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AD 698 546 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, APPLICATION B. V.

Losikov Ohio PROPERTIES, QUALITY,

Foreign Techa'ology Division Wright -Patterson Air Force Base, 22 August 1969

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Part 2 of~4

FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION. co
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PETROLEUM PRODUJCTS, PROPERTIES Q.UALITY,

AP?LICATION

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FTD-HT2ý-347-68
Part 2 of 4

EDITED TRANSLATION
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, PROPERTIES, QUALITY, APPLICATION

By: B. V. Losikov, Source:

(Editor) Svoystva, Kachestvo,

Nefteprodukty,

Primeneniya,(Petroleum Products, Properties. Quality, Application) 1966, pp. 1-776 English Pages: 225 - 460

Translated Under: F33657-6¾-D-0865

THIS TRANSLATION IS A RENDITION OF THE ORIGI.
NAL FORSIGN TEXT WITHOUT ANY ANALYTICAL OR EDITORIAL COMMENT. STATEMENTS OR THEORIES ADVOCATED OR IMPLIED ARE THOSE OF THE SOURCC AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REFLECT THE POSITION OR OPINION Of THE FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DI. VISION. PREPARIEOD bY TRANSLATION DIVISION FOREIGN TECHrsOLOGY DIVISION WP.AFB, OHIO.

FTD-HT- 23-347-6Part 2 of 14

Date 2

19 t.;_

A

FUEL
Chapter 4

BOILER FUELS
1. ADVANTAGES OF LIQUID FUELS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION Liquid boiler fuel, which represents the heavy residues of direct distillation and cracking residues (mazouts), together with thermal-refining prodlcts of coals and bituminous shales (oils and tars), is used in the boilers of marine and stationary boiler systems and for technical purposes (in smelting of steel, in thermal, heating and other industrial furnaces). Heavy crude petroleums lacking the light fractions are sometimes used as boiler fuels. Liquid fuels have certain advantages over solid fuels: 1) high heat of combustion and high combustion rates, which amake it possible to burn liquid fuel at high utilization of the firebox space, which may reach 1,500,000 kcal/(ma.h) and more as compared to 350,000 kcal/(m3 .h) with solid fuels; 2) tios; 3) low ballast content (ash,
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thorough combustion at comparatively small excess-air ra-

moisture);

possibility of automating supply of fuel to firebox;

5) simplicity of loading at points of productinn, shipment and unloading at customer's premises, as well as convenience of warehouse storage;

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6) precision and simplicity of regulating boiler-system conditions. Use of liquid fuels on ships makes it possible:

1) to increase the range of the ship with a given bunker weight capacity as compared with the use of solid fuel; 2) loading fuel between decks, thereby increasing the ship's uscful hold capacity and improving its livability; 3) improve the maneuverability of the ships by means of h•rher boiler tuning and the possIbility of emptying and rebunkerIr fruci tanks with comparative speed; 4) mechanize the fuel-burning process and accelerate firing and shutdown of the boilers. - 225 'Tlp-H'rl-.?3-5;7-6S

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Nos. They can be used in internalcombustion engines and gas turbinec. PRODUCT CLASSES AND QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL BOILER FUELS PRODUCED IN THE USSR The manufacturers classify mazouts on the basis of the k At the present time. Heavy cracking residues (cracking mazoats) are the principal types used in the USSRTs economy. fleet tazout was produced in three grades according to AUSS 1626-57: FS5. medium-viscosity. high-sulfur) and range of application (fleet. other conditions the same. 100 and 200). Mazouts are also classified on the basis of' density (light.ulfur. 3) high-paraffin petroleum. conventtonal]( 0 BY) (prior to 1965. and firebox mazout in nix grades according to AUSS 1501-57: Nor. shale.s. all liquid fuels used in the fireboxes of boilers and furnaces are also called mazoui. Since mazouts are the principal liquid boiler fuels. open- hearth).F. The elimination of coal-stoking and ash-removal operations facilitates servicing. After dilution with low-viscosity components (solar oil. Further.. 2) Ukhta. Shale and coal mazouts are usually regarded as substitutes for mazouts of petroleum origin. P12 and F20. highand super-viscosity). The grades of the mazouts are determined by the maximum permiss3itle viscosity at 50eC In '"VC (viscosity. Various tars and oils obtained in the refining of solid. the grades of liquid boiler fuels: industry is producing the following 1) petroleum I(mazout). especially straight-run types. Industrial furnaces operating on liquid fuel are smaller and simpler in construction than furnaces that use solid fuel. are used only on oceangoing vessels and for special purposes. Mazouts can be classified [l. Low-viscosity mezouts. sulfur content (low-i. heavy. liquid and gaseous fuels may also be used as substitutes. superheavy) and viscosity (low-viscosity. firebox. 20.227 - . 5) coal and shale fuel mazouts (shale oil) (4). PF2 fleet mazoutz. coal). 2. the operational costs involved in the transport and burning of liquid fuels are lower than those for solid fuels. 4) export mazout. 80. type of raw material and the production technology (Table 4. 4o. P12 mazout is a mixture of refinery products of low-sulfur petroleums: 60-70% straight-run . The super-viscosity cracking residues produced at the present time can be used directly as fuels for thermal electric power stations and in industrial boiler plants located near petroleum refineries. 2] on the basis of origin (petroleum. Fleet mazouts F5 and P12 are intended for burning In t'he boiler plants of ocean-going vessels. they can be shipped to other consumers.) to obtain the viscosity specified by the standards for petroleum fuel (3]. etc. 60. sulfur-containing. 100 and 200 firebox mazouts and OH (Mn 1APTEHOBCKAR nE4b) fuel for open-hearth furnaces.1).rD Fuel oil mazout (AUSS 10585-63) is maade In six grades: F5 and -Iff-13-347-[ . 40.

M 6ms oi' 22COPA..+25 _m cyzo....not above OH fuel (for open-hearth 14) Pou• point of fuels from furnaces) h.. %..5 2A..7 wi (mepamo"Ia)...15 M OW 0. - - 100. for 4-.heating. not above: 15) 16) . %. 12. .. - ..ulfur and sulfur fuels - 228 . .5 2.5 (.0 0.. a 19 . 8) 9) At Dynamic viscosity....15 (#. t/ca'.. OBY.... as 60 S.P aimim2. i7M OC.. .. oVC..8 2... 0.0 1. +O +25 4-42 9 OM --- +36 -42 -- +25 - aACMUuMM tOiUIN3 3r3 Dtcoii@3paIC 15T'esaon aropant (•mm.. 0. 4) 5) 6) Density at 206C..2 Basic Quality Indices for Mazouts and-OH Fuel (All-Union State Standard [AUSS] (roCT) 16585-631 06 011. IN gum.. - ...4 (z•a 0MO3o ' .. n 6a 2llfa. . Indicator 10) 'Flash point..wm_ . °C..1 40 t 1 00 6 na~onocm uips 2o@ C.1 .0 - z ..* uw-mr.) 1.I TA! 4...1 0 2. 7 BX3oCM .j5... We 9 BaXOcM jwsamVVwwaM. 1) 2) 3..0* 12 -0 VA 0.5 2. O.0 as m50 30 A *Up to 5% is per•intted for mazouts that have aeen shWpped by water or poured under liveetee.. um 6*m u 20Mexasn~e upum.. g/cml 7) Oc not above Conventional viscosity..gh-paraffin petroleums.....o..0 (3am oepancrom) ?4 3. P 0C...3 0. 16 x*Alx/t 1... 11 CONir . not above: poi•:i 17) Hea.. not below Fleet mazouts 11) In closed crucible 75 12) In copen crucible FIrebox mazouts 13) Pour point. CO. xwocpammm man... 27. lOTexnepa~ypa swuu. W 0. w m 1 14Ten~eparyp .ý of combusticn (low. Tromuau). 0.albm .. .y fuel) kcal/xg (acceptance mini- mum): For low-...%.. ve mu: - cups 10"C . .. no.

