There are differences of opinion with regard to the hoarding of things which are near principal food stuffs. whose sale is easy. He asked him : Why there are wet things in them ? He said : Rain melted them. whenever Jarir was . (2) knowledged of counterfeit Vol-II Trade and Commerce 53 coins is necessary to every merchant to save him-self and to protect the Muslims from them. If a buyer purchases a thing on the basis of that description. clarified butter. FIVE RULES OF COUNTERFEIT COINS (1) If a man has got such counterfeit coins.profit in commodities. (2) not to conceal the defects of one's things form others. Once the prophet saw a man selling food stuffs and it pleased him.. God says : Man will be informed what they sent in advance before and what they latter. This should be observed in four dealings-(1) not to praise one's thing. I may save myself from the sin of hoarding. one who deals harshly after charity and one who sells things by oath. he took promise from his that he should do good to the Muslim. To make delay in selling food stuffs is harmful to the public. The general rule is : love for others what you love for yourself. But in a place where a certain kind of coin is prevalent. (4) He who receives counterfeit coins to destroy them is absolved from it sin and receives the blessings of the Prophet : May God show kindness to one whose buy is easy. it is lawful to make some delay as the public do not suffer by it. rivers and tanks. In that case. (1) To say that a thing possesses a quality which it has not got is falsehood. etc. The Prophet said : In false oath. It is not prohibited to hoard up such kinds of thing which are not principal food stuffs for livelihood. I shall write what they sent in advance (during their life time) and what they will. There are things which become unlawful for hoarding regard being had to the time when food stuffs are not easily available and there are needs of men for them. it is harmful then to hoard up even honey. (3) not to conceal the weights and measures of a thing. The Prophet took allegiance of Islam from Jarir and when he was about to go. such as medicine. distribute all the proceeds to the poor and the destitute. Ja'afran.f receiving it. send (after their death). while the circulation of a counterfeit coin is not limited and it continues years after years unless they are destroyed. as theft is confined to a sin. such as meat. (3) If he communicates their nature to others. When there is famine. Therefore. Thereafter. a deceit and a fraud. but it is connected with the kinds of food and time. meat and such things. This is like introducing a bad custom. But when there are no such circumstances. another kind of coin is not lawful there. Use of counterfeit coins: It is an oppression on the public to use counterfeit coins. (2) It is an act of oppression if a merchant is caused loss. NOT CONCEAL DEFECTS OF COMMODITIES One who conceals defects is an oppressor. he will not be absolved from its sin if he knows about its nature at the time . The Prophet said God will not look on three persons on the Resurrection Day --:-a proud disobedient man. whose clearance of debt is easy and whose demand is easy. (4) and not to cheat in respect of a price of a thing. he will throw them in wells. A certain sage said : To transfer a counterfeit coin to another is worse than the theft of a hundred coins. So the legality and illegality of hoarding of food stuffs becomes according to the harms caused or not caused to the public . there is much loss of commodities and there is less profit. Account will be taken of every word uttered. (5) A counterfeit coin is one which has got nothing of gold or silver. God says : There is a guard over man of what one utters. prohibited to hoard up food stuffs for getting greater profit. it will be an act of deceit. The first man who uses such coin will get the sins of every person who subsequently transfers it to other persons. I have committed sin of hoarding. Deceit is unlawful. It is justice not to do loss to a Muslim. fruits and such kinds of food which appease hunger and which are taken as alternatives of principal crops. The Prophet then entered his hand unto the interior of the food stuffs and found moisture in them. He said : Has not the rain fallen on the top of the crops ? The Prophet then said : He who defrauds us is not of us. God says .

God says : God enjoins justice and doing good-16:90. Sale is for profit in a business and there is no profit unless a thing is charged more than the price by which it is bought. God says : Don't exceed the limit in weights and measures and establish just Vol-11 Trade and Commeree 55 balanced and don't reduce the measure 35:8. There is no deity but God' will remove the wrath of God from the created beings till they do not give superiority of worldly affairs over their next worldly affairs. he used to tell the seller : Weigh according to the amount of price and give measure a little more. When the Prophet purchased something. he disclosed the defects of it and gave him option to purchase. There is in another Hadis : He who utters . He said to his saleman : Why have you not loved for another which you love for yourself ? Return half. He was asked : What is sincere faith ? He said : To be careful of what God prohibited. it brings rewards and ranks. He who takes more and gives less falls within this verse : Woe to the defaulters who take full measure when they take from men. (4) Tell truth in selling commodities and do not conceal anything. The Prophet said : Don't meet the riders who bring commodities . Hazrat Solaiman said to his son : 0 dear son. will enter Paradise. SECTION 4 TO DO GOOD IN MUTUAL TRANSACTIONS God ordered us to adopt good and just dealings and to do good to the people. When they conceal and tell falsehood. God says: God's mercy is near those who do good. Give more when you measure out to others and take less when you take by measure from the people. So how can a man take to evil things instead of good ones ? The Prophet said : The word.present at the time of transaction of a thing. blessing is given to their transaction. There is in another Hadis : God hand remains upon two partners till they do not commit teachery to each other. take your dues and return the dues of others. To take less profit is 'Ihsan' doing good but ' to take greater profit is not unlawful. When they commit breach of trust : He withdraws his hand from both. The Prophet said : When the buyer and seller tell truth and wish good. but his sins and virtues will remain. God says : Show kindness as God has shown kindness on you. He also said : He who regards unlawful thing as lawful does not believe in the Quran. Once a man bought a bundle of cloth from the salesman of Eunus-b-Obaid for 400 dirhams which was to be sold for 200 dirhams to the buyer. blessing is withdrawn from them. There is no deity but God' out of sincere faith. Take recourse to just balance and weight. One day there was flood which drowned the cow. God says : Woe to the defaulters in weights and measures. sin enters between two transaction just as seeds enter into mills. those who take full measure when they take from men and who give less when they measure out to them or weigh to them 83:1 . He milked his cow everyday and sold milk after mixing water therein. It becomes easy to seek good of the people if one knows that the profit in the next world is better than the wealth and treasures of the world and that these will end with the end of life. He said : I made promise to the Prophet that I shall seek good of every Muslim. The owner of the commodities has got option to break an agreement after they are brought in the market with those who meet them in advance. The way to be rescued from this is the following. Hazrat Ali used to roam in the bazar of Kufa with a stick and say: _ 0 merchants. the verse-33:1. Doing good means an act which does benefit to another. Though it is not compulsory. The Prophet said : It is unlawful to sell a thing without disclosing its defects and one who knows it will commit sin if he does not give precaution to him. (3) Don't conceal in weights and measures. A man had a cow. One of his sons said to him: The waters which you mixed with milk gathered together and washed away the cow by a strong current. The rank of doing good can be obtained in one of the following six actions.' Deceit in buying and selling and in mutual transactions is unlawful. Don't refuse . Some one said to him : You will not get profit 54 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II by it. (a) Not to make much profit.

(b) To suffer loss. (f) To sell things to the needy on credit and not to demand from them when they are in want and do not become solvent. easy sale. God entrusts him to His angles to keep him safe. They were forgive if they could not pay their dues. If a buyer buys from a poor man. Three things-(1) I never refused any profit (2) I sold everything in cash and not on credit. It is expressed in three ways-(1) to accept less price at times (2) to grant time when realising the dues . God will make his account easy. there is no harm to buy at a higher price to show good to him and to enter into this prayer of the Prophet : May God like a person who makes his buy easy and purchase easy ? When he purchase a thing from a rich man. (c) To show good and to treat well at the time of acceptance of price and realisation of dues. The Prophet mentioned about such a person who oppressed. but none but the needy bears the disgrace of loan. The Prophet said : Help your brother. whether it is paid up in full or not. In those books. (d) To do good at the time of payment of debt. 56 The Book of Wordly Usages Hazrat Omar did not do any deceit and nobody could ever deceive him. Then God will forgive him. The Prophet said : If a man intends to pay at the time of Vol-I1 Trade and Commeree 57 taking loan. Consider the prayer of the Prophet as valuable.little profit or else you will be deprived of greater profit. Once a creditor came to the Prophet to demand payment of a debt due from him after the expiry of its time. Going to the creditor personally and not to wait for its demand is considered as doing good. easy payment of price and easy payment of debt. God will forgive his sins on the Resurrection Day. as nobody except a repentant or suffering man intends to return a purchased thing. . be he oppressed or an oppressor. God then will say: I am more fit in this matter than you. hundred dirhams. The Prophet said : He is the best among you who pays his debt in a good manner. then God will make your account easy. Clear it before the time fixed for it and pay something more than the principal. Then he accepted two hundred dirhams and said: In this way. they wrote the names of unknown poor customers. He reduced it so. It is said here by way of explanation that charity may not always reach the truly poor. He said : I remit you another one hundred dirhams. None should remain satisfied with causing loss to his brother Muslim. He again said : Do good to me. He had then no means to clear it. He said : If a man grants time to a needy man to repay debt or remits it. but I advanced loan to the people. The religious men of yore kept account books. When he will be presented on the Judgment Day. To pay debt in a god manner is 'Ihsan' or doing good to another. it will be found that he has got no good deeds. If a man sells something to a man and does not then realise its price and does not demand it. (e) To accept return of a thing sold if the buyer thinks that he has suffered loss. it is considered as a loan. he may search for additional profit. Hazrat Abdur Rahman. He will be asked Did you no do any good deed ? He will say : No. They pray for him till he clears his debt. the purchaser said to him : Reduce it by one. Clear the debt before demand. The Prophet said May God show mercy on easy purchase. I used to say to my children : Grant time to the solvent and remit the poor. (3)1 did not make delay in selling a thing. In another narration : God will give him shade on the day when there will be no shade except that of the Throne. When Hasan Basari sold his ass for four hundred dirhams. The Prophet said : If a man forgives the guilt of a repentant man.b-Auf was asked : What is the reason of your success He said . There is in Hadis : Accept your dues with pardon. He was asked : How can we help an oppressor? He said : To prohibit him from oppression is to help him. The Prophet said : Forgive and you will be forgiven. The companions were about to attack him when he said : Leave him as a creditor has got a right to say. good is done to a person. The man used harsh words to the Prophet. his soul very much and was engaged in sins. The Prophet said : I saw it written on the door of Paradise : One act of charity will bring ten rewards and one act of loan will bring eighteen rewards. (3) and to demand in a good manner.

to earn keeping on the paths of religion and to maintain family. take one who knows you. they would have the trade of cloth. all other works would remain idle and hence the people would be destroyed . So begin your actions for the fortunes of the next world. In other words. Had the inmates of Hell had any trade. Once a witness went to depose before Hazrat Omar. if the various kinds of trade and industry are given up. Hazrat Omar asked him : Is he your closest neighbour ? He said : No. commerce. When he brought a person to him. He said to him : Bring one to me who knows you. If he forgets it. but it is more necessary on your part to look to your fortunes of the next world. The necessary things in this world are praiseworthy in the next world. (2) Intend to be upon the duties of Farze Kafayah like trade. the man began to praise his character. to remain satisfied with lawful earnings. don't forget the portion of your fate in the next world from your portion of fate of this world. One people are responsible for one kind of work. it has been said that when the neighbours of a person praise him. A certain sage said : The best commodity in this world to a wise man is what is absolutely necessary for him in this world. from establishing prayer and paying poor . God says : Don't forget your portion in this world. but the wise man is he who protects his capital. he will when be ruined and he will be then one of those who sell their next world in lieu of this world. God say : There are some men whom merchandise or buying and selling cannot divert from the remembrance of God. His real capital is his religion and matters relating to the next world. He said So. He asked him : Did you carry on business with him? He said : No. it will be difficult for the people to manage their livelihood and the majority of the people would be destroyed. boys and men of little intellect are engaged. because in these works mostly women. There are four works in which there is fear of lessening of intellectweaving of cloth. With this object. industry thinking that. As intellect ! increased in association of intellectuals. when the companions of a man in journey praise him and when the fellow trademen in the market praise him. Follow the path of equity. He asked him Were you his companion in a journey ? He said : No. Vol-II SECTION 5 NOT TO BE FORGETFUL OF RELIGION AND THE NEXT WORLD IN BUSINESS Know. you don't know him. SEVEN THINGS MAKE THE RELIGION OF A BUSINESS MAN PERFECT (1) Keep your faith firm and perfect and have good intent in business at the start of your business. justice and Ihsan as mentioned above and join good and forbid evils you find in the market. to restrain from the greed of what is with the people. Intend to do good to the Muslims and love for them what 'you love for yourself . as the world is a seed ground for the next world. 0 dear readers. Hazrat Muaz-b-Jabal gave his death instruction by saying : What has been decreed for you from the fortunes of this world will surely come to you. For this reason. so also it lessens in association of less intellectual men. He then said to the man : Go. Do business. don't complain against his good character. weaving of thread and teaching. with the objects of saving yourself from depending on others.Trade and commerce are the places for trial of religious persons. they would have carried on business of Vol-11 Trade and Commeree 59 exchange of coins. There is in Hadis: The business of cloth is the best of all your trades and the work of sewing is the best of all industries. (3) Let not the worldly markets be blocks of the next worldly markets which are mosques. that nobody should forget his religion and the next world-his destination during the course of his trade 58 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II and commerce and earning livelihood. There is in another Hadis: Had the inmates of Paradise had trades. the Prophet said : The difference of my people is a blessing. If all remain busy in only one kind of work. sale of cotton.

The Prophet said: The worst of places is the market. His is the kingdom and for. Leave the places of the earnings of doubt and restrain yourself from eating doubtful things. The Prophet did not enquire about everything. God becomes displeased. God say : 0 believers. (7) Adjust accounts of your business with everybody . The Prophet said : One remembering God among the heedless is like a warrior behind a fleeing enemy or like a living man among the dead. We have been forbidden to eat except good things and to do except good deeds. Umrah and Jehad. (5) Don't be too greedy in markets and in business. (6) Keep away from doubtful things even after giving up unlawful things. theft and interest. breach of trust. Don't do business with one who has got connection with oppression. The angels of day and night meet with one another at the time of morning and Asar prayers. I asked : Are all these records of sin ? He said: You will find one record for each person you have dealt with in the world. A wise man said : I saw a merchant in dream and asked him : What treatment has God meted out to you ? He said : Fifty thousand account books have been opened before me. Then he drank it and said : We are a people of Prophets. in His hands. A certain sage said . He asked : Wherefrom have you got goats : He said : From such and such a place. CHAPTER IV . He is eternal and will not die.The sage Hammad used to carry on wool rugs. I seek refuge to Thee from infidelity and all the sins committed in the markets. His name in the houses: So you should work for the next world in the early part of the day till market time. When he got profit of nearly six annans. The earlier sages fixed the early and last part of the day for the next world and the middle part for this world. God in addition to the above duties in the markets. God forgives sins between these two times. God's remembrance in the markets is better. In another narration : Or like a living trees amidst dried trees. God says : I bear witness in your presence that I have forgiven them. He give life and takes life. There is no deity but God. The Prophet said : Fear God wherever you are. Once a man brought milk to the Prophet who asked him : Where-from has this milk come to you ? He said : we have got it from goats. (4) Be attached to the Zikr of. Him is all praise. The Prophet asked the source of a thing and the source of its source and not beyond that. Once Ibrahim-bAdham said to a person who was going to his business of pottery You are seeking livelihood but death seeks you.rate. the Single. remain attached to the mosque and remain busy in divine service after the division of times. There is in Hadis : If the angels who write records of deeds write therein God' Zikr and good deeds in the early part and the last part of the day. All have been recorded in these account books. He said : The believers have been ordered to do the things which the Prophet have been ordered to do. He who loves the next world loves a true life. God then says : In what condition have you found My servants ? They say : We have seen them praying and came from them in their praying state. The Prophet said : If a man says after entering the market the following . The Prophet said : He who prays for long life on an oppressor. There is in Hadis : Don't travel in the sea except for Pilgrimage. They live for God and die for God 60 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II and God is the corner stone of their life. eat of the good things We have provided you 2:172. Accounts will be taken of you on the Resurrection Day of your business with everybody. loves to be disobedient to God in His world. helps the destruction of Islam. He also said : He who honours a transgressor. there is no partner for Him. He who loves this world remains thirsty. There is in Hadis .' Markets mosques and houses are all the same for those who fear God. I seek refuge to Thee from the oath of the sinners and the wailings of the losers. there is good and He is powerful over all things' God reward him with thousands of merits. he used to close his business. Hazrat Omar said : 0 God. God says : God gives order to glorify and remember. 0 God. He said When any transgressor is praised.

If they raise their hands and say: '0 Lord' O Lord' how can their invocation be accepted ? The Prophet said : An angel residing in Boitul Muqaddas proclaims every night : Saraf and Adal will not be accepted from a person who eats unlawful food. All things are limited within these three things. The Prophet said If a man purchases a cloth with ten dirhams and if one dirham out of them is unlawful. The Prophet said : Stomach is the fountain of body and the veins come out of it. and who have been maintained by unlawful food. 62 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II dustladen dresses. whose dress in unlawful. fear God and give up what remains of interest if you are believes-2. He said : If a man meets God after refraining from unlawful things. nine of which are in lawful earnings. God says : Don't eat properties of one another unjustly-2:188. The Prophet mentioned the worldly addicted men and said : There are many men who have got dishevelled hairs. The Prophet said : One dirham of interest is more serious to God than thirty fornications.278. When the foundation is strong and firm. This will be discussed in seven sections. God says: Is not he who establishes God Fear and God's pleasure in the foundation of his religion better than he . In other words. the building inclines to a side. Hadis : The Prophet said : It is compulsory on every Muslim to seek lawful earnings. God will not care by which path he will enter Hell. are tired in journey. The Prophet said : If a man does not care wherefrom he earns his wealth. The Prophet said : Eat lawful food and for that your invocation will be accepted. They will abide therein. When the stomach is sound. He said : There are ten shares of worship. his prayer will not be accepted till a portion of that cloth remains in his body. there are doubtful things which are not clear and difficult to know. Once Hazrat Sa'ad said to the Prophet : Pray to God that He may accept my invocation. then be prepared to fight with God and His Prophet-2:289. The Prophet said : he who passes times upto evening in search of lawful earnings passes the night in a state of his sins being forgiven and rises at dawn when God remains pleased with him. Then He said: Those who turn away from that are the inmates of Hell. Food in religion is like the foundation of a building. In an earlier scripture. The Prophet said : The best of your religion is to keep away from unlawful things. God says : 0 believers. God says : If you do not do it. The object of this order is eating of lawful things. the veins come out with health.HALAL AND HARAM (lawful and unlawful things) The Prophet said : It is compulsory on every Muslim to seek lawful earnings. There are innumberable verses regarding lawful and unlawful things. God will throw him into Hell after collecting everything. The Prophet said : The fire of Hell is fit for the flesh which has been grown by unlawful food. The Prophet said : He who makes efforts to maintain his family out of lawful earnings is like a fighter in the way of God and he who seeks lawful earnings after restraining himself will get the rank of a martyr. The Prophet said: If a man earns by sinful acts and gives it in charity or action of an kindness or spends it in the way of God. God ordered for eating good things before doing good deeds. God illumines his heart and lets flow wisdom from his heart through his tongue. the building stands straight and it can be raised up.2:168. whose food is unlawful. compulsory duties and optional duties will not be accepted from him. At first. God said with regard to those who refrained from unlawful food : I feel ashamed to take their accounts. and when it is unsound. Between these two. He termed this compulsory subject as a thing of wisdom for a wise man out of other compulsory things. they come out with disease. then for you is the capital. Then He says : If you repent. SECTION I MERITS OF LAWFUL EARNINGS AND CONDEMNATION OF UNLAWFUL QURAN : God says : Eat of the good things and do good deeds. and if the foundation is weak and curved. then call for fight with God and His Apostle and last of all residing in Hell have been mentioned. In another narration: God grants him renunciation in the world. The Prophet said : If a man eats lawful food for forty days. Saraf means optional and sunnat actions and Adal means compulsory duties. God will give him reward of the entire Islam. Lawful things are clear and unlawful things are also clear. eating of interest.

the affairs of heaven are disclosed to us and we see the next world. knowledge of our sure faith will disappear. he said : Don't you know that Abu Bakr does not allow anything to his belly except lawful food ? In a similar way. The Abdul Mobarak said : To return a coin of doubt to its owner is better than charity of one lac dirhmas. blood. and fear and actual vision will go from our hearts. The narrator added to it: There is rebuke for a doubtful thing. Wise saying. I pray to Thee for forgiveness of what remains attached to my throat and to my'stool. (b) carefulness in eating. There is a well-known Hadis : There is account of lawful things in the world and punish for unlawful things. Sufiyan Saori said : He who spend in charity out of unlawful wealth is like the person who washes impure clothes with wine. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said . (a) giving up the prohibited things openly and secretly and (d) observing those rules with patience upto death. There is written in the Torah : If a man does not care wherefrom he eats food. If he leaves it after Vol-II Halal and Haram 63 his death. Impure things cannot be purified except with water and there is no expiation of sins without lawful things. Without eating it. he will increase the fire of Hell therewith. The prayer of a man in whose belly there is unlawful food is not accepted by God. Then he thrust the fronts of his fingers into his throat and vomited in such a way that his life was in danger. . It is said that the heart of a man who eats doubtful things for 40 days becomes enveloped with darkness. The Abdul said to him : The water which I drink at night and what you see are dearer to me than your reciting the Quran thirty times in three hundred rakats of prayer. Hazrat Ihya-bMuaz said : To perform religious duties is God's secret treasure. That is to be safe from eating unlawful food. The limbs of man who eats lawful food become obedient to him and help him in doing good deeds. Hazrat Omar drank the milk of a camel throat of Zakat through mistake. It has been reported that one Hazrat Abu bakr drank a little milk given by his female slave and asked her about it. (1) The things which are naturally unlawful are wine. In another narration. invocation is its key and lawful food is its teeth . dead animals. our conditions become lasting. God records him as Siddiq. The man said to him : I fast throughout the year and recite the Quran 30 times every month. Many traditions have been mentioned in this chapter on earnings and I don't wish to repeat them here. The milk of deer was his drink. 0 needy man. CLASSES OF HALAL AND HARAM (1) Things which are naturally unlawful. Hazrat Fuzail said : He who takes care of what thing he admits in his belly. it is said that when the Prophet was informed of it. of what earned-83:14. He thrust his fingers into his throat and vomitted it. A certain religious man served food before an Abdal. Sahal Tastari said : The 64 The Book of Wordly Usages limbs of a man become disobedient who eats unlawful food willingly or unwillingly. God also will not care by which door of Hell He will throw him in Hell. That is the meaning of the following verse : Never. look with what thing you break fast. knowingly or unknowingly. rather rust has fallen upon their hearts on account. Then he said : 0 God. If we eat only three days what you eat. She said : I prophesied to a people who gave it to me for that. He said : He who likes that the signs of a Siddiq should be opened up for him should not eat except lawful things and should not follow except the ways of the Prophet. Hazrat Ayesha said : You are heedless of the best divine service. meat of pigs.who lays foundation by the side of Hell fire ? The Prophet said : The wealth which a man earns from unlawful things will not be accepted from him even if it is given in charity. So. (2) and earnings which are unlawful. the latter asked him about it and said : Who don't eat except lawful food for which our hearts remain firm. Hazrat Sahal Tastari said : The truth of faith does not reach a man who does not possess four qualities-(a) Performance of compulsory duties along with sunnat.

(a) One kind is what is taken without the knowledge of the owner. beasts and animals in land and water which are fit for eating. . The following animals are lawful according to this ruleworms in food-stuffs and fruits. is lawful. to take water from river. (5) What is taken simply with permission without exchange of things. etc. if sacrificed according to Shariat. Minerals are of different kinds. There are things which have got the effect of poison. as man does not become impure after death. such as properties by inheritance after deduction of necessary expense-sueh as funeral expenses. Regarding vegetables. expenses of pilgrimage. (4) What is taken in exchange of things with the consent of the owner is lawful. become lawful . The Prophet said Immerge a fly if it falls in food. etc. Animal. to gather fuels and woods from jungles. One drop of an impure thing renders food unlawful. such as minerals. (1) To become owner of the things of which there is no owner. and which. To take these things are lawful provided there is no owner of these things. What is not sacrificed according to the rules of Shariat and what is dead are unlawful. take life and ruin health. What is taken willingly or unwillingly are of two kinds. such as buy and sale transactions. They are lawful for all Muslims when one-fifth is taken out from the war booties and divided justly among those who are entitled to them. Birds. (a) First kind-Minerals. What grows out of earth is not unlawful four eating except what causes harm. The things which destroy life are poisons. to take grass. such as quadrupeds. It is not on account of impurity. waist. (b) Second kind-Vegetables. such as buy and sale. etc. (2) Second kind-unlawful things by earnings: There are two kind of earning. They are lawful. such as Zakat .etc. it does not become impure. It can only be taken by the ruling authorities.what is taken willingly or unwillingly and what comes to the owner spontaneously. They are of two kind-(1) what is eatable (2) and what is not eatable. and what is not taken in exchange. the whole food becomes unlawful. (b) what is taken from him by virtue of power of the ruling authorities. expenses of expiations of religious duties. becomes lawful except its blood and what is attached' to its impurities. Vol-II 66 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-1I (2) What is taken by force and what is not prohibited are the properties gained after battle and without actual battle. will. if sacrificed according to the rules of Shariat. Thus the things of earnings are of six kinds. Vol-II Halal and Haram 65 (c) Third kind-Animals. what produces intoxication in unlawful and what removes intellect is unlawful . What is not liking to a particular person is Makruh for eating. to make barren land fertile. etc. (a) minerals. such a gift. If a portion of flesh of a dead man falls in food. (2) and what is taken with his permission. (1) What is taken by force from him. such as salt. wages. (3) What can lawfully be taken by force inspite of prohibition of the owner.' If an ant falls in food. The things which ruin health are medicines used out of time. Another kind is what is taken from the owner himself. It is unlawful to take booty from those unbelievers with whom there is treaty. Out of dead animals. The things which destroy intellect are wine and intoxicants. two kinds are lawful-fish and locusts. death instructions by will or otherwise. but it is out of horror. What is taken by force is again of two kind-(a) what is taken from the maintenance and care of the owner. such as minerals underneath the ground. (2) vegetables and (3) animals. The things fit for eating in the world are of three kinds. The latter is of two kinds. (6) What comes spontaneously in possessions. such as gifts. What is taken with the permission of the owner is of two kinds--(a) What is taken from him in exchange. They are not unlawful for eating except those vegetable which remove intellect. They are unlawful as they are injurious things. such as Zakat and other economic liabilities. dower.

Hazrat Abu Darda'a said God-fear gains perfection at the time when a servant fears a very small thing. (1) First stage is lowest and it is forbearance of just and ordinary Muslims. because they fear that those things may not be for God.DIFFERENT STAGES OF HALAL AND HARAM Know. God-fearing men keep aloof from even such things as are lawful and free from doubt. as the unlawful things are clear and a religious man must keep himself distant from these unlawful things. They refrain from lawful things bounding on illegality. I wrote a letter thought that I should take a little earth from its wall and soak the ink of the letter and I did accordingly. When I slept. EXAMPLES OF THE ABOVE FOUR-STATES (1) No example is necessary in the case of the first stage. it is the forbearance of the God-fearing people. there is the forbearance of the pious from every doubtful things bordering on illegality. fearing men. (3) In the Third stage. It is not compulsory to give them up. 0 dear readers. This Hadis bears witness :A man cannot reach the stage of a God-fearing man till he gives up things free from doubt for fear of things of doubt. He wife began to measure it when Hazrat Omar said: I don't want that you should place your hands on it and say afterwards that something of it remained in your hands on account of touch. Don't eat what goes beyond sight being wounded and then it is presented dead in front. All lawful things are good and there are different stages of legality therein and one thing is better than another. I dreamt that a certain man was saying : 0 Ali-Ma'bad. but it is commendable. It is an order of the Prophet-Give up what raises doubt in your mind. Ali-Ma'bad said : I took a house on rent. but there are different stages of illegality of things of which one is worse than another. The Prophet said: Give up what raises doubt in your mind and take what does not raise doubt in you. Hazrat Omar said : We have given up nine portions of lawful things out of ten portions for fear of falling into unlawful things. he fell from the rank of Godfear.' Though it is not unlawful. you will know tomorrow on the Resurrection Day that the owner of the house will demand the little earth you used. The Prophet said : Eat the games of hunting on which there are marks of shooting and which die in presence. They are called Siddiq. The Prophet said : A man cannot reach the stage of God-fearing men till he gives up things free from doubt for fear of falling into things of doubt. For this. 68 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II (2) During the Caliphate of Hazrat Omar. This is the stage of forbearance of God. these may turn into Halal and as a result they have chance of falling into doubtful things. (3) Third stage. By this act. God-fearing men keep aloof even from things free from doubt. It is to save oneself from the unlawful things prescribed by Shariat. the umsk of Bahrain gained as result of battle reached him. (2) Second stage is the forbearance of the pious. he gives it up for fear of falling into unlawful things. these God-fearing men give up even lawful things free from doubt even if there is no fear of failling into doubtful things. This is the lowest stage of piety. A faqih will give its decision as lawful as it is a subject of doubt but the pious men keep away even from these doubtful things. Some examples are given below: (1) A certain religious man took loan of one hundred dirhams. This is the property of the Muslims in general and you can't get more than what you are entitled to from the property of the general Muslims. Vol-II Halal and Hazam' 67 (4) Fourth stage: In this stage. When he brought the dirhams for payment. There are four stages of legality of things. it is the forbearance of the pious men. If these are always practised. that every thing unlawful is bad. the creditor took only 99 dirhams. (2) In the second stage. . Even when he sees a lawful thing.

