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YEAR 2011-2012



1. Background Nowadays like many countries of the world. solar energy. you recognize many disturbances. We can enumerate some of them: . Rwanda is facing a rapid increment in use of energy resources like hydropower plant. This proliferation has increased loss in the pipe line systems which are responsible of elecdisturbances mainly known as current distortion and voltage distortion effects sometimes considered as negligible but they provocate great effects.SUPERVISOR: BIKORIMANA JEAN MARIE CHAPTER I: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. Most of those are due to harmonics.2. Problem statement When you observe a Rwandan electrical network. Some of the most widely acknowledged effects caused by high current distortion and high voltage distortion are responsible to many problems are mentioned to the following part. thermal power plant. sometimes considered as negligible but responsible of many effects in electrical materials. methane gas. 1.

distribution equipment cannot carry full rated load) transformers and other Effects due to high voltage distortion are:  Can cause linear devices to draw non-linear current . and transformers Reduced power factor Reduced system capacity(because harmonics create additional heat. panels.Effects due to high current distortion are:                Overheating of conductors and insulation degradation Very high neutral currents Premature failure of transformers and uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) Random tripping of circuit breakers Neutral-earth potential Significant voltage distortion on networks with generators Overheating and possible resonance with capacitors Flickering and even ballast failure of lights PC monitor stroboscopic effect Mal-operation of microprocessor-based equipment Re-injection of harmonic currents into the utility network Voltage Flat topping Overheated phase conductors.

factories and high institutions are trying to protect themselves by investing in more sophisticate equipment for harmonic compensation. As a result of this increment in use of electronics. Installation of filters is the best technique used for compensation of current and voltage disturbances in power distribution systems.3. we want to analyze theoretically active power filters and their modeling and computer simulation comparing to passive power filters as a solution to harmonic problems compensation in power distribution system. many industries.     Torque pulsation in motors Capacitor dielectric failure Insulation breakdown PC monitor and power supply failure Electronic lighting failure In the following part of this work we shall give the details of each of these effects. Objectives of study In this project. . modeling and simulation of active and passive power filters and their scheme representation respectively. This project will focus in comparing. 1.

active power filters are the best comparing to passive power filters. Many people will know very well all effects due to harmonics. Interests of the study After accomplishing this project.7. 1. Some effects considered negligible will be seriously taken into account. Scope and delimitation of the study applicable Due to some constraints. this work will be mostly limited to passive power filters and active power filters. 1.5. my knowledge and interested people in electrical power distribution system will improved.6. electrical apparatus and to power utilities even if there not known very well and are considered as negligible. institutes and people in their houses will use active power filters to fight against harmonics. 1.4.1. Methodology . industrial plants.  For harmonic compensation. Hypotheses of the work  Harmonic effects are very dangerous to power distribution systrm.

With computer. in other to get full information about different consequencies caused by harmonics. we will model.8. 1. Memoir layout The current work comprises the following five chapters: . We will use different books from internet and from National University of Rwanda library. MATLAB SIMULINK. simulate and analyze some types of filters. We will read on internet to know what others think about that issue. we will ask the Technique Director of Estate in National university of Rwanda (nur).For a good verification of the hypothesis mentioned above.

This chapter contains a precise explanation of what the research in different points known as Background. Chapter V: Conclusion and recommendations. Objectives of study. Research methodology. In this chapter all problems in power system due to the presence of harmonics in transmission line or in distribution system will be assessed. . my interpretation and some recommendations. Research question. Modeling and simulation on each type of filters using Matlab simulink software will be included in this chapter. Problem statement. Chapter III: Harmonic problems in power system. Hypotheses. Interest of the study and Methodology. This chapter will include the overview of the whole study.Chapter I: General introduction. Chapter IV: Comparison of passive power filter and active power filter performance in fighting against harmonic problems in power system. Scope and delimitation of the study. Chapter II: The theoretical concept and the literature review of passive power filters and active power filters.

"Power Quality Issues and their Solutions".MANGOLD and M. Power quality. 3. R. Vedam. K. T.EICHERT. . 2008.Reference 1.WEINHOLD. K. " Facts controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution".R. 2. 2007.Sastry. 1999. Padiyor.

1. HARMONICS 2. The harmonics are the components of a distorted waveform and their use allows analyzing any non-sinusoidal periodic waveform by decomposing it into several sinusoidal components.1. According to the Fourier theorem. 2. home appliances and digital devices and hospital diagnostic system due to their operating principle. any periodic function with period T generally continuous and limited may be represented by a series of infinite sinusoidal terms with a frequency equal to integer multiples of the frequency of the original function. as cleared in figure1 showing the voltage distortion in function of time. it is referred to in percent.1. THD is also broken down into an ITHD (for current) and VTHD (for voltage). absorb a non sinusoidal current (non linear load). Harmonics is a steady state distortion of the electrical sine wave. .CHAPTER II: THE THEORETICAL CONCEPT AND THE LITERATURE REVIEW OFPASSIVE POWER FILTERS AND ACTIVE POWER FILTERS. Such current causes on the supply side of the network a voltage drop of non sinusoidal type with the consequence that also the linear loads are supplied by a distorted voltage. Definition Power electronic devices like microprocessors for industrial control. automation in factories and in offices. Most often called the THD (total harmonic distortion).

Figure 1 .