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Training Manual for Community-based Tourism

Authors: Nicole Häusler & Wolfgang Strasdas

Addendum to “The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers” DSE-ZEL Zschortau. DSE DOKU 1956, January 2002

InWEnt - Capacity Building International, Germany A merger of Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (CDG) and the German Foundation for International Dvelopment (DSE)

Published by: InWEnt - Capacity Building International, Germany, Zschortau (near Leipzig) Division Environment, Natural Resources, Food (Berlin-Zschortau-Feldafing) Leipziger Str. 15 D-04509 ZSCHORTAU - GERMANY Authors: Nicole Häusler & Wolfgang Strasdas
Editing assistance: StephanieThullen Layout: Manfred Meier and Thomas Petermann

Contact: Thomas Petermann, Project Manager: Regional Rural Development and Nature Conservation InWEnt, Training Center Zschortau (near Leipzig)
04509 Zschortau/Germany Leipziger Str. 15 ℡ +49 – (0)34 202 – 845 202 +49 – (0)34 202 – 845 777 e-mail: homepage:

January 2003

Training Manual for Community-based Tourism

....................................... Introduction 0.......................................................2 Common Characteristics ................................ .....................3 4...................................................... 13 3..............4 4..... 2 1........................Table of Contents List of Figures …................ 35 Monitoring ..............................................................................................................................3 3............................................................................ CBT Planning and Implementation Annexes 4 ...................................2 3.................................................................................. 5 0.............................2 Purpose of this manual ............................................... 5 List of Tables .......................................4 4....................................................1 Background …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 0................................................2 4.. Community-based Tourism as a Business 3....... 5 Minimise the Cost-Maximise the Benefits ........ 29 Carrying Capacity ...6 Product Development and Marketing ............................. 19 Financing of CBT ………………………………………………………………………………....................1 4. 15 Communities and the Private Sector . 5 List of Abbreviations ........................................ 36 Code of Conduct for Visitors ............. Background Information 1............ 6 Addressing the Challenges ……………………………………………………………………… 7 2.....................2 1.. 3 Tourism and Poverty Elimination ..................... 10 2........3 1..............................................................................................................................................................................................5 4......... 38 4............................. 20 Community Involvement and Income Distrubution …………………………………25 Training Steps and Implementation ..........................1 Categories of CBT ... ..............................................1 1........... 18 Fair Trade in Tourism ……………………………………………………………………….3 How to use this manual ..........................4 Concept of CBT ............................................... 1 0............ 25 Panning and Management of CBT at the National Level ...... Categories of Community-based Tourism 2..........................1 3...

........................9 Checklist for Inventory of Tourism Resources and Infrastructure ..................................................31 Seasonal Calendar – Seasonal Activities in a Village ..................16 Different Forms of Community Involvement in Tourism ........31 Interest Groups of Baan Huay Hee........... Thailand ………………………….....................26 Priorities of Different Stakeholders in CBT ..................List of Figures Figure 1: Interest Groups of Baan Huay Hee......................... 29 Figure 3: Example Community-Based Tourism Resource Map .............................32 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Models of CBT ................................31 Figure 2: Income distribution – Baan Huay Hee.......... Thailand ............................................................................................33 List of Abbreviations BPP CBT CBET CBMT CBST CIT IYE MCF NGO PDA PPT SME TIES UNCTAD WTO Business Promotion Programme Community-based tourism Community-based ecotourism Community-based mountain tourism Community-based sustainable tourism Community Involvement in Tourism International Year of Ecotourism Microcredit Fund Non-government organisation Population and Community Development Association Pro-poor tourism Small and medium enterprises The International Ecotourism Society United Nations Conference on Trade and Development World Tourism Organization 5 ............ Thailand ..............5 Advantages and Limitations of CBT ...27 Sample format for an Action Plan ...............................

Introduction 0. build cooperation between all stakeholders and linking CBT into the international tourism market are neither easy for communities nor for development agents who support them. Since tourism will continue to affect rural communities in the decades ahead. this manual not only provides guidelines and practical examples for the implementation of CBT.whether voluntarily or involuntarily . conservation of the environment and culture. The term communitybased tourism (in short. but also presents some ‘lessons learnt’ for communities based on both positive and negative experiences. Some of the types of tourism that are particularly suitable to CBT are Ecotourism. Tourism. many of the issues involved in the development of a communitybased tourism area are not clearly understood. 1 A detailed description of these types can be found in Chapter 2. cause little or no harmful impact. Agro/Rural Tour1 ism and Cultural Tourism since they are open to community ownership and control. The spectrum of community-based tourism projects ranges from village-based initiatives to small-scale joint ventures with the private sector to multi-million dollar private sector development. Introduction 0. mobilising communities. and encourage local participation and empowerment. employment. local people’s involvement.1 Background Due to the expansion of tourism development worldwide. the minimising of costs is probably all that can be done. but also enhancing their involvement and participation in the planning and management of tourism in their regions in innovative ways. Ethnic/Indigenous Tourism. if properly introduced. CBT) has therefore become an important keyword in this context of tourism development and planning. The setting up of local enterprises. However. CBT can. which has led to the recognition that this type of tourism has to be carefully considered and sensitively introduced in order to avoid failures and ‘un-benefits’. The involvement and participation of communities in tourism is a long-term process. in others. which can provide them with an enormous potential to influence their own development. In some cases. perhaps more than any other industry. improved distribution of wealth. developing relevant skills. the development of CBT is a rapidly growing phenomenon as communities respond to the opportunities of tourism. more and more communities . is especially affecting the lives of rural people in the South. and a suitable way of adapting traditional beliefs and values to modern times. which needs a great amount of patience and the full commitment from all stakeholders.0.have been and will be involved in tourism. This manual identifies ways of addressing them in order to maximise the potential benefits and minimise the negative impacts of tourism. The experiences of the past have shown some limitations and many challenges in the implementation of CBT.2 Purpose of this manual While community-based tourism has been used to describe a variety of activities that seek to positively link conservation and local culture with economic development. has the potential to provide some unique opportunities for communities by offering not only greater financial benefit. It has been recognised in the past few years that tourism. CBT can generate significant local earnings. One of the reasons is the fact that development and conservation organisations have offered less capacity building and training in community-based tourism than in ecotourism. if carefully implemented. and generate increasing benefits to communities in terms of productivity. 0. 1 .

At the end of each chapter a list of references for further reading is provided. or guides). forestry. Introduction The target group of this manual are mainly field-based professionals who work with communities or tourism organisations to plan for and develop community-based tourism as a tool for achieving conservation and community development objectives. Professionals may be government staff from the departments of tourism. including several case studies. it is very important to realise that the concept of CBT should always be adapted to the local culture and circumstances. this manual does not pretend to be a complete textbook for training course participants. conservation.0. which might help to solve these problems. Facilitators do not have to follow the steps in the precise sequence employed here. Furthermore. There is much concern throughout Latin America that local communities are entering into the ecotourism market without understanding how to commercialise their product. It gives an overview of the different topics relevant to communitybased tourism. This manual focuses on the involvement of communities in tourism. protected areas. representatives of the private sector (e. or community development and 2 conservation project staff .3 How to use this manual This manual is an additional and supplementary publication to ‘The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers’. Several common topics of community-based tourism and ecotourism are covered and described in more detail in the manual for ecotourism.g.” Epler Wood 1998 Like the manual on ecotourism. members of non-government organisations (NGOs). tour operators. It also covers another important issue. or community development. 0. local government or community leaders. Many promising CBT projects have failed in the past due to a lack of business knowledge among the members of the communities and their cooperating partners. hotel/lodge owners. What might work in a community in Peru might not work in a community in India due to the totally different local conditions! 2 The Mountain Institute 2000 2 . It is therefore highly recommended to work with both editions. which is unfortunately not often taken into account: the aspects of Product Development and Marketing (Chapter 3). “Ecotourism has been chosen by thousands of local communities in Latin America as their preferred development alternative. but it should serve as a guide only. This training manual wants to give not only an introduction to the several concepts and components of community-based tourism (Chapter 1 and 2) but also practical guidance in the planning and management of CBT (Chapter 4). and they should be aware that the guidelines are not “fixed” tools. The new concepts of Fair Trade in Tourism show an interesting approach. but rather stand as a collection of issues and topics to be considered and addressed.

community-based tourism is used in this publication and integrates in its definition components like mountains.1. traditional housing and landscaping that use local natural resources in a sustainable manner. biodiversity and cultural heritage. and improved access to technical information. Members of the 3 . Background Information 1. community based mountain tourism (CBMT) or community based ecotourism (CBET) focus with its extra word on the special local concept of the planners. 1. ecotourism and. 1. The Declaration of the World Ecotourism Summit in Québec City in May 2002 took these aspects into considera1 tion : “(Ecotourism) includes local and indigenous communities in its planning. CBT is a form of tourism in which a significant number of local people has substantial control over. CBT should never replace traditional economic activities by becoming the main or only source of income for a community.1. nurture and encourage the community’s ability to maintain and use traditional skills. 4. particularly home-based arts and crafts. Concept of CBT Tourism and Poverty Elimination Minimise the Cost – Maximise the Benefits Addressing the Challenges (47) strengthen. Further information at www. multiplier effect). the Declaration states that local and indigenous communities themselves: (46) As part of a community vision for development. landscapes. that may include ecotourism. and involvement in its development and management. For that reason one of the main topics in the international discussion of the International Year of Ecotourism (IYE) in 2002 has focused on the level of involvement of local people in tourism development. Some further general characteristics of CBT are as follows: • Includes education and interpretation as part of the tourism service.ecotourism2002. 1. The major proportion of the benefits remains within the local economy. But it can certainly be a helpful additional side-income. Background Information Key topics 1. Furthermore.3. Tourism is among those economic branches that are directly dependent on sustainable management. The positive attitude of local people towards tourism plays an important role as well. agricultural produce.” Furthermore. 1 2 Additional terms like community based sustainable tourism (CBST). define and implement a strategy for improving benefits for the community through ecotourism development including human. of course. • Increases local and visitor awareness of conservation. 1. there is an increasing demand for tourism in which tourists are permitted to observe and participate in local events and daily activities in a genuine way. financial. and social capital development. Concept of CBT One of the best-practise types of tourism that can presently realise these qualities is 2 Community-based Tourism (CBT). sustainability. physical. gain some form of benefit as well (e. It depends on the preservation of nature.1. even those who are not directly involved in tourism enterprises.g.2. In order to avoid any misunderstandings. and contributes to their well-being. community fund. development and operation. But quite often these terms are just used without outlining its meaning.

participatory planning of tourism is the most direct way to ensure that local livelihood priorities influence tourism development. but also individuals and initiatives with some form of organised structure for tourism in a particular area. agricultural practices. the intensity of participation in community-based tourism may be higher or lower. the community should be able to develop and adjust its tourism programme independently after a few years. it must be noted that ‘communities’ are not automatically a homogenous unit. Background Information • • • Is generally. In any case. Another model may include only members of the community only. Minimises negative impacts on the natural and socio-cultural environment. botanical garden) and other attractions. Community is defined by the context they share.1.g.) Surprisingly. like a field of knowledge. no date). such as village organisations. and therefore plays an important role within the concept of CBT. Therefore. or experiences 4 . interests. This needs to be taken into consideration when implementing CBT. but not exclusively. activities. etc. songs. and should develop the community’s capability to manage marketing. interpretive trails. cooking. Due to its high level of participation. storytelling. CBT projects can be fully owned and operated by the local community. Supports the protection of natural areas by generating economic benefits for the management of these areas. homestays Handicrafts Cultural performances (dance. People living in the same village are definitely members of a community. bound by the community of people. CBT creates opportunities for training and technical assistance. but the term itself is broader than that. Depending on the level of involvement of the whole community. craft-making. individuals or families. A community who shares the same interests can be related to a geographic or to an administrative organisation. Chapter 5) depends very much on the local conditions and on the tourism market segment that is being targeted. A third variant is a joint venture with “outsiders” like tourism entrepreneurs (after Wesche/Drumm. organised for small groups by small. Additionally. specialised and locally owned businesses. many NGOs prefer mainly Model 1. it is quite common to use the term community-based tourism without giving a clear definition of the expression ‘community’. The context is defined by the community that shares it. museum. the following service activities can be offered by local communities: • • • • • • • Guiding Providing transport Catering Accommodation. sales and financial income. Besides setting up educational facilities (e.) Cultural demonstrations and instruction (weaving. but experience has shown that Model 3 is more successful (see Chapter 3). Furthermore. There are deep divisions within many communities with several sub-communities of interest. from the very beginning. not only can members of a village run CBT. music. This can cause. The level of participation (see ‘The Ecotourism Training Manual’. many misinterpretations and misunderstandings since the term ‘community’ has dozens of different meanings worldwide due to the social and institutional structures in the area concerned. etc.

or participation in decision-making. PPT strategies aim to unlock opportunities for the poor – whether they are economic gains. and developing nations in general. particularly in Africa.1. Both organisations want to encourage sustainable tourism. It is common to hear that a donor agency does not support tourism because tourism is seen to be a leisure activity for the wealthy only. It will target the world’s poorest countries. 2002 http://www. and to ensure that tourism growth contributes to poverty reduction. Tourism and Poverty Elimination Quite often governments.2.” WTO/UNCTAD. and are sceptical about the role it can play in alleviating 5 . “It is important that government officials and others are educated about the potential role of tourism in economic development and poverty reduction. which especially alleviates poverty. bringing development and jobs to people liv3 3 ing on less than a dollar a day. The concept of pro-poor tourism (PPT) aims to increase the net benefits for the poor from tourism.propoortourism. development organisations and donor agencies are still not aware of the potential of tourism. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) have launched in 2003 a new initiative called ST-EP (Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty). other livelihood benefits. Background Information Table 1: Models of CBT Model 1: The whole community is involved in the project Model 2: Parts of the community or families are involved in the project Model 3: Joint Venture between the community or some of its members and business partner/s 1.