(10) The ancient sages said : The life religion of a man whose cloth is thin is also thin. some examples of their piety. fountain and vegetables. etc. Hazrat Omar smelt scent from her and said: You have taken the scent of the Muslim in general. He said : I don't know of such walk. but he did not eat it on the ground that the hand of an oppressor took it to him. (2) Hazrat Sufiyan Saori said : Once I got upon a hill and saw a. (1) Once the sage Ihya-b-Quran used a medicine. God-fear reaches its climax in the fourth stage of the Siddiq or greatly truthful man. SECTION 2 . i 70 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II These are some of the instances of God-fear of the early sages and pious men. At the time of sale.(3) Once musk was measured before Caliph Abdul Aziz. I am counting my breaths for the last thirty years. (9) There is no benefit to white-wash the walls of a building. The Prophet did not hold it lawful. He kept his nose shut up lest its smell entered his nose. To them. They live for God and they think that what is done except for God is unlawful. he had only one wife whom he loved very much. An unseen voice said : Wherefrom has the strength which has taken you to this stage come ? Then I became repentant and begged forgiveness. Hazrat Abu Bakr vomitted the milk he drank for fear that the strength of unlawful thing would increase therefor. he put out the light and said : The right of inheritance has occurred in the oil. The following arc. sexual passion rises high and it leads to unlawful cohabitation. Imam Ahmad held it as Makuh or a abominable. His wife said to him : Walk for a while within the house. She sold it to another seller. He then became hungry. The Prophet said Throw it off. (4) Fourth stage is the forbearance of the Siddiqs. When the Vol-II Halal and Harara 69 Prophet once was asked about painting in the mosque. Arish is a pearl-like antimony with which a-thing is painted. This he did to become a truly God-fearing man though it is not unlawful. Similarly to look at the beautiful buildings and the pomp and grandeurs of the rich may tempt one to follow them. He did not consider it connected with religion. (6) Hazrat Omar gave to his wife some musk for sale. (4) The sage Bashar Hafi did not-drink water of a canal dug by a tyrant ruler although this was lawful. things free from doubt were even given up for fear of falling into doubtful things. excessive use of scent. He put it off on the ground that the fuel was unlawfully earned. Soon after his death. one is led to unlawful things. (5) Once a man went to see his friend at night. For this reason. however. such as too much eating. (3) The sage Zunnun Misri was once imprisoned and began to pass time without food. Then I thought that I would eat a lawful thing to-day . They follow this verse : Say God and then leave them sporting in their useless talks. He. He said: There is no Arish like the Arish of Moses. (8) When Hazrat Omar became Caliph. (5) Once a servant of a sage took some fuel from the fuel of a transgressor. those things are lawful in which there is no transgression and which do not help the commission of sin. This is the rank of those who follow Tauhid. The object of their every action is to please God and they have God-fear in all their deeds. I wished to eat something of the vegetables and drink water. If too much food is eaten. Throw it off. For this reason. (7) Imam Ahmad-b-Hambal said : To smell sent of a tyrant ruler destroys the piety of a man. (4) Once the Prophet's grandson Hasan put into his mouth one dried-grape out of the grapes of Zakat. she began to break one piece by her teeth for which something was attached to her fingers. Being habituated to many lawful things. divorced her for fear the she might intercede to him for an unlawful thing and perchance he might accept her intercession. so that the medicine may work. A woman sent some food to him through the hand of one of the men of the prison. He said What benefit has it got except its scent ? This benefit only is sought from it.

One can marry any woman of the town if the foster sisters cannot be identified. as there is no'sign therein that the meat of a dead goat has been mixed. one doubts whether the legality of that thing still remains. it is not unlawful to accept coins of that town. The people take it and store it in their lands. The thing is basically lawful but owing to peculiar circumstances. It might be that it died owing to other reasons. (2) The second hind is the mixture of limited number of unlawful things with unlimited number of lawful things. he used to enquire if doubt arose in his mind. For instance. In such a case. This doubt should have reason and not only mere conjecture. there are doubtful things which change the condition of Halal and Haram. For instance. To eat its meat is unlawful. Doubt arises out of two conflicting beliefs which come into clash with each other. your dog Vol-II Halal and Haram 71 perchance has not killed it. These are fixed. for instance two foster sisters mix with the women of a town. For instance. stool or that thing which is earned by unlawful method. (2) Second place of doubt-mixture of Halal and Haram: Halal and Haram become mixed and are not kept separate and therefore doubt arises whether it is lawful or unlawful . (1) One unlawful thing is mixed up with limited number of lawful things. Most of the people do not know them. but to give up a doubtful thing is a sign of piety. an hunted animal falls into water and it is lifted up as dead from water. (3) The third kind is the mixture of unlimited number of lawful things with an unlimited number of unlawful things. Doubt in these things are to be given up.DIFFERENT STAGES OF DOUBTFUL THINGS The Prophet said: Lawful things are clear and unlawful things are also clear and between them there are the doubtful things. there arises doubt in his mind whether it is lawful or unlawful for him. for instance the meat of a dead goat is mixed up with the meat of some sacrificed goats. What is troublesome and unknown to the majority of the people are the doubtful things which should be discussed. An unlawful thing is that which is naturally unlawful for its own defect. but it becomes unlawful at last owing to the decision of Shariat. Before it goes into the possession of there. For instance. A lawful thing become unlawful when it goes into possession of another for which doubt arises in most cases. The Prophet said to Ad: Don't eat it. etc. yet one doubts that it may be unlawful. If there is reasonable doubt that the meat of a dead goat has been mixed. There are three kinds of this mixture of lawful and unlawful things. So to drink water from it becomes unlawful. There is no place of doubt in it. He who saves himself from doubtful things purifies his honour and religion. The soldiers of Yezid looted the properties . such as the earnings by oppression. DOUBT ARISES OUT OF FOUR PLACES (1) First place is doubt in the course of Halal and Haram: It has got four classes-(1) A man knows a thing to be'unlawful before but doubt arises in the matter of its being lawful. A lawful thing is what is naturally free from unlawful things. such as intoxicant. or if there is prevalence of interest in a certain town. a pot is lawful but doubt arises whether there is any impurity in it. If a man gets a fish and thinks that it has come from the possession of another. (2) Though a thing is lawful. otherwise not. In between these Halal and Haram or lawful and unlawful things. open and clear. A God-fearing man should leave them on doubt : (3) A thing is basically unlawful but a cause prevails upon it so strongly that it becomes lawful. Thus doubt arises weather its meat is law Tu1 A-God--fearing man refrains fiunredGng its meat TFhe Prophet said : Eat it although it disappear from you till you find the si gn of your arrow on its body (4) A thing is knowinglt lawful. It becomes a subject matter of doubt and becomes strong of its being legal. Afterwards it was found with signs of only shooting in its body. if the unlawful things can be identified. wine. He who falls in doubtful things may fall in unlawful things like the shepherd who has got chance of falling into reserved grazing ground he grazes his flock of sheep round it. till he knew whether it was present or Zakat. it will be unlawful. two men quarrelled with each other. such as the water of sky. one man said to another : Your are a hater. it will be unlawful to enjoy them. It is compulsory to give up this doubt and to take it as unlawful. Whenever anything was brought to the Prophet. interest. an animal after being shot disappeared.

It is not unlikely that the narrator might have committed mistake in narrating it or he might have committed mistake in hearing it. all should accept it. (c) and constradictory doubts. It is better not to come to a decision relying on only a single Hadis on a particular subject if there are differences of opinion . This doubt is of three kinds-U) contradictory proofs of Shariat. for instance. just as it is better to go to a physician who is well-known in a locality for his knowledge of medical science. such as wine. whether he utters 'Bismillah' of not. The Prophet is reported to have said : A believer sacrifices in the name of God. but the companions are unanimous in holding that . So the former tradition shall have to be given up. the verses of the Quran or the sayings of the Prophet contradict each other. The most detestable is to eat the meat of a goat which has eaten then the grass taken illegally. for instance.Second stage: It is near baseless conjecture. So the former conjecture is to be given up. The less detestable than the former is not to use water of a canal dug by a tyrant. middle and lowest. There are three stages with regard to this matter. (b) contradictory signs. Still less detestable is to restrain oneself from lawful thing that has come through the hand of a tyrant. (3) Third place of doubt: Any sin found in any cause making a thing lawful relates to the thing itself. middle and lowest. but yet the companions did not prohibit the people from buy and sale of the goods of the Medina market which consisted also the looted goods. Sin relating to the beginning of a thing relates to three stages-highest.to otter -of sacrifices is compulsory. cutting wood by a stolen axe. to sell instruments to dacoits. to give instruments to a dacoits in lieu of price. it reverts to its original proof. It is better to accept the opinion of a Mufti who is well-known in a locality for learning and piety. what is strong prevails and if any proof does not become strong. to give up eating the young one of an animal found in its womb after lawful sacrifice. selling over the sale of another. This creates doubt in mind. to sell grapes to those who prepare wine. There is difference of opinion among the jurists whether these are lawful or unlawful.of aching-is---all. But there is no reason to oppose the tradition without a cause. Third stage: A thing is authenticated as legal by only one tradition. buy and sale after Azan for Jumma prayer. it becomes lawful. The least detestable is to accept the price of a n unlawful thing. There is no mention of a grandson becoming an heir to his grand father in the Quran.72 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II of Medina for three days. In this case. This is contradictory to a clear verse of the Quran and some traditions in which-it-is-said-that. prayer can be said on them. If illegality of a thing is not strong. If there is impurity on the pathways. The companions sometimes prayed with their sandals and shoes. (4) Fourth place of doubt: This arises out of diversity of proofs of Shariat in order to distinguish between a lawful thing and unlawful thing. The less detestable is to givegrapes to a drunkard. There is in authentic Hadis that the sacrifice of mother should be considered as also the sacrifice of its young one in its womb. If any proof of legality of a thing is not strong. Sin relating to a thing itself is. it is better for piety to give it up and it is the subject matter Vol-II Halal and Harara 73 of dispute between jurists and theologians. as the earths of pathways are pure. if there is doubt. he should better give it up. or to its end. . or to its beginning or to another thing in exchange of the thing. but it is not such a sin which nullifies an agreement or any cause which makes a thing lawful. extravagant expenses which show the path towards sin. The most detestable is to purchase a thing on credit and to pay its price by unlawfully acquired money. If the theologians are unanimous with regard to a certain question. Sin relating to a thing of exchange has got also different stages-highest. For instance. First stage: It is better to give up a matter which has got a weak proof in favour of a matter which has got a strong proof. With regard to the first. These are not unlawful things-Sin-relating to the -end.

as some conjectures are sins. that whatever comes to you as food or present or whatever thing you wish to buy or to make gift. The Prophet said : Give up what raises doubt in your mind for what does not raise doubt. Once a tailor invited him and he accepted it. and if there is greater proof towards legality. For instance. or he is a well known dacoits. So doubt arises whether such persons are really poor fit for acceptance of the money. his dresses. it is prohibited. (b) The second state comes when there is doubt about the owner. In this case if one possesses only necessary things. 0 dear readers. Some conjecture is sin. you should not raise questions in all cases or say this : I shall not accept it as lawful till enquire about it. (2) Second kind: If the is greater proof towards illegality. In such a case. For this reason. as it gives pain to the mind of a Muslim. it is written in the Zabur that God revealed to David : Tell the children of Israil : I do not look to your prayers and fasts. tyrant or his actions are opposed to the fundamental principles of Shariat. Hazrat Abu Bakr enquired about the earnings of a slave when a strong doubt arose in his mind. Once the Prophet ate the food of Barirah. In some case. It is lawful to accept the thing. He was informed that it was Zakat property. therefore.. his actions etc. in cases of questions and enquiries. It occurs when there is doubt about the owner owing to the causes of proof. Eusul-b-Asbat said : I used to give up doubt whenever it arose in my mind for the last 30 years. There is also no limit to necessity. thief. I look to the person who gives up a thing when doubt arises in his mind for My sake. The place of doubt has got connection either (1) Connection with the owner of a things: It has got three states. One sort of doubt arises from the fact of possession of a thing which indicates ownership of the thing. a man is to distribute some money among the poor. When difficulty arises in these matters. it is present. It is commendable . the Prophet said : Give up what raises doubt in your mind and take to what is free from doubt. he accepted it. it is unlawful to enjoy them. The Prophet used to accept any invitation without enquiry. it should be considered'as unlawful . (a) First state: When you enter an unknown town or place. So baseless doubt should be given up. it is better to give it up. Wherefrom his this thing been procured. For this reason. it is compulsory to enquire. in some cases praise-worthy in some cases not commendable.a grandson becomes an heir to his grandfather in absence of his father. (2) Second State. don't give up enquiry in some matters. The second sort of doubt arises strongly from the sign of a thing that it may not be lawful. The causes of proof that a thing is unlawful are the character of the owner. (c) The third state is to know the condition of the owner by some sort of proof. I help him with My help and take glory for him beforeMy angles. The rule is that if any of them gives you food or drink. The Prophet said : It was Zakat property for her but for us. In such cases. The Prophet instructed us to take decision according to our conscience in case of doubtful things. you should enjoy it without doubt and you should not entertain evil conjecture about him. it should be considered as lawful. Once a Parsee invited the Prophet to which he asked him : I and Ayesha ? The Parsee said : You and not Ayesha. Don't spy and let not some of you backbite others. SECTION 3 ARGUMENTS AND QUESTIONS Know. It is not good to ask. one should take decision according to his conscience as it does not dictate without truth. The Prophet also said : Doubt of . he can accept the charity but if he possesses more than what is necessary for him. There are poor persons who have got something but they are not rich. On the other hand. you meet with strangers and unknown persons and donot know their character and conduct and so you entertain doubt about them. So there is place of doubt. The Prophet did not accept the invitation but when he invited both. God says : Give up most conjectures. This is a very subtle question. If there is sufficient cause of doubt. in some cases unlawful .. two sorts of doubt arise in mind. 74 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II (3) Third kind: Proof is equal towards legality and illegality and doubt is also equal in both the cases. (a) The first state comes when the owner is unknown. from such possessor.

Hazrat Ibn Masud was once bad man ? Yes he replied. It is lawful to keep doubtful thing but to give it up is better and piety. (b) mixture of unlawful thing with a different kind of thing. It is compulsory to return the unlawful things to the rightful owner and in his absence to his heirs. the mutton informed him that it was unlawful. it is not lawful to take them. money oily things etc. Vol-II Halal and Haram 77 (b) The mode of spending unlawful things taken out of lawful things. The Prophet also enquired in case of doubt whether a thing is zakat or present. It is also compulsory to return the income and profits arising out of these properties to them. If for instance. Give it in charity. (2) Second place of doubt in connection with things: In this place. it becames compulsory to give up the meat. such s dresses. He was once asked by another : Shall I accept the invitation of a man who takes interest ? Yes he replied. it in unlawful to enquire about such a thing in his possession. it should be separated . of the thing is unlawful . The Prophet said : Don't give your food to be eaten except by the pious and don't eat food except of the pious. When cooked mutton was presented to the Prophet. quantity is either known or unknown. In the market Vol-II Halal and Haram 75 76 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II where the looted properties and properties gained by theft and dacoity are mixed with lawful properties. If the meat of a sacrificed animals is mixed with the meat of ten unsacrificed animals. it is disclosed that most of the properties of the market are unlawful . If the owner or his heirs are unknown. otherwise not. The repentance of a man is not accepted till the total income of a property taken by oppression is returned to the rightful owner. Then he gifted away her price to . the enquiry becomes compulsory. his thing can be considered as lawful even though it may be otherwise. With regard to the first means. Hazrat Ali said : Take what a ruler gives you as he generally gives from lawful things. A buyer should not enquire about the legality or otherwise of the properties of the market. it has got two conditions-(a) mixture of lawful and unlawful things of the same kind. Hazrat Ibn Masud said : You are the inhabitants of such a town where there are the Magians also. Once the property of gambling was brought by Abu Bakr to the Prophet who said : It is unlawful. He had only one wearing cloth and he had no other cloth even for his bath. In this case. there are traditions of the Prophet. Once Hazrat Abu Hurairah produced before the Caliph Omar abundant wealth of the state to which he enquired : Are these properties lawful ? In a similar way Hazrat Ali said : There is nothing dearer to God than the justice and kindness of a leader and nothing more hateable than injustice and oppression of a leader. Hazrat Omar enquired about milk and Hazrat Abu Bakr about the earnings of a slave in case of doubt. In such cases. for instance crops. if a man is honest pious and trustworthy. he should adopt two means (1) To separate the unlawful things from the lawful things and (2) to know the modes of spending the lawful things. they maybe given in charity to the poor. To eat food of the pious was the rule of Prophet and friends of God. Hazrat Ibn Masud purchased a . houses etc. The companions used to do it. If however. Question may arise-how can an unlawful thing be given in charity when he has got no right tot do it ? In support of this. The Prophet then ordered it to be given in charity saying : Give it to the war prisoners for eating. Hazrat Ali did not accept anything from the state treasury. half. They did not enquire except in doubtful cases. So look to the meats of sacrificed animals and the hides of dead animals : If most of the properties are unlawful. lawful and unlawful things become mixed. SECTION 4 KNOWLEDGE OF LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL THINGS If any man has got in his possession unlawful things mixed with lawful things. (3) Third state: Experience or news give indication of a thing being lawful or unlawful.slave-girl but he could not find her master inspite of continued search.mind is a sin.

it is to be spent for the good of the Muslims. If the receiver of unlawful property is himself poor. Anas-b-Malek and others. In support. The Prophet said : A cultivator or a planter of trees will get rewards for the crops and fruits which the people and birds and beasts eat. wealth out of merchandise or specially fixed revenue. reclaimed land. The saying-what we love for ourselves. hairless property .the poor on behalf of the master. and the owner is not traceable. When Imam Hasan came to Caliph Muwayiah. In the lands reclaimed by the ruler. purchased property. The taxes imposed upon the Muslims. SECTION 5 ALLOWANCES AND GIFTS OF RULERS AND KINGS A man is required to look to three things. Zaid-b-Sabet. The Quran also allowed eating of unlawful foods like wine in case of extreme necessity to save life. Hares and Mohasabi supported this view. fines. Some of them received from Caliphs Merwan and Yezied-b-Abdul Malek. (2) Right of acquisition: Some learned men say that if it is not established that there is any illegality in a property. either such an unlawful property shall be destroyed or spent for the good of the people. Hazrat Ali said: Whatever a ruler gives you he gives out of lawful things. Waqf property is to be spent for the purposes as fixed by the Waq f or doner. gift or rewards to any man. If a ruler gives any Jaigir. fines etc. In the case of charity of unlawful things. There were many among the companions who lived up to the time of the tyrant rulers and used to accept properties from them. he can legally use it up to the limit of necessity for himself and for his family members. are all unlawful for a ruler except in case of the profits arising out of his personal business with others. Besides these. in accepting the allowances and gifts from the rulers and kings-(1) the source of wealth. (2) the right of acquring it.1. he has got freedom to spend it in any way he likes. Abu Ayyub Ansari. he gives them generally out of eight kinds of properties. Such men were the rightly Vol-II Halal and Haram 79 guided Caliphs. it is unlawful for our enjoyment. Such were Abu Hurairah. With regard to poll-tax on the unbelievers. some from the tyrant governor Hajjaj. booties gained in war and without war against the unbelievers. With regard to the heirless property. we should love for others is true. Ahmad . they cite the following instances. and (3) the quantity of lawful and unlawful things there in. Waqf. The taxes specially imposed upon a person are unlawful for a ruler. He himself did not accept it out of a greater sense of piety. properties that have got no heirs and waqf properties which have got no mutawallis or managers. Imran.poll-tax.. This does not show that it is illegal. it may be accepted. we seek salvation only for ourselves. .. the booties. taxes and other sources of income to the state. . dresses horses and other things purchased by the ruler.III I1I 78 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II (1) The source of wealth of the rulers: The ruler has got right along with his subjects in reclaimed lands. The supporters of the above opinion say that some of the sages did not accept them out of greater sense of piety. Similar is his freedom in case of landed properties. Jarir-b-Abdullah. Where the owner is not found. Imam Shafeyi received once from Caliph Harun Rashid one thousand dinars. Abu Zarr and other sages who renunciated the world. The latter method is better. The rule that except the lawful things nothing can be given in charity applies to the case where we seek rewards for charity. revenue realised from the Muslims. four-fifth will be spent for the good of the people and one-fifth only for special purpose. These sages used to accept the properties of tyrant rulers. the latter gave him four lac dirhams which he accepted. but in case of charity of unlawful things. FOUR STAGES OF PIETY: There are four stages of piety in relation to the acceptance of properties from rulers. Abu Sayeed Khodri. all other properties are unlawful for him such as revenues. Imam Malek also received them from different Caliphs. but lawful for the poor.

On being questioned. his young daughter concealed a dirham therefrom. This is supported by the companions. The allowance which Hazrat Abu Bakr received from the state Treasury as a ruler amounted to six thousand dirhams after accounting. He afterwards deposited it in the Treasury. So the learned men of the religions as well as soldiers of the state are entitled to receive wealth from the State Treasury. Once when Hazrat Omar was counting the wealth of the State Treasury. even though the ruler is a tyrant. nor can be given in charity. I enjoy from it in a just manner.eat and drink. he said : I don't wish to fill up my belly except t with pure things. In our times. The properties fixed for the Muslims in general must be spent for them only and it will be illegal to spend them for others. Accept from the rulers such properties as are mostly lawful. the properties of the rulers have been established to be illegal and therefore can not be accepted. Hazrat Muwayiah gave Hasan . heirless properties. The latter took it from her and deposited it in the Treasury. For this reason. Whatever Ibn Omar got from the rulers was distributed by him among the poor. After this. It is related of Hazrat Ali that he had some wheat in a sealed cup out of which he used to. The religion and the state are interconnected. as Islamic State Treasury consisted of only Zakat and the properties gained by war and without war but now nothing of these items is found in the present State Treasuries. Imam Shafeyi accepted gifts from Caliph Harun 80 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Rashid and distributed them among his relatives without keeping anything for him. The wealth of Baitul Mal is for good of the people. there are definite persons prescribed by the Quran to receive Zakat. When he found it on engtiiry hedepositediti BaituarMatHazratAbuMusaAsh'ari found dirham at the time of sweeping the house of the Treasury and gave it to the young daughter of Hazrat Omar . Second stage: Take from the ruler when you know that his wealth is legal. The learned men of the religion are the guards of the religion and the soldiers are the guards of the State. the rightly guided Caliphs and a party of extremely pious men did not accept anything from the state Treasure and rulers. SECOND MATTER The receivers of gifts should be qualified to receive them according to Shariat. many persons used to accept gifts from the rulers. He will not suffer if anything unlawful in it is disclosed afterwards. These are the four stages of piety. because he is a Muslim and he increases the number of Islamic Brotherhood. The companion Ibn Omar said about the tyrant ruler Hajjaj : I have not eaten to my satisfaction since he captured the seat of Khilafat till to-day . If I am solvent. one cannot be separated from the other. The good is connected with the religion and with the State. The rightly guided Caliphs used to give allowances to the Refugees and Ansars from the State Treasury and did not see their wants. The rulers ofpast ages' used to make gifts to the learned and the sages who attracted their minds in their favour while the present rulers make gifts to the people who can make flattery to them by falsehoods. For instance.First stage: In this stage of highest piety. one fifth of properties gained without war. a poor man came to him and he gave him some dirhams after taking loan from a man. I refrain from taking anything from it. Fourth stage : In this stage. Besides' there is difference of the people who received gifts from the rulers of past ages and the people who receive gifts-now from the present rulers. Hazrat Ayesha also used to do like that. Hazrat Omar said in connection with the wealth of State Exchequer : I see myself in connection with this wealth as a care taker of an orphan's property. Hazrat Omar said : Every Muslim has got right to get money from Baitul Mal. Third stage: You can accept the gifts from a ruler and give them in charity to the poor or divide them among those who are entitled to them. war spoils. One day he distributed sixty thousand dirhams among the poor. It rested on the wishes of the rulers regarding the amount. most of the properties of the rulers are unlawful. The officers of the state come under the category of the guardians of the state and so they have got right in it. If I am in want.

He was questioned : What are those places ? He said: The Darbars of the rulers. Hazrat Obadah-b-Swamet said : if a pious learned man loves the rulers. he said : I will not take allegiance to them till night and day turn as the Prophet prohibited allegiance to two persons. The learned man who frequent the rulers is an object of hatred near God. Hazrat Abu Bakr used to distribute equally. it is illegal. HADIS : The Prophet mentioned about the tyrant rulers and said : He who keeps away from them will get salvation. Hazrat Omar fixed twelve thousand dirhams yearly for particular persons including Ayesha. If he bends his head to a tyrant ruler. Hazrat Osman five gardens. as by his actions. Hazrat Omar amended it and used to give more or less as he wished. he commits sin. Hazrat Ali a Jaigir. as the harms of religion will be greater than the benefits you get from them. they commit treachery with the Prophet. (2) the manner to be observed. He said. God him. He dismissed him on this ground. Zainab ten thousand. The Prophet said : So long as the learned men do not mix with the rulers. He said : When a man honours transgressor. The learned men who frequent the rulers will live in it. The sage Sayeed-b-Musayyeb was asked by Caliph Abdul Malek to swear allegiance to his two sons-Walid and Solaiman. he commit sin by his silence as it is his duty then to protest against such illegal actions. the distant he becomes from God. He who frequents them faces sin. The Prophet said : There will be false and oppressive rulers after me. He will not be able to take drink from my Fountain. 82 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Wise sayings : The sage Huzaifa said : Be careful of ruinous places. Hazrat Abu Zarr said to Salma : Don't frequent the darbars of the rulers. when they mix with them. If he invokes God for the long life of a tyrannt.. He who keeps separate from them will be safe or near safety. He used to give to Ayesha 12 thousand dirhams. If one praises him and supports his illegal actions. it appears that many dangers and difficulties arise out of mixing with the rulers and frequenting their darbars. God hates him. he commits hypocrisy and if he loves the rich he commits show. Three conditions arise in frequenting the rulers-(1) evil effects of frequenting them. A great deal of warnings to this effect was given by the sages and learned men of the religion. All the companions agreed to the distribution of these two Caliphs as they believed in their sense of justice and honesty of purpose. (3) and to keep aloof from them. When a man honours a transgressor. Zuairiyah six thousand. he helps the destruction of Islam. it will be discussed when frequenting to rulers is lawful and when unlawful. Hazrat Sufiyan said There is a valley in Hell. he commits disobedience to God. they become guardians of trust of the Prophet for the servants of God . Hajjaj. He said : The rulers who frequent the learned are good and the learned men who frequent the rulers are bad. ten thousand dirhams for some persons and six thousand dirhams for some persons. As a result. words and invocations. silence. he was flogged and made to wear dress of . He who supports their falsehood as true and helps their tyranny does not belong to my followers and I am also not of him. If he sees actions in the Darbar of the ruler which are unlawful. Even there remained nothing after distribution in Baitual Mal. The Prophet said . The sage Fuzail said : The nearer a man goes to the rulers. or kisses his hand and does actions like that he commits sin. From the above tradition and wise saying. So be careful of them and keep away from them. Hazrat Omar-b-Abdul Aziz appointed an officer. He who falls with them in their worldly passions will belong to them.Vol-II Halal and Haram 81 one day four Lac dirhams. (i) First conditions : It is not commendable to frequent the rulers and administrators according to Shariat. The Prophet said : When any man praises a transgressor. SECTION 6 FREQUENTING THE-DARBAR-OF-RULERS In this section. He was then informed that the was an officer of tyrant. The Prophet : He who prays for long life of a tyrant loves sins.