Firebox mazouits are lieavy cracking residues. and water and 1ower heats of combustion than fleet mazouts. and whether the installations are provided with preheaters. they are allowod higher contents of mechanical impurities. Pirebox w. Volarovich'a rotary viscosimeter. ified as a function of nozzle throughput.102 or VNII NP-103 additive is used in fuel for marine boilers. viscosity is defined and standardized: at SflnC fvr No3. Mechanical impurities. and depend on the grade of mazout to bc made and the quality of the ccmponents. Its quality indlcet. not below. %. By agreement with the consumer.P. 200 mazuiit. The viscosity specified for F5 sulfur-containing mazout (dynamic viscosity in roises) at 10 and 00 C is determined on M. % by mass. 40 and 100 mazouts and at 100 0 C for No. not above Coking capacity.an 0. not above Water. %. arr The quality indices of fleet N. sulfur. %. a raedium'-viscosity fuel such as No. stationary boiler rooms and industrial furnaces. which is rl-o standardized ror It. In addition to high viscosity and a positive pour point. 40 mazotw is necessas'y for nozzles handling 50-100 kg/hour."18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) For high-sulfur fuels 24) 25) 26) 27) (for sulfur-containing Ash. Heavy boiler masouts are used in stationary boilers with high-capacity preheating and high-throughput nozzles. Tacle 4. not above (for low-sulfur fuels) mazout. and 20-30% cracking residue.npurities. It may contain up to 22% kerosene-gai-oil fractions from thermal and catalytic cracking. stoking equipment. is deteralned after removal or m'echanicai .ing up to 25-50 kg of fuel per hour. 10-12% ghs-oil fractions (black solar oil).. %.3 firebox masout. rrsemile thoso of No. no less th.*ur raw materials.d firebox masouts and ?P fuel listed '. Because of the high viscosity o) firebox mazouts at 50 0 C and the difficulty of determinIng it. either alone or mixed with straight-run mazouts.zouts are intended for burning in ship boiler plants (mazout 40). Coking capacity. 10. The grade of the mazouts used for stationary boilers is spec- For moderate sized industrial furnaces sIth small nozzles us. 100 or with even higher viscosity should be used for' nozzles with flow rates above 100 kg/hour and a preheating system Open-hearth OH f-el is obtained from low-eulf.-sulfur fuels) Gummy substances. and high-viscosity masouts such as No. Fuel oils include residues from dlstliiPtton of Ukhta petro- 229 - . not above fuels) (for hig.2% of VNII NP-. Asphalt is sometimes introduced in the production of high-viscosity mazouts. not above Sulfur. The proportionz of the components are not constant. 30-40% gas-oil fractions. Mazout F5 consists of straight-run sulfurpetroleum products: 60-70'1 mazout.2. %. light boiler fuel is recowmended..

6scoa me 07-TMo no T.. at 5C.. ns 6oa: ..... i .. 1 -ma~sjITNI•..5 2.. . kcalkg (minimum acceptance) Ash. ..230 - I .......20 SUM .......... .. .....°C........ V0V'. Temperatures. s o•eS . not above 4) Conventional viscosity... OC. 0C 10) 11) 12) dry fuel).nao).m .. not above In low-sulfur fuel Water.. I I M• 3A AS 2 al ..50 1.. %. OC 1) Index 2) Mazout grades 3) Density o|0. ps" n (gums .4 2.. Conventional viscosity.. *BY....o•CUp1.W ?"aomm). . %. %.*•.. so .. 1U3oab . 8 aiCTUSAIu.. .A - 020 0. %....N mM mu-o "n"ne tOnflSe (MP3TY-60) -. mw" .. 1C. . us +25 ..... not below In sulfur-containing fuel 14) TABLE 14. not above. ..C . &I ftaGeme .. .. .. '+0 c5Te. u"6ne:" 12 3 U. 7 sczmn OC: (9 o0Np-TOM Trrae). 5Tr payype..... 3MMITO 30 0 0 12 -4 UrS).Ie ... .m . ...TABLE 4.... not above . 7 a&sumwu.CTov.4 Principal Quality Indices of Export Mazouts (ETS 638-57) S..m i. 5 up 750C. Teaauora CrOpsHih (uzamwa na Cepo ToMI. . - -M Oj -M e -- 2 Nzip"unn I 1 * f- -6 A . •.oc . Flash point (open crucible).~~a .C M name ...%...... 6 00 C . not above At 8) 9) Pour point.... o 617emuepaypa. aVC. OC.C0 owcnuox (a aoem iGAOSM.. .... 5) Temperatures. 9xa..*C. %.. +42 9870 0...0 10 1) 2) 3) Index Ukhta boiler fuel 4) 5) Petroleum boiler fuel (URVTU-59) OVC.. ups W C. ..3 Quality Indices of Fuel Oils from Ukhta and West Ukrainian Petroleums I ......su.....f' ckt waIs..........- ..Tonauwo Bemb...-- +... not above Heat of combustion (low..t/98 (we6pawoao'iu ) ..- 4 B~iaxecm ycaounas.. lICeP.ia. not above 6) 7) 13) 3ulfur. ........... *C.

%. . se d ee .0 03 -- 2. ..6) Flash point (open crucible). The mazout3 are graded in (TaS 4• . WBe 6ow. not above 11) Water and mechanical impurities. 5. not above 1.0 - 03 0.a. . "C: . Ukhta fuel is Intended for burning in large boiler plartc. .. UM. not above Water.. point. . 0.•aune. Ks'enaoio ne mime cropaimit. at 750 C.6om .. not above At Temperatures. %.nocp%. XX. not above None.. and hindi-paraffin mazout in 3tationary boilers and industrial fuwnaces. not below (in closed crucible) Pour point.4 A) B) * C) D) Index Coal fuel mdzc..e). %.5 2. %. S . NCeps%. 3 70 +5 - . LCuon-c e ee 6o •. CC. The quality indicee ol r these fuels are given in Table 4.t (TS 4645$ [technical spec. not ao ove. not above < -10) Sulfur. TABLE 4. He -ww. not below 9) Ash. 63 -5 - . r.5 2.4 F lpam0c ( I M15 13 MO 60 O0 OnumM -17 G T inepaTYpa..'. °VC.3 0.5 Principal Quality Indices of Coal and Shale Mazouts •ay-T-.T za. % P E) F) -) shale tar [5) Conventional viscosity.a.A/wj.0 5. e 0. leums (Uklita boiler fuel) and high-paraffin petroleums from the West Ukrainian depouite (UR VTU-59 boiler fuel oil). kcal/kg Gummy substances. not above 8) Heat of combustion (low. (TY) Shale oil mazout (AUSS -4) I) J) '"±ash point (in open crucible). 0 Boa. dry fuel). -231- is made in three grades: +10. kcal/'rg. Export mazout (ETS 63B-77 [3TY]) and -5. not above Sulfur..ov o-2 C uK=0-ua D ___ A _ _ _ B (TY 448-53) it 5 100 +25 750C. .3. 5.4806-49) Distillate mazout from K) L) heat of' combustion. . °C M) N) 0) P) Ash.. accordance with pour point S. se . not below 7) Pour.4). . 0 C. .