Another theme linked to the development of CBT is the growth of employment opportunities. for example. Since our village does not want to depend financially on tourism we have decided to welcome no more than two groups per month. through the development of cultural centres. crafts and dancing. benefits. Ph. Tambon Jonkam. etc. wishes and potential of a community. are summarised in Table 2. They are now also keen to learn about our traditions from the elders in order to become one of our village guides. 1/1Khunlumprapat. Many of the disadvantages covered in Table 2 can be attributed to any new economic activity in a rural area. Experiences to date have clearly shown that. 1: Voice from the community (Thailand) “Before we started with our tourism project some years ago we already received tourists. as well as costs. Amphur Munag. local landscape improvements and a forest rehabilitation programme. young people and ethnic groups. It can strengthen cultural and social traditions (e. But all communities should have the aim that the benefits must outweigh the costs. Soi 3. Headman of Karen Village Huai Hee. It is important to get the balance right between the 6 . and distribution of the benefits from the project should be clearly defined in order to avoid misunderstandings and problems. This amount of guests will not interrupt us in our daily activities but will instead liven it up sometimes. particularly for women. Background Information 1. and recognition of./Fax: +66 (53) 612307. But the village became much more attractive to them since tourists have stayed here for some days. Thailand Contact: Jor Koe Eco Trek. program. Participation in tourism has encouraged clearance of rubbish. Mae Hong Son 58000.g.3.and we are proud of our management and guiding skills. the impacts are highly differentiated depending on the social. Skills earned through tourism can be transferred to other industries. and that CBT initiatives can bring both costs and benefits.or. After receiving several trainings we are now able to explain and show our culture and traditional knowledge to our visitors .jket. Mae Hong Son Province. and are not specific to tourism. the development of interpretative trails by the local community has raised their interest and awareness of biodiversity’s richness. Minimise the Cost – Maximise the Benefits Projects that promote CBT need to be aware that not all of the disadvantages caused by tourism can be avoided. One more important factor is the social sustainability of CBT. Community involvement in tourism can result in increased pride in. sometimes involving visitors themselves. Thailand. the reappearance of traditional arts. dome@jket. cultural and historical structures. In most communities. but we had no idea how to manage the situation regarding income. 80% of the income made by tourism goes directly to the families who offer accommodation and meals for the tourists.). the cultural tradition and heritage that are attractive to tourists. The mentioned costs are all a reason to invest even more effort in community involvement in order to mitigate them. We have developed a rotation system to avoid jealousy among our members. “ Khun Anee Kwantu. www. For that reason the objectives. In the past our youth was not very interested in our traditional culture and was planning to migrate to big.1. modern cities like Bangkok. Further benefits. Case Study No. guiding etc. 15% of the money goes to the Ecotourism Club who manages the project and 5% to the Village Community Fund.

the opposite unfortunately happens. There should be no ‘power plays’ between groups. CBT in the country. 2-4. in any CBT project there should be direct and indirect participants. and direct and indirect beneficiaries. make deals with outsiders. TOURISM KWAZULU-NATAL (no date). these inequitable structures. unfortunately many lack the skills required for running a tourism project. But in reality. Background Information 1. neither within the community. it is necessary to always keep this issue in mind. Suggested textbook material ASHLEY / ROE 1998. nor between the government and the community. ASHLEY/ROE/GOODWIN 2001. or at least minimise. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES CONSORTIUM URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT (no date).world-tourism. leading to disappointment and business collapse. particularly men. p. Since these power structures must be faced worldwide.wttc. The government should help to implement and promote CBT in its country. feasibility studies. influence. These organisations usually operate all kinds of social development projects and are experts in community development. But there are several examples of inappropriate NGO assistance in the field of CBT. often control communitybased development and can easily monopolise the benefits of tourism. In many cases.1. and technical assistance of CBT projects. and support from planning to implementation to evaluation. WORLD TRAVEL AND TOURISM COUNCIL (www. Those with most authority. or control collective income earned by the community. This combination requires a high level of cooperation (see Chapters 3 and 4). Addressing the Challenges Ideally. One of the main reasons for this failure has been the lack of cooperation between NGOs and experienced private businesses. 7 . who already offer. CBT is interaction between different interest groups and should certainly not be planned in isolation from other sectors and stakeholders. WESCHE / DRUMM (no date). education. UNESCO NAM HA ECOTOURISM PROJECT (2001). BORNEO ECOTOURS: www. Local elites. business and tourism planning occurs too late. The best NGOs provide diagnostics. or are interested in supporting. WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION (www. set up enterprises. WWF 2001. it is worth trying to actively involve as many community members as possible in the decision-making process of the CBT and language skills are most likely to get the new jobs. They ensure that these projects develop to their potential and have the chance to survive independently over the long-term while establishing from the very beginning a good relationship with the business sector. EPLER WOOD (1998). nor between businesses and NGOs. training. But all stakeholders should be aware that the community has to take a leadership role in this process and should not depend on the activities of one or more stakeholders. In most cases. NGOs have been the source of start-up funding. In order to CBT requires a combination of businessoriented mentality and social development affinity and knowledge. 4.

1. The case studies may already exist or are to be set up in the near future 8 . Participants present their own CBT project. Background Information Proposed Learning Process 1. based on criteria given to them by instructors prior to attending the course. Participants discuss their own community and community-based tourism definitions in work groups and present the results in the plenary ⇓ 3. Introductory keynote followed by plenary discussion on tourism impacts in local communities ⇓ 2.

and districts Concerning economic growth • Unstable demand • Over-dependence • Conflict among members of the community regarding income distribution • Increase in the cost of local goods Concerning conservation and culture • Over-use of natural resources • Insufficient benefits. and not visibly linked to conservation of the resource base • Rapid development. where agricultural employment is insufficient • Encouraging SME rooted within the local community • Stressing the importance of responsible business • Promotion of natural resource management • Education of travellers and locals on the importance of conservation • Improved waste management • Increased/improved conservation of biological diversity. water. power) • Institutional development • Pride • Stemming the out-migration from rural areas to the cities • Local control and responsibility for what is done in village homelands and what happens to resources used by the communities • Education of younger people in both traditional knowledge and western science. with a strong multiplier effect into agriculture and other local activities • Economic diversification.1. not residents Control by outsiders (Government. telephone. sensitive areas and habitat may be lost • Litter and water problems • Capacity and other prerequisites lacking • Sexual exploitation and drug abuse • Breakdown of social values. and overcrowding can forever change the physical environment and ecosystems of an area. over-development. narrowly-distributed. NGOs) • Local conflicts exacerbated. which can alleviate rural poverty • Community income • Business opportunities • Acquisition of practical skills • Provision of associated infrastructure (roads. monuments. Business sector. cultural landscapes. particularly in rural areas. culture and norms 9 . forests. and education of the outside world about community goals and ways of living • Greater local income • Stimulation of local economy. • Preservation and enhancement of cultural values • Revival of local traditions and crafts • Sharing of cultural knowledge and experience can be beneficial for hosts and guests • Enhanced income to help pay for the preservation of archaeological sites. water. historic buildings. Background Information Table 2: Advantages and Limitations of CBT Advantages – the positive scenario Limitations and disadvantages – the negative scenario • • • • • A ‘bad deal’ for communities Limited investment in training Risky investment Infrastructure only for tourists. especially with neighbouring villages who do not benefit from CBT in the same region Concerning local development • Provision of a significant number of jobs for local people especially for young people and women. etc.

‘The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers’ gives detailed explanations of the term ‘Ecotourism’ in Chapter 1.2. Community involvement in the planning of social activities focused on cultural monuments can enrich the cultural calendar with fairs. Rural Tourism. history and archaeology. The following types of tourism are particularly appropriate to CBT as they are open to community ownership and control: Ecotourism.) into the programme. but for local residents as well. the promotion of local arts and crafts can be an important component in CBT Projects and in more mainstream forms of tourism. Agrotourism. for a certain period of time. which subsequently means less revenue. CBT is based upon the curiosity or desire of tourists to learn more about the daily life of people from different cultures. CBT could also include tourism to cities by integrating urban communities (schools.2 Categories of CBT Common Characteristics munities have come to recognise that environmental destruction and mismanagement will lead to less tourist arrivals. Categories of Community-based Tourism Key topics 2. One of the most accepted definitions of ecotourism is from the International Ecotourism Society: “(Ecotourism is)…responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of local people. the natural environment is a key theme for many community-based tourism activities. the “simple way of life”.” This definition is used as part of the conceptual framework for both manuals.1 Categories of CBT Ecotourism In addition to culture. However. But due to limited space the emphasis of this manual is on tourism in rural areas. and Cultural Tourism. dancing clubs. Categories of CBT 2. Ecotourism is therefore a form of tourism that occurs in natural areas (esp. local arts and crafts organisations. Village-based Tourism.1 2. etc. especially those with an exotic image. Cultural Tourism Cultural Tourism is one of the most important components of community-based tourism since the attraction of local communities is mainly their culture. Local com- 10 . in protected areas and their surroundings) and integrates the local socio-cultural identity with environmental considerations. Ethnic or Indigenous Tourism. It promotes a sustainable ecosystem through a participatory environmental management process involving all stakeholders. festivals and theatrical performances for the education of not only tourists. The arrival of tourists has actually increased environmental protection and conservation in many cases. In addition. CBT is typically associated with urban people visiting the countryside while enjoying. 2.

com Agrotourism Agrotourism is a form of tourism in agricultural areas such as orchards. where visitors can learn more about natural. agroforestry farms.ratztamara. Examples of culture-based tourism include visiting archaeological sites. Rural Tourism Rural areas. Other names for agrotourism are agritourism or farm-based tourism. are able to offer pleasant experiences to the kind of tourist who is looking for relaxation and recreation in a calm setting. non-pesticide farming methods. a country with no spectacular attractions. famous religious places or experiencing local life in an ethnic village. rivers and lakes. especially for young people. face a common challenge of economic regeneration and employment. its attractive cultural landscape with small villages. Often. the most important form of rural tourism is tourism on family farms. Categories of CBT When local people are active participants in these activities. During a two-week trip (minimum). 11 .2. rural tourism means camping on the farm. for example. with most farm services being linked to activities such as cycling. it usually means renting out cottages to visitors or providing catering services in the countryside. which have been prepared in some way for tourists. walking or horseback riding. despite their diversity around the world. Many rural areas. www. which is based on the principle of preserving or even revitalising local culture. rainforest or herds of exotic animals. In the Netherlands. however. tourists acquire a deep insight into the culture and history of the destination. without a seaside. A special new product is holidays on organic farms. thermal springs. Rural tourism is a segment of the tourism industry that is particularly important in Hungary. Tourists watch or take part in agricultural practices such as working with animals or harvesting crops without disturbing the ecosystem or the productivity of host areas. especially in Europe. where guests stay either with the farm family or in a guesthouse. However. high mountains. and also aspire to have a direct exchange with locals. But interestingly. B. In Finland. the term rural tourism has different meanings in different European countries. UNESCO 2001 The local community participates in the management of this form of tourism. combined with traditional hospitality. herbal farms and animal farms. Kaldun. they will develop a personal stake in development of long-term sustainable tourism through conservation and maintenance of the authentic cultural heritage of a site. So called “study tours” are a growing market. already benefit from tourism. visiting farms to have a meal and explore the farmyard are also popular. In Slovenia. these areas can no longer rely on agriculture only.

which sometimes offer more comfort and especially more privacy for the guests – and sometimes for the hosts as well. Arts and Crafts The production of local arts and handicrafts has a long history in tourist destinations. Village-based Tourism Tourists share activities in village life.2. it is not an independent form of tourism. often together with a family. Based on AGÖL 2001 Ethnic / Indigenous Tourism Ethnic / Indigenous Tourism refers to a kind of tourism where ethnic minorities or indigenous people are directly involved. and rural villages gain economic and other benefits from tourist activities. but rather a component 12 . run by a village cooperative or by individuals. Homestays are enterprises in which tourists stay overnight in village houses. Another option are guesthouses. with animals. lake or in mountains Activities that can be offered to guests on a farm Opportunities for interaction between hosts and guests Horseback riding Swimming. serenity Ideal farm: traditional. Quite often villagers provide accommodation like the often-used homestays. Categories of CBT The Demand for Agrotourism in Europe • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Medium to high educational level Middle-aged persons and children Experienced & demanding travellers Key criteria: conviviality. playing (children) Demonstrating and participating in daily farm work Courses in organic farming and gardening Demonstrating or offering classes in traditional local crafts Demonstrating food processing. for example. The promotion of ethnic heritage as a tourist attraction does not necessarily have to be linked to minorities or native people in the South: like many other American communities settled by German immigrants. either through control and/or by having their culture serve as the essence of the tourist attraction. despite the fact that it was settled by immigrants from the northern and western provinces of Germany. authenticity. rural/natural setting near coast. the town of New Braunfels. employs predominantly Bavarian themes and images to convey its heritage. As such. serving typical local dishes and offering cooking lessons Organising cultural events Offering excursions to natural and cultural attractions in the surroundings or just relaxation ….