After interview. (2) Second condition: Salute a tyrant ruler and stand up in his honour as in the contrary case. Then Taus went away from him. Regarding my sitting by your side. Regarding my addressing you by your name. Soliman asked : Where is the mercy of God ? He said : Near the pious. look to one who keeps himself seated with the people standing around him. he was not killed. If anybody remembers their rewards and presents. Everything fears a man who seeks God's pleasure by his learning. give him sound advice and inform him of the injunctions and prohibitions of Shariat. The Caliph then burst into tears and said : What will be my condition ? Abu Hazem said 'Look to this verse : The pious will be in bliss and the transgressors in Hell. What is the Vol-II Halal and Haram 83 reason ? Hammad said : The cause is this tradition of the Prophet. (4) you have taken your seat by me without my permission. Hazrat Suhan said: I went once to Caliph Mansure. Once Caliph Muhammad-bSolaiman went to the sage Hammad-b-Salam who had then before him a mat for sitting. Regarding addressing you as Commander of the Faithful. he said : 0 Abu Hazem. he was about to kill him but as he was in the sanctuary. disturbance may occur among the subjects. one copy of the Quran. I said to the Caliph : You have reached to this honour by the help of Muhajirs and Ansars but their descendants are dying of 84 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II starvation at present. He said : There is the difference of only one day between me and the rulers . So fear God and give them what they are entitled to. how are you ? At this conduct of the sage. When he came to him. Only to-day remains. the people are not satisfied with your rule and I don't wish to tell lies. The Caliph asked Taus : Why have you treated me like this ? (1) you have placed your shoes by my carpet. He then sat by the side of the Caliph and asked him : 0 Hesham. I heard Hazrat Ali say If you wish to see anyone of the inmates of Hell. Once Caliph Solaiman came to Medina and called the sage Abu Hazem. He said The people will not get salvation from the severe chastisement of the Resurrection Day. He said : 0 Hisham. The Caliph said Whenever I see you my mind is filled up with fear. peace be on you. The Caliph then placed before him forty thousand dirhams as a gift which he refused to accept. Abdul Malek wept and said : I will keep this advice before my eyes until my death. I heard Hazrat Ali say : Let nobody kiss the hand of anyone except his kissing his wife's hand out of passion and his kissing of his parents hand out of reverence. God even addressed His dear friends and Prophets by their names. (5) you have asked me by my name How are you ? The sage Taus replied : Regarding the placing of my shoes by your carpet. (3) you have not addressed me '0 Commander of the Faithful. The Caliph said. He asked : Who among the believers is the wisest ? He . He does not punish me for it. Regarding the kissing of your hand. en a enter t e sanctuary of the Ka'bahe called for the sage Taus Yemeni. The sage Ibn Abi Shamilah went once to the Darbar of Caliph Abdul Malek who said to him : Give me some instruction. When he came to him. (3) Third condition. I put off my shoes daily five times when I go to my Lord for prayer. he took off his shoes and kept them by the side of the royal carpet. he should recall to his mind the sayings of the sage Hatem Asem. What is possible to occur by to-day? Once Caliph Hesham-b-Abdul Malek went to Mecca for pilgrimage. the pious men will return to the families in happiness like one absent. (2) you have not kissed my hand. why is death so disliking to me ? He said : It is because you have destroyed your hereafter and adorned your world with numerous adornments. and the sinners like afugitive slave to his master. How shall we approach God ? He said : 0 Commander of the Faithful.disgrace. The learned men should not frequent the darbars of the rulers. one bag for keeping books and a pot for ablution. They did not get the joys of yesterday and they and myself have got the fear of tomorrow. Only those will get salvation who incur the pleasure of God causing displeasure to their baser selves. The king asked : Who among God's servants is the most honourable ? He said : The pious and the God-fearing.

he said : 0 Commander of the Faithful. The Prophet said : God cursed the children of Israil as they lived with the transgrerssors. If present is given to a man knowing that he is a poor man but in fact he is not poor. and if any present is given to him. Solaiman said : 0 desert Arab. He asked God : What sin have the good people committed ? God said : They do not become displeased with actions of My displeasure. Once Hazrat Abu Bakr said to Hazrat Muwayiah : 0 Muwayiah. he said . He said . There is such as searcher behind you from whom you can never save yourself. You will be asked for what they do you will not do good to your world by selling your hereafter. You have not given security to the people about the matters from which God has given you Vol-II Halal and Haram 85 security. those who are witnesses to it. 0 Commander of the Faithful that is true. fear God and know that the day which goes. Sunfiyan Sori said : Don't mix with the rulers and don't mix with those who mix with the rulers. You have got a fixed limit which you cannot cross. he is not when they will consider an unlawful present as lawful and will kill innocent people as . beware. The Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz said once to Abu Hazem Give me advice. On being assured of his safety. it will be considered as bride as it is given for a special purpose. They are in dire wants and needs.said : The believer who obeys the religion of God and calls the people towards it. the searcher will arrest you : The properties we are in will all pass away and what we proceed to still remains. such as judge. They eat and drink with the unbelievers. Zakat collector. you will then give up what you do not like. When any such officer is transferred. It has been narrated that God revealed to the Prophet Uusha : I will destroy forty thousands of the good people and sixty thousands of other people from among your followers. the latter's acceptance of the present is unlawful. magistrate. those who give interest. Take to what is good and give up what is bad. What he said is true. You are in good terms with the world after forgetting the next world. The owners of pens. He said: Place death near your head when you go to bed and then look to what you love . tax collector and others.theists by mixing with them. as the Prophet cursed ten persons in connection with wine. but it is for you and not against you. the sharpness of your tongue is more than that of your sword. God says : Don't be inclined towards the oppressors. there are some men among your special friends who have adopted dishonest ways and purchased the world in lieu of their next world and look to your pleasure by incurring the displeasure of their Lord. So is the case in all similar matters. They fear you in the matters of God and they do not fear God in your matters. The sooner you reach the limit. God said : When the angels will take the lives of those who have oppressed themselvesthis verse was revealed in connection with those Muslims who increased the numbers of poly. you will then beget love for one another : Any present is lawful provided nothing is expected in return. This proves that to love for God and hate for God is compulsory . those who write it are all cursed by the tongue of the Prophet. If any person has got any administrative and official power. out from you and the night which comes take you away from this world and near the hereafter. revenue collector. The Prophet said: This community will not cease to be in the help and protection of God so long a$ the learned in the Quarn are not attracted towards the rulers. the owners of ink and the owners of papers are cosharers. In other words: Don't remain satisfied with their actions. as he is fool who sells his hereafter for his world. Hazrat Ibn Masud said : Those who devour interest. 86 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II SECTION 7 SOME LEGAL DECISIONS The Prophet said : Give present to one another. Once a desert Arab came to the Caliph Soliman who said to him: Give me some advice.

Hazrat Omar took the profits of the loans from them and deposited them in the' Treasury saying. The Prophet said : I have been sent to perfect good conduct. In other words. These loans have been given to you as you are the sons of the Caliph. it was said to him that the Prophet used to accept present. the queen sent him a valuable necklace decorated with jewels. he will come to God with the thing he accepts. SECTION 1 MERITS OF FRIENDSHIP AND BROTHERHOOD Know. The Prophet said : One who is the best of you in good conduct is 88 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-I1 nearest to me. Hazrat Omar took it from her and deposited it is the State Treasury after giving the price of the casket to her. relatives. He said : By His grace. Tell me with truth. you cannot create love in their minds.' Two sons of Hazrat Omar accepted some loans from the State Treasury. By one in whose hand there is my life. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah. Hell-fire will not be able to burn one whose character and constitution are beautiful. Beware. Hazrat Osamah-b-Sharik reported : We asked : 0 Messenger of God. Abu Hurairah asked : 0 Messenger of God. Some traditions have come in praise of friendship. When he collected Zakat and returned it to the Prophet he kept something which was given to him as present. have I communicated Thy message? CHAPTER V LOVE AND BROTHERHOOD Love for one another and friendship and brotherhood for one another is the best way for nearness to God. When the tie of friendship is love God. The Prophet then said to him. you have been united in brotherhood. Then he raised his hands so high that the whiteness of his armpit was visible and he said 0 God. He said : God has not made the conduct constitution of people such that fire will burn them. 0 dear readers. Attributes which will take the majority of people to Paradise are God-fear and good conduct.being lawful in the form of carefulness. The Prophet praised brotherhood among the Muslims and said : God gives a friend to one . but God has placed love in their hearts-3:102. We shall describe in this chapter (1) love and friendship for God and its conditions and rules. give charity to one who deprives you. so that the general public become cautious. God says after showing kindness over the entire creation : If you spend everything what is in the earth. what is good conduct ? He said : Keep the tie of relationship with one who cuts it off. He said :. you should take to good conduct. He also said : What will be heaviest in the Balance will be good conduct. The result of good conduct is praise worthy. In return. He condemned separation and disunity by saying: Hold fast to the rope of God unitedly and be not separate-3:102. The Prophet said : A believer loves and is loved. forgive one who oppresses you. The merits of good conduct in religion are not secret. Let nobody come on the Resurrection Day bearing a high sound-making soundmaking camel on his back. neighbours and rulers. The wife of Hazrat Abu Obaidah sent a casket of otto as present for the queen of Byzantium. The Prophet sent a man to collect Zakat from the tribe of Azad. God praised His Prophet : You are certainly upon a sublime character-68:4. When the Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz returned back his present. envy and enmity. its merits are high as seen from the Quran and traditions. but it is a bribe to us. that friendship is the result of good love for one another and bad conduct is the root of hatred. He said : It was present for the Prophet. what good attribute has been given to man ? He said : Good conduct. There is no good in one who does not love and is not loved. let nobody take from you except what is due to him. whether it would have been given to you if you kept seated in your parents house. or a bellowing cow or a sound-making goat. (2) duties of companionship and its rules and (3) duties to the Muslims.

My help becomes sure for those who help one another for Me. You have got honour near Me for having renunciated the world to come to Me. Have you done enmity for Me or have you made friendship for Me ? The Prophet said : 0 God. God revealed to Jesus Christ: If you do alone the divine services of the inmates of the heaven and earth but do not love for Me and hate for Me. but they will not be afraid. whose words increase your actions and who arouse eagerness in your mind for the actions of the next world when you see them. (6) a man who does not respond to the evil temptation of a beautiful woman coming from a respectable family and says : I fear God. meet each other for Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 89 God and keep company with each other for God (5) one who remembers God in loneliness and as result his eyes shed tears. He said : They love one another for God. God sent secretly an angel to him who asked him : What do you intend? He said: I intend to meet my brother. The Prophet said: God will say on the Resurrection Day Where are those who loved one another for Me ? There is no shade to-day except My shade. as my love may grow for him. The Prophet was asked : 0 Messenger of God. The people will be afraid. They asked him : 0 the Spirit of God. the Prophet said: If a man makes brotherhood for God. The Prophet said that God says : My meeting becomes sure for those who meet one another for Me. who are they? He said : Those who. Jesus Christ said : Be dear to God by having enmity against the sinners and be near to God by keeping away from them and seek pleasure of God by displeasing them. your foot steps are blessed. They are the friends of God and they will not have any fear or sorrow. they sit together in an assembly for God and meet one another for God. If he forgets. (3) a man who is attracted towards the mosque after he comes out of it. God will increase his rank in Paradise and will not reduce anything from his actions. (4) two persons who love each other for God. The angel said -Then why are you going to meet him ? He said : I love him for the sake of God. The Prophet said : If two brothers meet with each other. The Prophet said : On the day when there will be no shade except the shade of God. an angel proclaims from behind him : You are blessed. . A party of men will be seated therein. They are not Prophets or martyrs but the Prophet and martyrs will envy their rank. The Prophet said : There `are pulpits of light around the Throne.. They asked . I heard the Prophet say : Chairs will be placed round the Throne for one par_ ty of men. he helps him. seek friends for you . they are like two hands one of which clear the dust of the other. if your heart is awake. My love becomes sure for those who love one another for Me. The people will be perturbed. and (7) a charitable person who keeps his charity secret. To give encouragement of friendship for God. The Prophet said of the two men who love each other for God The mare beloved of God is one who loves his friend more. The Prophet said : Love for God and hate for God are the firmest faith. He will place seven persons under His shade-(1) a just ruler. let no sinner do any benefit to me. 0 Apostle of God. but they will not be perturbed. (2) a young man engaged in divine service. Hazrat Idris Khaolani said to Hazrat Muaz : I love you for God. The angel said : God sent me to you with this news that 'He loves you as you love him and that Paradise is sure for you. Once God revealed to a Prophet: You have hastened the happiness of Paradise for you for your renunciation of the world. God gives benefit to one from another. He said It is good. Their dress will be of light.whose good . The Prophet : If a man meets another for love of God and hoping to meet Him. The friend who does not meet you with My pleasure is your enemy. If he does not remember. narrate to us their qualities. he reminds him. it will do no benefit to you. paradise for you is blessed. a man should have enemies so that he may hate them and should have friends so that he may love them. Once God revealed to Moses : 0 son of Imran. He intends. I will give them My shade. For this reason. God says : I shall make their children attached to them and nothing will be reduced from their actions. love one another for God. The Prophet said : Once a man wished to meet his friend for God. He asked him: Have you got any necessity to him ? He said : No The angel said : Has he done any _be_nefit toyo_u ? He__said :_No. If two believers meet with each other. so much so that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives. with whom shall we keep company? He said : With such people who remind you of God if you see them. Their faces_ will be b like full moon.

There will be seventy thousand rooms on that pillar. I seek refuge to Thee from a persons who loves me for Thee. He said : 0 David. Have you not heard about the inmates of Hell-1-1. they are your enemies. I have 90 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-I1 adopted loneliness for Thee. In another narration. kept fast. crete love in the hearts of Thy pious servants. Take us to see those who loved one another for God. He said : He loves you for whom you love me. but what actions have you done For Me? Hazrat Moses said : 0 Lord. but what actions you have done for it. beware seek friends for you and do not take those friends who do not help you for My pleasure. The Prophet said : The mutual lovers of God will live on the long pillars of red emeralds. it will be written-Lovers of God. people according to their nature and make good what is between you and Me. how is it possible that all the people will love me and obey the message of religion ? It was said : Treat with the . fast is a shield for you. and those people among you are objects of greatest hatred of God who roam with slanders and create disputes among brethren. We have got no intercessors or bosom friends? Hazrat Abdullah-b-Omar said : By God. have you taken any friend for Me and have you made any enemy for Me ? Then Moses came to know that the best action is love for God and hatred for God. The Jews and the Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 91 Christians love their Prophets. God revealed to Moses: What actions have you done for My pleasure ? He said : 0 Lord. what faults of your brother you have forgiven. zakat is your li ht. spend all my wealth in the way of God without account and if I die on the day with no love for those who obey God and with no hatred for those who do not obey God. and what distant persons you have brought near for God. The brilliance of their look will illuminate the inmates of Paradise. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : To hate the sinners is a means of nearing God. but they do not act according to their injunctions. and those people among you are dearest to God who love and are loved. WISE SAYINGS Hazrat Ali said You should take to friends . their sins drop down from them as the leaves of trees drop down in winter season The sage Fuzail said : If a man looks to his brother with affection and kindness. God said : 0 Moses. it will be no use to me. The inmates of Paradise will say to one another . On their foreheads. David once said to God : 0 Lord. if I fast all days and pray all nights. The sage Muzahed said : When two lovers meet with each other and and express gratefulness. paid charity and Zakat. as I do not know Thy love. He said : Prayer is a clear proof for you. Then he said : 0 God. charity is your shade. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : 0 children of Adam. Treat with the people of the world with the nature of the world and treat with the inmates of the next world with the nature of the next world. From them. A man once said to the sage Ibn Wase : I love you for God. The brilliance of their look will illuminate the inmates of Paradise as the rays of the sun illuminates this world.God revealed to David: 0 David. They will be counted in this world and in the next. show me such an action which will be only for Thee. let not the following word deceive you-He who loves one will be with him. The sage Fuzail said in one of his sermons: It is strange that you wish to live in the Paradise of Firdous and in the neighbourhood of the Merciful with Prophets. they will peep at the inmates of Paradise. I have prayed to Thee. truthfuls. it becomes his divine service. as Thou hast created tie between fire and ice. He creates for him a rank in Paradise. why are you in loneliness after giving up the society of men ? He said : 0 God. what tie of relationship you have united after it was severed. what passions you have given up for it. . The Prophet said : Those people those people among you are dearest to God who love and are loved. let him stick to it. This shows that only love without actions will be of no use. Such a man is rarely found. He said : If a man makes friendship for God. Hazrat Omar said : When one of you gets love from his brother. because you cannot earn the rank of the pious people without doing their actions. The Prophet said : There is an angel of God whose half-body was created of fire and half of ice. martyrs and pious men. They will make your heart hard and keep you farthest from Me. He says : O God.

love for reading together. Out of them. The Prophet said The souls of two believers meet with each other from a distance of one day's path though one soul has not seen another soul. Everything beautiful is an object of pleasure to a man who loves beauty. It is possible that a man can become an object of love of another in a natural way. let them off in the air and they are roaming round the Throne.his wealth for his friend. name and fame are earned. that love for God and hate for God are secret. He who spends . but if the nature of the two is the same. In this way. not for acquiring wealth. he will sit near the believer. If a hypocrite enters an assembly of one hundred believers and of one hyporcrite he will sit near the hypocrite. In days of yore a party of rich men used to supply food to the religious men and loved . The teacher loves the students as a father. This object also is not confined to this world only but is connected with the next world or with God. love is of four kinds. Love grows out of acquaintance. as they cannot be eaten. It is open and not secret. This friendship is of two kind-(1) love for God and (2) love for the world. acts according to it and teaches it to others is termed noble in the spiritual world. The thing which becomes the means of a dear thing becomes also dear. These are men among the people who are loved like gold and silver. and love he gets from willingness. gold and silver are dear to men although they have got no attribute of their own.FOR WORLD Know. His object is to get success in the next world. when he sees him. 92 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Loves has got two conditions. It is not love for God if there is love for a neighbour. Firstly. Knowledge is not complete without students. for trading in the same market or travelling together in a journey. after creating souls. There is another thing for love. one soul meeting with the other soul in the horizon becomes near. (1) First kind: A man is loved for his own merits. Jesus Christ said : He who acquires knowledge. it will be love for God. The Prophet said : When a believer enters an assembly of one hundred hypocrites and only one believer. dresses him with cloth. knows him and thinks him good after seeing his character and conduct. but for another thing which is not for good of this world but for good of the next world. This proves that a man loves another man of the same nature not for gaining any benefit. But if there is there the intention of love for the sake of God. (3) Third class: A thing is not loved for its sake. those who know one another love one another and those who do not know one anot er ave got erences o opinion. Secondly. What we will discuss will lift the curtain therefrom. they agree. but for their nature being the same and for their internal qualities being the same. The cause of difference is absence of knowledge of one another and the cause of love is knowledge of one another. keeps him in a house to live in and helps him in all affairs and whose object in doing these things is to give him leisure for divine service is an object of love for God. That is the internal qualities. it is loved to reach the goal by its help. The Prophet said Souls are the arrayed soldiers. The sage Malek-b-Dinar said : Out of ten persons. There is no doubt that there is not merit unless a work is done willingly. In another narration the Prophet said : Souls are arrayed soldiers. two cannot agree. as they become the means of reaching the destination or gaining the goal and by their help. Some learned men explain it by saying that God. a thing is loved for its merits and not to reach the beloved by its help or for no other object behind it. wealth. For this reason. The souls which know one another in the air meet one another in the world and love one another. It is a step towards progress. (2) Second class: A man loves another for gaining the love of a third person. 0 dear readers. It is seen from this that the same nature attracts one another though they have got no acquaintance. to love a spiritual guide who becomes the means of gaining spiritual knowledge.DISTINCTION BETWEEN LOVE FOR GOD AND LOVE. So student are the means of the teacher for perfection. nor used as clothes but they are the means of getting these Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 93 things. as for instance. maintains him with food.

a friend of God gives in charity to please God everything he has got. Gebriel got down and said to the Prophet : 0 Prophet of God. The Prophet said in his invocation : 0 Got. (2) Another kind of pleasure is not opposed to that of the next world and this was not prohibited for them. He also prayed: 0 God. is also an object of love for God. such as marriage. honored it and said : It has become with the help of my Lord. even for a morsel of food which a husband lifts up to the mouth of his wife. love of other things does not remain in his heart. For this reason. Jesus Chirst said in his invocation : 0 God. So it is necessary to enquire into the lasting condition. A lover even loves the things of the beloved and he even loves those whom the b loves those who praise and glorify the beloved and try to please him. sang: When I went to the house of Laila. there are ample rewards for spending money for the members of the family. his letters and all his actions.them. The pleasures of this 0 94 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-11 world is of two kind: -(1) One kind of pleasure is opposed to the pleasureofthenextworld and isa stumbling block. it spreads more. why shall I see Abu Bakr covered with a long shirt? He said . It is self-less and disinterested love. I have got none near or distant. The reason is that when love for a person envelopes his entire heart. don't make the world a great object of my anxiety and remove the pleasure of my enemies from the wealth of the world. He who marries with the object of getting such a son who will pray for him and for that loves his wife. don't create trouble in the way of my religion. He did not pray : Don't make the world the root of my anxiety. Therefore. This world and the next world mean two conditions of which one is nearer than the other. When love of God envelopes the heart.etc. TheProphets and friends of God were careful of this kind of pleasure. how can he love the happiness of tomorrow? Surely he should love the hapiness of tomorrow as to-morrow will turn into a lasting condition. loves also those persons whom the king loves and even his servants. can there remain the pangs of wound ? The proportion of love for a man is known in proportion to the giving up of dear Vol-lI Love and Brotherhood 95 things for him. when a fresh fruit was brought to the Prophet. Baqiah-b-Walid said : When a believer loves a believer. If love is strong . He who loves a king. We feel happiness at His pleasure. He who loves a man loves his handicrafts. This is the highest kind of love. But for its owner. So if a man does not love the happiness of to-day. Rather he said : Don't make the world a great object of my anxiety. Love is not for the wall. The love of a party of men reaches such height that they say : We don't distinguish between sorrow and happiness as all come from God. For this reason. Even he sacrificed his little daughter for the Prophet. I pray for Thy mercy. don't allow my enemies to become pleased with me. The sage Samnun said I am happy at Thy pleasure. For this reason. Lover reduces the pangs of lover. Hazrat Ibn Omar said : Once the Prophet was seated with Hazrat Abu Bakr who put on long shirt tied on the chest with a bell. it spreads towards the things which have got connection with the beloved. so that I may gain the glory of Thy honour in this world and in the next. Love for God is similar. The lover Majnu. Love of this kind is possible. A sage said : When pain gives pleasure. most secret and subtle. he placed it upon his eyes. Hazrat Abu Bakr left nothing for his family when the Prophet called for charity. save me from the calamities of this world and the next. he even loves his dog. therefore. (4) Fourth class-Love for God and hate for God. So do to me what Thou art pleased with. it rules the heart and it even spread over everything The lover then sees His power in everything. I kissed its wall. lawful eating. as if this love surpasses beyond limit.

you sometimes harm a sinner and destroy his evil design. God said to Moses : Have you made friends and enemies for My sake ? You love one whose nothing is disclosed to you except allegiance and you hate one whose nothing is disclosed to you except sin and bad conduct.Because all his wealth he gave in charity before the Conquest. A Zimmi (one who has been give protection) cannot be given trouble. r ers an ea men wi em: ere are two classes of sines. etc. If he is at war with the Muslims. That occurs in proportion to his sins. These two things. A Muslim can be loved for his religion Islam and can be hated for his sins. you do not look at him. he can be killed or made a slave. If hate is expressed by words. If it does not lead to infidelity. God says:. You will not find a'people who believe in God and the next world to make friends with those who oppose God and His Prophet even though they may be their parents. A beautiful wife who is a sinner is loved for her one attribute by her husband and hated for anothe%. HATRED FOR GOD He who loves God has got no alternative but to hate for God. When you love a persons. Don't you like that God should forgive you ? 24:22. the poor and the refugees in the way of God but let them forgive and pardon. So there are three classes of sinners in the matter of faith. he can be given trouble. These are modes so far action is concerned. Then this verse was revealed : Those who possess wealth and sufficient means among you should not swear that they would not give in charity to their near relations. The best way to express Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 97 hate for him is to give up his company and rebuke him for his innovation. Hate is to be expressed by words and actions. its law is lighter. Though the sin of Mostah was great. The Prophet said : 0 those who believe. not to make enjoyment with him like friends. he stopped his help with a promise that he won't help him further. Hazrat Abu Bakr used to help him by giving him charity. don't take my enemy and your enemy as friends. When it reached his ear. yet Hazrat Abu Bakr felt restless in his mind for that event. There is no other punishment except these two for him.22. The innovator calls the people towards misguidance as he believes his views to be correct. love and hatred. It is the habit of Siddiq to forgive one who oppresses. are connected with each other and cannot be separated. but if he protests against Islam. you keep his sin secret. Gebriel said : Tender salam to him from God and tell him that his Lord is saying to him : Are you satisfied or dissatisfied on 7 id 0 Abu Bakr. When these two things are expressed in words. Innovators are of two classes-one class call towards the views opposed to Shariat and another class remain silent. The Prophet . Those who remain silent are compelled to do so or dot it willingly. because one who loves a man for any of his good works hates him for any act contrary to it. (2) Innovators Innovators call towards innovation. you stop talking with a sinner and sometimes use harsh words. Mostah-b-Asasah once spread a slander against the character of Hazrat Ayesha. he is Gebriel. not to mix or to carry on trade with him.. When he-is repentant. He said : Then Abu Bakr wept and said : I am satisfied with my Lord. So his evil is also unlimited. you go away 96 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II from him. children. either (1) they have got no faith or (2) they commit sins in their actions and deeds. Different conducts are united in a person for some of which he is loved and for others he is hated . If hate is expressed by action. not to salute him first. One stops his help and sympathy and another tries to destroy his necessary works. (1) Unbeliever. Those who have got no faith are either unbelievers or innovators. its law is more severe than that of a Zimmi as he cannot be given the advantage of a Zimmi. they are named friendship and enmity. To make him humiliated is to make his livelihood narrow. He tendered you salam from God on account of your want. brothers or relatives-58. He is loved for one reason and hated for a different reason. so that he may not commit any sin. If innovation leads towards infidelity. you hate him also for his fault in these ways-you protest against his evil actions.