0OT 1 7C'JoDIM Y 5TemhepaTypa. but floats on it or is distributed nonuniformly throughout its entire mass in the form of pockets and separate layers. Does not flow 15) 16) 17) ?32 - . TABLE 4.155 677 2. As regards quality (see Table 4. "I Xwe. low Che lyabinsk coal Tar Hard and Kizel coals. OC Flash point Ignition point Po4r joint heat of combustion. raw material of Ouh~akha coke and chem'ical combine Pitch Kizel coal of Nizhne-Tegil coke and chemical plant VC1s. Mo500C Bla.37 75 139 7 5 88W2 $412 837 1135 1)Lq 10)Fullo 4)~~~~~~~~5 isoiy 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 86 9) Liquid product a) Original raw material Density Ciriventiwler viscosity. kcal/kg itm C)rvni~a a 3 10) 11) I) 13) 10' Huel. chamber).67 a tA 6. WeioDuceoupw 754. shale oil is not used on oceangoing vessels because of its low heat of combustion and poor separation after mixing with water. low Working. at temperature of Temperatures.53 0. generator.8 BY170 229 . shale mazout is similar to the fleet grade.971 idpoduct Hxawn-Tar"Noto RonM3t9 t0(3 11)7 . OVC.0. Shale oil (AUSS 4806-49) is neutralized shale tar obtained in thermal decomposition of kerogen (the organic matter of bituminous shAles) in internally heated furnaces (tunnel.ue-To 4Cn6fla ruicOA NcoxuwuReaCoro aaTOP IoC -op i1 7 3 VI 1 .38 Meo He Tqow? -- - 84 8610 2. 20 o Him~e-Tarn~vaoro Top.m me or o xo m• viT S a Z 1.0 lj 67 coal 93 -- 89 it 9624 1.9).st ... t 1010 130 6 10 I11 13 COMa 1r 14 Ha [ CKuM ronuei yran:x CMpb Ranorfi5axnnexoro mxocoxis.83 93 7ow3 M~ 8 no 1 1 2 "") macao Humit-Tateoro 2 2 rqapomuo"We 13 aw aaboAi. Ten.Coal-fuel mazout (TS 464-53) is a residue from distillation of tars obtained in semicoking of coal.lenOwxxi yrOAl.22 ok LOS 1ox2u)hora tJA8 7..that hrs gotten into it does not settle.A rnabeioro Im.6 Physicochemical Properties of Liquid Products Recommended as SubEtitutes [6] )Iumuqe m [•7 J 20 j NOW.5). The oil is so dense (1000 and more) that wate. However.10 107 - t8 GM84 251 flex 16 O{w. It is used in boiler installations and industrial furnaces (Table 4.

t `3." etc. however. viscosity is also used as a hasis for actual grading of mazcuts. light fuels (France).). (Table Furnace fuels are medium distillate products obtained in thermal and catalytic cracking of petroleum products and in coking of residual fuels. cracking mazouts). They are used chiefly for heating buildings (to 60%). industrial and marine: special fleet . medium. no such division is made.nd bunker gradeýs) and physicochemical indices (density and viscosity).). production technology (straight-run. A number of products are used as mazout substitutes 4. Distillate mazout pours at low temperature and separates well from water (see Table 4. Only the methods of determining certain constant5 and their evs'uation are different. medium-viscosity and high-viscosity (Federal RWpublic of Germany.gium). in the specifications of a number of countries (USA.) and also individual petroleum companies ("Regent. PRODUCT CLASSES AND QUALITY OF COMMERCIAL BOILER FUELS PRODUCED ABROAD [7] In foreign countries.6)." "Esso. Japan. etc. In the official specifications of a number of countries (Belgium. in various industrial furnaces. Mazouts are classified by origin (petroleum.5). etc. they are classified as low-viscosity.231 . coal: shale). boiler-fuel quality is evaluated abroad on the basis of the same physicochemilcal indices a3 in the USSR." "Shell. Furnace fuels are sometimes called domestic fuels (England). the basis of the above criteria as light. Under semiindustrial conslitions.). For the most part. etc. and in industry. a technology has been worked out for the prcduction of distillate mazout -the 50% fraction in vacuum distillation of the tar residue boiling above 325 0 C [5]. heavy and even superheavy (Bc. and ftor heating buildings.18) 19) 20) 21) VC1 7 0 . Flows dropwise Neutral oil Nizhne-Tagil peat-chemi-al plant At 22) 23) 24) Paraffin oil Nizhne-Tagil coke and chemical plant Does not flow. or nozzle fuels (USA). 3. mazouts are classified oz. in railroad transportation. France. purpose (firebox and bunker or domestic-communal. The grading of furnace fuels is a function of viscosity and the purpose of the fuel or the type of nozzle. it fuels as distillate (furnace) is customary to classify boiler and residual (mazout) types. Depending on viscosity. Mazouts are also used as fuels for slow diesels and gas-turbine engines. Mazouts are intended for burning in the fireboxes of transportation and stationary steam boilers.