Contact: Population and Community Development Association (PDA). and for now. The portrayal of the culture. one elderly Akha villager suggested a demonstration of Akha weaving. leatherwork. metalworking. Supporting organisations (governmental and NGOs) should therefore specialise in the promotion of handicraft products at the national level. weaving. Muang District. Her daughter has taken up the skill. weaving. belts and shoulder bags. During the tours.2. visitors have the opportunity to observe rarely seen events such as a village dances. large-scale beach resorts). For example. Case Study 2: The CBT Project in Baan Lorcha. tools. and clothing are important components in the industry of arts and crafts (see Annex 3 for more details). jewellery. this art has been revived and passed along to the next generation. the community was unorganised and unable to benefit or participate in the tourism activities in their own village. which they embroider for sale to tourists. but also elements of newly introduced crafts or western art forms. Some villagers who are not directly involved in the project benefit from selling bracelets. Phone/Fax: +66-53-740088. however. 620/25 Thanalai Rd. For example. musical instruments. rice pounding and traditional Akha games. woodcarving. Categories of CBT of different types of tourism. Since the start of the project. Thailand The Akha village Baan Lorcha was chosen in 2000 by the ‘Population and Community Development Association’ (PDA) as a pilot village of CBT in villages of various ethnic groups in Northern Thailand. 2. pottery. rural or eco tourism..2 Common Characteristics It is difficult to distinctly delineate these categories since each of them can share characteristics of the others. it is important to keep the balance of new and old elements. Through the project. history and religion of the hosts can be called cultural tourism. An entrance fee of 40 Baht/1 US-$ entitles visitors to a tour around the village with a village chaperone. Chiang Rai 57000. Baan Lorcha already received many tourists. Crafts can provide new job opportunities for the poorest segment of the population in many countries. Arts and crafts can have not only indigenous/ethnic 13 . however. the design of arts and crafts is changeable.g. Activities such as weaving had almost been lost since it is easier to purchase modern cloth from the market than to produce one’s own textile. helping to open new markets for handicraft communities. sales of handicrafts can also help locals to learn more about their rich cultural heritage and arts. Like all other villages. Tourism brings not only better business opportunities for the region’s handicraft industry. paper. Even before the project started. including not only CBT but also “mainstream” tourism (e. crpda@hotmail. several major changes in the villagers’ attitudes have been perceived. Thailand. ethnic. Just as tradition and culture are never fixed and perma- nently integrate new elements. the visit of an ethnic group in its village located in a natural area can be termed village. Basketry. the villagers are no longer embarrassed to wear their traditional attire.

representatives of ethnic/indigenous tourism) present case studies relating to key themes. telling them about agriculture and even encouraging them to work in the fields. Field trips (especially important for this topic since infrastructure and information/ interpretation media are visible in the field and allow a hands-on approach). All these components are part of Community-based Tourism if some part of the community is involved in these tourism activities. TOURISM AUTHORITY OF THAILAND (no date).com. Structural introduction by facilitator (Categories of CBT). The concept of learning from other cultures to broaden one's own perspective is a core value of all these categories of CBT.2.ratztamara. organisers/promoters of rural and agrotourism. LEDERMAN 2001.wttc. ⇓ 4. ⇓ 2. www. ⇓ 3. members of village tourism. 14 . Suggested textbook material GODDE 1998b. WWF 2001. Group work on the following issues: classify the case studies of the participants in the categories of CBT and discuss if they have the potential to add one or more categories. Guest speakers (tour companies. www. It helps them not only to generate income but also to respect and value their own culture. Before leaving the Proposed learning process 1. Categories of CBT If the villagers go with their guests to the fields. it can be called agrotourism. the tourists hopefully buy some arts and crafts directly from the villagers.

this chapter analyses the critical but essential relationship between communities and the private sector. If so. 1 3. where the communities themselves are a well-known tourism “attraction”. But it must also be taken into consideration that CBT must be commercially profitable if it is to be sustainable. etc. art. handicrafts. Some have the capacity to take charge of running a project. cultural revitalisation.1 Product Development and Marketing 1 The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers (Chapter 2: Ecotourism as a Business) gives an introduc- Exceptions are. dancing) or an opportunity for specific activities like fishing. There may be some exceptions . cultural traditions (architecture. but other issues have to be taken into account in order to avoid false expectations in the communities. empowerment. Fair Trade in Tourism is a concept that may help to build bridges between these two stakeholders. issues like participation. hiking. marketing and the financing of CBT. Most tourists simply do not have the time during their twoweek holiday to travel for two days to a community. which consequently means that not all communities have the potential for CBT. but communities should be situated near a tourism hotspot or on the way to it. some do not. CBT as a Business 3. indigenous areas or markets in Ecuador or Guatemala. Most of these aspects and criteria can be also used for marketing CBT. tion to product development and marketing of ecotourism. however these have to be viable within a very competitive industry.1 Product Development and Marketing 3. community members should discuss if they have any particular or unique attraction.3. Communities are not the same all over the world. for example. This could include natural or cultural landscapes. 16 . music. Besides giving a brief introduction into product development. and natural resource management play an important role.2 Communities and the Private Sector 3.4 Financing of CBT In the concept of CBT. Some communities simply are not situated in locations that are appropriate for tourism development. Even the best marketing strategy might not help if the community is difficult to reach or far from a tourist area. Community-based Tourism as a Business Key topics 3. That does not mean to reduce CBT to a business activity only. stay there for two nights and spend two more days for the return trip. If taken seriously. CBT has to provide visitors with socially and environmentally responsible products.3 Fair Trade in Tourism 3. cooking.

campsites. exhibition • Brochures.g. rice thrashing) • Hospitality/friendliness of residents Environmental Resources: • Parks/natural areas • Trails • Flora and fauna • Special attractions (waterfalls) • Sport facilities (boating. museum.g. trekking) Accommodation: • Adequacy in terms of numbers of beds/rooms/homestays • Type. CBT as a Business Table 3: Checklist for Inventory of Tourism Resources and Infrastructure Tourism Resources & Infrastructure Existing Nonexisting (or not yet) Cultural Resources: • Ethnic and/or multicultural character • Local performances (e. and price related to anticipated market segment demand (lodges. rice terraces) • Special crops and agricultural practices • Food specialities • Everyday activities of the community (e. homestays) Access and Transportation: • Adequacy of routes and ports for all modes of transport to and within the area (air. hotels. dances) • Festivals • Historic sites • Arts & crafts • Cultural landscapes (e.g.3. theatre. hostels. maps and other materials for visitors • Availability of public toilets • Rest and picnic areas • Telephone. visitor centres. car) • Distance from main cities • Potential pollution problems Information/Visitor Services in the CBT area or nearby: • Availability of guides and interpreters • Information booths. fax and internet communication • Banking. money exchange 17 . train. quality. guest houses.

3. CBT as a Business

Health and Safety in the CBT area or nearby: • Access to medical services and emergency response • (Tourism) Police adequacy Human Resources: • Labour supply • Attitudes towards tourism and related jobs • Training facilities and programs Shopping: • Promotion of local arts and crafts • Hours, locations and days of operation Travel Services: • Local tour or bus companies • Outfitters and equipment rentals • Guides and interpreters Water, Energy and Sewerage: • Adequacy • Environmental impacts of potential overuse • Alternative fuel (kerosene depots, solar energy) • Access to clean water supply Financial Resources: • Private funding (community, investor) • Public sources (loans, grants)
In this context a tourism infrastructure inventory (see Table 3) helps to find out not only about the particular attractions but also to answer the following questions: • • • • What is the infrastructural capacity? (related to visitor numbers) Is it suitable? (related to visitor types and their needs) What kind of quality is being offered? (high profile or rather low standard) What improvements or management strategies are required?

Without effective promotion tourists are not able to get information about the project, and due to a lack of tourists the failure of the CBT project is likely to occur within the first three years. Unfortunately this has happened quite often in the past. In reality, most CBT communities do not have any access to or communication with the market. Generally, they do not have modern communication equipment like PCs, laser printers, or fax machines, or even sufficient and efficient telephone lines. Even the organised networks of CBT communities with offices in local cities regularly experience technical failures and often keep irregular office hours. In the future, it is therefore necessary that donor agencies support not only training

At the same time, it is necessary to set up a marketing plan that addresses issues such as local information networking, internet promotion, media and guidebook coverage, linkages with other projects, and promotion through national tourism campaigns.


3. CBT as a Business

sessions on CBT, but also marketing activities, at least initially. Furthermore, assistance at the governmental level to supply good, reliable, and up-to-date information on community tourism on the Internet and in printed form, for visitors at major gateways, and through tourism boards, is essential to further CBT marketing. Visitors to CBT projects are mainly tourists from western countries, but the market potential of domestic tourists, expatriates and tourists from neighbouring countries should be not ignored and underestimated. This huge number of potential CBT clients must be reached by special domestic and regional marketing campaigns. When launching a campaign, it should always be kept in mind that the interests of tourists have to be raised in a way that shows that CBT holidays are not only connected to negative issues like poverty and migration, but also to positive ones. Tourists want to enjoy their few holidays in a pleasant, socially and environmentally friendly surrounding. Brochures which promote “Communitybased ecotourism tours in XY – help to empower our community” act as a deterrent because tourists find the term too complicated and it may scare them away. CBT projects should be marketed in an easy, understandable and pleasurable way without complicated words. Not all tourists are familiar with the technical terms of development workers and NGOs!

Therefore, it is highly recommended to work from an early stage with local (eco) tourism companies who can provide not only investment but also skills, such as foreign languages and specialised knowledge. They can establish linkages between communities and the national and international tourism market. “A market research analysis is needed to look at the market for Ecotourism (and CBT). Research on a macro scale throughout the region will give local community tourism developers access to reliable data. This will enable more accurate market planning and feasibility studies to be developed, even for the smallest enterprises, by giving them access to world-class data”. Epler Wood (1998) From the very beginning the private sector and the community should build up structures that enable the community to benefit and have decision-making power over the level and nature of tourism in its area. It should be possible for both sides to make adjustments at any point of the business partnership The understanding of commercial realities by the community and transparency from both sides are important preconditions for a trustful partnership. Expectations should also be realistic. For example, in some joint venture negotiations, the lack of understanding of revenue, costs and profit has caused some communities and NGOs to expect 50 per cent of the money that is being earned. But even for an established enterprise, operating costs are likely to consume around 70% of the revenue (or more), and profit may be around 30%. Thus, in this case, a 50% share of profit would be around 15% of the revenue. To avoid this problem, it should be clear for each partner what the respective costs are and what amount of profit actually remains to be shared.

3.2 Communities and the Private Sector – a sometimes difficult but necessary partnership
Marketing is expensive and most communities are neither able to afford press tours, attend trade fairs or publish a catalogue, nor do they have the skills to run a costly marketing campaign on their own.


3. CBT as a Business

Case Study 4:

Kapawi Lodge, Ecuador

Kapawi Lodge is located in the remotest area of southeastern Ecuador and it is the most expensive ecotourism project in the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin. The local people, the Achuar, had practically no contact with westerners before the arrival of missionaries in the late 1960s. CANODROS S.A., the operator of Kapawi, implemented the $2 million project in the territory of the Achuar by leasing their land, sharing benefits, and passing the know-how and installations to the Achuar. At the end of a 15-year period the project will be owned and managed by the Achuar. Meanwhile Kapawi seeks to recover the investment and to obtain a profit. The lodge has twenty houses and incorporates low impact technologies such as solar energy. The rates vary between 130 to 320 US$ per night/per person. The owner pays $2000 per month to the Achuar for the rent of the land, with a yearly increment of seven percent. At the end of the 15-year period, the amount paid as rent will total over $600,000. In addition, a $10 fee is charged to every visitor for the exclusive benefit of the community. Before Kapawi, most of the Achuar based their external economy on cattle ranching. Today, members of the 52 Achuar communities base a significant percentage of their economy on ecotourism. Up to 45% of their total income comes from direct employment, supplying products to the ecotourism project and handicraft sales that represent 21%. In order to minimise social and cultural impacts, visitors are advised not to take photographs of people, not to give away presents or money, to respect their traditions, and to preserve the local environment, among other things. Contact: CANODROS S.A., Urbanización Santa Leonor, Manzana 5 Solar #10, P.O. Box 09-01-8442, Guayaquil, Ecuador. Ph.: +593 (4) 2285711, Fax: +593 (4) 2287651,,

In order to avoid conflicts it is recommended to establish a committee involving local people, private operators, government agencies, and NGOs to ensure understanding and smooth operation of agreements, and to aid in local communication. There are various ways in which the community can relate to private enterprise. The degree of community involvement and benefit can develop over time.

The main principles of Fair trade in Tourism indicate the following points (after A. Kalisch, Tourism Concern, 2001): • • The people who live in places that tourists visit should be consulted and in control of the process. The tourism operation and development should create partnerships between government, investors and communities (as essential interest groups) based on mutual respect and equitable sharing of the costs and benefits of the investment. The only way in which local people and domestic businesses can hope to


Fair Trade in Tourism

The concept of Fair Trade in Tourism means fairly traded tourism that helps host communities to participate as equal stakeholders and beneficiaries in the tourism development process.


training. marketing. It does not even have to be a cash contribu- 21 . However.fairtourismsa. The same should be done with CBT. tourism awareness and business skills training.) will be fully sponsored by donor agencies or the government. This means: • • • • Involving disadvantaged communities and population groups in tourism and securing their access to the tourism market Fair share for those involved in the tourism industry Respect for human rights. it is definitely a long-term process towards a global shift in favour of more equitable tourism trade policy and stakeholder behaviour. www. The Kutlwanong Democracy Centre. The amount of the contribution depends on the local situation. and establishes partnerships and business linkages nationally and internationally. local partners had to invest something into the project themselves. culture and the environment (by both hosts and visitors) Transparency throughout the industry FTTSA is a marketing organisation that promotes and strengthens the Fair Trade in Tourism principles in South Africa. The establishment of regional networks in Fair Trade in Tourism would definitely assist to expedite this concept and help to market CBT in a sustainable manner. Most communities are able to contribute to a development Tourism Concern in Great Britain. But more and more organisations in the North and South promote Fair Trade in Tourism like “akte” in Switzerland. Ph. Hatfield. Box 11536. Contact: Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA).org. info@fairtourismsa. Pretoria. Besides that. The local community becomes used to the idea that the money will just keep coming in – somehow from somewhere benefit from foreign investment is if companies commit themselves to ethical trading practices as part of corporate social and environmental responsibility and accountability. In contrast.3. P. it supports disadvantaged communities and population groups by facilitating marketing. etc. Action for Fair Trade in Africa (based in The Gambia) or Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa. in projects that are run successfully. Fax: +27 (0) 12 320 2414. which aims for Fair Trade in the tourism industry.O.4 Financing of CBT Communities and NGOs in the South who are interested in running CBT quite often expect that investment (e. South Africa. CBT as a Business Case Study 5: Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) is an independent non-profit programme of IUCN South Africa. 3.regardless of how well the project performs commercially. +27 (0) 12 322 2106. if they really are interested in it. However. experiences in all kinds of development work have shown that projects fully financed or run by donors fail at the moment the donor leaves the project. infrastructure. Fair Trade in Tourism provides practical alternatives for changing the terms of trade and positively influencing mainstream practice. respect in Austria.