(4) Sinners: The sinners' who disobey the injunctions of God by their.biting. back. slander. If he is habituated to do it. The man with whom companionship is to be kept should have five qualities in him-intellect. CONDITIONS OF FRIENDSHIP Know. and a sinner who does not give trouble to another by%uch a.-tions. not to . such as back-biting. he should be given advice if there is possibility for him to give up those actions. the greater the punishment. He who commits a great sin by drinking wine. oppression. of their qualities of your friend and search to get temporal and spiritual benefits. It is better not to mix with them and not to transact with them. If it is not effective. Such a sinner also has got two conditions-(a) either he invites others towards sinful acts or (b) he does not invite others towards sinful acts. his affairs is easy. The benefits of religion are the following (1) to get education and learn action.. (3) to gain wealth to maintain oneself. there is a Hadis that believers will make intercession for their friends and God will admit them in Paradise along with them. be it by beating him or by taking other measure. it is compulsory on him to prohibit him. (1) The actions of the first kind of sinners are. a man drinks wine but does not call other to drink it. as every believer has got the right of intercession. name and bargain are the temporal benefits. Thus there are three kinds of sinners. (6) to hope forgetting intercession of a friend in the next world. and (3) those who take immovable properties of men by oppression. (2) to get benefit of saying oneself from name 'and fame which cause anxiety of mind. measure. (5) to get blessings of the invocations of a friend. This means that the devil is sufficient for the man. false evidence. because it is compulsory to prohibit an evil action. (2) those who take movable properties of men by oppression. it is better to turn away from him. etc. he will get right of intercession for his friends. (4) to seek help in necessary actions. (3) Ordinary innovator: If the people do not follows him or hie is unable to bring them to his views. Such as sinner is to be humiliated and his connection should be cut off.said : God fills up the mind of a man with peace and faith who rebuke an innovator. such as oppression. It is better not to mix with them. If it is useless to give him advice. To explain this verse. This is not our object. injurious to a great extent. It has been narrated that a drunkard was beaten several times before the Prophet but still he did not give up drinking wine. You should not rebuke him. in dangers and difficulties and in many other actions of life. The greatetthe guilt. It is better to advise him first with humility. So let him look with whom he befriends/' Make friendship havin a look to a ' condition to get benefit. They are of three classes-(1) those who murder men. misappropriation. is benefit in treating with him harshly it should be done. The Prophet said : 'A man is upon the religion of his friend. by giving up compulsory duties or doing unlawful things has got light. One of the companions said : God's curse on this drunkard. Wealth. good conduct. If there. There are*some conditions of these benefits which we shall describe now. If a man sees him to commit these sins. (2) The second class sinners create the causes of disturbance and make easy its different paths to the people. ship. God will keep one safe on the most grievous day who disgraces an innovator. etc. 0 dear readers. A certain sage of yore said: Increase the number of friends. for example. one should be 98 led by his consience to take a suitable measure against him. They do not give any trouble in the mundane affixirs of the people but injure their religion by their actions. (3) Third class sinner. God say : Those who have faith and do good works will seek intercession and He will increase His favours on them. that every man is not fit for friend. It is better to treat him harshly at the very beginning. false evidence. actions and not by their faith are of two kinds-a sinner who gives trouble to another by his actions. It has also been said in explaining it that when a man is forgiven. The Prophet said : Don't be a helper of the devil regarding your brother. and you may hope to fall in the intercession of your friend.

A friend should have good conduct as many wise men take things as they are in their normal mood. He said : You should make friendship with the truthful. If a wise man becomes your enemy the batter may fall in danger. Break friendship with the fools. He who does not fear God is not a trustworthy man. but don't keep a trusted man of a people distant. He will be sorry when any disaster falls on you and gives you pain. should have religious nature to give benefit. God says : Don't follow one whose heart I have made forgetful from ft y remembrance and who follows his passions. and he conduct. Though he wants to do benefit. He will give you if you want something from him. He will remove any evil if he sees in you. as he is ignorant. (3) Religions nature: A friend. He will begin with you when he remain silent. he will also extend his hand of good towards you. Consult with those in all your affairs who fear God. If you extent your hand of good towards him. who will help you when you fall in a trouble. You will understand from this that it is lawful to turn away from the great sins. God say : Let hint ept turn to one who does not believe it and follows his passion Cod says : Turn away from one who turns away from My m*nembrance_and intends nothing but this world's life Gq says : Follow E itlt of one who turns to Me. Don't give clue to your secrets to him. but if a man does not fear God. There is no good in havipg friends like him. A wise man is he who understands all leis actions and a fool is he who has got no sense of right and wrong and who does not understand it even it is dictated by othgrs. keep your enemy distant and warn your friend. keeping company with a sinner. miserliness and cowardice gain supremacy. He who fears God cannot-be engaged in great sins. (2) Good conduct:. who knownly to commit murder.be a sinner. a certain wise man said : . Illiterate friend leaves him in disaster An illiterate leaves him in disaster. 4 You will remain safe. who will increase your beauty if you keep company with him. He changes according to the change of ' necessity. Don't keep company with a great sinner. Illiterate friend becomes then impatient A wise friend known in danger. What benefit will accrue from his help ? Hazrat Omar gave encouragement for religious nature of a friend. Hazrat Ali said in poem: Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 99 Keep no company with the fools. For this reason. as they increase happiness in time of joy and remove difficulties at the time of sorrow. i you ee necessity of making friendship. himself according to his whims and acts contrary to his wisdom. How many insane there are. He will place . but when they get angry.. you can'i'besafe from his harms and can't trust in his words. The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-if 100 (4) Innovation : It is the duty of one to have no connection with an innvoator . Bear well the affairs of your friends. There is no good in. not to be a worldly addicted man. make friendship with such a man who will save you if you save him. sexual passion.. He will help you in any good work you undertake. not to be an innovator. because in that case you will live under their care. (1) Intellect: It is the root of wealth and there is no good in the company of the fools and the illiterate. Imam Sufyan Saori said: It is sin to look at the face of a fool. He will confirm your word as true when you speak. He will advise you when you intend to do an action. When a wise friend keeps up patience. he will do you harm. The sage Alqamah Attar advised his son at the time of his ear son.

God say : When the illiterate call them they say salam. Hazrat Ali said : If a man gives life to your action. They are like snakes and rats. It is said that a party of men are like some trees which have got shade but no fruits. When a friend falls in want. (3) a miser. one of which washes the other.(1) a liar. he advanced towards the . you will not get any benefit from him. As some rights and obligations arise out of wed-lock. as heart is then enlivened with wisdom as a land is enlivened with rain-water. The friendship of a transgressor with good conduct is dearer to me than that of a learned man with bad conduct. There was the sage Abul Hasan Nuri was one of them. Hazrat Junaid said . so also some rights and obligations arise out of the tie of friendship and brotherhood. Loqman advised his son : 0 dear son. it means : We are safe from your sins and you are safe from our evils. The result is I'sar or the sacrifice of one's need for the other. you will get deception from him and he will make the the distant near and the near distant. Similarly friendship is completed when one of them keeps the other. there are some trees which have got fruits but no shade. This is the rank of the truthful and is the last limit of the three stages of friendship. and a good companion is better than loneliness. keep your religion alive by keeping company with him. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : Loneliness is better than a bad companion. he will do you harm if he goes to do your benefit. If he drives him to the level of asking. They are like the persons who came of no use for good of this world except good of the next world. He will also come down to his stage till he becomes equal partner with him. The sage Bashar Hafi said: Friend are three--(1) a friend for your next world. trees whose thorns pierce clothes and which have got no cat^b'P things. The Caliph passed order for the execution of the religious people. Out of them. It has been reported that a party of bad people made defamation against a party of religious men. (4) a coward. Some trees have got both fruits and shade and some trees have got neither fruits nor shade like Bakul. These rights are eight. The Caliph Mansur said : Friends are of three kinds-(1) One kind of friends are like food and there is no Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 101 alternative but to get their help. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: Once a friend divided his shirt into two portions and gave one portion to his friend. he should give charity to him without asking from the excess of his wealth. he will flee away after surrendering you in the hands of the enemies . (a) The lowest stage is to bring down his friend to the level of a servant and to give him charity at the time of his need from his excess wealth. as if they are one and the same and they share the enjoyments of each other. The sage Jafar Sadeq said: Don't keep company with four persons. he will sell you in lieu of a morsel of food for a thing of lesser value. (3) a friend to console your mind. Those trees are like those persons who come of no use for the next world except for this world and the benefits of this world disappear soon like the disappearance of shade.your opinion above when there arise difference of opinion among you. he will then transsgrerss the limit of the demand of friendship. (2) Another kind of friends are like a medicine and their help is necessary at times. (2) a fool. The Prophet said : Two friends are like two hands. (3) The third kind of friends are like an epidemic disease and there is no necessity of them at any time. keep company with the learned. (5) a great sinner. There are three stages of self.sacrifice for each other. (c) The third stages is to place the needs of a friend above his own needs. Before all of them. As a result. (b) The second The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II 102 1 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-Ii stage i s to bring his friend down to his stage and remain satisfied by making him sharer in his properties. (2) a friend for your present world. he will forsake you at the time of your dire necessity. (1) Right in wealth and properties. SECTION 2 THE RIGHTS OF FRIENDSHIP AND BROTHERHOOD The tie of friendship and brotherhood is like that of husband and wife.

Mamun-b-Mahran said : He who is pleased with his friend by giving up good things. Hazrat Joynal Abedin. Whenever Ibrahim wished to have any companion with him. he entered once into a jungle with some of his companions and took two pieces of wood for tooth stick. Follow the Holy Prophet in the matter 104 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II of self. He said : That will not be. When his friend returned.gallows and said : Hang me first : On being asked the reason of his desire for death.and wealth is not more than that of mine. "This is my shoe". he became pleased with him. Hazrat Masruq cleared off the debts of the latter without his knowledge. I set you free. If anybody said among them. because what you informed me is a good news. son of Hazrat Hussain said to a man : Does anybody amongst you take anything what he wished after placing his hand in the pocket of his friend or in his purse ? He said : No He said : Then you are not friends. he said : I wish to s life. the inmates of grases. Highest Stage: God praised the believers in this verse : Their affairs are settled by mutual consultations and they spend out of what I have provided them with . In other words. Hazrat Ali said : To spend 20 Dirhams for a friend for the sake of God. have you prayed? He said: Yes. I agree with this condition that I shall have grater right in your money. He turned his face at this and said : I adopted God in lien of this world.. I consider better than to give charity of one hundred dirhams to the poor and the destitute. It is said that the sage Otbatul Golam went once to the house of his friend and said : I have got need of four thousand coins from your wealth.Baitual Maqaddas (holy Mosque of Jerusalem). Hazrat Ibn Omar said: Once a man presented to a companion a fried goat's head. A party of man came to Hasan Basari and said : 0 Abu Sayeed. Khaisan also in return cleared off the debts of Masruq without his knowledge. The latter sent it to his friend as he was more in need. He said : I have not as yet reached this stage. He said : Who has taken religion from the market people ? I know that nobody among them gives charity. He gave the straight . So take therefrom what you wish. He said : Do you know the rights of a friend ? He said : One of the rights of friendship is that your right in your properties. Hazrat Ibrahim said to him. The latter again sent it to another man. he never acted contrary to his wishes. He said : Take two thousand coins. One Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 103 day a man came to Hazrat Abu Hurairah and said : I wish to make friendship with you for the sake of God. Thus it turned round seven persons and came to the first friends It is-narrated that Hazrat Masruq fell in a heavy debt and his friend Khaisan also had debts. He said : I wish to go there with you. one straight and another crooked. they mixed their wealth and did not distinguish it. Don't you feel ashamed that you claim friendship for God but place the love of the world over friendship ? The sage a Abu Hazem said : When you have got a friend for the sake of God don't engage him in your affairs of the world. Yes.sacrifice. It is said that the sage Falhtel Musuali went once to the house of his friend in his absence and said to his maid-servant: Take to me the cash box of your master. Hazrat Sa'ad had the quality or equality and Hazrat Abduar Rahman had the quality of I'sar or self sacrifice which is better than equality. This was the cause of the saving the lives of the religious men. Then Abdur Rahman gave option to his friend about his properties and said : God has given me abundant wealth. Then he said : Your truthfulness pleased me. He never accepted anybody as his companion if he did not agree with him. They said : The market people have not yet prayed. He said Then go away. When she brought it to him he took therefrom some coins necessary for him . made friendship as it were with. nce a . Stage of the world: It is not pleasing to the religious men. The maid-servant informed her master about it and he said : If you speak the truth. Once Ibrahim-b-Adham gifted away an ass belonging to this friend without his permission. they did not keep company with him as he uttered this keeping his own connection with his prosperity. The Prophet comented brotherhood between Abdur Rahman-b-Auf and Sa'ad-b-Raby.

If he remains busy help him. let him recite this verse : God will resurrect the dead. an angel oo news. In short. he who is more kind to his companion is dearer to God. To help a friend before asking in times of needs. At that time. help them. go to see him. Malek said.tooth-stick to a companion who said : 0 Messenger of God. When he comes. a friend handed over the key of his house to his friend who had option to spend whatever he wished . I shall turn my face to him. meet with them. Hazrat Sayeed said : I have got three duties for my friend. 'firm' means firm in religion and soft means kind to friends and relatives. A certain wise man said : When a man requests his friend to fulfill his certain need and he does not fulfill it. Therefore your are more entitled to the straight tooth-stick than myself. Try to remove his difficulties and dangers. As you are not indifferent to your needs. so don't be indifferent to the needs of your friend. refrained from enjoying it for fear of God. his father's name and his address. let him remind him second time. as it is sign of bad conduct. There are different stages of this help. He said : If anybody keeps company of a man for a little while of the day question will be put to him about the rights of his companionship. ask him his name. Muhammad took out a cup of food which was under his bed and began to eat. I shall give him good place. If they are ill. God has got cups in the world. don't do it .. as my family reminds me of this world. God says : They are kind to one another. Hazrat Atta said : Enquire of your friends once in every three days. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : My friends are dear to me than my wife and children. Don't speak of any bad thing about his friends. The dearest of hearts to God is that Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 105 which is the most clean firm and soft. God will send His angels of the Throne on the Resurrection Day to spread his fame in Paradise. God ordered us to treat well with our friends. the Prophet was going to cover Huzaifa with the screen when he said to the Prophet: 0 Messenger of God. If he is ill. T en uzai a wished his bath. If they forget. When he speaks. even to their close friends. His friend. I shall entertain him. may my parents be sacrificed to ou. however. when God revealed : Give them order to Regard brothers_ ass friends and to give them food to their satisfaction. It is narrated that Malek-b-Dinar and Muhammad-b-Wasi went to the house of Hazrat Hasan Basari in his absence. goo news o Paradise or you. Suddenly Hazrat Basari came there and said : 0 Malek. 3. This means that he and the dead are equal. I can understand that his object of search is not the world. weather he established he established it or destroyed it. A sage of yore maintained the family members of his friend after his death for forty years. If he does not fulfill it without delay. wives and children. 'Clean' means clean of sins. If they remain busy in works. Then the Prophet said : If two men keep company with each other. Don't disclose any secret talk which your friends tell you. The Prophet said : Behold. Those are hearts. Once Hazrat Abbas was asked : Who is dearest to you ? He said : My friend . The Prophet once said to Ibn Omar : If you love anybody. When he sits. Don't disclose any secrets of your friend even though' there is separation from him. consider the needs of your friend as your own or more than this. After his bath. His companion Hazrat Huzaifa covered him with a screen of cloth till he finished his bath. Hazrat Anas said: The Prophet did not say anything he felt bad of the talk of anybody in his presence as he who repeats it to anybody is considered as rebuke. we used first to give trouble to one another in this way.. Once the Prophet went out to a well for bath. He said : If a man spreads the fame of his friend for the sake of God. The lowest stage is to fulfill with pleasure and Kindness the needs of a friend at the time of his asking for it. by God. Hold out your hand till the owner comes. Relieve him from asking you to fulfills his needs. If a man comes to my assembly thrice without any necessity and does not get any benefit from me. You . He said . remind them. Third right about tongue: Sometimes you will talk with a friend and sometimes not. you are more simple than me. There is one Hadis: If a man fneet with his friend for the sake of God. (2) Second right. God said : Treat well with your friend.

The Prophet said : If man conceals the faults of his brother in this world. and cannot be called bad for some of his conducts. He is a just man whose virtues are more than his sins. On the following day he began to defame him. and don't cut off the connections of one another and unite the servants of God in brohterhood The object of pleasure to God is theman who imbues himself with divine attributes. know that the faith of man is not perfect till he loves for others what he loves for himself . If anybody amongst you hears any secret word about your brother. Then the Prophet said : You have praised him yesterday. and a hypocrite searches for fault. There is a Hadis that once a man praised another before the Prophet. pardoner of sins and kind to His servants. The heart of a fool is in his tongue and the tongue of a wise man is in his heart. discloses it in a big from. (3) and the assembly where wealth is made lawful "excep"y lawful means. If he sees any good. The Prophet said : The discussions of an assembly are trust except those of three assemblies--(1) the• assembly where unlawful murders are committed. because evil nonjecture is the worst false talks. They said Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 107 Glory be to God. To keep it secret is considered as envy. Hazrat Ibnul Mobarak said: A believer searches for excuses. and at the same time does not obey God. The Prophet said : Beware of evil conjecture. and you are defaming him to-day : He said : By God. He pleased me yesterday and I said what I knew about him as good. The Prophet said: Don't disclose the serest of one another. How can you keep matters secret ? He said : I am like a grave for these mattes. In other words. he disclose it. I told the truth yesterday about him and I have not told a lie about him to-day. assembly where unlawful fornications are made lawful. He gives life as it were to a buried man. It is not lawful to disclose to another what one does not like. Lod hates full discription of anything. So how can you remain without forgiving one who is above you or who is lower than you ? Jesus Christ said to his disciples: What do you do when the wind blows off the wearing cloth of your friends in his sleep and makes him naked ? They said : We his private parts with cloth. because it is the back-biting of mind which is prohibited .should not keep secret the praise of your friend. Don't hold bad conjecture about your friend. There is in another Hadis.to shed the blood of a believer. as He is the keeper of secrets.-. There is in another narration. The lowers state friendship is that you will respect for your friends that treatment which you expect that he should mete out to you. To search the faults of others and to harbour evil conjecture show the evil path. The Prophet said in another. who does this ? He said . Imam Shafeyi said : There is no such Muslim who obeys God. To-day he enkindled my anger and then I have said what I know about him as bad.bite your friend or any membet-of his family. God says: " Woe to those who take full measure when they take from men and who reduce it when they give it to others ? Hope to do justice to others as you expect that others should do justice to you. the fool cannot keep secret what is in his mind and discloses it in such a place which he does not know.. he keep it secret and if he sees any bad. He said : Rather I see that you uncover his private parts. Haids : Oratory and harshness are two branches of hypocrasy. Many conjectures remain upon mistakes. The sage Fuzail said: It is the rule of religion to pardon the faults of a friend. Hazrat Abbas said to his Abdullah: I see that Hazrat Omar has given you superiority over the elderly companions . The Prophet said : The consultations of two friends-are like trust. and there is no such Muslim who disobeys God and at the same time does not disobey Him. to destroy his properties. One wise man was asked.0) the. The Prophet said : There is certainly sorcery in oratory. 106 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II The Prophet said: I seek refuge to God from a bad neighbour. to mar his honour and to harbour evil conjectures against him. he adds to is other words and. He compared it with sorcery. Don't back. The Prophet said : God made unlawful four things for a believer . There is no such a man who cannot be called good for some of his conducts.. don's seek the secrets of one another. God will conceal his faults in the next.

The Prophet said: Don't envy one another. A certain wise man said : If a man dispute with his friends. God will show kindness to him. you will be a believer. God says : Does one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother ? An angel presents before the soul of a man what he sees in the guarded Tablet in the form of a figure in dream. don't cut off. The sage Shubi said : Each sentence of these five instructions is better than one thousand sentences. He got enraged and said : Give up arguing. In other words. A back-biter sees in dream that he is eating the flesh of a dead animal. when he defames me before a party of men. don't break promise with him. Hazrat Omar said . don't ridicule him. The Prophet said One believer is a mirror to another believer.Remember my five instructions-(1) Don't disclose I is (Omar's) secrets . so the treatment should be Tell such words which you friend loves. It means. The sage Muzahed said Don't remember your friend by backbiting him as you wish that no person should remember you with back-biting. So love will increase from both sides. He said : You give in charity ample wealth to the people but it does not comes out in a cheerful mood and in good manners. he does not deprive him and he does not dishonour him. Don't back-bite your friend as God likened back-biting to eating the flesh of a dead brother. If he knows that you love him. For this reason. (4) don't disohcy his orders (5) and let him not see you committing any act of treachery. The Prophet said . Use words of love and share his sorrows and happiness.Give up dispute as it has got little benefit and it grows enmity between two friends. If a man gives up dispute over a useless matter. When you come to know that he also loves you. For this the Prophet said : Send present to one another. The Prophet gave simile of two friends as two hands. The Prophet said : Don't dispute with your brother. What he said is true. 109 servants of God-One. Don't keep company with the devil without being his enemy. Ibn Omamah Baheli said : The Prophet once came to us. The Prophet said: Accord good treatment to your neighbour. The sage Maser was asked : Do you love one who tells your faults ? He said If he advises me with regard to the faults that are in myself and him. He does not treat him bad. So send present to one another. He shows back-biting in the form of eating the flesh of a dead animal. as there is little good in it. Accord good treatment to one who keeps your company. Don't keep company with your passion without differing from it. The existence of love among the believers is the object of Shariat and religion. Don't argue with a wise man. The Prophet said: One Muslim is brother to another Muslim. a house will be built up for him in a high place of Paradise. lest he envies you.' Hazrat Omar said : If a man holds out the faults of his brother before him. it is not good. (4) Accord good treatment to your friend in words and deeds: As is the friendship . Muslim is brother to another Muslim. you will then love one another. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : Don't argue with a fool lest he give you trouble. one friend helps another in all affairs. If a man gives up dispute of a matter to which he has got right. It increases love. that he roams about back-biting. he will surely love you.. (2) don't vilify in his (Omar) presence . We were then arguing withone another. The substance of this Hadis is that you should conduct yourself in such°a way that your friend may correct himself. it is good. you will be good Muslim . a house will be built for him in a corner of Paradise. his manliness goes away and his honour also goes away. by looking at your actions.The Prophet said : When one of you loves his brother. Don't keep company with the people without advice to one another. one of which works for the other. but. he does not spoil his honour and does not surrender him to the hands of his enemy. he should inform hire of his love. Love and Brotherhood. He does not oppress him. (s) don't talk courage to tell falsehood before him . connections from one another and make brotherhood among the 108 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Vol-II . The saint Jun-num Misir said: Don't keep company with God without obeying His commands. because to advise before the people is dishonourable. your love for him will increase.

He said : If you wish. I shall have to lift him up by catching him by his hand. He rebuked him in this letter. he wept and said God said the truth Omar advised me. Have you heard any other thing? Hazrat Salman said: No. One should not cut off the relationship from his relative who is seen engaged in a sin. Vol-I1 Love and Brotherhood 111 How many friends there are who are not born of your mother. Connection is made out of love of one day and relationship is made out of love of one year. but how can I hate him as he is my brother in religion ? Brotherhood of religion is greater than that of relationship. What is its price ? He said: Six pices. 110 The Book of WordlyUsages Vol-II One friend of Hazrat Omar went to Syria and stayed there for long. Hazrat Hasan Basari said:. One friend asked him : Have you not forsaken him ? He said : I wish to remain with him more now. connection should be cut off according to Hazrat Abu Zarr. advise him with sweet words. His friend said : shall I lose a friend for his one sin ? Then he promised that he would fast till his friend came out of his love for the women. According to Abn Darda'a connection with him should not be cut off. he said : I heard that you have got two shirts. (5) To forgive the faults of friends: If your friend commits sin and continues therein. you may cut off friendship with me. So his friend went with him to the hill being repentant. Rather he said : I am displeased with your action. one of which you wear during day time and another at nighttime. as he will walk once in a straight path and another time in a crooked way. One of two friends went astray. Then he took his meal and drink. it is better. Hazrat Jafar Sadeq said . I shall have to rebuke him with sweet words and I shall have to call him to his former conditions.to. Huzafia wrote to Hazrat Eusof-b-Asbat : I heard that you sold your religion in lieu of two pices. the Merciful (4. It has been narrated that two friends of Banu Israil engaged in divine service in a hill. If he turns back. as a result of which his friend's love for the woman went away from his heart. He called her in a lonely place and satisfied his lust. say : I am displeased with what you do-26:216Q. It has.0: 1Q). This continued for three days. When he read it. been said : love is necessary for relationship but relationship is not necessary for love. Hazrat Omar took this news from a certain man of Syria. He said : He has becomes the brother of the devil and he has begun to drink wine. If he does not turn back. When he pressed Salman. He did not say : I am pleased with your actions. therefore.Hazrat Salman : What are the actions of mine which appear disliking to you ? Hazrat Salman said : Pardon me for this. You said to the milk-seller . He then repented and turned back.. The milk seller said : Let it be so. God severs connection with one who severs connection with this relatives. He saw there an unchaste woman and fell in love with her. It has been narrated that one of two friends fell in love with woman and informed it to his friends. It is compulsory to keep the tie of friendship. He embraced and kissed his friend and said : I have come to know your condition. When Abu Darda'a was asked : Why do you not hate your friend who is doing this sin ? He said : Surely I hate his sinful etc. One of them one day got down and went to a market to buy meat. Now let us go to the hill for divine service. His friends in the hill came down to search for him and found him following a woman. There is in Hadis : Fear the slip of a learned man don't boycott him and hope for his return. A wise man was asked : Who is dearer to you. he is dearer to me. I heard also that two kinds of curries are served before you at the same time. Hazrat Omar said : Neither of these two matters is true. God said to His Prophet in connection with his relatives. Hazrat Omar wrote to him a letter saying in the name of the Most Compassionate. He fasted for forty days. The man was cognisant of your God fear and hence he sold the milk at reduced price to you Uncover your head from the screen of passion and give up the urge of passion. You pressed for lesser price. Hazart Ibrahim Nakyi said : Don't cut off connection with your friend and don't leave him at the time of his commission of sin as he may commit a sin to-day and give it up on the following day. If your relatives disobey you. friend or a brother ? He said : If my brother is my friend. One should not make friendship .

but the angels say What actions he has sent in advance ? They are glad for his good actions. (7) Wafa and Ikhlas. The Prophet said: love your friend in a moderate manner. I save myself from his attack without replying to his rebuke. There is in Hadis : If a man prays for his friend. come to our house during the life time of IChadija.t< 112 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II love exceed the limit and let not your hatred lead you to the path of destruction. and adopt precaution of being a devil by not accepting it. don't rebuke him.of a living man enters into the grave of a dead man like a hill of light. In another narration God says : 0 My servant. If a man's pleasure is incurred but he does not get pleased. A good friend will follow you after your death with the angels. be it true of false. The object of friendship for the sake of God is to get benefit in the next world. Whenever. He then becomes pleased with it as a living man becomes pleased with a present. I will accept your prayer in your matter. (6) Pray for your friend in his life time and even after his death: As you like to pray for yourself and the members of your family. it is better accepted than that for himself. A certain wise man said : I never rebuked anybody. but when it is done. Then the Prophet said to him : Stop. so a -dead man remains anxious to get the prayer of father. When one man committed a sin. The Prophet said : A believer suddenly gets angry and his anger is soon appeased. being asked the reason. The Prophet said : If man prays for his friend in his absence. the Prophet said : This woman used Vl'-. To appease it and to act contrary to its nature is possible. perchance he may become someday your enemy. friendship with them after it is made. The Prophet said that seven persons will get shade under the shade of the Throne on the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said : If a man prays for his friend in his absence.. but if a man of dishonour rebukes me. Hazrat Omar said: Let not your . children and friends and relatives and to take care of them. his friend rebuked him. There are two persons out of them who love each other for the sake for God. God says : Those who appease anger etc.To remove anger from the soil of heart is not possible as it is a natural attribute of man. As a drowning man catches whatever he gets to save his life. The Prophet said: The worst servants near God are those roam with slander and create separation in friendship . he is an ass. Ikhlas means to fulfill the duties of friendship selflessly. so you should pray for those after death of your friend with whom your friend had connection. Get angry at your enemy in a moderate manner. Now-a-days anger does not appease till harm is not done to a friend. The cause is that if an honourable man rebukes me.with great sinner from the very beginning. So don't be an ass or a devil. The Prophet said : A. He did not not mention that he does not get angry. The prayer. they ask about his condition and intercede for him. he is a devil. Rather be an agent of your friend and bring pleasure to yourself. friend and near relatives. your friend raises excuse. the angels says. this has come from that relative of yours. Similar prayer is for you. to keep it lasting till the death of friend and to keep it even after his death with his wife. A certain sage said : The prayer of a living man for the dead is like a present. A. for the sake of God. The object of friendship seflessly for the sake of God. the people say : What thing he has left behind. it is not rejected . To act in agreement with anger is to take retaliation. To honov the.. He did not say about the absence of anger. brothers. Don't be a helper of the devil in the matter of your friend/' So it is better to keep away from the great sinners from the very'beginning than to serve. . Imam Shafeyi said : If a man's anger is aroused but his anger does not arise. children. The Prophet said: He who does not accept the excuse of his friend commits sin like the tax collector in the street. accept it.ortain woman once came to the Prophet who showed respect to her 0. I pardon his fault as it is pardonable. But have patience at the trouble inflicted by him. Wafa means to remain firm on the rights of friendship. it should not be cut off. perchance he may turn to be your friend sometime. as there is a Hadis : When a man dies.dead man in grave is like a drowning man in water. The angel takes a handker-chief of one bundle of light and comes to the dead man and says : This is present to you from that friend of yours.