40C.• ! the test if the explosiveness of vapors liberated when it - b 234 - . tars. In the USA (specification MIL-F-859D). The explosive mixture contains hydrogen sulfide. thermal stabil-.S.8 0 C). Navy Department Specification MIL-F-859D have been introduced. mechanical impurities. The maximum pour point is also determined by the method of JVM 201-50.2 atm. The mazout is considered to have passed the test and retained mobility in operation at 00C if some small motion of the mazout in the tube is observed after pumping for 30 min at a pressure not exceeding 0.2 and 87. Stability is established by comparing the external appearance of a steel bushing that is heated to 176 0 C and washed by the mazout with a reference bushing. The fuel sample is heated to 100 0 C and cooled to -6. 4. A mazout panv. followed by determination of the pour point. 5. the specimen is preheated to 104.ulation of an explosive mixture above the sarface of the oil ducrig storage. In the widely accepted ASTMD 1661-59T method. tests for fluidity by a method proposed by the Arabian-American Oil Company and incorporated into U.•nese specifications have been applied to mazouts as a result c" fuel-tank explosions that have occurred aboard ships due to act'.osities of residual fuels are determined: in the USA in Saybolt universal (low-viscosity mazouts) and Saybolt-Furol (high-viscosity grades) viscosimeters. When a coke-like film is present on the bushing (after washing with benzene). Thermal stability is an index to the tendency of a mazout to form deposits during storage and heating (carbenes. Viscusity. Then nine separate samples are heated to a given temperatcure (between 32. To establish a guideline temperature at which the mazout remains mob-ie and can be pumped through mazout lines. The vis. the mazout is considered to be unstable. The lowest pour point obtained in this process for the mazout is taken as the maximum nour point. is circulated for 6 hours. Explosiveness.2°C. It also provides for determination of the so-called maximum pour point. Some specifications indicate simultaneously the kinematic viscosity in cst as obtained by conversion. Explosiveness is determined with a device used to determine t?'at of the gas-air mixture in petroleum storage tanks. In this case. Thermal stability. in England in Redwood viscosimeters. 3.7°C. casphaltenes. and water) such as make work with them difficult. explosi•v. ity is determined in a glass instrument in which the mazout.1. 2. in the Engler viscosimeter. in Italy and other European countries. .-ropane and other volatile hydrocarbons.. . Fluidity. A number of countries use a method similar to ASTMD 97-59 (USA) to determine the pour points of residual fuels after preheating of the fuel specimen to 46 0 C and cooling to 32. Fluidity is determined at 00 C in a U-tube connected to a vacuum pump. heated to 980C. carboids. or it has darkened greatly. Pour point.

ue mnwe ... - -. 1O aacmTiaunni.. 287.80 C..10 orpaunn em 1...6 - COpaxito--..O `3 1 Il 0.04 1.- 3.e .7 544 -6..25 1. ethane. ue sume.1aacnuumy) . .. (npo6a ma meauyi a8 Bu ep..8 282 0.00 20. n Ha sep&0. .6°C and shakeen for 5 min is lower than that of the gas mixture (methane.IoTHocTh ipu 15.is heated to 51...60 C. . c .35 .. .. me 6onee 6 af uenee Supa 500C. 4 TABLE 4..icouy.. . ccm: np"5 5 u Bn'Lo . °C.12 1..73 1.not above 10) 11i) cat 12) 13) 14) 15) Flash point (in closed cruiible) . S5) At ..10 ..5 -- 3. 23 2. I) S2) 3) Inde x Fuel grade 9 Dens:it at 15. *BY: 5npu 37..00 - !.. OC... propane) established during calibration of the device..4 -. 0.8 -M178 37..eMaTulecma. HO.. Cepa.. ýQ Coapmau-e .8 - 32.m cocoas: "1 2 I 37. not above 6) S7) 8) Not below Conventioril vi3cosity. 0.t5 n !0 us 6ojee .0 o6%em6o..13 • S1&enepaTypa. 4mI.7 54A - . ne Bume 1240 65..oro ocnarxa no INonpa. °C.6°C. He 6oeo %.... not below Pour point.1 81 - 92 - 1. *C6: ieeee 9 RcuU-nN (B aa-pU'ou Mae). npn TemaepaType.45 - 4A47 10. •cotoositio 4) Kinematic viscosity.50 0. _ BR3XIOCTb 050 2.1bHO He 6oze. . ue 8oaee .4 5.6 Bums .. not abo'. 10% ueperoineTc..8 -.. .8 -6. -- - - -- 0. 1 3 90% neperoHneTca pup TenmepaType.80 C. %. .2 viupuamux ocARsoM.. as 215..7 US Specification ASTM D 396-60T for Boiler Fuels (Distillate and Residual) 1 lnomaaawHiIlII 2copm owzxa 3 fl. Ho 6ozee 37. .ppo . .0 - - - - -u. OC: i4 ue Bume . me 6oaee 6 He menee 500 C.. .37. °C 90% distilled over at temperature. S".2 1. not above Frational composition 10% distilled over at temperaturi. S°VC Temperatures. .98 3. ne Goaee 6 e menee 26.. %. YycoI-BHaR.. So ! eI'Cyeeumcb 10%-. 0 C Not above Not below :• .6 2.90 - - 86....ieann= .~2Y)5 ..

Owing to the absence of a number of indicators in Specification BS2869-57. 4 is usually a mixture of medium-viscosity fuel with residual fuel. not above Traces. 5 and 6 are residual fuels (mazouts). In the USA.16) 17) 18) 19) Coking capacity of 10% residue according to Conradson. not above 20) 21) 22) 23) Sulfur. Grades Nos. According to tne government specification DIN 51603 (Table 4. individual company specifications are . is used in large boiler installations with powerful preheaters. Boiler installations equipped with fuel preheaters operate on these fuels. Grades Nos. which provides for the productior. M and S.7.. 6. The fuel obtained from coal and lignite. the quality of grade M resembles that of fleet mazout F5. L. Fuel No. the prevailing specification is that of the British Standards Institute (Table 4. fuels from coals and lHgnites are used extensively in addition to petroleum fuels. %.ebox mazout No.8. not above Corrosion (copper-plate test) Passes Ash. Grade D is used for automnatic nozzles in domestic and other similar installations. 4. % by volume. Table 4. G and H are used in boiler installations fitted with preheaters.9 presents US Naval Specification MIL-F-859D for naval fuels. Detailed characterizations of residual fuels of the various types produced in the U3A are listed in Table 4. %. It distillate is used in installations without preheating. the requirements as to pour point and sulfur and ash contents are established by contract between the supplier and the customer. %. The special grade is intended for use in the steam-boiler fireboxes of naval vessels. but may also be residual. It establishes two mazoitt grades: special (fleet) and heavy. and especially grade EL. of five grades of boiler (nozzle) fuels of petroleum origin: Nos. mazouts F. The quality requirements for boiler fuels according to the specifications of ASTM 396-60T are given in Table 4.• ' • !% " _____________________________________________________________- . . 5 and 6. installations..ll). Grades EL and L are of the distillate-fuel type. four fuel grades are distinguished: EL. 1. which is extended to and residual fuels obtained by refining petroleums and distillate shales (BS 2869-57). Mazout No. 1 is intended for burning in installations wikh vaporizing and fuel No. In England. Fuel No. Mazout E is used without preheating. the most commonly applied specification is ASTM D 396-60T.10). As necessary. 2. 1 and 2 are distillate fuels (furnace type). and grade S resertled f!.A. not above Not limited Water and insoluble-residue content.12). used extensively in England (Table In the Federal Republic of Germany. - b 236 - 0' " ' i. and the heavy mazout for steam-boiler installations of government vessels and shoreline powerplants. 60. as a higherviscosity grade. 2 in combined (vaporization and atomizer) nozzi.