Giving a gift without expecting a favour in return can damage the entire social network of indigenous groups in Amazonia. shareholders. Muhammad Yunus. organisational structure. references. enabling those without access to lending institutions to borrow at bank rates.” Dr. Founder of Grameen Bank (provides credit to the poorest of the poor in Bangladesh) the extension of small loans to entrepreneurs too poor to qualify for traditional bank loans.3. Quite often private business partners have shown interest in the concept. A mixed contribution of a soft loan/microcredit and a donation is rec3 ommended. Respect for indigenous traditions requires continual interactions between the tourism enterprise and the communities. vision. “It is fundamental to avoid charity. I would focus on credit. Even with support from the community and other stakeholders. Microcredit Fund (MCF) is 3 Microcredit has been used as an ‘inducer’ in many other community development activities. like constructing a guesthouse. thus only “harvesting” the benefits. time frame. facilities) At the same time outside initiators must ensure that the project has the potential to be implemented in a successful way. key success factors. quick and cost-effective implementation systems. and evaluation of partner organisations based on performance are also needed. CBT as a Business tion – it could also be in non-monetary terms. The necessary condition of funding is that the government of a particular country should commit its own resources. most CBT projects have to be partly financed by donor agencies. legal form) • Market opportunity (overall market. strong criteria of positive approval of MCFs. partnerships. development of the market. The private business sector and National Tourism Board should also be willing to invest into CBT since they will also profit from developing a unique product. Some degree of autonomy and flexibility in the criteria for the funds. This can also be a sign that the community is willing to invest energy and time in the project. A business plan should contain the following: • Summary (business concept. but usually they step in only after the training and implementation phase (fully paid by donor agencies) is completed. customer buying decisions) • Marketing and sales (marketing strategy. customer characteristics. since it destroys the indigenous gift economy. otherwise the community invests a lot of hope. pricing) • Production and marketing costs • Operations (Key personnel. primary competitors. loans and/or donations by donor agencies and financial institutions should include a well-elaborated business plan in addition to a general project proposal. Moreover. and start small businesses. serving as an entry point into a community organising programme or as an ingredient in a larger education/training exercise. current situation. money and time in a project which has a high probability to fail due to the poor local conditions. It has proven an effective and popular measure in the ongoing struggle against poverty. advertisement. 22 . good management and reporting systems. financial situation/needs) • Overview of the project (history. location.” Daniel Koupermann (in Epler Wood 1998) “If we are looking for one single action which will enable the poor to overcome their poverty.

RODRÍGUEZ 1999. Unfortunately.gdrc. expenditure. Guest speakers (business consultant. tour operators investing .or interested in investing in CBT. www. www. CBT as a Business • Financial plan (capital stock. Introduction by facilitator ⇓ 2. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES CONSORTIUM URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT TRAINING AND TECHNO-LOGY TRANSFER PROGRAMM (no date). www. It is recommended that the community and/or NGO contact a business consultant to help them set up such a plan. There is a tendency among donors to be interested in subsidising training. The following internet discussion in 2002 gives a good overview about this issue and also presents some donor agencies who might be a good source for financial support: http://www. discuss advantages and disadvantages of cooperation with the private sector. expected grants) Suggested textbook material ASHLEY/ROE ecotourism_fspot. Furthermore.planeta.html Proposed learning process 1. although the situation is slowly changing. EPLER WOOD 1998. examine the possibilities of establishing a regional/inbound network of Fair Trade in Tourism 23 . investment. Table 4) of an area’s tourism potential. develop a business plan including financial strategy. marketing experts.microcreditsummit. but not marketing activities. WWF International 2001. most donor agencies are still not willing to support tourism projects. expected profitability. tourists will not regularly visit a CBT project before the third or fourth year of implementation. set up a marketing plan. GODDE 1998a. Group work: evaluate the tourism attractiveness of a given CBT project or choose one from a (The Virtual Library on Microcredit). NGOs or communities presenting their marketing and business plans ⇓ 3. conduct a comprehensive SWOT analysis (see as well ‘The Ecotourism Manual’. monitoring and evaluation of but also financially viable after a period of time.3. KALISCH 2001. and to check if the project has the chance to be not only socially and ecologically sustainable. Due to the reality of the market. the agencies should support projects within a time frame of three to five years. TOURISM KWAZULU-NATAL (no date).


Emphasis is on strengthening the established tourism organisations and giving them institutional and organisational support. Fax: +996 (312) 660652. The project has brochures on credit and training organisations working in the SME sector. pricing and promotion). 220395. Due to a deteriorating infrastructure and the lack of access to markets. The BPP actively cooperates with NoviNomad. To date. handicrafts. bpp_bishkek@helvetas. business management. Bishkek. CBT as a Business Case Study 6: The Community-based tourism support project – The Kyrgyz Republic The Helvetas Business Promotion Project (BPP) was started in 1995 as the ”Women Promotion Project” with the objective of increasing the income and social competence of women living in remote rural areas in two Kyrgyz regions. making the services available to package holidaymakers as well as individual tourists. Business Promotion Project. marketing The CBT approach helps local communities to promote cultural and adventure tourism and focuses on: • Marketing support and access to western markets through partner tour operators in Bishkek. Contact: HELVETAS Swiss Association for International Cooperation. taxation and investment strategy. The Kyrgyz Republic. drivers. 503 Frunze Str. marketing (product development. a local tour operator initiated by Helvetas and set up by a former BPP consultant. Phone: +996 (312) 210503. • Inter-regional tourism development: joining tourism providers and promoting their tourism products at the national level. The project was restructured in 1999 and its focus was shifted to tourism. Consultations cover business plan development. the BPP is investing primarily in marketing support and the capacity-building of tourism development groups in four locations in Kyrgyzstan.helvetas. the BPP has assisted local stakeholders (mostly family-run enterprises. restaurants. The company promotes high quality adventure and ecotourism in Kyrgyzstan and has its own marketing channels in Western Europe. Business Services: Consultations and Networking If required.3. conservation organisations and local authorities) in their efforts to develop tourism at local and regional levels. www. enterprise registration. trekking). • Setting quality standards for tourism products by training service providers in planning. 224637. and tourism-related services. supporting rural tourism providers and offering them professional training in tourism (B & 25 .. The focus was on basic business training and credit to encourage small entrepreneurs to start and improve their business. The partnership between NoviNomad and the BPP guarantees a market linkage of the CBT groups to external tourism markets. individual tourism enterprises are coached by BPP consultants. where local stakeholders plan and implement tourism development concepts.

3 Planning and Management of CBT at the National Level 4. Options for community involvement in CBT include the 1 following: 1.1 Community Involvement and Income Distribution The level of participation in a CBT project by the community can differ enormously from place to place. but this can be overcome with time. should base cooperation among these shareholders on a “win-win” solution. However. Success can vary and lack of skills and tourism knowledge has often proved a weakness. Understanding the decision-making process of a community 4. 11 26 . running their own small 1 Adapted from WWF 2001. People with experience and knowledge of tourism. and is therefore more effective and realistic.1 Community Involvement and Income Distribution 4. This is especially necessary if option 4 is chosen. This includes shared ownership of. In this context the common goals to be achieved have to be clarified from the very beginning since not all stakeholders have the same priorities (see Table 5). 2. it is necessary to develop a clear strategy that is understood not only by the members of the local community but also by other stakeholders with an interest in CBT. 5. The strategy should be community-led and community-focused.6 Code of Conduct for Visitors tourism businesses in the informal sector. with links to the broader community. in return for a fee and/or a share of revenue. CBT Planning & Implementations 4. This has often proved to be a good way of spreading benefits within a community. Dialogues that aim to achieve a solution that is accepted by all. or tight contractual agreements concerning guesthouse and/or tour operations. 3. CBT Planning & Implementation Key topics 4. If the whole or part of the community chooses one of these options. Individuals. Joint ventures between community and a private operator. Communally owned and run enterprises. conservation and community/rural development have to be involved in its preparation.5 Monitoring 4.4. Local individuals selling produce and handicrafts to visitors directly or through tourism businesses.2 Training Steps and Implementation 4. S. CBT is also an interaction between different interest groups and should not be planned in isolation from other sectors and stakeholders.4 Carrying Capacity 4. Private tourism businesses (usually owned by outsiders) being granted a concession to operate in the community. Establishing a tourism planning body with community members should be a prerequisite for any kind of CBT. 4. Sometimes these suffer from lack of organisation and incentives.

etc. which often means a long decision-making process lasting several meetings. building materials. food Community campsite Craft centre Cultural centre Guesthouse Community enterprise Joint venture between community and private operator Tourism planning body Consultation Representation Participation Revenue-sharing from lodge and/or tour operation to local community on agreed terms Community leases land/resources/concessio n to lodge/tour operation Community holds equity in lodge/tour operation Local consultation in regional tourism planning Community representatives on tourism board and in planning fora Source: Adapted from Ashley/Roe 1998 27 . sale of fuel wood. All stakeholders should be aware that the community has to take a leadership role in this process and should not depend on the activities of one or more stakeholders. Many communities may decide by consensus. Craft sales. home stays Guiding services Hawking. Furthermore. Table 4: Different Forms of Community Involvement in Tourism Type of enterprise/institution Private business run by outsiders Enterprise or informal sector operation run by local individuals Nature of local involvement Employment Supply of goods and services Enterprise ownership Self-employment Supply of goods and services Collective ownership Collective or individual management Supply of goods and services Employment or contributed labour Contractual commitments or shared ownership Share in revenue Lease/investment of resources Participation in decisionmaking Examples Kitchen staff in a lodge Sale of food. In this context the role of NGOs is not only to provide technical assistance. but also to offer support as a mediator and perhaps act as an advocate for the community. campsite.4. they can help to ensure that the community’s power is actually exercised on behalf of the majority. food kiosk. CBT Planning & Implementation is highly important for the other stakeholders in this context.

g. Collective income can be used for a productive investment used by the community (e. Monitoring tourism development to ensure that it meets the policy goals in its operation. as well as community institutions (e. The more powerful and active members usually have a larger share. In order to avoid any romantic and unrealistic expectations. The 2 Further information can be found in ‘The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers’. The transparency of this social aspect can help the consumer in his/her decision to book a tour. Traditional leadership. In order to achieve this it is recommended to set up a community tourism committee as a 2 representative body . handicraft group) should be represented within this body. The information of this type of income distribution should not only be provided in leaflets and other marketing tools of the CBT project but should be repeated on appropriate occasions during the trip. etc. women and youth groups. community funds and their purpose. local government. one of the main objectives of CBT is collective income and equitable distribution. it must be realised that income from tourism will probably never be shared equally within a community. The committee has to handle finance and management issues such as: • Managing the finances of the community income earned by CBT: opening a bank account. wells. Nevertheless. solar energy. Chapter 5 28 . • • Good financial record-keeping systems provide information vital for managing finances efficiently. water supply.. health or education programmes) or for the poorest households of the village. Every year the community should elect a committee of not more than ten persons. keeping records. Representing the community on any meetings and discussions with stakeholders and other institutions.4.g. but this is a normal development in all economic sectors worldwide – be it in a village in Nicaragua or in Norway. It is absolutely necessary to inform the tourists about income distribution systems. thus. to prevent distrust over what happens to CBT revenue. The method for distributing the income earned by communities to individual members needs careful attention. CBT Planning and Implementation Table 5: Priorities of Different Stakeholders in CBT Perspective Stakeholder Local residents Local NGOs Conservationists Tourism industry Donors Rural /Community Development XX XX X XX Conservation Industry Development (X) (X) XX X X X XX (X) XX Source: Adapted from Ashley/Roe 1998 Another challenging process is income distribution. They also help to create transparency among community members and.

assets register. As a consequence the tourists stay in the 3 KwaZulu-Natal Tourism Authority 1999 29 . CBT Planning & Implementation key items necessary for good record3 keeping include : • • • • • • • Original records (e. the cash book) Ledger (information obtained from journals) Trial balance (a list of all ledger accounts balances taken out to prepare financial statements) Financial statements Income statement Balance sheet wealthier houses of the village. since all would benefit from the project in some way. If. The rotation system can be applied for homestays. The minimum requirements for a small business operation are a cash book. e. Quite often the poorest households are not willing to join the CBT project because they feel too poor and embarrassed to allow guests to stay in their homes. for example. invoices etc. transportation. it is recommended to involve neighbouring villages in a rotation system as well. debtor records and creditor records.g. receipts. cooking.g.) Journals (which record the details of every transaction in chronological order. jealousy among the villages of an area might not arise as a side effect. some members of a tour group have to stay – for the same rate . maintaining and managing a guesthouse in or near the village that offers the same standard to all visitors.4. complaints and conflicts may occur. In order to avoid this problem. cash control systems. Many CBT projects set up a rotation system among service providers so that every household who is interested in CBT has a chance to participate and earn income. In order to avoid too much pressure on one village only. however. cultural programmes. with the effect that the richer families become even more affluent through CBT and the poor families only benefit from CBT via the community fund. villagers should discuss the possibility of building. the integration of the poorest households or unskilled service providers may result in a lower quality tourism product. that rotation systems have a major disadvantage: not all households or service providers can offer the same standards and quality. etc. It must be taken into houses with much poorer conditions than other members of the group staying in new houses with better bathroom standards. On the other hand. sales slips. This way. guiding.