The Prophet said :'A man is upon the religion of his friend. Hope for the rewards of his prayer. bear patience at their harms and do not hate them. A certain sage said : Live with the worldly people with good manners. Finding any necessity means here hatred. Even his sitting.' Look to your friend with such a look of love that he can know your love. You will gain benefit by association with only one class of people 114 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II . a ends when the purpose is fulfilled. temporal or spiritual. you will have many friends. Don't ask anything from his wealth and properties. Know. Hasan Majusi and his party men.Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 113 right of friendship appertains to faith Accord good treatment to friends. There is no good in the company of a friend who does not consider good for his friend what he considers good for himself. Ibaul Karabi and his party men. his hearing. He does not seek advantage over him and does not inflict trouble on him. Live with the people of the next world with knowledge and live as you wish with the God-fearing people. (2) when he does necessary works with him. (8) Not to give trouble to a friend: Don't inflict trouble to your friend and give up the giving of trouble and taking of trouble. Don't hope to get any benefit from his name and fame. In other words : If you show sympathy to them. Don't tell him : Take my care and fulfill the duties towards me. Hazrat Juniad said : I kept company with four classes of Sufis There were thirty Sufis in each class. They are Hares Mohasabi and his party men. A wise man said : When a man does four works in the house of his friend his love becomes perfect-)1) when he eats with him. modesty and trust. for the devil sows dissensions among them-:7:53 Q. If one makes friendship for a certain purpose. These people are fools and ill tempered. Friendship becomes lasting when it is done for the sake of God. A certain wise man said : The friend who places his honour above the honour of his friend and thinks himself superior to his friend. His assembly was that of shame. humility. God says: Tell My servants that they should say those things that are best. 0 dear readers that there are three classes of people. (3) when he prays with him. rather you will receive harm as a result of your association with them. A wise man said : The love of one is lasting who has got no outward show. God sent revealation to Moses : If you obey Me. Look to his good deeds and not to his faults. You cannot do any benefit to the third class of people. meet with him and help in his duties of religion and seek nearness Qf God by fulfilling duties towards him. did not inflict trouble on one another and did not keep company with one another without any reason. commits sin and allows another to commit it. He was indeed good to me and took you all from the desert even after the devil had sown enmity between me and my brothers-12:100. God says of this love for Him : They don't find any necessity (hatred) in their hearts for what they are given and they take to self sacrifice for friends. his dissension and arguing with him in sweet words are held in the same assembly. It has been reported that whoever sat before the Prophet. The man who considers himself inferior to his friend keeps himself and his friend safe Hazrat Ayesha said : A believer is brother to another believer. A certain companion said : God curses those who inflict trouble on others. you will have many friends. God says about Joseph that he said: When God took me out of prison. nor you will receive any benefit from them. The result of friendship for God is not hatred for any Matter. Don't give up the second class of people as they will do you benefit in the next world by their intercession and invocation. he used to show his face to him. Sarri Sakti and his party men. The man who considers his friend as his equal suffers mental agony. Every man thought that he was honoured more by the Prophet. You can do some benefit to the second class of people and you receive no harm at their hands. The Prophet said: I and the God fearing men of my followers are free from infliciting troubles. The . Those who made friends out of them for the sake of God. (4) and when he sleeps with him.

Don't request for repetation of any word. treat with them with words of a gentleman and mention their qualities. don't enter your finger into your nose. taste of love goes away. keep sharp look like edges of teeth. Don't look to both sides of your own: Don't look long towards anything. When you sit. speak very little to them about your necessities. ' help the oppressed and the weak. Don't pass urine and stole off and on. and carelessness is earned. Don't be so much soft to them as they should sit on your head. Don't hint much with your hand. don't yawn much before the people in prayer and in other deeds. Use sweet words with one whom you discuss. Don't cut jokes with the wise and the fools as the wise will hate you and the fools will go against you. 0 God. enjoin good and avoid evil. don't be safe at his sudden change to you. respond to salutation. it is better . Don't keep informed your wife and children of the amount of your wealth and other properties. Don't be engaged in telling stories like servants and slaves. Don't term an oppressor as brave. you will become humiliated to them. Adopt middle course in all your actions. it gives encouragement to the fools. Speak when anger is appeased. falsehood and secret things. Be silent near those who arouse laughter and tell stories. Don't sit in the middle of the pathway. honour is endangered before the wise. Hear every word in front of a ruler but don't break secrets and pursue honour of his inmates. The two extremes of every action in condemned. you won't be able to satisfy them. It makes God distant. sit comfortably. Don't cut jokes with them. The Prophet said : If a man sits in an assembly where much useless talks are held and he says before he gets up from the assembly : Glory to God. Thine is all . Don't fall into fear from them. Don't fear them too much. Don't Discuss about your satisfaction with your children. Don't sit with the people in general. Speak according to his with till he commands to commit a sin. Don't fear them so much as they can treat with you harshly. hatred increases. don't spit much. If the ruler appoints you as one of his near adivsers. give up back-biting. hatred increases and for that becomes dead. don't cleanse teeth off and on don't drive flies and mosquitores very much. honour is disobeyed. show path to the misguided. Meet with them rarely even in times of necessity. Keep honour at the time of disputes and be careful of your ignorance. shut up your sight. Don't keep standing in the assembly of many men. and if they see your too much wealth. Salute those who come to you when you sit. SUMMARY OF DUTIES TOWARDS FRIENDS If you wish good company. Don't keep laughing with the servants or else your gravity will reduce thereby. give up useless talks. because if they see your little wealth. If he shows kindness on you.Prophet wore a smiling look before his companisions and remand satisfied with what the companion remained satisfied. If their love for you it expressed. servants poetry. Sit wherever you get space. If you sit there. 116 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Don't sit together with the kings and rulers. make you disenssien in an orderly manner. When you sit. don't be too much pleased in any matter. Be indifferent to their evil words. spit in its proper place. don't spit towards the Ka'ba norto. make your assembly as guide. If you sit with them. If he is at laugh with you. Take to gravity without pride. defects fall in the wisdom of a learned man. don't make pick of you teeth. Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 115 Don't move your beard and ring. Treat with him like a a boy. Don't honour your wealth more than your honour. Don't make sound of your fingers.s rright side but to the left side or under your left foot. salute them first. Be careful of the solvent friend as he is the greatest enemy. Don't yawn before them and don't make pick after meal. Give up haste and think of your proof. composition and books and other things. Don't use oil or antimony in great quantity. look at those who remains behind you or else don't look much look at those Don't sit on your knees. When you enter an assembly. give charity to the beggars. Fear goes away at jokes and laughter. meet with your friends and enemies with smiling countenance and do not dishonour them. Be modest without meanness. don't treat unjusty with his wife and children taking its advantage. Don't go in front of one who goes forward.

(2) Love for the believers what you love for yourself and dislike for the believers what you dislike for yourself . God and His Apostle know best. join his funeral prayer. because it is a charity. call on him. accept his repentance and forgive his sins. to seek forgiveness for the sinners. If he seeks your advice. God says They are sympathetic towards one another. accept his invitation. The Prophet advised the people to do good deeds in a long sermon. Love for him what you love for yourself. If he is absent. I seek forgiveness to Thee and I turn to Thee . guard his proprieties. He said : A Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim are safe and a believer is he in whose hand the lives and properties of the believers remain safe. Hazrat Abu Hurairah asked the Prophet one day : 0 Messenger of God. If anybody shows pride to you. give me such advice as will do benefit to me. keep patience. God ordered the Prophet Take to pardon and enjoin good . The Prophet said: The Muslim society is like a body in respect of mutual love and sympathy. The Prophet said : I saw a man loitering freely in Paradise for rewards of cutting tree which was obstructing the path of the Muslims. NEIGHBOURS. give him the blessing of good of which you have decreed for him and keep him firm over it and give him benefit therewith. I am going to discuss these rules and regulations to be observed by a Muslim while dealing with persons of various types. When a sinner among the Muslim looks to a pious man. The Prophet said : One believer is like a building to another believer a portion of which strengthens another portion. 118 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II If you are unable to do it. to invoke good for the unfortunate and to love those who make repentance. The Prophet said : God revealed to me : Be modest to one another and don't be proud to one. give him advice. the latter should say : 0 God. SLAVES AND MUSLIMS Man is social being and he is to observe certain rules and regulations if he lives in society. he is forgiven of the sins he commits it that assembly. When you meet a Muslim. don't take pride near him as God does not love the proud and the self-conceited. (3) Don't give trouble to a Muslim by your words and actions. The Prophet said : The best Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim. advise the people to give up evils. He said : It is not lawful for a Muslim to threaten another Muslim with fear. another. The companions asked : Who is a refuges ? He said : One who gives up sin. The Prophet said: There are four duties on you to help the pious. It will be considered for you as an act of charity. The Prophet once was asked : Do you know who is a Muslim ? The companions replied. The Prophet said : If a man removes an injurious thing from the path of the Muslims. He said : Remove the injurious things from the path of the Muslims. I bear witness that there is no deity but Thou. remains safe. The Prophet said : A Muslim is he from whose tongue and hands other Muslim remain safe. A man asked : What is Islam ? he said : Your sacrifice of heart for the sake of God and the Muslim remaining safe from your tongue and hands. respond to him. It is no lawful for a Muslim to cast such a look on another Muslim which gives him trouble in mind. he should pray for him thus : 0 God.praise. If a limb of the body suffers pain. He said in the midst of his sermon. Paradise is sure for one for whom God writes a virtue. when he invites you. The Prophet said . the whole body responds to it by sleepessness and fever. give him guidance. Don't love for him what you do not love for yourself . give him Salam. (4) Be modest to every Muslim Don't treat harshly with him. When he dies. When a pious man looks to a sinner among them. When he falls ill. CHAPTER VI DUTIES TO RELATIVES. DUTIES TOWARDS A MUSLIM (1) The following instructions have come in the Quran and Hadis. He said : God does not like that the believers should be given trouble. God writes for him a virtue. Hazrat Ibn Abbas explained it by saying : The pious among them seek forgiveness for the sinners. When he sneezes.

Whenever the Prophet returned from a journey. He used to make some boys sit in his front and some in his back. fuflil promise. tell the truth. show kindness to the orphans. pious or impious. God raises a man who becomes modest for the sake of God. He said: . give me clue to such an action which will send me to Paradise. necessary works of the poor and the widwoss. (9) Honour the dead and show affection to the juniors: The Prophet said : He who does not show affection to our juniors is not of us. Some companions were then present there. So if you show honour to the aged. The Prophet advised Muaz-b-Jabal saying: Fear God. God will create. be modest in talk. till there is profuse rain. The Prophet said: The back-biter will not enter paradise. for whom are these rooms ?' He said : For those who use sweet words. God will forgive his faults on the resurrection day. greet with salam and spread peace. The Prophet said : Save yourself from the fire of Hell by giving in charity even half a seed of dried grapes. till the backbiters come out from every place.. it is good. The Prophet said : Stop. or impious-If you do good to one who is fit to receive. of wisdom and with theology and dispute with the fools. The Prophet was modest to every Muslim. The Prophet said : The root of wisdom after religion is to love for men and to do good to everyone. He said To give salutation and to speak sweet words are means of forgiveness. nor should he turn away his face from another if both of them meet. where is your aged man ? The Prophet said : 'If a young man shows honour to an aged man. you will get trouble. Hazrat Anas narrated : A poor woman came to the Prophet and said : I have got some necessity to you. If you go to meet an illiterate person with words. he was not harsh to them and did not dislike to do the. He said: Those who are modest. The Prophet said : Do good to everyone. If you cannot do it. God will prolong your life. the boys used to 120 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II meet him and he waited for them standing in their front. give food and remain busy in prayers when the people remain asleep. Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet never took revenge for personal wrongs. (5) Don't hear back-biting and don't take it to others. you are fit to do good. simple and neighbours of God. (6) Give up disputes and quarrels. He said : God loves the simple and those having smiling countenance. The Prophet said that the Hour will not came till a son gets angry at his parents. God does not increase but honour in case of pardon. don't give up his association for more than three days. The Prophet said : It is not lawful for a Muslim to remain aloof Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 119 from his brother for more than three days. Hazrat Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet did not withdraw his hand from another till the latter withdrew his own hand. take care of neighbours. A certain man asked : 0 Messenger of God. A desert Arab said :'0 Prophet of God. If he is not fit to receive it. The Prophet said: If a man pardons the faults of a Muslim. The Prophet said: Wealth does not reduce by charity. A young man among them stood on their behalf to talk to the Prophet.' This means that he will live up to old age. for him such one in his old age who will show him honour. Hazrat Jaber reported : A deputation of Juhaina tribe once came to the Prophet . pious. He said: 'To honour an aged Muslim is to honour God. When you get angry with another. The better of the two is one who greets first with salutation. So treat affectionately with the boys according to the habit of the Prophet. break not trust. save yourself in lieu of a sweet word.and keep away from the illiterate. He used to take the little children in his lap and some of them even passed urine in his cloth. (10) Live with all men with smiling face and kind heart: The Prophet said : Do you know for whom Hell has been made unlawful? The companions said: Cod and his Apostle know best. till the juniors will not show honour to the aged and till the wrong doers will not be doing wrong against the honourable men. (7) Do good to every one either deserving or underserving.' The honour of an aged man does not become perfect if without his permission one talks with others of the party. till the honourable men will be unseen. The Prophet said : There are rooms in Paradise of which the inner sides can be seen from the outer sides. (8) Treat well with all and speak to everyone according to his intellect.

She said to the Prophet what she had to say. conduct. Thy servants? He said : That servant who does best justice to himself.Sit down in this lane and I shall also sit with you. he does not return it. What is the reason ? Hazrat Ayesha said : God has given different persons different ranks. God will keep all of his sins secret on the Resurrection Day. Hazrat Ayesha said : Call him to this feast. God will keep his guilts secret both in this world and the next. You intercession will be accepted . The Prophet said : He who hopes to keep Hell distant and to enter Paradise shall testify at the time of death that Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 121 there is no deity but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God and treat with the people in such a manner as he wishes to get from them. The foster mother of the Prophet. a beggar came to her when food was served to her and begged some food. We should entertain them according to their ranks. (3) and the lie of husband to please his wife. appearance and dresses and his status and rank. fasting and Zakat ? The companions said : Surely. She sat down and the Prophet also did so. The Prophet said : When any honourable man of a people comes to you. This poor man will be pleased with a piece of bread. The Prophet said Promises is like charity. God will then compromise disputes among the believer. who is the best judge among . (13) Honour those to whom honour is due. Love for men what you love for yourself. the Prophet gave him his shirt to sit thereon. he will enter . (3) and to greet with salam. you are welcome. Then Zarir-b-Abdullah. you will then be a believer. (2) to do justice to oneself. came there but finding no place to sit he sat upon the door. He also said : If a man keeps the sin of a man secret in this world. (3) and when he is entrusted with a thing. you will then be a Muslim. treat well with your neighbour. (11) Fuflil promise with the Muslims. Seeing this. It has been reported that once the Prophet entered a room and the people came there and the room was full. She said : I intercede to you for my own people. Halima. He also said : Every lie is recorded except three lies-(1) the lie of a man in a war battle as it is a deception . honour him. The Prophet said : You are the owner of my dues and the dues of the people of Hashemite dynasty. but to give to this rich man a piece of bread is out of etiquette. (14) Compromise disputes among the Muslims if you have got means. 122 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Dispute between two persons is destructive. It is reported that when Hazrat Ayesha was in her tent in a journey. The Prophet said : Fear God and settle disputes among you. Hazrat Moses asked God : 0 Lord. The Prophet said : The faith of a man does not become perfect in whom three qualities are not found-(1) to spend till he becomes poor. (2) the lie of a man to settle dispute between two persons. Halima sold it it to Hazrat Osman for one lac dirhams. The Prophet said : Shall I not inform you of a greater rank than that of prayer. he breaks it. (92) when he speaks. Thereafter a man came to her riding on a horse. Then he gave the entire booty gained in the battle of Hunain to her. The Prophet said : If a believer keeps the fault of his brother secret. while you called the horse man to a feast. Honour one who is understood to be honourable in rank from his nature. You will be given what you want. he speaks lies. The Prophet said He who settles dispute between two persons is not a great lair. The Prophet said : It is to compromise disputes. (15) Keep the secrets of Muslims secret: The Prophet said : If a man keeps the guilts of a Muslims secret. The Prophet said : He in whom there are these three faults is a hypocrite though he prays and fasts. Hazrat Ayesha said : Give him a piece of bread. once came to him and the Prophet gave her his own shirt to her to sit on and said : Mother. She was asked : You have given a bread to the begger. He began to kiss it and handed it over to the Prophet and said : May God honour you as you have honoured me. The Prophet said To settle dispute between two persons is the best charity. The Prophet said : '0 Abu Darda'a . the chief of the tribe. He said : There are three faults of hyporcrite-(1) when he promises. (12) Do justice to the people willingly and come to them with what they love.

God is forgiving and love forgiveness. even though he remains within the house. I will mention to you with regard to a thief who was brought to tht' Prophet for the first time. He asked the man who brought him. He ordered for cutting of his hands which were cut off. ' You have come overstepping the wall and so you have committed another sin God says : Don't enter a . you will ruin them. it becomes compulsory on him to inflict the prescribed punishment on him. Hazr#t Ali said : Punishment in this case is unlawful. Then he recited : Let them pardon and forgive. When we came near. You have committed spying and therefore committed one sin. Is this man your relative ? He said : I am his uncle. We saw a light in a house and proceeded towards it. When any sin of a person is mentioned to a ruler. he has got no other alternatives but to punish him. Hazrat Omar kept silent for some days. God says : 'It is not righteousness that you should come to the houses by their back-doors. God said: Don't 124 ThL Book of Wordly Usages spy. Again he questioned them and they replied as they had said : He became inclined towards the opinion of Hazrat Ali and decided not to mete out the punishment. The people took smell from his mouth and it was found that he drank wine. This is a good proof that the sins of the Muslims should be kept secret and that four eye witness are necessary for the capital punishment for fornication which is practically is possible in a case of sexual of sexual intercourse. After this. God humiliates one whose secrets He follows . while going at night in the city. When Ma'az disclosed the condition of his fornication to the Prophet. God is forgiving. He said : 0 enemy of God. it would have been better. He said : You have not given him training and good manners and did not keep his sin secret. So Hazrat Omar returned there.Paradise. I will not arrest him nor I will tell anybody to arrest him till some person remains with me. He loves forgiveness . Hazrat Abu Bakr said : If I see anybody to commit prescribed offense. don't back-bite and Muslims. He got over the wall and found that there was a woman with them and a pot of wine near a man. merciful. Hazrat Abu Bakr said: If I see a drunkard. He is more honourable to disclose it in the next world. This punishment cannot be meted out without the evidence of four persons. Don't you like that God may forgive you ? God is forgiving. rather you are to suffer punishment for this for slander. At that time a man brought another man to him saying : This man is a drunkard. The Prophet said : 0 people (who have faith by tongue but in whose heart the light of Islam has not yet entered). Take to pardon and forgiveness. Then he recited. You have got freedom in this action. what is your opinion about it ? They said : You are a ruler. The Prophet said to Muwayiah : If you enquire into the secrets of the people. don't roam about to enquire into their secrets because he who roams about the secrets of his brother. heard sounds of songs in a house. The Prophet said : When God keeps the sin of a persons secret. But then the colour of his face became changed at this. God will enquire about his secrets. have you thought that God will keep your sin concealed ? He said : 0 Commander of the faithful. Abdullah-b-Masud said Take smell from his mouth. Hazrat Omar one night went out in the city in disguise and saw a man and a woman in obscene action. you have come yourself ! Don't be hasty in judgement I committed one sin this time. A wise man said : I was seated one day with Hazrat Abdullah-b-Masud. but you have committed three sins. Once Hazrat Omar. I entertain such a hope in my mind that God will keep this sin secret. The companions asked : Then why have you not forgiven him ? When a man in brought to a ruler for being guilty of a prescribed crime. Hazrat Abdur Rauf-b-Aaf narrated : We came out with Hazrat Omar secretly to travel in the city of Medina in the grim midnight. In the morning he told the people : I f certain Ameer sees a man and a woman committing fornication and if he metes out prescribed punishment in the Quran to them. The companions asked : Are you dissatisfied with the cutting of his hands ? He said : Why should not I ? Don't be helpers of the devil against your brothers . I said : Don't spy. we found that in a closed door Rabia-b-Omayya was intoxicated Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 123 with drinking wine. he said : Had you kept it concealed under your cloth. He then arrested him and whipped him.

The Prophet said Go back and say : 'Peace be on you' and then enter. God does through His Prophet what He loves. the angels bless him seventy times. The Prophet said : Intercede to me. as he gets rewards for that. I will never do it. that will be good for you. Then he pardoned him and went away. because when one of you greets. 0 Messenger of God. He said : For him. The Prophet said : If anybody amongst you seeks something from me. it will do me good. The Prophet said Do you see a man who rebukes his parents ? The companions said : Is there anybody who rebukes his own parents ? He said Yes. (18) Greet every Muslim with salam before talk and before greeting handshake with him. God says : Don't abuse those whom they worship besides God. to remove the needs of a Muslim and try hard to meet his requirements. seventy virtues are divided among them. I like that he should intercede for him. ten rewards have been written. your rewards will increase . make ablution well. Then the book of good deeds will be given to him. will get sixty nine virtue therefrom. (16) Keep away from places of slander and back-biting so that the minds of the people remain free from cherishing evil ideas about you. you will not enter Paradise till you believe. peace among you. When Omar was about to whip him. He who meets out of them with smiling. 0 Commander of the faithful. A wise man said : Once I went to the Prophet but did not great him with salam and did not seek permission. the devil does not enter his house. greet its inmates with salam. one should not even talk with his wife before the public on the path way. you Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 125 will get rewards. If you pardon me. but if anyone among you remains present near me. The Prophet said : Don't respond to one who begins talk before salam till he begins talk with salam. The Prophet said: Every person of my followers will be forgiven except Muzaher who is a person who commits sins and then discloses them. He said : Spread. countenance. He said to me one day : 0 Anas. Hazrat Anas said : I have been serving the Prophet for the last eight years. God will say : 0 My servant. your life will be prolonged. Once Hazrat Omar passed by a man who was talking with a woman on the road. Greet with salam to any of my followers whom you meet. He also said : If a person hears the news of a people secretly but they dislike it. I make delay to do a thing though I wish to do it. greet them with a better greeting than it or similar to it. some one rebukes his parent and he in turn rebukes his parents. benefits man or saves a man from a calamity. The Prophet said : By One in whose hand there is my life. !r order to avoid evil conjecture of the people. I wish I should give it to him at once. Greet with salam the inmates of a house when you enter it. The Prophet said: God will take a believer near Him. So make intercession. When one of a party salutes. so that you may get rewards by interceding for it. Handshaking with salam is Sunnat: A man came to the Prophet and said : Peace be on you. you will not believe till you love one another. The Prophet said: When you enter your house. He also said : When two believers meet and handshake with each other. Another man came and said : . spread His mercy on him and keep his fault secret on the Resurrection Day. You have entered my house without permission and greeting. molten brass will be put into their ears on the Resurrection Day. it is sufficient for them. you will get reward. Hazrat Omar said If I pardon you. The Prophet said: No charity is better than oral charity ? He was asked : What is oral charity ? He said : A just pleading which saves the life of man. Hazrat Omar said : Why have you not talked with her in a place where people will not see you ? (17) Intercede for everyone. he said She is my wife.house other than your own houses till you seek permission and greet their inmates-25:27 Q. will it do any good to you ? He said : By God. Make intercession to one who has got authority. God says : When you are greeted with greeting. The Prophet said : The rider will salute one sitting. Shall I not inform you of such an action for which you will love one another if you do it? The companions said : Yes. He said : When a Muslim greets another Muslim with salam and the latter responds to it. I have kept it secret for you in the world and I wished to pardon you to-day. lest they abuse God out of enmity.

Handshake is like kissing the hand of Muslim to his brother. The Prophet said . one hundred mercies are showered on them." This shows that embracing is good. He said : If a Muslim saves the honour of another Muslim it . A desert Arab came and said : 0 Messenger of God. The Prophet said : Don't handshake with the Zimmis and don't greet them first. The first man has got no greater right than the last. God loves kindness in everything. God's mercy and His blessing. If he does not get space after greeting. because they knew that the Prophet disliked it. a small party to the big party. It is Makruh to stand up for a man thinking him great but to stand in his honour is not Makruh. ninety for one who first greets and ten for one who handshakes. rather he should make it spacious. let him not go but take seat behind the rows. take him to a corner of the pathway. When they saw him. Hazrat Anas saluted the boys while passing by them. he kissed his head and hands. Then he responded to him and handshaked with him. The Prophet then said : 0 Ayesha. Ibn Omar said : We used to kiss the hands of the Prophet. one who walks will salute one seated. shall we bow our head for one another ? He said : No They said : Shall we kiss one another ? He said : No They said Shall we Vol-U Love and Brotherhood 127 handshake with one another ? He said : Yes . When you meet any of them. God forgives them before they part away. Hazrat Ayesha said : On you also death and curse. lead him to the narrow corner of the path. Hazrat Bar'a-b-Ajeb reported that when he saluted the Prophet at the time of ablution. wealth and life. The Prophet said : If two Muslims handshake with each other after meeting.Peace be on you and God's mercy. the juniors to the seniors. then he will sit. Hazrat Anas said : We asked the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God. He got up from it and embraced me. it stands as a screen of Hell. He said When one of you meets his brother. When he thinks good to sit. let him say 'Peace be on you and God's mercy. He said : For him thirty rewards have been written. On permission being given. Another came and said : Peace be on you. The Prophet said : If a man saves the honour of his brother Muslim. When I heard it. The Prophet said : Don't greet the Jews and the Christens first. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : Whenever I met the Prophet. because it is binding on account of the brotherhood of Islam. give me permission to kiss his head and hands. because the greeting of the Jewsis hint by fingers and the greeting of the Christains is clapping by hands. If Vol-II 126 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II one of you meets any of them on the path or. One day a man saluted the Prophet while he was passing urine. The Prophet said : Handshakes among you perfects greeting. There is no harm in kissing the hand of a religious man and an honourable man out of respect. Once during my absence he enquired of rhe. Hazrat Ayesha reported: A party of the Jews came to the Prophet and said : Sa'm (death) on you The Prophet said : On you too. (19) To help the distressed: Save your Muslim brother from oppression on his honour. he will salute them. The Prophet said: Let one seek his abode in Hell who is pleased with the standing of other for him. The Prophet said: When two Muslims meet with each other and handshake. Hazrat Anas said that nobody was dearer to the companions than the Prophet. remove it and help him. When he goes away. he did not respond to it till he finished his ablution. It is prohibited to bow the head at the time of greeting. He did not respond to him and disliked it. The Prophet said : Let nobody take the seat of another person after asking him to get up. he handshaked with me. Hazrat Ayesha said : Have you not heard what they said ? He said : I also said : On you too The Prophet said : The rider will salute one who walks. He said This is the practice of the foreigners. I came to him and found him sitting in a Khatia. Once a man abused another before the Prophet to which another man protested. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: Handshake increases love. don't stand up as the foreigners do. Hazrat Omar said : I heard the Prophet say: When two Muslims meet with each other and one of them greets another and handshakes with him. The Prophet said : Don't follow the Jews and the Christians. they used not to stand up. He said : For him twenty rewards have been written. The Prophet said : When a man reaches an assembly. The Prophet once said to them : When you see me. he shall salute them. their sins fall down.

where shall I search for Thee ? He said : Near the broken heart. He said : He who passes his hand out of sympathy on the hairs of an orphan will get virtues to the proportion of hairs on which his hand has passed. The Prophet said : Don't be envious for the fortunes of. it is a disease. God will send to him an angel on the Resurrection day to save him from hell-fire. it will be an act of charity for him. Moses said : 0 Lord. The Prophet said 0 Ayesha. God says : They remove evil by good deeds. He used to say : Say : May God guide you. Moses asked God: 0 Lord. if a Muslim is about to disgrace his brother Muslim. The sage Fuzail said : I heard that a Prophet said : 0 Lord. respond to him. fear. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said that the meaning of another is a people with hope. God will disgrace an dishonour him in such a place where he will be waiting for help. Once the Prophet replied to a sneezer and did not reply to another. Hazrat Abu Abbas explained this evil by saying Those who treat with salam and modesty in lieu of harm and harsh treatment. He said : If a Muslim helps his brother Muslim in a place in which his honour is at stake. If he increases more than thrice. On the otherhand. who are the dead ? He said : The rich men. The Prophet said : If a Muslim is mentioned before his brother and the latter does not help him inspite of his ability to help. God will help him in such a place where he well be dependent on him for his help. God will help him in this world and the next. so that I may speak loudly to Thee ? He said : I am with one who remembers Me. Whenever Hazrat Solaiman saw a poor man. He said : We are sometime in such a condition that to remember Thee is impertinence. modesty and humble behavior. let him place his hand upon his mouth. Orphans The Prophet said : Paradise is sure for one who maintains an orphan after taking him from Muslim parents till he comes of age. such as in the state of impurity or at the times of calls of nature. he used to shut up his mouth with his hand or cloth. God will arrest him in the world and the next. let me live as a poor man let me die as a poor man and resurrect me with the poor. He was asked : 0 Messenger of God. When one of you yawn. etc. The Prophet said : 0 God. art Thou near me. The Prophet said : The best . (20) Respond to sneezing: The Prophet said : He who sneezes will say : God's praise in all circumstances and one who hears it will say : May God have mercy on you. It has been reported that nothing could Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 129 please Jesus Christ so much as he was when addressed as a poor man. because you do not know that will be their condition. (22) Give up the company of the rich and take the company of the poor and show kindness on the orphans. The Jews sneezed before the Prophet with the hope of getting a reply 'May God show you mercy. cloister. God says : If God would not have repelled one people by another. the Prophet said : Be careful of the assemblies of the dead. The Prophet said: if a Muslim keeps alive the honour of his brother Muslim in this world. He said : If a man keeps patience to save his honour after hearing abusive words. He said : Remember meat all times. so that I may hold secret conversation with Thee ? Art thou distant. the worst man on the Resurrection Day will be a man whom the people forsake for fear of his harm.becomes the duty of God to remove from him the fire of Hell on the Resurrection day. (21) Help at the time of distress and calamities: God says Remove evil with what is good. how can I know that you are pleased with me ? He said : Look for it when the poor remain satisfied with you. He hinted by joining his two fingers. The sneezer will then say May God guide you and make your mind pure. would have been destroyed. He said : I and the care taker of an orphan will remain in Paradise like these two fingers. If a Muslim is mentioned before his brother and he helps him. The Prophet said : Sneezing comes from God and yawing for the devil . When asked the reason he said : One has praised God and another remained silent. and if another Muslim does not help him according to his ability and show no 128 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II sympathy. he sat with him and said : A poor man is sitting by the side of a poor man . The Prophet said : When a Muslim sneezes thrice. the sinners. There is behind them one who enquires of them with haste. When the Prophet sneezed.