...0 315...1 288..6 1 1 " 51... ..... 490..6 332.022 0.r 1.1 -31....7 211 2794 305...... 0.i'iLI...3 118... ..1 419.0 346... .50 98.06 37ompl OxDo 3t.....- 5 233.8 373..44 - . .8 1 238..0 494.65 63. 0..0 - - - - 16 18 xOllcIl xgnelew ... O540 92% 537. 6 i1O 40 0.A 507.0M 410.96 123.014 03 0 ....9 7.... . .1 4 14 - 3 17 - I 40 t I 0.......uo)..10 7. 93.8 350. 10 .70 5..3 - 506.05 0.0 333. 10%0.80 C * 50 C ..1 3 8 0..2 303. 0BY: ...70 2........ CC: npN "unsp ..4 40 6. C: ncwalhail BC 4.10 0..70 Ms1 10.80 % ...0 558...1 0... 538.t 350..6 283.0 .2 1 6 26 - it - - - 107 - . .1 4420 515..... .itl ik 2 1 meau. 274. .. .3-37.1 - 50.90 C . . 5•44 .9 15.0 253. 0OW6 IXv OAS0..6 104.... .72 5.. C..5 5 30 0. ....0 Tir........ yCAORIIonua.3 362....9 4 4 010 0.........•+.20 nCll1dfllIiI (R 3aHpMtTOM (0 OTipLiTOM DocIIJIaMdueliHn (a Titr..8 15 UrpieperoenReTCA Type...5 4...60 1.9129 110143 o0. OOaPOAc~muy . %: i 3CoepwIate.0 540.0560. 9 14 1..2 137....4 - 0.OacT1Ia MI~llo..9 350.. ý 0 maiii.. % ... . 0....0 494.... ..3 336. "31 wiuxi. .5 40 4 t 3 47 - 00 0. Tep aq~ccan4 crr6liauhiblIOcM ..2 110.1.5 44.3 tO 03 20 5 0? tO 0.05 i 0X05 3lCeam I * 0. .....llsalame np.8 1933 121..6 1 - 0....4 322. .. % .. ...0 403. .0 402... TABLE 4. 11.. 3 liO h _ .. 0 H B pWIuaC..3 2794 290.073 0....5 301. 231.5 20 4 5 30 4 2 2xeao. . ...8 2150 212.. loca'ai pOGeaIMMu TPlOh O:).. 0...02 - 2. - 0..7 337....8 434..0 143.... ...02 &0 .t. 20% ....3 (o..l rO3. 19 anIoAunauB..9 268A 276.....01 1...0 495.95o .... 31 NallaaA.03 2.6 5. % ... ......9509 o.840 - 5 npi 21 C .t tO 1 0.0 580.7 05. 0. 115..0 446.Ari6il 3 15 5 0.. 29o ioso.0 559.t ...9 475....10 .4 5 to 0. 32..0078 0. 2 ...72 0...035 0...2 0.....8 17. .9732 0.0 47 010 20 5...0 5 10t1...5 10 3. - - 20 20 12 .4 276.09 1 0.8 362..8 352.1 496.. .121 0.7 1 t54. . .4 154. 4 3 28 4 - - 4 2.7 335.8 391.0 290.5 4i 8 9 0.. 704 ... 2..1 V48.Opami.22 6m 5. 1iJLJaqajo XrneHu'...93 121.6 537...M0 OAM OM00 0.8 406 90% 50 576 90 99 go 92 98 0.6 0. 0 STemiiepaTypn...13 0=05 0... 2 uaTpaai ..03 - .....8 422.0 t79. r/a BitalaOCTI..0 4020 535....... .. ..7 20 - 2 p .. 0..74 24.0 -- 83.... .1 OA 3 11 2 7 0 0.9672 0..4 355....0 397....... a) OTHpurO...70 157 53.0 568..0 1 1 1 1850 154A 45 1 10 1 - t96.ocTr......n S3 IlIoTrocTI...3 0. ... 3 7ma 3 oiymc 110 3oAbOW~b. %. ..3 4..0 372.7 95. Cn~ep)aalo ifleO..% ...0 537....9 310. 8 Quality of Typical Commercial Residual Fuels of the USA 2 Copuam maw ....10 . . . ...9 237... 6Wai Ialil... ..9273 0. 4.. 17 Bccro meperotialnlOcR. 3 Ocmill.60 C..9 21M.9 - X83.1 05...6 243.7 270.i ........ .8 0 5 4 14 14 12 1 5 14 212.7 4.7 -48.3 .4- - 0......08 0..1 2100 140...3 -15.5 0. 40% ..9 339.ltf!: 80% 508 80 20 t 76% 529 76 5 80% 5W5 89 88% 560 88 40 3 72% 60% 60 529A 72 tO 7 L5 56w .8 2.4 383... .4 "-23.0 434.0 523..4 118.03 1 0.NIcTiUnalInT S1 L ~ ~ + . 281..0 171.. 60% ..68 6. ..9 321.2 45.5 540. ... Z6 N I . ..... .6 24.0 386..0 U - 527.2 4 19 0.0 0...... npn 15..56 2.00 10.8 529..0 383.3 157.3 240. . oiK'.1 0..01 02 237 010 a 0* QO 4. 5% .9 - 218. ....2 342....! -.. 0....l ..0 537..3 1.6 3..04 1 1.? 8...6 333.5 10 0.84 5. 1....3 495.323.9402 0. WC....1 -15.8 462.. D. 6 0.6 - TiMrMe) 96..57 .0 423.8 1t2.. .....3 295.. s 37. 3...4 2 2......0 248. S ... ..62 2. ..9 - 298..6 141..6 326.9 115. .... ..58 6.. .. ..0tClea" 0. Ho (.....6 283.2 10...05 - -....6 309... 50% . .0 i5 2t28 2272 241.. . ..10 - 5 0..... ....32 6 2.li111illi COC'ill CC: ... 30% .....2 -456 -20....6.4 123..6 121..37 10.. 5.3 0O.....

..7 65. % Water and sediment.. . 0......9 USA Specificatior MIL-F-859..'ractional composition..60 C.5 0......15 0 - o05we41. *BY: ...le). ...6 0 C.. •..... Ihpu 29.ap aned). Be 6oM 22 3o... points ...1 0.. 21 0... 93.. ... He m m.... .. % F... not above - -238- I1 ........ % Sulfur.1 19 Xlexauwa. 1newiue UacxpaII..7 6. ... 'lemnepaiypa... ....... o6i O5 1.. ....1bnoe.. !..12 1) 2) 5) 6) 7) 8) 3) Special Index Heavy Mazout Density at 15. OVC At 29.. me am. % Content of elements.... 1C...laUeetiU ... He nnie ... 15. % Traces Conradson coking capacity.. TABLE 4.1) seSuim@ ........ M.... -to j5Bu.. .... 93* aa1 launrnhri (Ma.Txplosiveness. ocaixom.. 6VC At Temperatures. 44 65....ocnl...6 acnftOMa (8 3aXpUnoM Tnr....... Ae.5" C..5 &.......... .. 20 ..... .D for Boiler Fuels 2Mas3r? I Coemaaabat .ixaeaan ..•e1m 0... OC Start of boiling Distilled over at temperatures.... tons/mr Conventional viscosity.. ..6 . Tefywac.. not below At 50 0 C. %. OC: . ... %. fl....US 6aS.t2 11.. mse . B 3KOCTb yc¶aoR-an...I e 6oae. parts per million Aluminum Calcium 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Nickel Potassium Silicon Sodium Tin Lead Vanadium Zinc Contents. cRaj~bHaA).6 0 C.. ne 60oAw ... %. .. °C End point Total distilled over... : ...... OC Flash point (in closed crucible) Flash point (open crucible) Ignition point (open crucible) Pour point Thermal stability. not above Conventional viscosity.9895 6....... nepernaaxoi)...'@oCTb no 0..ep•mwa• RoMpAjcoKy.. % Ash...... %..b...... . . (on pea..... me uesee ..I 7 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Index Grades and types of fuels Density at 15. % Water (determined by distillation).... Boia C..OTIIOCTm nu 1.000 9 10 500 C. ne s-me ..5 0 C..... % Sediment (determined by extraction).. Be 6oare . residue... no (o isae npuEiec... %. %.. Co~lepwaurnze MOAU 0 ePOCTe•OM&X KoNCy..