The tourism fund is used to develop activities for the visitors in and around the village. A part of it goes to the community and tourism fund.) does not keep the entire amount of the income earned. The whole community. a meal US$ 2.50 and a local guide US$ 5 per day. 80% remains in the family. From the income received from the homestays and local guides. should be integrated in training sessions. 15% of the income made by the sale of handmade clothes goes to the women’s group. guiding. and another 5% to the community fund. These members can then act as multipliers or even trainers themselves within the community and thus reduce the overall cost of training.4. Pre-Course Training in CBT: This “classroom” phase should be carried out for selected members in an isolated environment that allows for intensive training 30 . or at least its interested members. From food earnings. CBT Planning and Implementation Figure 1: Income distribution – Baan Huay Hee. solar cells or to support families in distress. and 5% to the community fund. etc. Homestays cost US$ 5 per person per night. although it is recommended to offer pre-courses for selected members of the community and associated NGOs or tour operators in order to lay the groundwork for the CBT training. FOOD 2. 15% goes to the tourism fund.2 Training Steps and Implementation Training and development of professional skills are vital and necessary in order to implement CBT in a successful way. Chapter 1) have established a plan to spread the benefits equally among each other: each family or household who offers a service to the tourist (homestay. The community fund enables the village to buy and install facilities like a telephone.50 US-$ per meal 5% Tourism 15 % 15 % Local Guide 5 US-$ per 5% Homestay 5 US-$ per night 5% Community Fund 5% Handmade 15 % Women Group Source: Burger (2002) 4. 5% is paid to the community fund. Thailand The villagers of Baan Huay Hee (see Case Study 1.

time scale. women also play a central role in CBT by taking care of B&Bs/guesthouses and cooking traditional meals for tourists. In case the facilitators are not able to speak or write the local language. An action plan can help to identify activities. Quite often. Practical Analysis: After the classroom phase. Fifteen days is the minimum time frame for community members to begin to fully understand the concept of CBT and develop the skills needed to deliver tourism services. 31 . Like CBT itself. It is suggested to split the workshop in four or five units of 2-4 days each. it should be discussed among all the participants to get their agreement on any issues about which they may differ. even if this increases the duration and expenses of the training. The output of strategy development sessions should be an agreed vision for CBT over a specified period of time. and – after discussing these aspects – to decide whether it is still interested in receiving visitors. Women are advised to form a Women’s Group as they usually initiate the production and sale of handicrafts. This helps to increase their employment opportunities and broadens income distribution.4. By creating different interest groups (directly or indirectly connected to CBT) villagers can authenticate their interest and become more and more confident about their skills and resources. Follow up phase in cooperation with community: All workshops should be conducted in the native (ethnic) language of the community since all members who are interested in CBT. the trainees return to their communities and carry out a feasibility study in close cooperation with the community. It provides an introduction to participatory planning. indicators of success and resources required. Once the action plan is completed. planning and training are a long-term process. it is necessary to cooperate with translators. etc. CBT Planning & Implementation and practise. An important tool is to work with existing social and community structures. along with an identification of objectives and strategic priorities. should be able to actively participate in the training. establishing guidelines for visitors and guide behaviours. The community has to be aware of the potential opportunities. risks and changes involved. microenterprise development. and CBT technical skills such as product development. such as interest groups and to identify potential leaders and people who show enthusiasm and initiative. writing simple business and marketing plans. as community members normally do not have the time necessary to attend a two-week training workshop. including women and elders. the trainees design and implement a series of participatory planning and training workshops for their communities. thus offering them additional sources of income. If they are.

Chapter 1) in Northern Thailand has clear objectives for CBT development: • Visitors understand the culture and tradition of the village • Additional income • Provide visitors some knowledge about conservation and natural resource management • Teach children and future generations how to manage natural resources Baan Huay Hee has several interest groups. Committee Group Tourist Group Women‘s Group Information Center Group Local Guides Baan Huay Hee Fern Group Youth Group Bird Watching Group Orchid Group Source: Burger 2002 32 . dyes and weaves cotton. The orchid group takes care of the orchid nursery and grows orchids. Thailand The Karen Village Baan Huay Hee (see Case Study 1. CBT Planning and Implementation Table 6: Sample Format for an Action Plan Activities Purpose Who? Where? When? Success Indicator Resources Local Resources Other Handicraft Botanical Garden etc. Source: Adapted from The Mountain Institute 2000 Figure 2: Interest Groups of Baan Huay Hee. The women’s group prepares.4. and sells some of these products to the tourists.

The locals might have sufficient food during this time for themselves. but cleanliness 33 . including land ownership and the number of households that are (or wish to be) involved in tourism activities. farmers. language skills. youth group). which is an informal. access to a bathroom and toilet and an area where meals can be served. etc. It is recommended to divide participants into groups of 5-7 people to facilitate the production of CBT maps. Another supportive instrument is the seasonal calendar. food preparation. food. it is necessary during the training to deal with service-oriented issues like accommodation. The standards of homestays/B&Bs may differ. e. During this period. features and assets are located. first aid and customer care. It can be used as the basis for developing a CBT plan. management skills and marketing. in order to bring different perspectives onto the map (e. which generates information about seasonal trends and identifies periods of particular stress for the community. Participants should embody a cross-section of the village in terms of gender.g. accommodation operation undertaken from a private residence. village guides. it is important to find out the periods when food supply shortages occur.XX ity of fish or vegetables Busy month in agricultural work Feb XXX XX Mar XX X Apr XXX X May Jun X X XX XX Jul X XX Aug Sep X X XXX XXX Oct XX XXX Nov XXX XXX Dec XXX XX XX XX X X XXX XX XX XX XX XXX XXX XX Source: Fictional Calendar. receiving tourists should be avoided in order not to disturb the routine agricultural activities of the community. livelihoods. time investment) and therefore must be taken into consideration for tour price calculations. Accommodation: Households can offer homestays or bed & breakfast (B&B). The maximum number of guest bedrooms in a B&B is normally 3. The minimum facilities that should be provided to all guests are a bedroom. income distribution. based on The Mountain Institute 2000 Mapping is a helpful tool for CBT planning. Participants can illustrate how resources.g. women. Beside discussing issues like product development. but not enough for tourists. age. The residential character of the home has to be maintained. CBT Planning & Implementation Table 7: Seasonal Calendar – Seasonal Activities in a Village Activity Jan Tourist XXX Season Availabil. learn how to link them with each other. religious leaders. If tourists stay and eat at a village that is fairly self-sustaining. and can even show new perspectives. harvesting. In this case they have to go to the market in order to buy some extra food. a situation that causes additional expenses (transportation.4.

g. Accommodation standards for homestays and guesthouses may be simple. solar cells) where available. or certain members. interior decoration and furnishings of the guesthouse should be in the local style. or in a rotation system of interested households. The location of the guesthouse should be discussed by the 30-minute walk. it should be taken in consideration that this may result in a certain disruption of habitual village life. 3: Example Community-based Tourism Resource Map and the respect of privacy for both guests and hosts are valid worldwide. pillow and blankets. Another option is setting up a guesthouse outside or on the edge of the village. particularly where food is not readily found in the vicinity of the guesthouse. CBT Planning and Implementation Fig. including an exemplary model of waste management and the use of alternative energy (e. The architecture. but should ensure basic comfort and wellbeing. the whole community.4. 34 . in such a way that it can be easily reached by a 10. If the guesthouse is to be located right in the centre of the village to give guests the possibility to participate very closely with the daily activities of the hosts. The maintenance and management of the guesthouse can be performed by local staff. This gives both hosts and guests enough space for retreat. Breakfast and dinner should be offered to guests. paid by the community. Alternatively or additionally. Besides a mattress. mosquito nets should be provided if the village is located in a malarial area. may want to set up a guesthouse (2-16 bedrooms) in or near the village.

they may not completely enjoy their stay if they have to eat food that they are not used to three times a day. while trying to improve the situation afterwards. Guides should be trained 4 in the following areas : Language Training: Members of the community. language every day for one or two hours. especially those who offer services to the tourists. Customer Care: It is important that visitors always feel safe and secure. boiled or cooked vegetables. If this is not possible due to certain circumstances. equipment and skills necessary in case of emergency must be clarified.4. First Aid: A few members of the community. but sometimes have a problem with special local tastes. Helpful tools could be handouts provided for hosts and guests that include 200 important words or sentences in the local and a western language. while having the possibility to stay in the village free of charge during this time. the medical standards. it is always necessary to listen to him/her seriously. the women should get an introduction in hygienic cooking. Generally. In an extra training session. including the fastest possible way of transportation to the nearest hospital. During the training with the local (western or traditional) doctor or nurse. Another extremely important task is guide training. traditional recipes should be listed and discussed for the appropriateness for tourists. Even if the village offers a fantastic programme to the tourists. should continuously attend language training in order to communicate with the tourist. but especially the local guides. During this training session. The expenses of his/her stay (including meals) should be shared by the members of the community or be paid through the tourism community fund. If the welcome is warm and well organised by the villagers. at least in a basic way. should attend first aid training every two or three years. If a customer starts to complain. like English or Spanish. or even a simple omelette. CBT Planning & Implementation Food preparation: Normally women have the task to prepare the meals not only for their families but also for the guests. chicken. As language training is a long-term and therefore expensive process. Therefore. the reasons have to be explained in a polite and friendly way to the guest. it is recommended to offer a mixture of local cooking and basic foods like fried. it is recommended to look for foreign students who are interested in staying for at least two weeks in a community. tourists who are interested in CBT want to try the local cuisine. teaching a foreign 4 Based on Nam Ha Ecotourism Project 2001 35 . The welcoming ceremony plays an important role. At the end of this workshop women should cook and serve their chosen meals to the training team in order to get feedback. the visitors may feel comfortable and soon loose their anxiety and irritability. becoming more confident regarding their important responsibilities within the concept of CBT. which in the long-term helps not only the tourists but also the women’s families.

g. with the intention of giving the community a deeper insight into the tourism business (see Chapter 3). 4. • Itinerary and time frame. This has the advantage of acquainting the community with the experience of handling guests. you may decline to translate the question. • Orient the guests in the village. or natural areas of interest such as a cave or spirit gate). more often three to four years. Make them aware of the rules and codes of conduct (see Chapter 4.3 Planning and Management of CBT at the National Level Ecotourism planning and management at the national level. business enterprises and/or NGOs. CBT Planning and Implementation General information: • Provide information to tourists on the local cultures. history and the natural environment that they can expect to experience or see in the village or nearby. Give them information about the neighbouring villages and ethnic groups in the area. goals and policy formulation. take the opportunity to chat with the tourists and ask them if they have any questions about the trip. • Just before entering a village. • Provide advice to tourists on how to minimise their impact on local cultures and the environment. are described in a detailed and comprehensive way in Chapter 7 of the Ecotourism Training Manual. In order to avoid frustration. More or less the same criteria are applicable for planning and management of CBT at the national level. Representatives of the local ecotourism industry should also be included as experts or guest speakers in the training process.6) that they need to abide by. Simply inform your guest that his or her question is inappropriate and ask him or her if he/she would like rephrase it If there are handicrafts for sale: • Remind your guests that the villagers benefit from selling handicrafts • Facilitate the sale On-the-job training is also important. Always remember . Staying in the village: • Visit the chief and introduce the guests. without the fear of getting harsh complaints. relatives and friends of the local tourism board. Before entering a village: • While travelling to a village.4. Try to make the number of questions asked by the villagers equal to the number of questions asked by the tourists • If a question seems to be culturally insensitive. remind them how to say hello in a culturally appropriate fashion. Some tour operators design special “pioneering” tours for their customers. Another useful way of generating ideas and getting the information of ‘lessons learnt’ are visits to other projects which already have experience in CBT. • Encourage villagers to join the tourist group and to ask questions. 36 . • Encourage interaction with local people whilst overseeing contact to avoid cultural misunderstandings.CBT is a long-term process! Setting up a fully marketable programme can take at least one year. stop and remind the group again of the important cultural considerations specific to the village you are entering. • Health and safety information. along with its tools. a village. • Conduct briefings before stopping at points of interest (e. it is very important not to be too ambitious in the implementation phase in terms of targets and timing. An initial step may be to test the programme with one or two groups comprised of staff.

it is very important to discuss the level of change they strive for within the next several years. UNESCO NAM HA ECOTOURISM PROJECT 2001b 37 . are able to tolerate more visitors than others. Wildlife may also be affected through distur5 bance and may leave the area . However. or other influences). social or economic damage at the location. Often. e. when the culture of a group starts to experience social problems. the quantity of visitors at any one time is a more critical factor than the overall level of visitation. or some of its members. and if these problems can clearly be attributed to tourism (and not to television. As a consequence only urban guides or those from middle class families have the possibility to work as a guide in a CBT project. the carrying capacity of a fishpond is determined by the maximum number of fish that can survive in the pond before they start to die off from lack of food and oxygen. if there are too many people going to a village or walking through a trail. culture and tradition are not static and communities may wish to see changes towards a more modern lifestyle. Some communities. It is much easier to establish indicators for carrying capacity in the fields of ecology and economics than for carrying capacity regarding social and cultural changes. Guide Licences: a special category needs to be created for local guides. However. Planning: regulations that oblige tourism operators to gain community approval of planning decisions should be developed. then it is clear that the carrying capacity has been exceeded. drug dealing and prostitution catering to tourists only. for example. especially for those belonging to an indigenous or ethnic group. Carrying Capacity Carrying capacity refers to the maximum load or amount that can be borne by something before it becomes unsustainable. often without having any deep understanding of (or interest in) the specific local culture and environment.4.g. It is therefore recommended to set a lower figure at the beginning. the following goals and criteria should also be taken into consideration: • Marketing: a national register of all CBT projects should be developed to improve awareness and promotion of CBT. there may be too much garbage or trails will be damaged. the behaviour of visitors. For example. but can gauge it after a few years. For example.4. In the tourism context the carrying capacity is determined by how many people can visit the tourist site before there are problems. black markets. In this context. There is also a qualitative factor to carrying capacity. In several countries only those with sufficient language skills and a high school degree can apply for a guide licence. During the implementation phase communities are generally not able to estimate the limit of the number of visitors they would like to have. Indicators for this can include hostility towards tourists from locals. and the 5 • • An overview of the various aspects of government policies that can facilitate or hinder community involvement in tourism is summarised in The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area Managers. and then raise it slowly without increasing the amount of environmental. Annex 2 4. CBT Planning & Implementation However.