The Prophet said : Visit a patient every alternate day and treat modestly with him. your steps. The Prophet said He who follows the bier will get a Qirat of virtue. man recites thrice everyday: 0 God.house of the Muslim is one in which an orphan is well treated and the worst house of the Muslims is one is which an orphan is badly treated. (2) to oppress God's servants. call on him and nurse him. God will destroy his virtues one the Resurrection Day. The Prophet said : God gives disease to a man whom He loves. it is better than two months. God says Blessings on you. He said : When a man goes to see a patient. Handshaking perfects your greeting. God will include him in the class of Abdals. When he comes to him and praises God. two return and one does not return. make the followers of Muhammad. to take lessons and to make the mind soft. The following rules must be observed when you go to see a patient. He said : Three things follow a dead man. the Unique. or to pay off his debt or to appease his hunger by giving food. The object is to pray. free from want. The . (26) Visit the graves of the dead. His relatives and wealth return. Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 131 (25) Join the funeral prayer of a Muslim. He said : When a man falls ill. He said : There is no sin worse than two sin-(1) to set up partners with God and. a diseased Muslim or meets with him. I give you from the evil which I see to the refuge of God. (23) Give advice to every Muslim . are good. If he waits uptoburial. I will give him better flesh than this flesh. He said : One of you is like a mirror for another. sits by the side of Paradise. The Prophet said : If a man removes the anxieties of a believer or helps an oppressed person. If I cure him. take information of his health with soft mind and pray for his recovery. show mercy on the followers of Muhammad. He said : He who fulfills the needs of his brother Muslim. I tiqaf (seclution in mosque) . He was asked : How can he help the oppressor ? He said : He thing to God is to incur pleasure to the mind of a believer. whether his sufferings are removed or not. the Most Merciful. he will get two Qirats of virture. but his actions do not return. God says. good. He said : Help your brother Muslim. The Prophet said : If a man goes to a patient and places his hand on his forehead or asks the condition of his disease his meeting with him becomes perfect. I will admit him in Paradise. he be oppressed or oppressor. has done divine service as it were for his whole . In another narration : If a. If I cause the death of this servant. God sends to him two angels saying : Look what he says to the patient. the most Compassionate. ask him few questions. God will send for him on the Resurrection Day an angel who will protect his flesh from Hell. (1) Sit for a short while before the patient. He said : If a man spends one hour to relieve the sufferings of his brother Muslim :day or night. relieve the suffering of the followers of Muhammad God enrolls him as one of the Abdals. He begets not. it becomes permanent. When he sits by his bed. he is entrusted with seventy thousand angels who pray for him up to night. He said . He said : If a man destroys the honour of a believer. he should remove it from him. The Prophet said : If a man saves a believer from the deceit 130 The Book of Wordly Usages of a hypocrite. The Prophet said : I have not seen a more horrible secenery than grave.fire. If a a Muslim falls ill. they carry it to God and prays to Him. The Prophet said : A believer shall love for another believer what he loves for himself. There is no virtue better than two virtue (1) to have faith in God and (2) and to do good to God's servants. The Prophet said: He who meets with a patient. The Prophet said : He whose mind is not moved with the sufferings of the Muslims. is not of them. God forgives his seventy three sins. The Prophet said One Qirat is like coins full of Uhud mountain. he remains inmerged in mercy. He said : The Prophet once came to see a patient and said : In the name of God. If he sees anything wrong in him. When he return. 0 God.life.Nobody of you can be a believer till he loves for his brother what he loves for himself. better blood than this blood and forgive his sins. nor is He begotten and there is none like him. He said : When a Muslim goes to see his brother. (24) Call on the diseased. The sage Ma'ruf Karkhi said : If one says everyday : 0 God.

At another time. The Prophet said : Let him who believes in God and Vol-lI i 132 The Book of Wordly Usages the next world honour his neighbour . will get a garden in Paradise out of His gardens. as they pray and we do not pray. His neighbour came to him and said : By God. don't ask about his condition long. He said : I sought permission of God to visit her grave and He gave me permission. cover his fault if it is out. The Prophet once was said : A certain man fasts all day and prays all night.not remember grave gets a hole in Hell out of its holes. one right of being a neighbour. Sufiyan Saori said: He who remember grave much. as they remember God and we do not remember Him. be sorry in his sorrows. In short. don't let water flow down his courtyard. They began to say : God's curse upon him. Call on him when he is ill. a man complained against his neighbour to the Prophet and he said: Have patience. as they fast and we do not fast. I will not treat with him further in such a manner. what will occurs after it will be easy. I sought His permission for her forgiveness but he refused it. don't trouble him by replacing your rafters on his wall. take care of his house in his absence. don't hear . and the third class three. Being asked the reason. one right of being a relative. be happy in his happiness. RIGHTS OF NEIGHBOURS As a Muslim has got rights over you. don't look at the inner side of his house from the top of your roof. you cause trouble to his mind. The Prophet said : There are three classes of neighbours. the rights of a neighbour on you are the following Salute him first. one right of being a Muslim and one right of being a neighbour.. the people asked him: What is the matter with you? They were told that his neighbour was giving him trouble . He said : He is not a believer from whose harms his neighbour is not safe. If I go away from them they do not back-bite me. Fortune regarding a horse comes when it becomes submissive and has got a good figure and misfortune comes when it is disobedient and has got an ugly figure. the second class two. Fortune regarding a house occurs when it is spacious and its neighbour is good and misfortune comes when it is narrow and its neighbour is bad. The first class neighbour has got one right. you will be a Muslim. and one night of being a Muslim. so a neighbour also has got rights over you. what occurs after it will be severe. try to remove his distress as soon as possible. The Prophet said : There is'no night in which a proclaimer does not proclaim : 0 inmates of the graves. her marriage is easily performed and her character and conduct are good. If he does not get relief from it. don't shut up the outflow of water of his house through your boundary. When he threw them. He said The first two who will come as disputants on the Resurrection day will be neighbours.Prophet once went to the grave of his mother Amina. He who is a neighbour. he said I sit with such people who remind me of the next world. but he give trouble to his neighbour. If its inmate gets relief from it. He said: grave is the first station out of the stations of the next world. show sympathy in his distress. The second class neighbour has got two rights. house and conveyance. her marriage is solemnised with difficulty and her character and conduct are bad. don't make the path to his house narrow. a Muslim and a relative has got three rights. pardon his faults. He began to weep. The cause of her misfortune occurs when her dower is heavy. Hazrat Abu Darda'a used to sit by graves. The Prophet said : he is in Hell. He said : When you throw a stone at the dog of neighbour. The third class neighbour has got only one right. The Prophet said Gebriel was insisting always to pay the tight of the neighbour so much that I thought that he would give him the right of inheritance. The Prophet said : Treat well with your neighbour. share enjoyments in his happiness. Once the Prophet said : Proclaim forty surrounding houses as houses of neighbours. A woman is a cause of fortune when her dower is little. The right of being an infidel neighbour. He said fortune and misfortune lie in woman. The Prophet said : Throw your goods on the pathway. whom do" you envy ? They say : We envy the inmates of mosques. When he said twice and thrice. He who does. don't talk with him for long.

gives much advice for good deeds and prohibits bad deeds. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : My friend the Prophet gave me these instructions: When you cook curry. These are the foundations for all qualities. There is no harm in sending food cooked in your cook-shed to your neighbour's house. Hazrat Ayesha said: There are ten habits of an honourable man. increase its Soup and send something to your neighbour. (7) to perform the duties towards a neighbour. God gives these to one whom He loves-(1) to speak the truth. He said : Let none amongst you refuges his neighbour from placing rafter on his wall. give him something. Whose right is greater ? He said : The right of one whose house is nearer. the house of one is near my house and the house of another is some distant. The Prophet said : If a man has got a share in a wall. take them secretly to your house. They may be found in his servant but may not be found in his master. The Prophet said : If any man is pleased to prolong his life and to make his livelihood solvent. how shall I know whether a man is good or bad ? He said : When you hear your neighbour say 'He is good' he is really good. show him sympathy and express sorrow if he is in danger. but may not be found in his father. Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 133 The Prophet said: Do you know about your duties towards your neighbour ? Help him if he seeks your help. If you hear say 'he is bad'. If you purchase some fruits. The Prophet said : God gives sweetness to one whose good He wishes. don't think insignificant to give your neighbours even a goat's cooked hoof. I keep attached to one who joins it and I keep aloof from one who severs it. let him fear God and join the tie of relation ship. (3) to give charity to the beggars. One man asked : 0 Messenger of God. Then he said: Do you know the rights of a neighbour ? By one in whose hand there is my life. If you do not do it. (9) to entertain guests and (10) to keep shame. The man who fulfills his duties towards his relatives is not the real protector of relationship but he is one who joins it after it is severed. give him loan if he wants it. keeps best connection with his relatives. (6) to protect trust. He ordered me to speak the truth though bitter. The Prophet said : 0 Muslim women. don't give him trouble. good neighbour and satisfactory conveyance. Hazrat Ayesha said : 0 Messenger of God. follow his bier if he is dead. (2) to treat good with the people. He said : The rewards of keeping good relation with relatives are found more hastily than other rewards. Don't give him trouble by the smoke of your cook-shed. can place his rafter in the wall of his neighbour whether he is willing Vol-II 134 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II or not. I have got two neighbours. He was asked : What is the meaning of sweetness ? His said: He makes him dear to his neighbour. (8) to maintain friendship. Hasan Basari used to present the meat of Qurbani to his neighbours-jews and Christians. The Prophet said : A neighbour. RIGHTS OF RELATIVES The Prophet said: God says : I am Rahim (Merciful and Raham (relationship) is derived from my name.his back-biting. (4) to help in domestic works. They may be found in a man. don't raise up your building so high without his permission so as to obstruct his air. remove his wants if he is in wants. When the Prophet started for the conquest of Mecca. Hazrat Abu Zarr said : My friend (Prophet) advised me to keep good relation with relatives even though they treat badly. talk with his sons and daughters with affection and read out to him "What he is ignorant" of the worldly and religious matters. a man came to him and said : If . Don't allow your children to come out with them as it may cause displeasure of his children. he shall not sell it without asking his cosharer. The Prophet was once asked : Who is the best persons ? He said : One who fears God most. give him joy him if he gets good news. The Prophet said : Raham (relationship) is hanging with the Throne. The Prophet said : The fortune of a Muslim is in spacious abode. His wealth and properties increase inspite of the inmates of his house being sinners and their numbers increase when they keep the relationship intact. he is really bad. (5) to treat well with relatives. one on whom God shows mercy can fuflil these duties towards neighbours.

if a man obeys his parents but commits sins. He was asked : What is its reason ? He said : She is more affectionate than father. He said : If a man gets up at morning pleasing his parents. Parents are nearest to a man and so the duty towards them is greatest. fulfil a part of it if he sees his father as a slave and liberates him. he does not help them by his evil actions to go to misguidance. If he pleases one of them. your brother and then your nearest relatives and then the near relatives. He said : God prohibited me to wage a campaign against them owing to my relationship with them the Prophet said: Charity to a poor man has go. is there any duty remaining towards parents after their death ? He said: Yes. he gets similar rewards. The Prophet said : Treat equally with your children in the matter of charity. The Prophet said : If a man joins the tie of relationship after it is severed and gives in charity to a man who deprives him. even though they both oppress him (thrice). to seek forgiveness for them. If he gets up at dusk. God then revealed to him : Have you not stood up in honour of your father ? By oath of My glory. He said : The Invocation by a mother for her child is soon accepted. then your sister. The Prophet said : The right of a mother is double than that of a father. In other words. to honour their friends and to preserve the tie of their relatives.you wish to marry a beautiful woman and to get a camel of red hue. two doors are opened up for him towards Hell. He said : I have got no parents. .. Hazrat Omar sent this order to his governors : Order relatives to meet one another. As you have got duties towards you parents. he becomes your servant and thereafter he becomes either your enemy or sharer in your works. however. He who is disobedient to parents and he who severs the tie of relationship will not get it. the latter did not stand in his honour. He said : Then with your children. fasting. so also you have got duties towards your children. If a man does it at dusk. you will enjoy his fragrance. Once a man asked the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God. The Prophet said : The fragrance of Paradise will be smelt from five hundred years' distance. If a man disobeys Me but is obedient to his parents. to invoke for them. I have gifted in charity this garden for the poor and destitue. start a campaign against the tribe of Mudlej. Umrah and jihad in the way of God. It has been said that a child is your flower and till he reaches the age of seven years. The Prophet said : The greatest rewards is of that charity which you give to your relative who has got dispute with you. two doors of Paradise are opened up for him. Hazrat Abu Talha was greatly satisfied on hearing the verse and wished to give in charity his garden of dates and said : 0 Prophet of God. The Prophet said : A son cannot fuflil his duties towards his father He can. the greater are the duties towards him. I enroll him as obedient to parents.* one merit and charity to a poor relative has good two merits. The Prophet of God said : Your reward from God has become sure. The invocation of relatives does not go baffled. God says : You will never attain righteousness till you spend what you love. It has been reported that when Hazrat Yakub (Israil) went to Joseph. The Prophet said: Obey your mother. he will get similar punishment. Distribute it among your near relatives. one door is opened up for him even though they both oppress him (thrice) If a man gets up at dawn displeasing his parents. If he displeases one of them. he will get the greatest rewards. When he is seven years old. I enroll him as obedient to parents. to fulfill their promise. The Prophet was once asked : With whom shall I keep the tie of relationship ? He said : With you parents. This can be understood from the Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 135 following Hadis. The Prophet said : The best duty is to keep i 136 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II connection with those who were dear to them after their death. The Prophet said: When a man wishes to give charity for his Muslim parents. RIGHTS OF PARENTS AND CHILDREN The nearer is the relation. one door is opened up for him. I will not make any Prophet out of your descendants. The Prophet said : May God show mercy on the father who helps his children to obey him. God said to Moses : 0 Moses. The Prophet said : To treat good with parents is better than prayer. pilgrimage. zakat. then your father. his parents get is rewards without any reduction.

A man complained against his son to the Prophet. The Prophet said : He who is not kind will not get kindness. as parad4 e lives under her feet. Then tell him catching his hands : I have taught you good manners. I did not like to put him aside till he finished his work. a man sought advice from the Prophet about his joining jihad. because of all the merits with which you will meet with God after Tauhid. teach him good manners. The Prophet said : Go to your parents and take their permission. give them cloth you put on and don't inflict on them work beyond their strength. when nine years old . A man asked the Prophet How many times shall I forgive the faults of a servant? He remained silent for a while and then said : Forgive him seventy times every day. It is commendable to show kindness to the son. He asked : Have they given you permission for jihad ? He said : No. He asked : Have you invoked against him ? He said : Yes. He asked him : Have you :t your mother? He said : Yes . The Prophet said : Why did you not pardon him before ? You have restrained your hand when you have seen me. He said : 0 Messenger of God. ask them to go and don't inflict punishment on the servants of God. On turning back I found the Messenger of God. He said : Stay with her. The Prophet said : The right of an elder brother is like the right of a father over his son. the Prophet said Hussain has made me his conveyance. Have you got parents? He said : Yes . If He wishes. At another time. then such a person of wealth who does not pay the dues of ' :od and then the proud poor man. serve them to your utmost. The Prophet said : Go back and give them joy as you have made them weep . Once the Prophet was in prostration leading a prayer. Hell would have blackened your face. give him a name and remove from him uncleanliness. He may place you under their control. I have given you education and I have got you married. The first three persons who v. ill enter paradise are a martyr. The Prophet said : Had you not done it. I give manumission for the pleasure of God . God . When the child is six years old. the best is in the service of parents. then such a slave who does well his divine service and service to his master. The Prophet said : When any slave serves his master and serves divine service well. separate his bed. beat him when thirteen years old for saying prayer and get him married when sixteen years old. Once a companion of the Prophet beat a slave who began to raise loud cry. The Prophet : came there and he stopped beating. When he finished the prayer. The Prophet said : Give the slaves food and cloth with justice and don't engage them in works beyond their capacity. double reward are written for him.Fear God. The first three persons who will enter Hell are a tyrant ruler. The Prophet said : The fragrance Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 137 of a child is the fragrance of Paradise. I heard a sound from my back : 0 Abu Mas'ud. RIGHTS OF SLAVES AND SERVANTS The last advice that the Prophet gave was regarding slaves----:. the proud. The Prophet said: the first three persons who will enter paradise and the first three persons who will enter Hell were 138 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II presented to me. Immediately I threw the stick in my hand and he said : By God. those who break trust and those who ill-treat the slaves will not enter Paradise . If you don't wish to keep them. Once a man came from Yemen to join jihad to the Prophet who asked him. Hazrat Aqra'a-b-Habes saw the Prophet kissing his grandson Hasan and said : I have got ten children but I never kissed any of them.The Prophet said: Observe Aqiqa (birth ceremony) on the seventh day of child's birth. a man came to give allegiance to the Prophet and said: My parents were weeping at the time when I was leaving them. when Hussain got upon his shoulder. God has placed them under your control. He said : You have ruined him. The Prophet said : The right of a son upon his father is that his father will teach him good manners and give him a good name. He said : The cheat. Now I pray to God that He may save you from dangers and difficulties and punishment of the next world. If they do no give permission. The Prophet made such delay in prostration that the companions thought that revelation was coming to him. Hazrat Abv Masud Ansari said : When I was beating my slave. then a needy man who refrains from begging although he has got a large family. give them food you eat. At another time.

. you will get the pleasure of freedom if you give up sexual passion. Imam Ahmed-b-Hambal and other. one who is not free from doubt about the existence of God and one who becomes despaired of the mercy of God. Ibn Mobarak. If he does not do it. Rabi-b-Khasain said that Imam Malek used to be present at funeral prayers. when a slave prepares food for you and gives you relief from it. Huzaifa. nurse the patients and pay the rights of friends. the vapour of that food and his labour are sufficient for you. The Prophet said : When any servant comes to any of you with food.has got more power over you than your power over this slave. manliness will come out if you give up hatred and you will get ever lasting happiness if you can refrain from temporary greed. Marashi. Ibrahim-b-Adham. Majority of Tabeyines (successors of companions) are supporters of living in society for the reason of doing good to others. Hesham-b-Urwah. Eusof-b-Asbat. If he does not do it. allow him to take some food therefrom and allow him to take something therefrom by hand or place some food in his hand and tell him : Eat. let him give him a morsel of food. In another narration. Those who supported the former opinion are the following sages-Sufiyan Saori. don't give him work beyond his strength don't took to him with an eye of hate and contempt pardon his faults and think at the time of anger upon him that God has got power to punish you for your sins and guilts and that He has got more power than you. establishing brotherhood. Bashar Hafi and others. The following are its supporter-Sayeed-bMosayyeb. The Prophet said : Three persons will not be asked any question-one who has brought separation in the united party. will get double rewards.one who becomes partner in the screen. love and friendship among the believer and helping mutually for the sake of religion better than seclusion. The Prophet said : Everyone of you is a king and every one will be asked about his subjects under his control. The Prophet said : He who takes care of his female slave and gets her married after setting her free. let him ask him to sit and take food with him. Hazrat Abu Daud and Tai said to Abu Rabi Fast from the temptations of the world and break it in the next. Shubi. The sum total of your duties towards. Imam Shafeyi. Hazrat Ibrahim Nakhyi said : Acquire learning and adopt loneliness. Flee from society as you flee from tiger. Daud Tai. Make him sit near you and take meal with him. Hazrat Omar said Loneliness is like worship. Shark-b-Abdullah. CHAPTER VII RULES OF LIVING IN SECLUSION There are differences of opinion regarding living in seclusion and living in society among the people. you will be safe if you keep distant : from society. glory and honour of God. Solaiman Khawas. Ibn Shabramah. No account will be taken of three persons . Bashar-b-Abdullah said : Be acquainted little with the people as you don't know what will happen on the Resurrection day. Sufiyan Saori said : The present time is the time of loneliness and staying in a corner of the house. Sayeed-b-Abi Waqqas and Sayeed-b-Zaid used to live at Aqiq near Medina. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : I have rememdered from the Torah : You will be free from depending on men if you are satisfied with little. with the Quran as a companion and with death as an admonisher. If you 140 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II are disgraced. world. He at last gradually gave up everything. Fuzail-b-Iyaz. Ibn Abu Laila. you will be on men if you are satisfied with little. A certain ruler asked Hatem Asem : Have you got any requirement ? He said : Yes The ruler asked : What is it ? He said : Don't meet me and I shall not meet you and don't be acquainted with me. on who has become disobedient to his Imam (leader) and died as a sinner and the woman whom her husband left behind after relieving her from worldly needs and who after that shows her external beauty. Wahab-b-ward said : I have heard that wisdom has got ten parts. Fuzail said : I am satisfied with God as an object of love. servants and slaves are Allow him to take share in your food and dress. They did not come to Medina for Jumma or for any other thing and died at Aqiq . Eusof-b-Moslem said : I used to mix in society but did not hold any talk with the people. nine of which are in loneliness. few people will know you. Sufiyan Saori said : Loneliness has become lawful now. Ibn Ayniah.

mosques and ordinary people. such as show. Once Hasan Basari .A certain man asked Sahal Tastari : I love to keep you company. He said : When one of us dies. In this Hadis. So there are six benefits of loneliness. God is my companion. The fifth proof cited is that the Prophet said : Patience of one of you in a dangerous place of Islam is better than his worship of 40 years in a lonely place. This speaks of the time when Islam was in danger. These versesspeak of unity on the ground of love and speak of differences regarding the Book of God. I am holding secret talks with God but the people think that I am speaking with them. because the rank of one of you in the way of God is better than his divine service for sixty years. The fourth proof cited is that the Prophet prohibited absence of meeting with the brother Muslim for more than three days. He said : He who keeps separate from the united body dies the death of the days of Ignorance. Those who remember God live in God's remembrance and die in God's remembrance and meet with God in God's remembrance. getting leisure for meditation or religious thoughts and relief form prohibited sins. Those who hold it firmly can enjoy the comforts of material and spiritual worlds. condemnation of bad conduct is seen as it is a hindrance to love. Fuzail said : The more a man is acquainted with the people. following proofs. The benefit of loneliness are as follows. I observe prayer. In a society. This means that loneliness is prohibited before the perfection of learning. that benefit cannot be availed of. For this reason the Prophet was immerged in deep meditation in the cave of Hira in early stages. There is another Hadis : He who separates from the united body even half a span shifts off the tie of Islam from his neck. The benefits of this world are that one can do his worldly matters with peaceful mind. The Prophet said The devil in men in like a tiger among a flock of sheep. (1) One can get sufficient leisure for divine service and deep contemplation of God's glory. This proof is also weak as contemplates previous quarrel . For this reason. as one who fights in the way of God even for a short time. back-biting. God will admit him in paradise. The tiger Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 141 attacks near and distant ones. Another proof is this Hadis. The greatest ponder over divine matters is over the wonderful creations of God and of His sovereignty and power. The less is his wisdom . with whom will he keep company ? He said : With God. These are weak proofs of mixing in society. He said : Then it is better at present to keep company with God. God says : Don't be like those who differed and became separate. When I wish that I should speak with Him secretly. A certain sage was asked : How can you keep patience in loneliness ? He said : I am not alone. Take care of hillocks and keep attached to united body. You will not find anybody there and nobody will find you. Hazrat Abu Abbas said : Your assembly within your house is the best assembly. The benefits are either worldly or religious. his mind was always concentrated in the thoughts of God. It is good for some people and bad for some people. though he lived in society. Benefits that are derived from loneliness are engagement in divine service. Don't you love that God should forgive you and you should enter paradise? Make Jihad in the way of God. MERITS AND DEMERITS OF SECLUDED LIVING That seclusion is good or bad depends upon the circumstances of each man. A certain wise man said : It is not possible for anybody to take to loneliness unless he hold firmly the Quran of God. Hazrat Junaid Bagdadi said For the last 30 years. bad company with sinners 'and transgressors. The second proof is said to be the saying of the Prophet : A believer loves an object of love and there is no good in one who does not love or got love. At another time when a certain companion liked a lonely place where there was current of water the Prophet said : Don't do it. A certain sage was asked : What benefit have you derived from renunciation of the world ? He replied : God's love. Those who support living in society have got the. These speak of allegiance to one Imam or ruler and there is no mention of loneliness therein. God said : Then he united their hearts. These are the sayings of those who love loneliness.