ioc... not above At 50°C.owuu. .. 00C. EGAI/M. 0Z 1.I 9) Temperatures.e. . dwe no Gono.0 65. not below 12) Pour point (maximum).5 65..10 Specification BS 2869-57 of British Standards Institute 2]Ann MaTr MR e a wo 4 Bitaxocm BKflemaTIM•Meu . %. .... SC. %.8"C. not above.no peOuMae 1 To m I 0.. not above Conventional viscosity.. 7... %.. °C. .."au. % by volume. 9 ..5 - - - - - 36 M 370 a00 48 544 10300 9760 16.. Bxsxomm ycioa-an.. not above "17) Fluidity. 10 ia..•ZoTA CXopa. .0 1.: 311CC• . TABLE 4. .9t. %. not above 13) Explosiveness..0. .w o no HONpaCOuY. not above 20) Water (determined by distillation)..80C. 7 8 TeonepaTypa etm: U51PS 37.. o Bum . oVC at 50*C Flash point (closed crucible). %.5 1 . not below Heat of conbustion. . go aumu a0 50OC. I e. not above 21) Sulfur. A (a aaBphiTOU He .5 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 1'i) Index Fuel for heating Mazout for industrial and marine fireboxes Kinematic viscosity. %. not above 18) Content of water and insoluble residues. not above To Customer's requirements - 239 - . not above 22) Ash....2 *%... not below 11) Ignition point.... kcal/kg High Low Conradnon coking capacity.. . S . not above 14) Thermal stability 15) Passes 16) Conradson coking capacity. ... not above 19) Mechanical impurities (determined by extraction)... me r17n 6o.. 1...6 10100 -- 487 12 1NoxCYeOwc ce... "BY ups 50" C .... amhuma" TMan). %..0 143o .6 10200 W6 @00 W -- 656 9900 9 O94 -- 1A3o. 11 iuman . 00 10) Flash point (closed crucible).... % by volume.e...01 2.pe6_o. cat At 37. not above Aih. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 0..

tons/mr Conventional viscosity.A/X8. 3 0.0--.950 0.03 0. OC.990 35.8- 31--2 3.2 74.. not above. M/X3 OBY 0O. 11) Pour point.0. not above "Regent" mazouts Light Medium Heavy "Kift [sic] Oil Products" mazouts 3by Density at 15 0 C.01 10279 0.9600.980 0.0 ups 500 C. % by volume. % .'cme.0- 0.11 Mazout Specifications Developed by Individual Companies in England (1960) 3i 7 9 W0. npnwec 15 Mexannnecxne Mac.c O• lie 6ofe . %.01 0.0 25 3.0 8. 0... OC. - 240 - .03 -C..813. us 65.9510.. OC. ..14 give the specifications for mhzouts used in Belgium and Japan.05 0 2? 2. .0 93.13 aid 4.2.Bosmm I1noaocn. -17e 17. oC Flash point (closed crucible). -L0Bcmznmu (13 aaHpm•o T1'"). OVC at 500C Temperatures.6 +10 12 TecnoTa cropaaun . M.. Tables 4.24. ups 15 C. % i6 1 6 .. kcal/kg.-2.3 OC: -emnepaypa.6 65. is recommended for nozzles with low throughput and evaporationtype nozxles.5-42.01 Ot 0.970 13. .aps .01 10344 O05 2..0.2 8. %. He iteHee . %.5-2. not above 16) Same 17) Water.t 0. .0.0.5 . not below 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) High heat of combustion.2 0 0..0.950-. not above... He 6ozee JA Cepa. TABLE 4..0 -1..930 ' F CWe61 0.0.5 2 0..n. % by volume. not above Water.0 +10 10279 2 .0 8F-0. Ra.0 65. HeGo. 1 3 3oahuoc.02 Olt i) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 10) Index 0C. not above Sulfur.05 10390 0..53. % Mechanical impurities. .S 8 BMoM yc. %.l 10334 0.| 0. sal U8ac . net below Ash.15) Sulfur. % mass.8 0.8 -._.07 10390 1..82-.. HU DMKO 2-4.5 1.

. 29 Do•. ... caies Usually required 3efore burning oVC.ex I 19 70 0.8 l 0..2 - - -0 - 9 Te.. 8Bfi3XOCn 50C....... ... . not below From petroleum From coal and lignite Preheating Before transport Not required 7) 8) 9) not above At Conventional viscosity..5 0.. so 100 C ..... .... not above Flash point (in cloued crucible)... 1960 fl~aaa~jm 3 cm CopT L CXpTv 6 5 Teinepa~ypa ac.. Upn iev-IepaType.... 16) 17) 18) In sopw. He donee .04 1..-T.05 0.05 0. He 6oW as.. %...r-uaa) se meoee 6ypro 10000 '6 Aeý 7 PO- 9800 M9000D 9600 9000 9WO0 17 lo 9000 ..... tons/me. (.. 2.... xa-eHnoro 13 n p~or p en 1WnPMj yras... OC..x... w .%.. fe Goane: 8 (ipn20'C. 22 1Roxcyevocn no Hospajcony.15 He yxaau1. 3aaCruamnN.. ...... Aro 95%.0 0. .. not above 19) 20) Same Required - 241 - ... not above Pour point.Be Goaee .. re 6o. ..m now"$-...mxn (a wa kI 17 - 6Da3uocn RaeMallecksaA..8s 0........ 2 7 * 6yporo yr.!e: 2 1 iis.. 'C..12 West German Specification DIN-51603 for Mazouts. TpaHCIOpTHpoaKOM 6ye oe~i.07 3. se J 6onee ....TABLE 4.5 25 yr.... cropa.. erm..0 .* 500C .0 -..1 01 0..12 .ie4im .. 21 Deperounero.5i 1.R y o~a-8ou wxl TP6yOMT B ocuo.... . ...23 Mxannqccne np-uecu.. .Iam ruxaA/s.%mepalypa i0 Ternoma I•8a)"ra... kcal/kg.6y. -3 To 1L To net cayaex" .. 'C.. ..........5 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Index Maz out Grade EL Density at 15 0 C.OA zuX .. oBY.2 18 nepA cwrae. %.0 0. 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Heat of e•ombustion (low) of mazout.... Cea a vaayle.. cSt.. 17 10 0. ..... 26 * maxleuvorr 2. °C.... ae smme . ycnon-aA.. %. not below Kinematic viscosity. 1 "a -e4= l....0 - %.3 405 0.01 1. ....