including trail erosion. water pollution. especially an ethnic or indigenous village. improper waste dumping. the use of revised strategies to change or improve the process. At the same time. The following are examples of objectives that should be monitored in a CBT pro6 ject : Income Generation: • • • Equal and fair distribution within the village Contribution to positive village development Improved standard of living through income generation in a way that does not harm the environment or culture. performing traditional songs and music. if this is not the case. concrete houses. feeding of wildlife Training of local village people to effectively manage CBT Conservation: • Community Participation: • 4. Anyone with adequate training and background information can collect information that is useful for monitoring CBT. such as: • Household questionnaires and interviews • Visitor feedback questionnaires • Regular surveys • Forms for recording observations of local guides • Photographs – for example taking photos of trails at regular intervals over time for comparison to monitor 6 Ibid. In this case communities who are interested in CBT should not start to “redevelop” their lifestyle and culture the way it was decades ago. littering. but look for a middle way.5 Monitoring Monitoring is defined as the periodic supervision of a process that checks to see if progress is being made towards its defined goals and. If a community. or that causes social problems When monitoring slowly changing situations. The monitoring team can include guides. as well as the community itself. electricity) tourists might no longer be interested in visiting that village. like setting up traditional houses for visitors. indicators should be monitored more often (every 2 to 6 months) in order to solve or even avoid problems. such as the way CBT may be affecting culture and traditional life. illegal collection of plants and animals.4. in order to set up guidelines regarding the level of tourism they wish to have. looks too “modern" (paved road. CBT Planning and Implementation kinds of changes that might be viewed positively or negatively. Cultural and Social Impacts: • • Contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage of participating communities The amount of time some families in the village spend on other important and traditional economic activities Contribution to conservation: negative environmental impacts. like tourist safety along the trails. staff from the NGO and local tourism board. But when dealing with quicker changes or arising problems. 38 . communities should be aware that tourists prefer to visit “authentic” villages. it is not necessary to collect data more often than every year or every two years. and wearing ethnic clothes (at least staff and guides). Several methods exist to collect data.

Learn about the customs of your host community and don’t judge your hosts based on your own cultural background – perceptions of punctuality. • Follow guidelines given by your hosts. • Don’t use soap or detergents in natural water bodies. think of education and usefulness. • Gifts are often presented to a group through village elders. and pick up the trash of others. etc. Do not be offended if they refuse. but use discretion to avoid intruding on the private lives of others. • Pay your hosts a fair price.4. but more as a guide to help them feel better prepared and more comfortable while visiting local people. formality. A contribution to the village school (pens. Economic contribution: • Be aware of the social consequences of your travel choices. • Realise that private operators may undercut CBT enterprises by cutting corners and reducing benefits to others. exercise books) is in most cases a very helpful gift. often vary. It is recommended to collect the information in a systematic and permanent way in order to compare the change of development after 5. Do not leave trash. don’t flaunt your affluence. CBT Planning & Implementation • changes in the level of erosion caused by trekking tourists Workshops and discussions with participating communities • • Don’t take someone’s photo unless you have asked his/her permission first. Environmental Practice: • Lead by example. religion. shoes?). • Buy local supplies from food and craft vendors. Seek opportunities to enhance your understanding of the local culture. These guidelines should not be seen as patronising or discouraging for the tourists. • Consider the implications of buying plant and animal products. • If you want to bring gifts for your community. Ask your guide if you are not sure what to give (e. or economics. • It is generally ill-advised to initiate discussions on local politics. money. Respect for Local Customs: • Be aware of your actions and appearance. Dealing directly with CBT enterprises assures maximum retention and spread of income. taken 39 .6 Code of Conduct for Visitors The following guidelines for tourists should help to make the visit of a CBT community a constructive and rewarding experience for hosts and guests. T-shirts. • Dress conservatively. • Consider a donation for community projects. if in doubt ask your guide. • Respect the privacy of others. Always carry a plastic bag and keep it easily accessible for putting trash in. manners. headman. Avoid nudity and intimate displays of affection in public. • Stay on trails and do not disturb wildlife. politely suggest improvements. 10 or even 20 or 30 years 4.g. Be careful not to offend your hosts by criticising their government or religious practices. and how they may be perceived by your hosts. • If you observe poor environmental practices among your hosts or fellow travellers. Find out if they are rare or endangered. • Recognise that you are much wealthier than your hosts. and community leaders who can distribute them as needed. • Buy handicrafts in the community.

29. This can disrupt the delicate balance of the ecosystem you are visiting. Sources of the above mentioned guidelines: adapted from Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (1998).org. THE MOUNTAIN INSTITUTE 2000.g. www.4. CBT Planning and Implementation • • from the wild (e. TOURISM KWAZULU-NATAL (no year). www. All camping activities should take place at least 70 meters (200 feet ) away from streams or lakes.htm General aspects: • Inform your tour operator if you observe any management problems during the trip. Wesche/Drumm (no date) Suggested textbook material ASHLEY/ROE 1998. 61-62. shells. WESCHE/DRUMM. MACLAREN 2002. p. express your concern in a polite way! 40 . 184-185 (no date). THE INTERNATIONAL ECOTOURISM SOCIETY 1993. ivory. Keep pollutants out of water sources. WWF 2001. UNESCO NAM HA ECOTOURISM PROJECT 2001b.rarecenter. • Should your local guide or tour operator violate regulations or act disrespectfully towards the environment in an effort to make your visit more exciting or interesting.bigvolcano. tortoise. Do not introduce any plants or animals to the local environment. p. and coral) p. animals skins.

Conduct a market analysis (current and potential tourist demand. Identify what support is required for your tourism venture h. Present the potential positive and negative changes in the community due to tourism. go to the next step e. Set up a community meeting to launch the idea of community-based tourism in your area b. Initiate a community structure to participate in the tourism venture f.4. Obtain broad community support for the draft plan r. sense of place. values. handicraft group) g. Assess your local attractions. tourism resources. Prioritise your attractions and your capacities by performing a SWOT (strengths. e.) j. identify competitive advantages for your destination) n. Identify person(s) in structure to “drive” the process (formal and informal key stakeholders and groups.g. women’s group. weaknesses. go to the next step o. Conclude agreements with any outside parties – government and regulatory bodies and possible joint-venture partners 41 . CBT Planning and Implementation Implementation of Community Based Tourism: From A to Z Summary of steps for communities. If the community is still interested in CBT. Conduct a competitor analysis (identify competing destinations. Prepare a detailed business plan for tourism development – including detailed plans for each of the elements of the plan partners. groups & individuals seeking to establish community tourism ventures in their areas: a. assess their strengths and weaknesses. market shares. Check that the draft plan meets legal. threats) analysis k. incorporate what the community holds important (beliefs. Decide on the type of tourism you feel will suit your area l. Prepare a draft work plan for tourism development (including a map and seasonal calendar) p. youth group. Identify current involvement of the community and region in tourism and compare it with other existing economic sectors c. s. etc. d. activities desired) m. opportunities. "Basic decision”: Does CBT appear to be feasible and desirable in your area? Should it be pursued? If so. environmental and other requirements q. Identify appropriate support agencies/individuals i.

Election of a community tourism committee v. transportation . like NGOs and donor organisations 42 .4.Management skills.Service: Homestay (accommodation. Carry out regular monitoring and evaluation of CBT z. 2 to 3 pilot tours with associated friends and relatives of stakeholders including an evaluation of pilot tours and. Conduct several training sessions with interested members of the community: . phase-out of outside consultants and supporters.Product development issues.Special training sessions for local guides u. CBT Planning and Implementation t. Arrival of first tourists groups y. If successfully implemented. Launch a marketing campaign in cooperation with tourism enterprises and/or tourism board w.Handling visitors.First aid . changes in the program or goal x. including nature & cultural programme .Handicrafts .Basic language training . customer care and hospitality skills .Marketing and communication (in cooperation with tourist boards and/or tourism companies) . food supply. if necessary. legal issues and financial control .Income distribution and rotation system . toilet facilities).

11. C. BENAVIDES. & M. www. by: Ecotourism Association (Armenia). ROE (1998): Enhancing involvement in Wildlife Tourism: Issues and challenges. BARKIN. Schriftenreihe für Tourismus und Entwicklung. Ammerland/ Starnberger See. D. Handlungsempfehlungen für eine partizipative Projektarbeit. A review of experience. Publ. Georgia.AGÖL (Ed. ASHLEY. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES CONSORTIUM URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT AT AIT (Complied) (2001b): Key Resource Material for Seminar on Tourism and Poverty Reduction. D. ROE. Background paper. PÉREZ-DUCY (2001): Tourism in the least developed countries. 2. S. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES CONSORTIUM URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT (2001a): Conference Summary. Publ. STA ANA (Eds. COTTRELL (2001): SNV and sustainable tourism. ECO AGRO TOURISM IN SOUTH CAUCASUS (2002): Earth paradise in the south-east of Europe. BURGER. & E. March 16-18. November 27-29. D. & ST. by: World Tourism Organisation. Bangkok. Dissertation (unpublished) 9. by: American Museum of Natural History 14.Annex 1: References and further reading 1. 2000 at the Asian Institute of Technology.23.EATSC. The Hague/Netherlands 10. Publ. Prepared for the delivery at the 2000 meeting of the Latin American Studies Association. International Conference on “Sustainable Community Tourism Destination Management”. BEYER. Publ. Tbilisi. Pro-Poor Tourism Report No. ASHRA. D. CENTER FOR BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION (1998): Guidelines for the Ecotraveler. Thailand 11. by: baerens & fuss. 2001 (unpublished) 12... by: VSO. Publ.) (2000): Conference-Workshop on Ecotourism. & H. Miami. London 5. C. Spain 7. Madrid. by: Overseas Development Institute. Issue 2 15.) (2001): Training Model for Sustainable Tourism on Organic Farms. CAALDERS.1. J.. by: Studienkreis für Tourismus und Entwicklung e. Thailand. CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES CONSORTIUM URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROJECT (no date): Planning for Local Level Sustainable Tourism Development 13. Bohol. LOOKWOOD. Schwerin/Germany.V. Vol. Publ. Thailand’s most northwestern province in the International Year of Ecotourism 2002. R.. Germany 8. Conservation & Community Development. 1999. Publ. Bangkok. MATTHIAS (2003): Partizipation als Herausforderung für Tourismusprojekte in der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (Participation as a challenge for tourism projects in development cooperation). December 3. N. & D. ASHLEY. AKPINAR. Philippines 3. 2000 6. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ökologischer Landbau . London 4. IIED Wildlife and Development Series No. November 7-12.: Social Tourism in Rural Communities: An instrument for promoting sustainable resource management. Philippines. (2002): Community-Based Ecotourism in Mae Hong Son. GOODWIN (2001): Pro-Poor Tourism Strategies: Making Tourism Work for the Poor. University of Hertfordshire/Cologne Business School. CULTURAL SURVIVAL QUARTERLY (1999): Protecting Indigenous Culture and Land through Ecotourism. 1 . Tagbilaran City.

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London. (1998): Community Based Sustainable Tourism – A Handbook. Madrid. H. Publ. A Manual for Eco-Tourism Guides and Managers. ASSET. URQUICO. Lao PDR 55. (1998): Community Based Sustainable Tourism – A Reader. Ledbury/UK 4 . R. Manila/Philippines 58. THE MOUNTAIN INSTITUTE (2000). Lao PDR 56. T. URQUICO. R. Publ. C. & A. JulyDecember 2001. ASSET. TUCKER. C. UNESCO NAM HA ECOTOURISM PROJECT (2001a): Ecoguiding in Luang Namtha. Divisions of Technology. Paris. USA 49. Manila/Philippines 57. France 54. DRUMM (no date): Defending our Rainforest . by: Accion Amazonia 59. UNESCO NAM HA ECOTOURISM PROJECT (2001b): Monitoring the success and Impacts of Community-Based Eco-Tourism. Community Based Tourism Conservation and Development: A Resource Kit. WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION and UNCTAD Paper (7/2002): Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty. Nepal 50. Spain 61. A Guide Training Manual for Community-Based Ecotourism. Draft Copy. South Africa 52. The Tourism Company. unpublished. by: United Nations Environment Programme.A guide to Community-Based Ecotourism in the Ecuadorian Amazon. unpublished. Denman. WWF (Worldwide Fund for Nature) INTERNATIONAL (2001): Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development. T. Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE). Prepared by: Dr. Luang Namtha. TOURISM AUTHORITY OF THAILAND (no date): Sustainable Tourism. Draft Copy. WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION (2002): Tourism and Poverty Alleviation. UNEP Industry and Environment (2001): Ecotourism and sustainability. Kathmandu. Luang Namtha. THE INTERNATIONAL ECOTOURISM SOCIETY (1993): Ecotourism Guidelines for Nature Tour Operators. Madrid. Spain 60. Vermont. Great Britain 53. TOURISM KWAZULU-NATAL (no date): An introduction to community centred Tourism – A Training Manual.48. Durban. Bangkok/Thailand 51. (2003): Living with Tourism. WESCHE.