I am busy with my affairs. how are you ? He became displeased with him and said : Why have you not addressed me as 'Commander of the Faithful. take care of yourselves. (2) to refrain from enjoining good deeds and from prohibiting bad deeds. Except the truthful. A certain wise man said : Love for the people is a sign of bankruptcy in religion. God sends punishment for it on all.: A bad friend is for you like the hammer of a blacksmith. (3) Show: Show is an incurable disease and to remove it is very difficult on the part of the religious and pious men. You should look to the conduct and character of the religious people and not of those who are irreligious and commit sins and transgressions. The sins are the roots of being distant from God. The Prophet said : The worst man is one who has got two faces. These sins are of four kinds-(1) to make back-biting and to hear back-biting . The people once asked Jesus Christ : How are you ? He said : I don't get in my possession what I hope and I have got no power to remove what I fear. If the spark of the fire of heated iron does not even touch you. provided I am released from Hell. When such is the effect of discussion of the lives of pious and the sinners how is the condition when the pious and the sinners are met with ? The Prophet said. (3) to work for show of people. I fear that if I address you as Commander of the Faithful. (2) Enjoining good deeds and prohibiting evil deeds is the basic principle of religion and compulsory. Hazrat Taus went once to Caliph Hesham and said : 0 Hesham. He comes with one face to one people and with another face to another people. A man asked Abu Darda'a: How are Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 143 you ? He said: I am well. For this reason. The Prophet said: A good . if you always look to the gifts of the rich. When you find guidance. I have heard from the Prophet: If a man does not remove an evil deed of a man after seeing it. 4 (1) and to entertain bad conduct and evil deeds. (2) Second benefit: A man can get relief from the sins to be committed by living in a society by adopting loneliness. Good feelings are required to be maintained in a society for which one feels inclined to make a show of his character and conduct. you will consider your own gifts as little. I remain busy for the gifts to express gratefulness to God and seek forgiveness to Him for the commission of sins. The Prophet said: God will take account of a servant. The Prophet said : Mercy descends at the time of the discussion of the pious people. (4) Stealing of conduct: You steal in your conduct what you see in the conduct of others. the misguided people cannot misguide you." but you do not use it in appropriate place. you follow their conducts. you need this verse of God : 0 those who believe. This is a secret disease from which even the wise men are not free. you should take to the assemblies of the poo~ and the destitutes . I may a liar.. How is the man who does not know weather he will live upto the next morning when evening comes to him. its vapour touches you just as its vapour touches you even when you do not know. Once Hazrat Abu Bakr said at the time of Khutba: 0 people. he takes them as of little consequence. All deeds are in the hand of another. In other words. If one sees major sins being committed constantly around him. Wais Qarni was once asked : How are you ? He replied. There is nobody more in want than myself. It means that the beginning of mercy is good deeds and the beginning of good deeds is desire and the beginning of desire is discussion of the character of the pious men. not to speak of the heedless ones. For this reason. I feared men and hoped for your pardon.asked a sage What things prevent you from mixing in society ? The man said No time passes in which I am not in gifts or commit no sin.To be able to reach paradise and to have sight of God mean mercy. He wishes that his fame does not spread. There is no fear for such a man to mix in society. he will say : 0 Lord. and when the dawn comes to him he does not know weather he will live upto evening." ? Hazrat Taus said : The Muslims are unanimous against you. The cause of curse is to go away from the remembrance of God and to be busy with the worldly comforts. nobody can be safe from back-biting. why did you not prevent it ? When God will show proof to His servant. A certain wise man said : If God loves a man. Junnun Misri said 142 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II The joy and taste of a believer lies in his invocation to his Lord. even He will ask this also : When you saw an evil deed being done. Curse means to remain distant from God.

he said : The dangers and calamities of this age and the oppression of the leaders compelled me to remain within the house: Hazrat Urawah erected a house at Aqiq for living and gave up coming to the Prophet mosque . One can save himself from the harms of the people in case of secluded living. He was asked: 0 Prophet of God. he said On seeing your mosques as the place of sports and jokes. It has been narrated that when Hazrat Hossain was proceeding towards Iraq. Hazrat Samad said One of our friends said : Men were like medicines with which they treated diseases. how will that come to pass ? He said: They will abuse him for his insolvent condition. When that time will come. He will shift from one place to another with his religion from calamities. Ibn Omar then recited a Hadis of the Prophet : Gebriel once came to the Holy Prophet and asked him to choose either of these-two this world or the next world and the Prophet chose the latter. you get its fragrance. Hazrat Omar said Loneliness is better then a bad companion. your bazars as the places of useless talks and your lanes as the places of obscene deeds. Being asked the reason. By God. when will it occur? He said: When you will not be able to earn livelihood without sin. Ibn Omar prevented him to proceed there but he refused bn the ground that he had with him a letter of allegiance of the Iraqi people. His parents-will ask what is beyond the capacity of their son. one will be ruined at the hands of his parents. none of you will be the ruler of this material world which has been keep separate from you Inspite of this advice. They hear words and follows what is good. They asked : 0 Prophet of God. Men have turned now into disease of which thereis no cure.companion is like a seller of perfume. God says with regard to those who oppose the devil. The first reason is that it will be back-biting him and the second reason is that the people will dare to commit the sins of the learned man when they see him committing them always. To save religion. (4) Fourth benefit. (3) Third benefit: The third benefit of loneliness is to get relief from quarrels and disputes and to save oneself from useless talks. he will be ruined at the hands of his. they will remain busy with quarrels and disputes. A man asked : what will we do then ? He said : Keep attached to your own houses. I have chosen to stay within the house wherein there is peace. The Prophet said : The wealth of a Muslim in near future will be goats and sheep. If he does not give you perfume. He started with ten thousand men but there were no more than 40 persons with him at the time of battle. Hazrat Hussain refused Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 145 to turn back. such a time will come upon man when it wil be difficult to save his religion. He then says : Choose the best one from the flock. He who searches the faults of a leader is likewise. his abhorrence of evils drops from his hear. You are a piece of flesh of the Holy Prophet. if he will have no parents. he will flee away like a jacket from one cave to another and from one hillock to another. The Prophet gave example of bad people. keep the tongue under control and accept what you know and give up what you know not. Hazrat Sa'ad did not join the party of Muwayiah or the party of Hazrat Ali at the time when they were fighting for Caliphate. Flee away from them as you flee away from a tiger. The sage Sufiyan Saori said : Now seclusion has become lawful. at the hands of his wife and children and in their absence. The Prophet said : In near future. it is unlawful for a man to disclose the faults of a learned man for two reasons. For this reason. I Hazrat Tau kept attached to his ownhouse. as a result he will come to the position of ruin. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : Sabet Bonani was the . He wil roam in caves of hillocks and places of water. The Prophet said : When you will see the people breaking their promises and trusts and when they become such (he thrusts the fingers of of one hand into the fingers of another). He said : The man who hears the words of wisdom and does not act but what is evil is like the person who says to a shepherd : Give me a stout and 144 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II strong sheep from your flock. relatives. Then he takes a dog by its ear from the flock. Being asked the reason. Seeing his bad deeds constantly. This is the machinations of the devil. Be busy then with your own affairs and give up the affairs of the people.

it will be a cause of harm if you adopt lonely living. So it is better to remain busy in purifying one's own character and conduct . This thought occurs in my mind that the sins I have earned are due to my mixing in society. For this reason. he wished to accompany me. So education is the root of religion. (6) Sixth benefit: If the idle and the fools take to loneliness. If one remains busy in divine service for the whole day without acquiring sufficient knowledge. Hazrat Abu Darda'a said : Fear God and fear society. The Prophet said : Look to those who are below you in respect of wealth and don't took to those who are superior to you in wealth. If one does not see the fineries of the world from the beginning. character and conduct. it will be committing sin. Imam Shafeyi said: To do benefit to the sinners is the root of every opposition. the portion of my body which keeps near the idle man casts heaviness on me. BENEFITS OF SOCIETY Know. He gives him better than them in exchange. one can teach and learn religious learning which is the best divine service in this world. Is the condition now ? Hazrat Sufiyan-b-Aynish said : Hazrat Sufiyan Saori in his life time and after his death in dream said to me Make little acquaintance with the people as it is difficult to save oneself from them. manliness. Some education is Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 147 compulsory and some optional. When I intended to go on pilgrimage. The benefits of society are the following (1) First benefit: By mixing in society. Education has got greater scope. If you have got ability to be expert in any branch of education. your religion I 146 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II and mind will remain safe and your duties will be less. God said : Don't prolong our eyes towards what I have provided them of various kinds. but at present he is a thorn without leaf. A certain wise man said : Make little acquaintance. there may be such conduct between us which may lead us to hatred. their conveyances better then mine. Ibrahim Nakhyi and other sages said : Acquire religious learning at first and then take to lonely habitation. A man was asked What have you abandoned society ? He said : I feared that my religion would be robbed in my absence. I said : If we live together. The more the acquaintance. the more the duties. they cause wound to it and they whip a horse when they ride on it and they cause harm to the mind of an unbeliever. I saw their dresses better than my dress. Once Hazrat Abu Hanifa came to A' mash and said : The Prophet said : If God robs the sight of two eyes of a man. To meet with an idle man is like loss of sight. Theilliterate man thinks that they are rich owing to their abstinence from begging. God praised such a man. his mind and body do not remain free from self-conceit and deceit. The wise Jalianus said Everything has got fever. Then I kept company with the poor and I got then peace of mind. greed does not grow in him. (5) Fifth benefit is the hopes of the people from you and your hopes from the people will vanish in case of secluded living as it is impossible to please all the people. Hazrat Abu Darda'a said : Man was before a leaf as it were with thorn. It is to keep secrecy in religion. This was at the end of the first century. For this reason. Hazrat A'mash was asked : How have you lost power of sight ? He said : Owing to my seeing the idle. What thing has He given you in exchange of the loss of your eye sight ? Hazrat A'mash sold jokingly : God has given me in its exchange the sight of the idle and you belong to that class. Imam Shafeyi said : If I sit by the side of an idle man.friend of God. because when they ride on a camel. Otherwise you will consider the gifts of God on you as insignificant. Doing and taking benefit from the people mean to earn money by . 0 dear readers. Hazrat Aaon-b-Abdullah said : I was at first in the company of the rich. (2) Second benefit. Another benefit of loneliness is mentioned here. Fever of soul comes at the sight of the idle. poverty and the remaining internal conditions. The benefits which are gained by mixing in society are destroyed by loneliness. they get security from foolishness and heinous character. If loneliness is adopted without learning the compulsory education. that there are some religious matters which cannot be performed without mixing in society.

Those who walk in the path of the next world . I would not have mixed in society. It is reported that a man of Israil dynasty wrote nearly 360 books on wisdom and thought that he got some rank to God for this. Then he used to get down from his conveyance and share with them their meal and said: God does not love the proud. Some companions asked him: Give me the load to bear. it is compulsory for him to mix in society. In a society. To do benefit means to help the people at the cost of life and property and to remove the wants of the Muslims. is no such man as has got no friend and foe. Loneliness is not without undisturbed peace. He should therefore. keep company with the pious. God becomes displeased with him and keeps the people dissatisfied with him. So let him look with whom he befriends. he will be misguided. After wards. It is to love and get love. Another benefit of mixing in society is that one can love another and one can get the love of another. He used to say while carrying loads of fuel Give way to your ruler. There is no benefactor and destroyer except He. it is not fulfilled. Imam Shafeyi said : There. Hazrat Abu Hurairah. Without mixing in society. while passing by the poor. He said : Who injures man except man ? The Prophet said : Man is upon the' religion of his friend. he mixed in society . One whose natural intellect is not sufficient to understand the good of this material and spiritual world. If one is bound to earn his livelihood. I will not accept any portion of your hyocrisy. This leads to hard labour extreme forbearance. son of Hazrat Ali. because if he knows God perfectly. Huzaifah. When it is such. Hazrat Ali used to carry daily necessities of the family from bazar and say : The perfection of a perfect man is not reduced if he carries anything for his benefit. used to sit with them and they used to say to him: 0 descendant of the Messenger of God. call on patients. If the object is only to incurs the pleasure of the people. The Prophet said : This religion is firm and take it with kindness. Then God revealed to His Prophet : Tell him : Now you have gained My pleasure. (4) Fourth benefit. man can earn the quality of patience at the harms and injuries inflicted by men. Another reason is that one who remains busy in rendering pleasure of the people falls in error. it is not possible. If a boy without experience adopts loneliness. One can earn the quality of modesty and humility in a society while it cannot be gained in loneliness which sometimes creates pride. etc. save me from the tongue of the people. I am also not free in this matter. So how can I make you free from their tongue ? God revealed to Wazair: I will not enrol you as one of the humble ones near Me if you do not remain satisfied with the chewed matter in the mouth of the chewers. a man is required to be present at funeral prayers. Every experience of loneliness is secret. Obai and Ibn Masud and others used to carry fuels and food stuffs on their backs. he will appreciate that there is no good in the pleasure of the people without the pleasure of God and all harms and benefits are in the hand of God. The Prophet said : God is not vexed with you till you become vexed. I have now gained the pleasure of God. join I'd congregations. Hazrat Hasan. Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 149 (7) Seventh benefit is the gaining of experience which is gained by mixing in society. It is to make strenuous efforts and to gain the attribute of patience in the way of salvation . (5) Fifth benefit. remain busy in educating himself. By mixing in society. Hazrat Moses invoked God : 0 Lord. God is the object of love and search. The Prophet used also to carry his necessary things from the bazar. (3) Third benefit. He said : 0 Moses. (6) Six benefit. Then he gave up writing books and took refuge in a grave and thought. He then said : The owner of the load has got right to carry it. take share in our food. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: Had I not feared random thoughts.trading with them. He who incurs the pleasure of men by incurring the displeasure of God. It is to get virtues give virture. God then revealed to His Prophet Tell him : You cannot gain My pleasure till you mix in society and bear their harms and troubles. God then revealed to the Prophet I 148 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II of that age : Tell the man : You have filled up the world with hypocrisy. loneliness is not good for him. Hazrat Abu Hurairah was the governor of Medina at one time.

you will be able to curtain your hopes and check passions. think of the wonderful creations of God. but they are alive near their Lord and get provisions. Know it for certain that he who cannot earn the love of God in his mind and His remembrance will not be able to bear loneliness after death. if any. RULES AND REGULATION OF SECLUDED LIVING (1) One should intend by loneliness to save himself from the harms of men. (3) He will intend to be free from the faults in fulfilling the duties to the Muslims. So the great benefit of mixing in society is that the faults of one come out. The sojourners are indifferent to the wealth of this path. He will live in the midst of mercy of God. Even some of them carry the skin of water or bundle of fuel and necessary articles from the markets. Don't you mind ? He who keeps away from this journey is said by God in the following verse as an unbveliever : You pass by these sings morning and evening.(8) He will not ask the news of any place or any man. (6) He will not allow the people to mix with him. Don't you understand ? God says : How many sign there are in the heavens and the earth which appear to them always but they remain heedless from them. The heart cannot be cleansed of impurities making short of your hopes and passions as you have got no power to prolong life. (4) He will intend to prefer loneliness for divine services (5) He shall engage himself in learning. think of life and death and of the conditions in grave after death. This depends on his friends and companions. fikr and other divine services. Hence the so journers in this pathare few. So what has been described above about the benefits and harms of seclusion. Think after getting up from bed in the morning that you will not be able to reach evening. as death cannot destroy the place of God's love and remembrance. (2) He will seek safety from the harms of other people. but it is fraught with dangers and difficulties and the path is unknown and unacquainted. If they feel pride in their hearts. (10) He will remain patient at the harms of his neighbours. CHAPTER VIII RULES AND REGULATIONS OF JOURNEY Journey is a means to ward off undesirable thing or to get objects of love. stars and 150 TI' Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II of the sovereignty of God. he shall follow the rules and regulations of zikr with humility of mind. (11) He will be deaf in hearing of the praise of others. roam in such a paradise cheefully which extends to the heavens and the earth. rather adopt the path of loneliness in mixing in society.search for purification of heart and allow themselves in the fiery tests. Thereby they gain experience and pride goes away. zikr. For this reason. He who earns this attribute will be able to bear it. God says of this path : I shall show them My signs in the vacant regions and in yourselves . . The latter is better. it is clear that loneliness is sometimes good and sometimes bad according to the special circumstances of each man and the surroundings he lives in. the heavens and the earth. It you do not give up the passions and temptations of the world. For this reason. He who remains satisfied with this journey. God said about the martyrs : Don't think that those who have been killed in the way of God are dead. it is of two kinds-)1) Physical journey from one's native place to a distant country and (2) mental or spiritual journey to God in heaven. (7) He will not allow others to put questions to him . though his body remains in his house. (9) He will remain satisfied with little. your patience in secluded living will not become perfect. In other words. (12) He shall know the merits of the path of the next world. they try to remove it. sun moon. God says : There are signs in the world and in yourselves for the believers. In this way. it has been said that journey discloses the character and conduct of a man as it is a result of mixing in society. A certain wise man said: To keep separate from society is a cause of enmity and to mix in society means sometimes company with the bad people. So be not separate and do not also mix.

Hazrat Shubi said : If a man travels from Syria to the distant Yemen to hear a sermon. One is to shift from his place. Why does he not give me up ? There is no sign in the heaven and earth which does not bear testimony to the Uniquencess and unity of God It is its Tauhid. Hazrat Sayeed-b-Musayyeb travelled many days in search of one Hadis. The name journey means to turn away from bad character and conduct of the people for which God reveals the secrets of heaven and earth. Ear cannot hear without sound and it appreciates the present condition. His outward journey is not required. wealth and riches. When a person was brought before Hazrat Omar as a witness. name and fame. he asked him : Were you with anybody in a journey for which you have known his character ? he said : I was not. his journey will not fruitless. of residence on account of religion or for search of livelihood. Medina. you would have been purified. When it is optional.RULES OF JOURNEY FROM BEGINNING TO END Journey means to go from one place to another. Solomon would not have'understood the words of birds and Moses the talks of God. There are benefits and harms of journey. Various kinds of things glorify His name. journey for that is also optional. moon and starts. seas heaven and various kinds of creations which do not testify to the unity of God. Baitul Moqaddas or journey for defense of the frontiers of Islamic state. Hazrat Omar said : Then I think you do not know him. such as journey of Alexander. If it was not possible. There is nothing in the world mountains. Hazrat Jaker-b-Abduallh travelled from Medina to Egypt for one month and heard a Hadis from Abdullah-b-Anis Ansari. (2) Journey for correction on one's character and conduct. if a man remains confined in house. because if water is logged in a place. The Prophet said : He who comes out of his house for acquisition of knowledge remains in the path of God till he returns home. If a man . Don't give me trouble. it is made pure. In short. To walk in the path of the next world is not possible without character and conduct. (3) Journey for seeing the wonderful creations of God. Acquisition of knowledge is a religious matter and the journey for this purpose is of two kinds-journey for acquisition of religious knowledge and for correction of one's own character and conduct or journey for acquisition of knowledge of the wonderful creations of God. are the worldly objects of search. when acquisition of knowledge is compulsory. There is food for reflection in the wonderful creations of God. a man's character is disclosed. The rod which is behind me beats me. power and influence etc. The wall says to the nail. By hearing. The nail says : Ask one who beats Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 153 me. It is just like the saying of a man who narrates the story of wall and nail. He who does not enquire into his hidden faults cannot purify his heart. Nobody understands their glorification or Tasbeeh as they do not undertake mental journey. God makes his path to paradise easy. Such a man has got object of joy in hearing and he can command the sun. twice or many times in months or years. Only his mental journey is necessary. 152 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II (1) Journey for acquisition knowledge is of two kinds-compulsory and optional. journey for that is also compulsory. There are therefore two kinds of objects of search-worldly and next worldly. Journeys are also undertaken for visiting the holy shrines of the religious leaders and friends of God and of those religious people who are alive. The Prophet said : If a man crosses a path in search of learning. we means the hearing of heart. such as Mecca. it becomes polluted and if it is flowing. his character and conduct are kept limited there nd his bad character is not disclosed as no opportunity arises in his case to see'things opposed to this nature. Journey for actions with learning is of two kind-to visit the holy places. moon and stars roam in the cycle of time once. Those talks have got no words or sounds. In journey. Thus it is seen that there are different purposes of journey. Hazrat Bashar Hafi said : 0 learned men. The signs of writing that are on the backs of lifeless things can be appreciated by a man of deep insight. The sun. He who appreciates it can see and hear them and he who does not pay attention to them cannot appreciate it. if you would have come out in journey.

Those who can increase them are ruined . When the unknown persons suffer loss at present. So a sojourner who cannot roam in the material world remains within the station of his own house without crossing the various stations to reach God. can earn lasting fortune.. visit of the shrines of Prophets. the religion does not become perfect. a pious man said : Man says. the better it is for the mind to be free from such thoughts. Similar is the condition of mental strength. and constant efforts. let him to lose Thy mercy till he remains therein. Both the views are true. name and fame and power. his action would be considered as wonderful. If one who has been ordered to roam round the sky roams round the earth. The mind can be made light or heavy.goes round of mosque other than the Ka'ba for which he is ordered. Sometimes God's grace shows him the straight path and there are few who can catch this favour. But I say : Close your eyes and you will see them. The Prophet said Don't the your camel in any place except in three mosques. all other mosque are equal in rank. It is the journey for divine service. Hazrat Solrmon prayed to God : 0 Lord If a man wishes to visit the mosque and does not wish nothing except praying therein. It is gcod to make journey to get free from the causes obstructing religion. There are some men like Prophet and sages who are mentally strong like those who are physically strong. such as pilgrimage. For this reason. companions of Prophets and other sages. continued and sustained efforts are necessary. God does not give it to those who are idle and coward. God accepted his invocation.. you will see the wonderful creations of God. Hazrat Abu Nayeem said : I saw once Sufiyan Saori going with one pitcher in one hand and one bag of leather full of articles in another. his action will be considered wonderful. Firstly. If it is not possible . It is the way of the Prophet to flee for getting free form work which is beyond one's capacity. Except these three mosques. Journey for such purpose is allowed and 154 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-I1 the following Hadis is not an obstate to that. Jihad. The merits which are gained by calling on the living sages can be obtained by visiting their graves. Unless the mind is freed from things other than God. those who search it are few and out of them many remain with face of destruction and they decrease considerably while the goal is reached. (2) Second kind of journey. The strength can be increased by gradual. . For this reason. Without the satisfied soul of the sojourner. Sometimes he roams for many years in one station. open your eyes. In order to get the high rank. Those who are coward cannot get this sovereignty. The merits of visiting Baitual Moqaddas are also great. There is written in the Torah : Meet with your brother Muslim for the sake of God after walking even four miles. In order to reach the high spiritual stage. one is to labour hard and pass many sleepless nights. etc. Mind has got no space both for the Creator and also for the created. the more one gets free from troubles. The merits in meeting the living sages are greater than meeting of those who are dead. There are differences even in their physical strength. take him out of his sins as on the day his mother gave birth to him. How many persons there are who can carry two and a half maunds of loads but it cannot be carried by a weak man. We have been informed about the merits of visiting the mosque of Medina and Ka'ba. On being asked. The sovereignty of the spiritual world is like that of this world. the mosque of Ka'ba and the distant mosque (Baitual Moqaddas). this mosque of mine. what is the condition of those who have got name and Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 155 fame ? So the present people should change their residences in order that they may not be known to the people. the distant stations cannot be crossed. the early sages used to stay far away from their own houses. Those who cross these stations by the light of God's grace. It is also compulsory to flee away for freeing the mind from engagement in actions. Once Hazrat Ibn Omar travelled from Medina for Baitul Muquddas and prayed five times within the mosque. Sufiyan Saori said : The present time is very perilous. When he goes out of the mosque. The first man gives the news of the first station near the house and the second man gives the news of the distant stations. (3) Third kind of journey. It is not safe for a worldly man to get relief from anxiceties unless he makes journey to a distant place and frees his mind from all sorts of worldly anxiceties.

Give them food from you and disclose your good conduct to them as journey discloses the secret faults of mind. The Prophet prohibited to take journey alone. he will remind you. (4) Fourth kind journey. Hazrat Ibrahim Khaolan used not to reside in any place for more than forty days. It appears from the above Hadis that to flee away from an epidemic disease and also to come to it are prohibited. There is no fault in taking journey to another place for saving oneself from epidemic diseases like small pox. This Hadis is applicable to compulsory. Give up sin as i displeases God.he said : I am going to such a place where commodities are cheap. He who stays therein is like a prisoner in the way of God. If they tell you to go out of your properties. A wise man said . it is found that journey is of different kinds-good. bad and lawful. When it breaks out in such a place where you live in . When you forget. What is not good is to flee away from epidemic diseases. Journey for pilgrimage and learning are compulsory and for meeting with sages and visiting their graves is commendable. it is lawful as they are intended within the actions of the next world . becomes perfect if he treats well with his fellow travellers. He who flees away from it flees away as it were from jihad. He who gives up a prayer willingly gets free from the security of God. When you want help. The Prophet said to one of his companions: Don't set up any partner with God even though you are punished and threatened. Hazrat Ibn Omar said : To help a man in journey with lawful money is to honour him. (2) To take good companion in journey. He said Three persons form a congregation. a patient man and a sojourner. Three man cannot by blamed for their anxiety. stay with them. What is bad becomes sometimes unlawful as the fleeing away of a slave or of a rebel. plague. Don't flee away from Jihad. If there in outbreak of epidemics in a certain locality. you will go. Don't drink wine as it is the key to all sins. He said : . If an epidemic disease attacks the people among whom you live. RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN JOURNEY (1) Pay compensation of oppression and the debts and loans. It comes sometimes and goes away sometimes. The Prophet said : All actions are judged by intention . ete. What is 156 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II good is sometimes compulsory and sometimes commendable. helps them in their needs. don't go out of it fleeing. to protect the honour of onself and his family or to give charity. He who dies of this disease dies a martyr. provide the maintenance of those who are dependent on you and return the trusts deposited with you . Sometimes such journey becomes compulsory and sometimes commendable. Take lawful and good things for the journey and take sufficient money so that you may help others also in their needs . Don't give up any prayer willingly. A wise man said : If a man is praised by his fellow trader or fellow sojourner. They look to their intentions and they are given blessing according to their intentions.fasting man. there is no doubt that he is a good man. Obey your parents. When it breaks out in any place. the people should not shift to another place as the Prophet said : Some people were punished with epidemic disease before you. is undertaken for earning money by abstaining from begging. commendable and lawful journeys. It grows in their sinews. shows sympathy with them and helps them in their loading and unloading luggages and loads. Spend from your wealth for your family but do not lift your stick from them and generate fear in them. From what has been described. Treat well with the fellow pilgrims in journey. don't go near it. Hazrat Ayesha asked : What is attack ? He said: It is an epidemic disease like the plague of camels. Live where these things are cheap as it is safe for your religion and light for your anxieties. Take such a companion in journey who will help you in your actions and religion. The Prophet said: My people will be destroyed by attack and epidemic diseases. A wise man said : God appoints angles to sojourners. he will help you as every man is upon the religion of his friend. The conduct of a fellow travellers. What is lawful depends on niyat or intention. or where commodities are cheap. It remained in the world after that. If journey . cholera.