1. 15) 16) Temperatures. not above. not above Conradson coking capacity.7 9. %......... 1..... 1 TmimepaTypa..6 4. OBY. me SO Uu20.0 -- - 9 418 129 - 10 BuXoc..7 ne~cz jAo 370"C..8 . OVC. Na.7 3 2. ... upu 20' C ..8 0S 55 - - 5 -65 S10a. %..-6 aai 1... not above - 242 - p ..7 ..... not above Water and mechanical impurities. not above Ash...9 17..... 9 . S37.......... %.... not above..... %.. * 50*C......0 11) 12) 133) 14) cSt..21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 95% distilled at temperatuve.80 ..1 2.. me mouse 55 n (a usI o s....0 6. not above Not indicated 26) 27) 28) 29) From coal From lignite Mechanical impurities.5 4A 2.0 2...2 .......... not below Pour point... yCzoviaa.5 - 130 196 106 25.. me 6oaee %.... : .. O.. 0 C Flash point (closed crucible).. 9) L0) At Conventional viscosity. l•aacriaauuaU.....3 - 48.0t .1.. not above Sulfur.... TABLE 4..... noe 8 Bamouocm xsmeeq•cu..5 - 65 1 15 C 16 Bo~a a aeLue ipaie.13 Specification NBN 5209b cf Belgian Standardization Institute (1959) 2 1 .8 2...... Se 6one: 9..... %.... 3 nor. %. 0 C ... 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Index Gas oil Mazout Light Medium Heavy Superheavy Kinematic viscosity. saxpmox Tarne).. cen. not above Sulfur in mazout...' v 37... %.. '6 I .....0 1. 5. . not above Distilled below 370 0 C. ...2 1.....46 C .. aUS . 0 C... 'C.. %..18. e 6o 90 0. %. not above Water. not above %.

water and gums. aaCTeuem IS 3CaM- 0 0 0 i's 0.. . BASIC PROPERTIES OF LIQUID BOILER FUELS The quality requirements laid down for boiler fuels are d.Dum 20. 2. not below 8) Pour point.5 0..0 8 . not above Coking capacity in resi- 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Kinematic viscosity at due. 5.bnocu.. .BU 150 400 400 .y.meeHflT npvscxm.6.8t. that - 243 - .0 . o Flash point (closed crucible). viscosity. sulfur..6 20 12 BoAa H MeX&. (I. '. moisture (W) and noncombustible mineral substances.3 0..81-.. not above Temperatures.. $ not above 10) Ash. 70 39 6 t0 .%. %not above 11).5 0. For fuels used on seagoing vessels.swumn~u C p ~~~TOM T". the ash (A).5 3.se . %. u 4.4 9) 1) 2) Index Mazout 50 0 C. rnitrogen (N).6o0aee • . oVC.rao).. Sulfur. not above 12) Water and mechanical impurities..14 ISK Specification 2205-58 for Mazouts as Ap- plied in Japan 1 12 (..lMflS-20. mechanical-impurity content. a high heat of combustion is particularly Important.. not above Above Conventional viscosity.150. .. 6. Tne oxygen (0). .. II . .. %.25-.termined by a number of physicochemical indices: heat of combustion..0 3.'ieo 05 o . 2015020 |. The high heats of combustion of liquid fuels are explained by their high hydrogen and carbon contents and low ash contents. not above. .81 50. 8 6onee . % no 6oaee 0.se 6o. one on which the rate of fuel consumption depends.0 54 li l 70 - 6 TeuepaTpa. . These indices make it possible to specify fields and conditions of application for the various fuel grades.TABLE 4. saXMpu{ .25 . 05 11 Cepa. . contents of ash. %..95 0O 50- 36. cSt.•#• icawaweaasM~ie.. 0. j2 Ma 3 Bnaomoc as suem* '• . flash and pour points... 0...5 2. Heat of Combustion and Elementary Composition The neat of combustion of a boiler fuel Is an important Index. Heat of combustion dopends on fuel elementary composition. . hE moIes 60 60 60 70 - sm..95 2.3 0. since it makes it possible to increase the range of the vessel for a given loaded weight of fuel../54 10 3oa.

15. if we know Cg.QW•A QP'Q' 100 IMA -w _6W typical characteristics of fleet and fireTable 4.enter into the composition of the fuel represent ballast. the amount of heat liberated on condensation of the water vapor formed on combustion of the hyis counted drogen in the fuel and that present in the fuel itself in addition to the heat liberated on contiustiun of' the fuel. S1 is volatile combustible sulfur.100% c) by the combustible mass of fuel. "-Iermal calculations for boilers are usually made on the basis of working fuel mass. then Cr is determined by the formula CP100- W 1. which indicates what fuel is going into the firebox: CP -4-HO + OP + NO + SP + AV + WP .. - 2 44 - - - - - - .AI 100 The low heat of combustion of a fuel 'in kcal/kg). In determining the high heat of combustion. The conversion from one fuel mass to another is made with the aid of the multipliers given in Table 4.QP. In thernmal calculations.16 lists bo% mazouts recommended for calculations by Norm S-1-1685-541 and the standardized methods. The heat expended on the formation of water is determining the low heat of combustion. used most commonly in not counted in determining boiler fuels are characterized: a) by the working mass of fuel. computed by the formtlas Qr. The Mendeleyev formula is heats of combustion.100% b) by the dry (water-free) mass of the fuel" C'+HC+O+No+"+SO +SA"..6(WP+9HP') S-a . High and low heats of combustion are distinguished. For example. is QP .+H+O'+NrSL 100Q% In the formula. which represents the water-free -nd ash-free composition of the fuel: C.

liary Factors for Fuel-Composition Conversion A 3awinaR m oona TonnK..3 3. Norm S-1-1685-54 £82 - 2 J4 5 - ..6ousp .A' "--too-A IF D) Dry E) Combustible. to 10) High-sulfur firebox.. i too A) Given fuel mass B) Sought fuel mass C) Working TABLE 4. moof B Ecxomaie - C Pau C Cya61A 0 .3 10..an-|91 ..8 07 1 0215 2.0 93270 91970 t0210 60 t/0060 op. OP.9] 1) 3) 4) r) 6) 7) Mazout 2) Composition. % Low heat of combustion Qr..7 U 0.2 0.2 ti.0 ]2.1 .15 Auxi.4710.16 Composition of Working Masses of Fleet and Firebox Mazouts as Recommended for Calcula- tions 2 coma.oep. h roplaw ...5 0.% 3 4 5 60noT- 84..TABUL 4. kcal/kg Heat of combustion (in bomb) Qr.. . . . .opi m Nf. kcal/kg Remarks 8) Low-sulfur firebox Fleet 9) Standardized method Accordin... 0iO ID O0 W - - cj'ui E reopua too too IO--wPAp iOO-w'.85.4 10. ...0 9W5 2 no . . n B-eozxo- 83.. .3 0.0 3.