uk RARE Center for Tropical Conservation. South Africa.O. USA. P. summit@mountain. Chair: Dr. eceat@antenna. P. rare@rarecenter. Faculty of Applied Health Sciences. +1 (202) 778-9559. orot@notri. Box The Nature www. Bangkok 10903. 1246). ON N2L 3G1. Fax: +44 (020) Fax: +1 (202) Durban. Ph. kznta@iafrica. ecomail@ecotourism. UK. Stapleton House.recoftc. Task Force on Tourism and Protected Association of small-scale tourism ventures (ASSET).uwaterloo. Fax: +66 (02) 5614880. +41 (0) 61 261 47 VA 22201-3000. P. 277-281 Holloway Road. www. P. www. Compatible Economic Development Department. Washington. Box 11536. Canada. +27 (0) 12 322 2106. +31 (20) 668-1030. Fax: +1 (651) or www.or th 3 . The International Ecotourism Society (TIES). Department of Recreation & Leisure Studies. +1(519) 888-4567 (ext. Ph. Andy Drumm (Ecotourism Director). www. Serrekunda.ANNEX 2: Useful Addresses You can find additional addresses at ‘The Ecotourism Training Manual for Protected Area University of Waterloo. European Center for Eco-Agro IUCN . Box 668. Ronnakorn Triraganon.: +1 (703) USA. Fax: +27 (0) 12 320 2414. Fax: +1 (519) 746-6776. P. www. info@rethinkingtourism. Switzerland. 4000.ecotourism. Suite 203. 1250 24 St.eceat.rethinkingtourism. Tourism Concern.: +220 465288/465623. Information department. Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA). Suite 725. South Africa.rarecenter.O. Annex 4 ! Arbeitskreis Tourismus & Entwicklung (akte) (Working group on tourism & development – Campaigner of “Fair Trade on holiday”). Fax: +220 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) US.. Ph. PO Box 10899. D. Hatfield. +31 (70) 3440139. MN 55104. Contact: www.O. Fax: +31-70-3855531.ku. NL-1001 EW Amsterdam. www. info@akte. 1840 Wilson Blvd. Ph. Ph. USA. Fax: +1 (703) 522-5027. Fax: +1 (703) VT 05402.O. Ph. International Conservation Program. Missionsstr.O 1111. Ph. Box 2637. www. The Mountain Institute. Ph. Center for Conservation Finance. +1 (202) 452-1636. London N7 8HN. www. The Gambia. USA.: +44 (020) 7753-3330. 4245 North Fairfax Dr. +1 (703) 841-4860.propoortourism. N.fairtourismsa. USA. www. 2494 Den Haag. Fax: +31 (20) 463-0594. Fax: +41 (0) 61 261 47 adrumm@tnc. Paul KwaZulu-Natal Tourism Authority (KZNTA). www. Saint Regional Community Forestry Training Center (RECOFTC). CH-4003 Basel. www.The World Conservation Union. Fax: +1 (802) www.nature. Netherlands. SNV Netherlands development organisation (SNV supports several CBT projects in Africa and Asia). Kasetsart University. Arlington.C. VA 22203-1606. Gambia Tourism Concern. eagles@healthy.: +66 (02) 940 5700 (ext. Arlington. Rethinking Tourism +1 (651) 644-9984. 1828 L Street NW. Waterloo. Ph. Suite 402. Bezuidenhoutseweg 161. DC 20036.. c/o Bungalow Beach Hotel. Suite 100. Thailand. The Kutlwanong Democracy +1 (802) 651-9818. www. Fax: +1 (202) USA. 2716). info@tourismconcern. 366 North Prior Avenue.snv. 21.

Third Quarter 1998 Women in mountain communities have been the traditional caretakers of the natural environment.Annex 3: WOMEN'S ROLES IN COMMUNITY-BASED MOUNTAIN ECOTOURISM By Pam Godde. Mountain populations. Immediately. The following case studies depict the importance women play and the responsibilities they have in ecotourism. and women made a significant contribution to this. later made steps toward accepting and working with the reserve. in the El Cielo Biosphere Reserve. a rich ecosystem known for its variety and density of birds of prey and herpetofauna. One of these activities was the creation of a women's co-operative. and charcoal cooked pies. the women also sell traditional products. When they first learned that the forest was to be turned into a conservation area. Yet the degree to which women are involved in decision-making or leadership roles in community-based mountain tourism has. the people of Dadia were concerned that their livelihood-earning lumber activities were to be stemmed. they provide useful implications for institutional building among women potentially involved in community-based mountain tourism in developing countries. Today. In this early phase of development. Through the visitor center. a mountain cloud forest in Northeastern Mexico. rented building preparing traditional dishes. The village of Dadia soon donated a piece of land to the cooperative for a food kitchen. and women in particular. including filo dough village style. 4 . but also of tourists and travellers. In some mountain communities. and this was repaid once they began to make money. The community formed an independent company to manage a variety of ecotourism activities in the region. Although outside loan schemes have been made available. moussaka.Soufli Forest Reserve of Greece. A second example comes from Scott Walker's work with the people of the Alta Cima ejido. the women used credit to purchase necessary raw materials in the nearby town of Soufli. knitted socks for adults and babies. Further. The cooperative started in 1994 when the forestry service allowed the women to use the canteen in a recreation area. The first of these case studies comes from the work of Georgia Valaoras on ecotourism as a means of alternative development and biodiversity conservation in the Dadia . chicken with bulgahar rice. The cooperative has also had a positive impact on the community's social life and has been partly responsible for reducing the rate of emigration of young people from the village by giving them more opportunity. Women in mountain regions play a primary role in the sustainable management of the environment and natural resource base. men must frequently be absent or even seasonally migrate for wage labour. dynamic. Through their roles in the household and in village life. Although the role of women as actors in conservation management and in decision and policy making is increasingly recognized at the international level. leaving women in charge. The Ecotourism Society Newsletter. however. however. through the visitor center. which builds on an intimate understanding of the fragile. the women have chosen to run a self-funding enterprise. The community. or landowning group. the ecotourism cooperative produced supplemental income for the women and created a heightened awareness and pride in local ecological and cultural knowledge. they show the degree to which ecotourism can improve the general standard of living among women worldwide. such as pasticcio. practice a stewardship of the land. tomato paste. cloth and lace table coverings and wall hangings made from silkworm pupae. More importantly. women also often have considerable interaction with and responsibility for tourists.Kefkimi . Women were able to maintain their traditional skills while incorporating them into a new and innovative enterprise. high-risk mountain environment. the extent to which women have been involved in the sustainable management and decision-making of community-based mountain tourism is not well known. been given insufficient attention. to date. the women operate from a small.

Working with the funding of a small international grant. One of the results was the formation of a women's co-op called El Grupo de Mujeres de Alta Cima. Uganda faced severe crop destruction by local wildlife. capacity-building program. community based ecotourism initiatives allow women not only to make a significant contribution to tourism enterprises but also help support the general infrastructure through food service. beans. rice. gas stove. Scott Walker points to the example of one single mother with two daughters who was able to build her family a small house with the earnings from the co-op. and homemade wine and preserves. and a CB radio. the benefits from the cooperative are impressive. rest rooms. they accepted the project once a portion of tourist revenues was reinvested into the community. women's involvement in ecotourism enterprises can raise status levels and strengthen women's voice in community decision-making. Although the people of Budongo were sceptical at first. Langoya and Cath Long's work on the Budongo Forest Ecotourism Project. women's ecotourism activities can generate higher incomes and increase financial independence among women. the wildlife became the primary resource for ecotourism development. Second. enterprise skills and traditional knowledge. They also operated a restaurant out of a dirt-floored pavilion. There are common themes in each of these case studies and in other communities in the mountain world. nearly all women of the town who want to work are employed by the cooperative. the cooperative started with a small store selling sodas.D. all women present at the meeting voted for clean. water along with education. The community organized meetings and workshops through which they developed action plans. the production of handicrafts and the preparation of tourist meals as micro-enterprises are central to women's roles in the Budongo project. In addition. found alternatives with the help of a local NGO that conducted a grass-roots. The women of Budongo now produce handicrafts for sale and two women's groups are gearing up to run the catering at the local tourist sites. 5 . with a wood stove and running water. Prior to the establishment of this project. embroidered T-shirts. With the money they have earned the women have been able to improve the restaurant by adding a screen. serving local food such as tortillas. As with the women of Dadia and Alta Cima.As with many people whose livelihood depends on a region declared a conservation zone. but conversely. it is clear that the inclusion of women in community decision-making and leadership roles provides broad-based benefits to communities and tourists alike. received the greatest proportion of benefits. First. According to the results of Scott Walker's economic impact study. the community of Alta Cima. affording greater independence in some cases. Women play a valuable role in community-based mountain ecotourism as they hold tremendous knowledge and skills in relation to mountain environments. Second. Another interesting aspect of the Budongo Forest Ecotourism Project is the role women play in decision-making related to local ecotourism revenue reinvestment. photovoltaic DC lights. As a result. not only can ecotourism benefit from women's innovation. including the local women. First. encompassing about twenty families. the incomes of the women have increased. concrete floor. lodging and handicraft sales. The formation of women's groups and ultimate success in ecotourism therefore work toward a gender balance. In one discussion concerning revenue reinvestment. Third. How funds are allocated depends on the consensus reached during community meetings in which women are well represented. These contributions are even more apparent when part of an organized women's cooperative. With the help of an NGO. eggs and coffee. and is essential to the overall the success of the general ecotourism program. The third example comes from C. the community of Budongo. Many community members are involved. safe and conveniently located drinking water as the most urgent need for funding.

as well as to organized tours for small size groups. between 19 and 22 May 2002. 6 . Recognize the cultural diversity associated with many natural areas. under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Tourism Organization (WTO). private ecotourism businesses and their trade associations. The participants to the World Ecotourism Summit. aware of the limitations of this consultative process to incorporate the input of the large variety of ecotourism stakeholders. as a leading industry. concerning the economic.Annex 4: Québec Declaration on Ecotourism In the framework of the UN International Year of Ecotourism. Lends itself better to independent travellers. involving over 3. uses and practices many of which have proven to be sustainable over the centuries. particularly nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and local and indigenous communities. private and non-governmental sectors met at the World Ecotourism Summit. Canada. and contributing to their well-being. Participants therefore request the UN. the sustainability of tourism should be a priority at WSSD due to its potential contribution to poverty alleviation and environmental protection in endangered ecosystems. economic and environmental implications. It also embraces the following specific principles which distinguish it from the wider concept of sustainable tourism: Contributes actively to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage. academic institutions and consultants. by Tourisme Québec and the Canadian Tourism Commission. August/September 2002. It is the result of a multi-stakeholder dialogue. This document takes into account the preparatory process. and indigenous and local communities. and by increasing awareness of all travellers towards the conservation of natural and cultural heritage.000 representatives from national and local governments including the tourism. intergovernmental organizations. Emphasize that ecotourism should continue to contribute to make the overall tourism industry more sustainable. social and environmental impacts of tourism. Recognize that ecotourism embraces the principles of sustainable tourism. Interprets the natural and cultural heritage of the destination to visitors. environment and other administrations. as the ground-setting event for international policy in the next 10 years. Includes local and indigenous communities in its planning. hosted in Québec City. Consider the growing interest of people in travelling to natural areas. of which some have maintained their traditional knowledge. The participants at the Summit acknowledge the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg. although it is not a negotiated document. development and operation. by increasing economic and social benefits for host communities. 2002. as well as the discussions held during the Summit. Acknowledge that tourism has significant and complex social. actively contributing to the conservation of natural resources and the cultural integrity of host communities. its organizations and member governments represented at this Summit to disseminate the following Declaration and other results from the World Ecotourism Summit at the WSSD. Its main purpose is the setting of a preliminary agenda and a set of recommendations for the development of ecotourism activities in the context of sustainable development. both on land and sea. which can bring both benefits and costs to the environment and local communities. non-governmental organizations. The Québec Summit represented the culmination of 18 preparatory meetings held in 2001 and 2002. Recognize that ecotourism has provided a leadership role in introducing sustainability practices to the tourism sector. from the public. over one thousand participants coming from 132 countries. and emphasize that. particularly because of the historical presence of local and indigenous communities.

economic and environmental benefits from ecotourism and other forms of tourism in natural areas. academic and research institutions. which they propose to governments. including their protected. with respect to their involvement in ecotourism as consumers or suppliers. community-based associations. Affirm that different forms of tourism. behaviour and activities. In light of the above. incentives for the use of sustainable energy and innovative technical solutions. participative planning mechanisms are needed that allow local and indigenous communities. Accept the need to avoid discrimination between people. poor water quality. the participants to the World Ecotourism Summit. displacement of indigenous and local communities. Recognize that visitors have a responsibility to the sustainability of the destination and the global environment through their travel choice. especially ecotourism. and. specialized credit instruments for tourism businesses. having met in Québec City. from 19 to 22 May 2002. and that therefore it is important to communicate to them the qualities and sensitivities of destinations. including the right to opt out of tourism development. it contributes to the deterioration of natural landscapes. poverty. whether by race. as follows: 7 . Acknowledge that ecotourism development must consider and respect the land and property rights. medium-. gender or other personal circumstances. grants for external costs. who frequently lack adequate health care. education facilities.Reiterate that funding for the conservation and management of biodiverse and culturally rich protected areas has been documented to be inadequate worldwide. in a transparent way. Recognize that to improve the chances of survival of small-. where recognized. Understand that small and micro businesses seeking to meet social and environmental objectives are key partners in ecotourism and are often operating in a development climate that does not provide suitable financial and marketing support for ecotourism. the private sector. and micro enterprises further understanding of the ecotourism market will be required through market research. and an emphasis on developing skills not only in business but within government and those seeking to support business solutions. if managed in a sustainable manner can represent a valuable economic opportunity for local and indigenous populations and their cultures and for the conservation and sustainable use of nature for future generations and can be a leading source of revenues for protected areas. marine and coastal pollution. the right to self-determination and cultural sovereignty of indigenous and local communities. Stress that to achieve equitable social. international financial institutions. development assistance agencies. non-governmental organizations. inter-governmental organizations. and other infrastructure required for genuine development opportunity. and to minimize or avoid potential negative impacts. and indigenous and local communities. Recognize further that many of these areas are home to peoples often living in poverty. wherever and whenever tourism in natural and rural areas is not properly planned. threats to wildlife and biodiversity. developed and managed. and the erosion of cultural traditions. to define and regulate the use of their areas at the local level. sensitive and sacred sites as well as their traditional knowledge. produced a series of recommendations. communications systems. Emphasize that at the same time.