The man said : 0 Commander of the faithful. Tell me with whom I shall keep itwith my son. One day a man came to the Prophet and said : I intend to go on a journey. I saw that my wife has died. he should pray for his friends. He shall . I found a fire burning over her grave. He who stays at home should say this to the traveler. they would have quarrelled and all affairs of the world would have been mismanaged. When I returned. I dug her grave and found a lamp burning there and this child was playing with the lamp. The Prophet then appointed him as leader . we are seeing this fire. everything to Him and not a particular thing. say: May God give provision of Godfear. pardon your sins and direct you to good wherever you 158 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 159 are. Abdullah held a blanket over his companion for the whole night. Make such a man as leader who is best among you in character and conduct. One night. I asked the people : Why is the fire? They said : This is the grave of your wife. Rabati then said: I wished then that I should have been dead and that I should not have said to him: You are my leader. Thereafter he carried his own luggage and the luggage of Rabati upon his back. father or brother ? The Prophet said : If a man prays four rakats in his house before starting on a journey he. most kind to his companisions and places the needs of companions Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 157 more than his own needs. The result of entrustment of a particular thing is found in the following story. Abdullah said to Rabati : You are my leader Rabati said to Abdullah : You are my leader. there fell profuse rain. A man came to the Prophet and said : I have made vow for a journey but I have written a death instruction. The Prophet said : When you take leave of any man. Then Abdullah was made leader of the two. Hazrat Omar said to him : The appearance of the boy is exactly like yours. There is surely some good in what the Prophet said : There are two duties of a traveller to protect the luggages. Hazart Musa-b-Ward said: One day I intended to go an a journey and came to Abu Hurairah to take leave of him. recite the following : I entrust to God your religion. When you entrust to God. I was in a journey. At the time of starting. He said : 0 cousin. The companions used to do it and say : This man is our leader. Give me advance. Had you entrusted his mother also to Me. your trust and the results of your action. Then I went abroad. The affairs of the world are best done if one is entrusted with the management as one God manages the affairs of the universe : Had there been two Gods. (4) Pray Istikhara prayer before starting. The duties of a leader should be learnt from the following example. because God gives good to them on account of his prayer. When starting. shall I not teach you what the Prophet had taught me at the time of fare well ? I said: Yes He said : I entrust you to God who does not break His trust. The Prophet said to him : In the protection and upkeep of God. When I went to her grave. The Prophet said : It is better to have four companions in journey. This should be the duty of a leader in journey or in administration. (3) Take leave of relatives and friends. forgive your sins and give you good wherever you go. and to go for taking necessary things. Then I heard a voice from heaven : You have entrusted this child to Me. The Prophet used to recite it. These can well be done if there are four persons in a company in journey. entrust. I have never found such similarity. The Prophet said : When anyone of you wishes to take journey. A certain man with his son came to Hazrat Omar at the time of distribution of money among the people. My God give you provision of God-fear. When he was in his mother's womb. I said to his mother : I am entrusting the child in your womb to God. Two friends Abdullah and Abu Ali Rabati once started on a journey. Whenever Rabati said : 'Don't do it' Abdullah said : Have you not selected me as your leader ? So don't order me and don't do other than what I order you to do. Every night. cannot leave a better thing than it.When three of you form a company in journey. I am narrating his story to you . you would have found her after your return. choose one of you as a leader.

he recited Takbir three times at the time of crossing any elevated place and said : There is no deity but God. he used to take with him five things-mirror. sovereignty is His. There is no deity but Thee. you should use antimony. The 160 The Book of Wordly Usages Vol-II Prophet said : At the time of going to bed. Then the prayer becomes his successor in place of his family and property and guards round his house till he returns. lest you may see any undesirable thing. that I may not make nobody ignorant or that nobody may make me ignorant. The Prophet said : You should take to journey during night because the earth is not so straitened at day as it does at night. you are my object of trust and you are my hope. antimony. praise is His and He is powerful over everything . uninal. It is commendable to a light from the animal morning and evening thereby the animal is given rest. The Prophet said : Don't take up the backs of your riding animals as a seat for comfort. The Prophet said : Give blessing of morning to my people. one shall guard the other. The Prophet came out in the morning for journey to Tabuk and said : 0 God. scissors. It is glory to live in Thy neighbourhood. as it increase eyesight and grows eye-lids. on Thee I depend. Thereafter send news of your arrival through a man to your family. pardon my sins. Thy presence is sufficient. Sa'ad said : The Prophet always used to take mirror and antimony with him in journey. When the'Prophet sentany expedition. pray two rak'ats and say : 0 God. If there are two companions. give blessing to my people in the morning of Thursday. Thy nearness by this prayer. (10) Take six things in journey. He used to do that to stop over. Hazrat Ayesha reported that when the Prophet went out on a journey. (8) Don't separate yourself from the company as you may be murdered. Don't sleep over its back as it gives trouble to the riding animal. He is one. guide me towards good wherever I go. It has been reported that the Prophet used to apply antimony thrice in each eye. Don't beat it on its face as it is prohibited . when you alight at a station. say : God. Wherever the Prophet returned form expedition. that I may not slip and that I may not make another slip. The Prophet said : To go with the warriors in the way of God a few steps and to take care of their conveyance morning and evening are dearer to me than the world and its riches. So make this prayer as my successor for my family and property. tooth-stick. he placed his head upon his hand. In the name of God. there is no partner for Him. Journey should not be undertake in the morning of Friday. The Prophet seldom came out on a journey except on Thursday. I seek refug4 to Thee that I may not be misguided and that I may misguide nobody.pray these four rak'ats after putting on his dress of journey reciting therein chapter Ikhlas and then say : 0 God. scissors. Don't come to them all at once. that I may not oppress or I may not be oppressed .sleeping. 0 Lord. When you walk on. and comb. I have come out with Thy help. I depend on God and t ere is no might and strength except in God. 0 God. Nobody should come . The Prophet said: Give blessing to my people in the morning of Saturday. In another narration six things-mirror. pilgrimage umrah and at the end of other actions. (7) Not to alight except in the mid-day is Sunnat. When the Prophet slept at the first part of night he spread out his hands and when he slept at the latter part of night. toothstick and comb. I am seeking. he sent in the early part of the day. You are sufficient for what troubles me and what you know of me. (6) Come out in the morning for journey. I seek refuge to Thee with the help of Thy perfect words from the evils Thou hast created. (9) Show mercy to a riding animal and don't give loads to it beyond its capacity. Most part of the Prophet's journey was at night. (5) Recite this invocation at the door of the house at the time of coming out for journey. (11) Rules of returning from journey. There shall be a guard at the time of sleep at night. antimony. 0 God. increase niy: God-fear. It is commendable to come out for journey on Thursday morning. I consider Thee as my protector and to Thee I turn my face.

YUI-II 1JIC-LJUJP UI IYUIUIy wars= Iva CHAPTER IX MUSIC AND ECSTASY Heart is the seat of secret wealth and it is the invaluable mine of jewels. If you wish to meet your relatives there. Prayer also has been made easy in some matter-to make prayer short. The socks must not be turned in any place and they are not to be opened during the limited time. He laid a great emphasis to this as it cements love and affection. Thereon prayers were said by hints in bending and prostration. One compulsory prayer is to be performed with one Tayammam along with sunnat and optional prayer. In ablution. two things have been made easy in journey. It may be kept on other on other days. Nobody should take journey except to increase the progress of religion. I am making such repentance which leaves no remainder of sin. In journey. he should return home. to wipe over socks and to make Tayammam. to pray on conveyance and to Vol-II Love and Brotherhood 161 pray while walking one foot. one can wipe over socks for one day and one night. Whenever he returned from journey. (1) To wipe over socks. There lies in it the most valuable jewel. It has been reported in Hadis : . Inresidence. it is not compulsory to fast. If there is chance of loss of any portion of religion. It is to be performed in due time with niyyat of Qasr and under no Imam who performs full four rak'ats. The palms of two hands must be thrust upon the earth and with the palms. to unite two compulsory prayers. They are to be wiped over the portions of ablution only. It is sunnat to take some delicious eatables for the members of the family. Secret rules of journey. (2) and to know about the Qibla and fixed times of prayer. (5) Qibla. (3) To make compulsory prayer short. The Prophet prayed sunnat prayers towards the direction of his riding animal while riding on it.If one is unable to take anything with him.to his family from journey at night. (7) It is allowed for a sojourner not to fast. According to Hanafilaw. he used to enter first in the mosque. (4) To unite two compulsory prayers. SOME MATTERS BEFORE JOURNEY The matters which should be known before journey are divided into two class-(1) to know the rules of religion made easy for journey.-face is to be wiped and then the palms will again be thrust upon earth and therewith the hands upto joints will be wiped out. Don't stay in one place for more than a week or ten days. Whenever you go out. (6) It is allowed to perform sunnat prayer while walking on foot by hints and jestures without sitting at the time of Tahayyiat. he should take at least a piece of stone in his bag. (2) To make Tayammam Tayammam is allowed in journey when water is at a distance from where sound are not heard or there are ferocisous beasts near water. Qasr may be performed after crossing a distance of 48 miles from residence. just as fire lies secretly in stone and iron. the Prophet ordered us not to open socks of leather of for three day's and three nights . These seven rules have been made easy in a journey. afternoon and night prayer may be made short by two rak'ats . The noon. don't stay with him for more than three days which is the limit of entertainment of guests. Hazrat Safwan-b-Asal said : When we were in a journey. intend to meet the religious people of that place and try to get benefit from them. Similar is the case with evening and night prayers which can be said together. Sockes must be put on after full ablution. The Prophet prohibited it. Noon prayer may be delayed upto afternoon prayer or the latter may be prayed along with noon prayer in journey. One need not turn towards Qibla at the start of prayer. The evening prayer may be said with the night prayer or the night prayer with the evening prayer. pray there two rak'ats and then enter his house and say : I have returned home being repentant to our Lord. It lies hidden in such . It is lawful to give Jumma prayer in journey.

rather it is lawful according to the traditions.as way as water lies in the lowest bottom of earth. Hazrat Sufiyan Saori. Proof of inference from the Prophet's sayings and doings. all beautiful colours and sceneries are dear to eye. flowing stream. Sight of ugly colour is displeasing to eye. His friends used to hear sama from them. These things do not prove that sama or religious songs are unlawful. such as various kinds of leaves and plants. Imam Abu Hanifa said that sama is Makruh and to hear songs is sin. Sweet sound is of two kinds-rhythmical sound and simple sound. The sage Attar had two female slaves of melodious sounds. The latter was reciting poetries and the Prophet was hearing. The feelings that lie hidden in heart are brought out by sweet. do you dislike anything of sama ? He said : I don't dislike it. they take out from it its qualities and guilts. There is no path of sound entering into heart without the door of ear. It likes sweet and greasy . It cannot be unmans religious songs with sweet voice. Junnun Misri and Hares Mohasabi. Imam Shafeyi in his book'Adabue Qaza' said that Sama is Makruh as it resembles void things. Then nose has been created to take smell. beautiful face. Taher-b-Bilal saw the Prophet in dream who was sitting in a corner of a mosque with Hazrat Abu Bakr by his side. As a result of these songs. Abu Hanifa. Ibrahim Shubi and other learned men of Kufa gave similar opinions. The Medinites also used to hear them. but tell them that they should begin it with a verse of the Quran and finish it with its verse. mercy is bestowed on these people. Rhythmical sounds are of two kindsunderstandable like poetry or not understandable like the sounds of animals. Sama means religious songs with sweet voice. Ordinarily it means sweet sound. He who remains busy in sama songs is a fool and his deposition is not acceptable . In one word. Take the case of tongue. The natural attribute of eye is to see. Ear has been created to hear resounding of sweet sounds of sama. He said that Hazrat Abdullah Muwayiah and other companions used to hear sama. There is no means of waking it up from sleep without sweet sounds. Sufyan Saori and other learned men used such words regarding sama or religious songs which show that it is unlawful. It cannot be unlawful. Ibne Hasan Askalani used to her sama. These do not come out of heart without movement as what is in cauldron does not fall without being heated. Hazrat Junaid said : In three places. PROOF THAT SAMA IS LAWFUL Shariat means the saying and doing of the Prophet and the inference therefrom. It enjoys joy at the sight of beautiful things. DIFFERENT OPINIONS REGARDING' SAMA SONGS We shall discuss now about religious songs and ecstasy that arise spontaneously. melodions and rhymed sounds. He said: It is your duty to cancel the sale of a female slave who is found after purchase to be a singer. the organs of the body tremble. Gana means songs which includes sama or religious sons. The saints Junaid Bagdadi. Hammad. Mumsad Dinawari said : I asked the Prophet in dream : 0 Messenger of God. Rythmless sweet sound. It loves to take sweet scent and fragrance and dislikes bad 164 Love and Brotherhood Vol-II smell and stench of rotten things. at the time of Zikr as they make Zikr staying upon the high rank of the Truthful and at the time of hearing sama. Qazi Abu Tayyeb said : To hear sama from such a woman who can be married is not lawful according to the disciples of Imam Shafeyi Imam Shafeyi said that it is Makruh to ring musical instruments by stick and that the Zindings have discovered sama from the Quran in order to divert the attention of the people. He said that on fixed days of blessing. Melodious song takes out what is hidden in heart and creates a wonderful feeling. When heart is controlled by songs. Malek. Abu Taleb Makki after quoting the opinion of many learned men said that sama is lawful. at the time of meal as they do not eat unless hungry. Sarri Sakti. Imam Malek prohibited songs. So it is necessary to discuss about songs in the light of the teaching of Islam. natural attribute of the sensation of the taste of joy. Man has a got five organs and intellect and every organ has got a. The Prophet said : This is the truth in exchange of truth. the Meccans used to hear sama. Imam Shafeyi. as they hear it being engrossed with love and see truth with veritable eye.

Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 165 The sound of an animal with life is not separate from the sound of a lifeless instrument. Imam Shafeyi said : Poetry are words only. Majamir and Autar. They are lawful. who has prohibited God's beautiful things which He created for His servants and good provisions ? So these sounds with rythm are not unlawful. Nearly four hundred persons expired thus by hearing his songs. .things and dislikes bitter and distasteful foods. It feels comfort in knowledge and dislikes illiteracy and ignorance.drinking. then to recite them with sound and rythm is lawful. If it would have been made unlawful for this reason. The sound which the ears hears is of two kinds-sweet sounds like the sounds of nightingale and sweet songs and displeasing sounds like the sound of ass. He used to stand upon it and recite poetry deprecatingt the unbelievers and praising the Prophet. It is naturally sound with rhythm for which it is sweet. He also said: If a man recites the Quran hears with sweet sound. he used to say: There is surely wisdom in poetry. So to hear the sound of aman in whatever form it comes out of his throat is not unlawful except to hear the sounds of such instruments which Shariat expressly prohibited-Kuba. Sweet sound has been discovered by following the sweet sounds of animals. pilgrims drummers which emit sweet sounds are not unlawful as they are not connected with the drunkards. The Prophet once praised his companion Abu Musa Ash'ari saying He has been given the musical instruments of songs of the family of David. When poetries were recited before the Prophet. Hands like smooth things more than hard and uneven things. all things which man enjoys would have been unlawful . The source of the sound with rhythm for which it is sweet. These are not made unlawful as they emit sweet sounds.Sabet. What is true of other organs is true also of ears. Third kind of sama which are easily understood. Rhythmical sweet sounds are of three kinds from the points of the places of utterances. Similar is the case of ear. Secondly. it comes out from the throats of animals including men. He recited at another time these poetries : 0 God. be unlawful for the ears ? Nobody says that the sweet sound of birds are unlawful. The Prophet said : God did not send any Prophet without sweet sound.The flute of shepherds. melodious or not melodious. life is the life of the Hereafter. it comes out rom material things. This verse also praises sweet sound. jinn. When constructing the mosque of Medina. These are poetries which come out from the throat of men. One hadis praised the Prophet David by saying : David used to sing with so melodious sound that men. such as musical instruments and drums or the sounds of stick-beatings over instruments. There are many sweet sounds which have got no rhythm and many sounds with rhythm which have got no sweetness. God says : Say. nightingale and other animals. Take the case of intellect. weather attended with sweet sounds or not. The Prophet erected a pulpit within the mosque for the poet Hassan-b. When recitation of poetry without sound and rythm is lawful. they are unlawful. These instruments also reminded them with wine. There is nothing in God's creation which is not followed by men so how will the sounds. The source of the sound of animal is its throats. Firstly. The reason of being unlawful is that they were connected with wine which was made unlawful. God says : He increase in creation what This increase is said to mean sweet sound. If there are any objectionable words in them. If sama is held unlawful. as to live witlr an unknown woman in a room is unlawful as it helps cohabitation. Hadis allows hearing of sweet sounds. God says : The worst of sounds is surely the sound of ass. beasts and birds gathered together spell bound to hear it. God hears his recitation more than one hears the songs of his female singer. If to hear the sound of nightingale is lawful then will it not be lawful to hear sweet and melodious sounds which have got wisdom and good meanings ? Sweet sounds with rhythm: There is rhythm in sweet sounds. Words which are easily understood and sweet sounds with rythm are not unlawful when they are separately lawful. they cannot be unlawful when they are united. then to hear the sound of nightingale is also unlawful. the Prophet used to hear materials with his other companions and recite poetry. These instruments helped the drinking of wine. so betow mercy on Ansars and Muhajirs. The good of them is good and the bad of them is bad.

had a horse with two wings ? Thereafter the Prophet laughed. when a child is born circumcision. as it express dissatisfaction at the order of God. commendable and not commendable. (5) Songs at the time of festivals. When the Prophet returned to Medina after the expedition of Ridwan. The Prophet covered me with his sheet. it expried. This shows that the effect of songs in mind is wonderful. Hazrat Ayesha reported : I was seeing the sports of the Abyssinian boys standing within the mosque on the day of I'd. Camels are so influenced by songs that even heavy load seem light to them. For this reason. One day the Prophet asked Ayesha : What are these dolls ? She said : These are my daughter and in the midst to them there is the horse. Each time he said: Repeat it. Owing to his melodious songs. It is of two kinds. (4) Songs of mournings. some pain. Alimighty. day. because they incite them to fight.' This joy was expressed at the arrival of the Prophet to Medina from the expedition. some excites passion some moves the organs of the body. Once the poet Nabigah reectied some of his poetries before the Prophet who prayed for him saying : May God not break your teeth. He asked : What are these two over the horse ? She said: Two wings. It is lawful to call towards bravery and to lay down life for the cause of God. (2) The warriors should be given impetus to fight against the enemies by songs. It was heavily loaded. for this happens at the time of two I'd marriage festivals. calamities. When loads were taken from it. The Quran says : . SONGS ARE COMMENDABLE (1) Songs of pilgrims. IN SEVEN PLACES. These songs are lawful. It creats a wonderful feeling in mind. Mourning-songs are commendable when men express sorrow for past sins For this sin. Black.The Prophet then said : God is helping Hassan with the Holy Spirit till he declares glory on behalf of the Prophet and disputes. The slave had a melodious sound. I say that sweet song with rythm is secret thing of God for sout. someone brings sleep. The Propheesaid: Two wings of a horse ? Ayesha said : Have you not heard that Solaiman. It is lawful in lawful fights and not unlawful fights. A suckling child often is lulled into sleep or his cries stopped by sweet songs. birth ceremony. (3) If two warriors meet in the battle field. It increases joy and happiness at the time of festivals and other days of expressing happiness. Hazrat Ayesha said that the companion used to recite poetry before the 166 Love and Brotherhood Vol-II Prophet who only smiled. even birds used to sit on the head of Prophet David on hearing his songs. Hazrat Ayesha reported : The . so much so that his teeth were visible. Once a slave was conducting a camel to a distant place. It is not commendable to recite songs which increase sorrow for past mishaps. What remans strong in mind is awakened by Sama. This action is praiseworthy and to give encouragement for this is also praiseworthy. what they recite of songs and poetry of bravery is lawful. Mind becomes such if the rings of songs sound in the innermost recess of the heart. She was then of immature age. Adam wept for forgiveness and Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 167 Prophet David's songs were for forgivesness. The camel was so impressed by his song that it crossed in one day three day's journey. Some sound gives pleasure. This is commendable. many people expired. the women from the top of the roof were signing. the Prophet removed the sheet from the face of Ayehsa and said: OAbu Bakr. Amr-b-Sharid reported from his father who said : I recited before the Prophet one hundred poetries of Omayya-b-Saltha. To express sorrow for the dead falls within this class of songs. These arouse feelings for visiting the Ka'ba and other holy places. Zamzam and other signs. 'Full moon rises above us from Sanniatul Wadayi compulsory on us to express gratefulness to God. Stone Hatem. Fourth stage : Sama wakes up the mind. One day Hazrat Ayesha saw that two girls were beating 'Daf' at Mina and the Prophet covered her face with his sheet . leave her as it is an I'd.lest you do not grieve for what missed you. They roam from one country to another with songs and flutes. son of David. When Hazrat Abu Bakr came there. and they describe poetry relating to Ka'ba.

that every beauty is dear to the organ of that beauty. Saying this he jumped down from the hillock and soon expired. In this way he asked about mountains and clouds and the mother replied as before. This is the goal of the lovers of God and the last stage of their search. How he whose mind is not perfect for feeling can have taste and how he who has got no power of taste can taste ? How can he who has got no power of intellect get the taste of intellect get the taste of intellect ? He who earned the knowledge of recognition of God loves Him beyond doubt : This love deepens in proportion to his knowledge of God. SAMA IS UNLAWFUL IN FIVE CASES . If this love is deep. God is ever beautiful and He loves beauty. The condition of intoxication is termed by the Sufis as Wuzd or ecstasy. It is a sign of our ignorance. it can be appreciated by the organ of mind. The young man asked his mother from the top of a hillock: Who has created this sky ? The mother replied: The Almighty God. Nothing is compared to the beauty of sun and moon. So how should He be loved ? Vol-II The Book. it can be seen by the material eye and if that beauty is of glory ? attributes and good character. It does not speak of his figure but of his qualities. his inner eye is opened by which he sees the secrets of nature. Sama brings out from the recess of his heart the power of sight of different matters and a deep feeling and unspeakable taste which can only be felt and not disclosed. He who can reach that stage gains nearness of God. so he realises Him though His creations and realises His attributes and His workmanship. He who is stupid expresses wonder at the taste of ecstasy as an important man express wonder at the pleasure of cohabition or as a boy at the taste of power and fame. These traditions in Sahih Bukhari and Moslem prove that songs and plays and sports are not unlawful. But one who knows Him with real eye of truth knows of no beauty except the Creator of a beauty. it is called Ishq. The Almighty God. He got up and turned her face towards them. The fire of ecstasy arising in mind burns the uncleanliness of mind as fire removes the accumulated refuges on invaluable jewels and diamonds. (6) Song of the lovers. This taste cannot be obtained by any other organ of the body.-The word beauty has been used practically -to appreciate these attributes. He said : Such is the glory of God. The Prophet once mentioned of a youngman of Banu Israil. It is therefore said : That man has got beautiful character and conduct. This appears in mind as an effect of religious songs which did not exist before. If the union with a strange girl or woman is unlawful. songs for her 'love is also unlawful. Every thing in the world is the workmanship of God and the sign of His creation. He again asked : Who has created this earth ? The mother replied. The result is the shining of mind in which Mushahadah and Mokashafah appear. just as one realises the qualities of a writer through his written book. He who knows workmanship as the attribute of a workman does not go to any body except to him. Abu Bakr then came and threatened me and said: The instruments of songs before the Prophet ? The Prophet advanced towards Abu Bakr and said : Leave them both. is lawful. These increase love towards God and give satisfaction and pleasure to mind.Prophet one day came to me at the time when two girls were singing near me the songs of Boas battle. It is also lawful. A man of little intellect understands love as physical union or satisfaction of sexual lust. Every beauty in the world is a spark of that permanent Beauty of God and a spark of Hislight. This deep love or the Prophet for God kept him confined in the cave of Hira in deep meditation. Even more wonder is this that a dead man is loved not for this figure but for theinnate qualities he had. 0 dear readers. 168 Love and Brotherhood Vol-II (7) Songs on the part of one who seeks the love and pleasure of God and to meet with Him. He is loved for these beautiful attributes as one is loved for his beautiful appearance. So how can he not love Him who is ever beautiful and the prime source of beauty? He who realises it loves Him most. This is nothing but the ecstasy of love for God who is Alimighty and Great. of Wordly Usages 169 Love for a created thing has got defects. Know. God is the creator of these beautiful things. It is possible only by Sama songs. If the beauty is of a material thing. In other words.

If useless talks are purchased in lieu of religion. If too much food is taken it is bad for health. (3) Obscene talks in sama are unlawful . they are unlawful. taking their price and teaching themsongs. Hazrats Ibn Masud. They climb upon his shoulders. (5) If habits is formed for hearing sama. it is unlawful.(1) To hear sama from a woman whose look excites sexual passion. If there is any obscene talks in poetry. Autar and Kubah but not Daf. the misguided ones follow`them. This is supported by the songs of slave girls in the house of Ayesha in presence of the Prophet. After strenuous efforts and hard labour. God says As for poets. God say God will not punish you for vain talks in your oath. (2) Instruments of songs of drunkards are unlawful as they remind of unlawful thing and incite unlawful action of wine-drinking and intoxicants. This does not ban songs as the Prophet David used to sing mourning songs for sins. Nakhayi and others say that useless talks here mean songs. flute and other musical instruments. I must say in the beginning that it is unlawful. Then why did you say at the beginning thatSama is lawful ? Answer: In answer to that. Question: From your arguments. (4) If any evil or immoral desire arises in mind or by hearing songs. His Prophet and companions. So at the beginning the general rule. It is not understood from this that good poetry has been banned. 170 Love and Brotherhood Vol-II If too much oil is besmeared on face. This illegality is not for songs but for women and beardless boys. (4) Another proof is a hadis which the Prophet said : If a man raises high his voice a song. (2) Another proof of illegality of Sama is said to Le this verse: Do you wonder and laugh at this talk and don't weep while you Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 171 are singing ? If this verse makes song unlawful . The Prophet heared this song when he returned from an expedition "The full moon alighted on us from the valley of Saniyyatual Bidayi". Beardless boys may also be included in this category if sexual passion is aroused at their sight. know that if a person questions whether honey is lawful or unlawful. So also if too much sama songs are heard. only the infidel poets have been mentioned . (3) Another proof is a Hadis in which the Prophet said : Iblis was the first who sang mourning songs and the first who sang Songs. place their feel on his chest and move them till he stops. God will not punish for useless things and plays and sports and they are not unlawful. These are Majamir. We have mentioned before that if there is fear of sin as a result of singing by women. By this verse. then to laugh and weep also as mentioned in this verse are unlawful. This is the meaning of useless talk in the above verse. useless talks and accusations against God. it seems that Sama is lawful in some cases and unlawful in some cases. Answers to those who say that Sama is unlawful: They recite the verse of the Quran: There are men who sell useless talks. it forms into a habit which is bad. I must say at the beginning that honey is lawful but it is unlawful for man of hot temper. it looks ugly. The word 'Qaina' or singing slave girl is used here to mean one who sings before the drunkards. it is unlawful.has been mentioned by saying that Sama is lawful and wine is unlawful Song are not unlawful for musical sounds but for other measures. hasan Basari. it leads to misguidance and for that it is unlawful. If there are descriptions of a particular woman and not of women in general. These are the exemptions and not the general rule. If you ask me about wine. This Hadis applies to the bad and obscene songs . The Prophet said: God made unlawful the trade of singing slave girls. He says that he who takes it as a profession. Sama songs and innocent enjoyments are not bad. they are unlawful. If a oath is taken in the name of God and without being firm on it and without being opposed to Shariat. it will be unlawful. it is lawful. but it is lawful for a man in whose throat a morsel of food has stuck. and narrations of the beauties of a particular woman before the people. The reason is that song is included within plays and sports and it is connected with useless things. his evidence is not acceptable. Imam Shafeyi does not generally make Sama unlawful. Excess of any thing is bad. God sends for him two devils.

To hear sweet sons of birds and to make innocent sports and enjoyments are not unlawful. The word 'void' does not mean that everything except the three things are unlawful . In the third meaning of song. keep it not in your connection: Benefits therefrom are less than its harms.. he fears Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 173 God for show and not out of fear or love for Him. His ecstasy was so strong as wine intoxicates a man. (1) First stage. But its heart is filled up with destructive poison. I am unable to count Thy glory. he is not placed. Suddenly he raised a loud shriek and expired. who will understand? It has beautiful face which charms all men. The Prophet said: 0 od. cruel and hard. This depends upon the proportion of the purity of his mind and his intellect. that is. I am giving some instances here. . It has coincided with my thought. (1) The first stage is the understanding of the meaning of Sama songs. Thou art as Thou praised Thyself. The owner of the palace gave her release from slavery. The poet Sa'labi said with regard to the world in the first meaning of Sama in the following poems. Remember always the angel of death. A certain Sufis heard a man singing-The ambassador says : See me tomorrow. 'This forgiveness is for reaching a higher plane of spirituality from its lower plane. Many statements are there about the word's cruel nature. the more he is advanced to spirituality by hearing songs. to his condition of mind. In the second meaning of Sama. Song arouses the hidden feelings of a man as intoxicants raise the passion of man. When she repeated the song. (a) the first conditions is the natural state of mind. We found a slave girl upon it singing and a beautiful youngman looking at her and saying : 0 girl. Once Khizr was asked about songs. he was asked the reason of his swoon and he said :1 remembered then the saying of the Prophet The inmates of paradise will see their Lord once a week. on a high spiritual plane. But it is good to me all life long. the young man exclaimed. The sage Raqi-b-Daraj said : Ibn Mufti and I went by a beautiful palace on the bank of Tigris. In this case. He said : Surely it is such a slippery stone upon which the feet of the learned can not remain firm. It means want of benefit. There is difference in understanding according to the condition of hearers of songs. The more his mind is pure. At once his ecstasy was raised up and he fell down senseless. Leave the world. repeat this song to me. gifted away the palace. (5) Another Hadis cited is as follows : Everything with which a man plays is void except his training of his house his throwing of his arrows and playing with his wife. 172 Love and Brotherhood Vol-II (c) The third condition is whatever the hearer hears of songs in relation to God and the change of condition of mind. For this reason. to hear songs and not to have any taste except the taste of hearing songs this is the lowest stage as birds and beasts take share in this stage (b) The second condition is to appreciate after understanding the meaning of songs and to apply the object of songs to a particular man. and (3) the third stage is the movement of bodily limbs as a results limbs as a result of ecstasy. he applies it to his own condition. EFFECT OF SAMA AND ITS RULES There are three stages of sama songs. gave up everything and left for an unknown destination and his whereabouts were not afterwards found. They raise up their inner feelings and the hearer take the meaning of songs according to their own condit