Such plans should include clear norms. including objective sustainability indicators jointly agreed with all stakeholders and environmental impact assessment studies to be used as feedback mechanism. 7. Results of monitoring should be made available to the general public. 8 . define appropriate policies. ecolabels and other voluntary initiatives geared towards sustainability in ecotourism. or be affected by ecotourism activities. 2. rights to land and property. and regulations with the funds to ensure monitoring of social and environmental impacts for all ecotourism businesses operating in the area. 5. guarantee -in conjunction with local and indigenous communities. certification systems should reflect regional and local criteria. management plans. encourage and support the creation of regional networks and cooperation for promotion and marketing of ecotourism products at the international and national levels. formulate national. monitoring and a regulatory framework are necessary to support effective implementation of these schemes. including international transport. In addition. genetic resources. and to do so through a wide consultation process with those who are likely to become involved in. and earmark adequate sources of funding for natural areas to manage visitor numbers. as well as for tourists wishing to visit them. as well as community-based and NGO-based ecotourism operations in the overall promotional strategies and programmes carried out by the National Tourism Administration. which are the core of ecotourism. develop regulatory mechanisms for internalization of environmental costs in all aspects of the tourism product. ensure the provision of technical. small and medium-sized firms. include in the above framework the necessary regulatory and monitoring mechanisms at the national. as well as rights to water. and the sustainable use of sensitive habitats. regional and local governments 1. affect. while at the same time opening and facilitating the participation of other stakeholders in ecotourism-related decisions. local and indigenous cultures and specially traditional knowledge. and participatory land-use planning not only in protected areas but in buffer zones and other ecotourism development zones. Build capacity and provide financial support to make these schemes accessible to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). both in the international and domestic markets. encouraging private operators to join such schemes and promoting their recognition by consumers.the protection of nature. (including the establishment of interministerial working groups as appropriate) at different stages in the ecotourism process. However. 6. direct and indirect management strategies. 4. and interpretation programmes for visitors. use internationally approved and reviewed guidelines to develop certification schemes. include micro. financial and human resources development support to micro. adequate budgetary mechanisms and appropriate legislative frameworks need to be set up to allow implementation of the objectives and goals set up by these multi-stakeholder bodies. To national. regional and local levels. develop the local and municipal capacity to implement growth management tools such as zoning. Furthermore. with a view to enable them to start. regional and local ecotourism policies and development strategies that are consistent with the overall objectives of sustainable development. 8. grow and develop their businesses in a sustainable manner. the private sector. 9. 3. 10. appropriate participation and necessary coordination of all the relevant public institutions at the national. 11. NGOs and all ecotourism stakeholders.A. ensure the involvement. protect vulnerable ecosystems. provincial and local level. small and medium-sized ecotourism companies.

and encourage tour operators and the travelling public to make soft mobility choices. the UN Commission on Sustainable Development and the International Labor Organization) for the enhancement of international and national legal frameworks. guidelines and codes of ethics for sustainable tourism (e. conceive. incorporate sustainable transportation principles in the planning and design of access and transportation systems. develop and conduct their businesses minimizing negative effects on. 21. 15. bear in mind that for ecotourism businesses to be sustainable. energy and materials. such as 9 . and directly benefiting and including local and indigenous communities. especially those in developing countries. development and operation of ecotourism facilities incorporates sustainability principles. wherever this is likely to improve the net social. as well as conservation of water. 13. and positively contributing to.. 22. To the private sector 20.g. B. 16. provide incentives to tourism operators and other service providers (such as marketing and promotion advantages) for them to adopt ecotourism principles and make their operations more environmentally. adopt as appropriate a reliable certification or other systems of voluntary regulation. sewage. they need to be profitable for all stakeholders involved. This should include aspects such as site selection. etc. the conservation of sensitive ecosystems and the environment in general. 18. design. 19. and accessibility to all categories of population without discrimination. policies and master plans to implement the concept of sustainable development into tourism. or support institutions that invest in research programmes on ecotourism and sustainable tourism. planning. consider as one option the reallocation of tenure and management of public lands. including the projects' owners. from extractive or intensive productive sectors to tourism combined with conservation. investors. 14. 23. and the protection of watersheds. socially and culturally responsible. promote collaboration between outbound tour operators and incoming operators and other service providers and NGOs at the destination to further educate tourists and influence their behaviour at destinations. promote and develop educational programmes addressed to children and young people to enhance awareness about nature conservation and sustainable use. managers and employees. planning. the Convention on Biological Diversity. and ensure also that ecotourism development strategies are not undertaken by governments without investment in sustainable infrastructure and the reinforcement of local/municipal capabilities to regulate and monitor such aspects. and invest. as well as the communities and the conservation organizations of natural areas where it takes place. ensure that the design. economic and environmental benefit for the community concerned. support the further implementation of the international principles. WTO. with special attention to endangered species. institute baseline environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies and surveys that record the social environmental state of destinations. the treatment of solid waste.12. ensure that basic environmental and health standards are identified and met by all ecotourism development even in the most rural areas. 17. such as those proposed by UNEP. local and indigenous cultures and their relationship with ecotourism. such as sensitive site design and community sense of place.

in order to maintain the overall authenticity of the ecotourism product and increase the proportion of financial and other benefits that remain at the destination. private operators are urged to respect. customs and history. create and develop funding mechanisms for the operation of business associations or cooperatives that can assist with ecotourism training. 29. marketing. make increasing use of local materials and products. ensure an equitable distribution of financial benefits from ecotourism revenues between international. outbound and incoming tour operators. To achieve this. capacity building and other support to ecotourism destinations. To non-governmental organizations. financial. established visitor impact management systems of ecotourism destinations. small businesses and the corresponding local authorities in order to ensure that appropriate policies. 31. and support the contribution that they and their families can make to conservation. development and management guidelines. community economic development and poverty alleviation. work actively with indigenous leadership and local communities to ensure that indigenous cultures and communities are depicted accurately and with respect. local service providers and local communities through appropriate instruments and strategic alliances. and monitoring 10 . 26. 27. research and financing. in order to demonstrate to their potential clients their adherence to sustainability principles and the soundness of the products and services they offer. community-based associations. C. and contribute to. 25.ecolabels. 33. academic and research institutions. host community organizations. formulate and implement company policies for sustainability with a view to applying them in each part of their operations. so as to minimize any negative impacts upon them while enhancing the quality of the tourism experience and contribute financially to the conservation of natural resources. ensure that the supply chain used in building up an ecotourism operation is thoroughly sustainable and consistent with the level of sustainability aimed at in the final product or service to be offered to the customer. thus threatening their long-term sustainability. In this regard. provide technical. and that their staff and guests are well and accurately informed regarding local and indigenous sites. such as by environmental education or by encouraging voluntary contributions to support local community or conservation initiatives. ensuring that ecotourism operations are practised according to the management plans and other regulations prevailing in those areas. as well as local logistical and human resource inputs in their operations. cooperate with governmental and non-governmental organizations in charge of protected natural areas and conservation of biodiversity. 30. product development. 28. 32. 34. educational. national and global environmental and cultural issues through ongoing environmental education. private operators should invest in the training of the local workforce. diversify their offer by developing a wide range of tourist activities at a given destination and by extending their operations to different destinations in order to spread the potential benefits of ecotourism and to avoid overcrowding some selected ecotourism sites. generate awareness among all management and staff of local. 24. promote among their clients an ethical and environmentally conscious behaviour vis-à-vis the ecotourism destinations visited.

international financial institutions and development assistance agencies 38. biodiversity. build capacity for regional. research. cooperate with public and private organizations ensuring that the data and information generated through research is channeled to support decision-making processes in ecotourism development and management. 36. field missions. 44. monitor and conduct research on the actual impacts of ecotourism activities upon ecosystems. by means of publications. 43. poverty alleviation. adapt as necessary their financial facilities and lending conditions and procedures to suit the needs of micro-. 39. considering that 2002 is also designated as the International Year of Mountains by the UN. UNEP. and documentation are in place to oversee the use of ecotourism as a sustainable development tool. 11 . D. as appropriate. strengthen efforts in identifying the factors that determine the success or failure of ecotourism ventures throughout the world.mechanisms are being applied towards sustainability. nature conservation and other objectives of sustainable development. based on international guidelines. 41. respect of human rights. develop financial mechanisms for training and capacity building. and support their implementation. international standards and financial mechanisms for ecotourism certification systems that take into account the needs of small and medium enterprises and facilitates their access to those procedures. 42. To inter-governmental organizations. regional and national levels for the exchange of experiences between countries and sectors involved in ecotourism. WTO and other international organizations should continue and expand the international dialogue after the Summit on sustainable tourism and ecotourism issues. that takes into account the time and resources required to successfully enable local communities and indigenous peoples to participate equitably in ecotourism development. socioeconomic development. national and local organizations for the formulation and application of ecotourism policies and plans. for example by conducting periodical reviews of ecotourism development through international and regional forums. as a condition to ensure its long term economic sustainability. 40. develop and assist in the implementation of national and local policy and planning guidelines and evaluation frameworks for ecotourism and its relationships with biodiversity conservation. develop or adopt. 45. small. cooperate with research institutions to develop the most adequate and practical solutions to ecotourism development issues. 35.and medium-sized ecotourism firms that are the core of this industry. incorporate multi-stakeholder dialogue processes into policies. to small island developing States and to countries with mountain areas. in order to transfer such experiences and best practices to other nations. guidelines and projects at the global. training seminars and technical assistance projects. and to intensify the transfer of such know-how to all countries. develop the internal human resource capacity to support sustainable tourism and ecotourism as a development sub-sector in itself and to ensure that internal expertise. 37. Special attention should be paid to countries in a developing stage or least developed status. local and indigenous cultures and the socio-economic fabric of the ecotourism destinations.

22 May 2002 12 . define and implement a strategy for improving collective benefits for the community through ecotourism development including human. Québec City. 8. To the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) 48. recognize the need to apply the principles of sustainable development to tourism. To local and indigenous communities In addition to all the references to local and indigenous communities made in the preceding paragraphs of this Declaration. C 35. and the exemplary role of ecotourism in generating economic. para. 1 on page 3. As part of a community vision for development. social and environmental benefits. particularly home-based arts and crafts.E. in the outcomes expected at WSSD. 5. F. (in particular para. B 21 and 27. and improved access to technical information. Canada. strengthen. nurture and encourage the community's ability to maintain and use traditional skills. agricultural produce. traditional housing and landscaping that use local natural resources in a sustainable manner. integrate the role of tourism. including ecotourism. 49. in A 2 and 17. and social capital development. D 45) participants addressed the following recommendations to the local and indigenous communities themselves: 46. 47. financial. that may include ecotourism. 9 and 10 on page 2. physical.

One of your guests asks you to translate why the men in the village are so lazy and why the women do all the work. One of your guests refuses the alcohol. He/she is very drunk and is talking very loudly. Your guests are receiving traditional massages from some local women. the problem b. She does not smile but does not say anything for fear of doing the wrong thing. While they are swimming. one of your guests sees some people in the fields planting rice and rushes to take pictures. One of your male guests starts caressing his masseuse.Annex 5: Exercise for Community-Based Tourism Guides Dealing with difficult cross-cultural situations Below are some cross-cultural situations that CBT-Guides might encounter on their tours. thinking that the guest is only being shy. everybody gets out to dry off. One of your guests likes that local whiskey very much. a possible plan of action and c. The villagers are not longer enjoying the party because your guest is too loud and drunk. • • • • Source: modified from Nam Ha Ecotourism Project 2001. 8-15 13 . One of the guests does not have a towel and decides to change behind a bush in the nude. but the villager insists that she/he drinks the whiskey. It is evening in the village and the village chief is pouring glasses of local whiskey for your guests. While on a short break. he/she starts taking pictures. Discuss each situation in groups and identify: a. Without asking. He/she had had a lot to drink. what could be done next time to avoid the problem • • • A tourist couple is bathing in the river. p. they start kissing each other After taking a bath in the river. The group is having a discussion with the villagers.

ask if the participants have any questions for the team. female and children?) and the purpose of meeting. village group leaders and government personnel about the possible duration of the meeting. with the community. Make sure that not only a few people dominate the interaction. especially in rural settings. Make sure that the information generated is also left for the community – summarise the findings in a participatory manner and leave charts. Put pressure on village people. p. etc. and. Ask personal questions or leading questions (those that result in a yes or no answer). do avoid public arguments among the team members. Don’t Conduct meetings in private houses and same venue again and again. Raise expectations of what may follow. Become angry in meetings. especially women. Respect local cultures and traditions. Welcome and greet participants using the local language and acknowledge their contribution of time. to adjust meeting times to suit yours. Do establish rapport and value the opinions of the participants. expected participation (male. Prepare for the meeting and assign responsibilities among yourselves (facilitator. Ensure that as many people have the chance to speak as possible – use mechanisms to ensure participation and no interruptions. 81-82 (2000) 14 .Annex 6 – Do’s and Don’ts for CBT Training Teams Do Pre-inform participants about the venue of the meeting. Make final summary based on one viewpoint. Be humble and honest. Inform key community members. maps. if possible. Source: modified from The Mountain Institute. an observer and a back-up facilitator when the discussion is being dominated by certain people.) Check the distribution of participants. start the meeting with an introduction and on overview of the purpose and nature of process to be used. note taker. Wait too long to start the meeting. etc.