.71 2.10 0.03 0.. 43..94 0..06 0.03 0.16 0.87 85. .07 0.91 9930 9870 9920 9860 8810 uACTaSnuTi 2a cmume-.. ..80 11.10 11.74 84....86.....92 1.75 I _ P I A V_ 0..11 2.16 0. 40 Yarega petroleum.18 0.17 Average Elementary Compositions of Various Fuels 1 -_ _ _ _ _ _ I8JneMeTnapaWl CW 84.00 0.58 1.85 12. 05 cepncml "1Kpemur-uaayT012.03 0. 0. 1304ns .81 2.46 .99 0.60 0.15 cocTa... .10 t1.. TABLE 4... Rperc Ja 8 85.K....03 Fuel Elementary composition.. % Tennop 1 Masyt CC H e Be I +o Im -' +" * o 3Q c X = lram s r/ 12..20 ...00 BYso... 82..59 0. mapxa 40 .08 5 Masyr 012 uanocepunrctiA Mla3yT 12 cepimieulk • .16 0.68 85.55 6.69 2.92 OU 87.•yT Tonoumfli cepaucmxh: 11.26 1... 85.02 8 1) 2) 3) 4) .. % FIP 12.04 0. containing sulfur Distillate mazout from shale tar. % Low-sulfur mazout F12 Sulfur-containing mazout F12 5) 6) 7) 8) Sulfur-containing firebox mazout VCso = 20 Grade No... kcal/kg Low-sulfur F12 Low-sulfur F20 % 6) 7) 8) Sulfur-containing F5 Fl2 cracking mazouts. ...60 10..65 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mazout Elementary composition.18 10. Platonov [5]) 2 •r...16 ....18 Elementary Compositions and Heats of Combustion of Low-Viscosity Mazouts (according to R.TABLE 4.olk uOaa.95 0... cepflUcmhfi 0......05 84.04 0..00 I OP+NP 1.59 0.eeuiapaut cocmaa.09 01ianocep~uclut.29 11....05 Sp 0.33 0. Heat of combustion Qs.50 1. 1* 2.05 2.70 020 manocep UcfliI ...

.. 1) Grade 2) BYo= 6.7 10.7 0....14 9....7 0.6 87..23 10065 9515 [10382 9 Tyihta.... 87.04 0. -247- .6t 0....7 0.He 11.70 1(C BaxnuCKDI * 189..191 0.0062b.0 1I9.151 10.6 40 .0 37.17 10261 9708 424..02.O 11.2 10.25 2.UcoMpncn. .8 11...8 22. 84.60 2. % By I or+xr I. .0 1.2 tuemmpmn coma.9 0z 0. 5 6 N.0 87.5 3.Ma3YT 440.. at 3) Density 4) Elementary composition...5 1. % 6) High-sulfur...0050 87...3 1.9.... % 5) Heat of combustion 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) (by volume) kcal/kg kcal/liter Tuymazy mazout Baku mazout Bugul'ma petroleum.1 1..5 0...5 10..7-1 0..47 0.96 0.29 0.19 .5 1.-=20 0...671 10.o n37 ulY~ps cbrpbO _____ -..38 1) Original raw material 2) Conventional viscosity..02 0..0441 86.38 1.. 3) Mazout TABLE 4...5 56. °VC.0039 87. ... .30 1...17 10 151 9221 10312 10194 QTyifms-auucxd MasyT 1 i ByryAu- 10431 10 175 16.2 124..961 9..0 1. TABLE 4..5 4) VC5o = 20 5) Low-sulfur Elementary compo- sition.19 Elementary Compositions of Firebox Mazouts [6] COW 1 2 c' ..3 1. 87.49 10..0 73...000 8635 t0..25 9961 9438 10544 1.2 1..48 0.74 0.2728.5 0.76 0•. ...19 020 10092 955t 1.8 1.17 an'Hiex 1041.65 10....0 40.0315 87...59 0.058086..5 1...4 1M033686.7 3 MaWY i! BY.11 1243 9683 to 283 881.6 87.66 0. StaJiocepnRcTM2 ..17 10048 9530 IC.20 Elementary Composition and Heats of Combustion of High-Viscosity Cracking Residues [3] 2 013Y. r I Ira1~ 6 ) W a oCI80OCI I_ r Hr 0 sr Orr +N A I _ I7 m / 1.83 2.19 1..0 43.451 9. too ..4 ..09 10131 9609 531..

Q. The higher the viscosity and density of the mazout.2% hydrogen. because of the smaller hydrogen content.5% hydrogen.W-54. The heat of combustion of the combustible mass of a viscous cracking residue is 2.0 to 88.The elementary compositions of boiler fuels have come to vary markedly as a result of more exhaustive refining processes and the use of sulfur-containing raw material.4 to 12.1 shows the high and low heats of combustion as functions of density [10]. The difference between the heats of combustion of low-sulfur and normal-sulfur mazouts of the same grade ranges up to 2. The sulfur contents may reach 1% in viscous cracking mazouts from nonsulfuric petroleums and 3. an emplrical relation linking heat of combustion with fuel density can be used for orientational calculations: Quu 124OO0-2tOO(? or Qn=Qp-50.20. Viscous cracking mazouts contain from 87.5% carbon and 11. Operating personnel are essentially interested in the heat of combustion calculated per unit volume (volumetric heat of combustion): - 248 - . The average elementary compositions and heats of combustion of mazouts and cracking residues are listed in Tables 4. the more carbon will it contain. oxygen and nitrogen are higher.5% lower than those of straight-run mazouts.5 to 85.5% carbon and from 10. =QR-0. %) can also be deter- The hydrogen content in the fuel (in mined on the basis of the 15 0 C density: H= 26 -159 Figure 4. Figure 4.0% (Table 4. Under field conditions. In viscous mazouts. the contents of sulfur.21). The heat of combustion can be computed approximately by the formula Table 4. The working heat of combustion of a fuel containing water (watered fuel) can be calculated by the formula QpAe.45 where p is the density at 15 0 C.Go•.5 to 11.2 in conventent for quick orientational determination of the heat of combustion of a watered fuel.SW where W is the water content in the fuel in %. Low-viscosity mazouts contain from 83.5% in sulfur-containing mazouts.17-4.0-3.22 shows the decrease in the heat of combustion of a imazout as a function of the degree to which it is watered [51.

2... 4.. 4.0. aw. TMe numerals on the lines are densities.. Cmt/ eMM 1 Townso T 2 =.ty (°VC) of 5) Coal-s:iale tar..Q X=iua/MM 3 Ala. 9 1O0 Bbreonocepawcrut )4alocla jImayT ycao0ao* "to0 I 1) Fuel . kcal/kg.•axesnoyroabsaA taoyo caam~a~ne•• o ('BY) ps 50C: 10t 20 40 60 80 9850-9750 9680-9660 9610-9280 9560-9350 9530-9280 9u0--9100 0080 2) Heat of c.l maUyT yCoauAl ('BY) I'ao Ups 500 C: to 20 40 60 8o 10000-9-50 987"0--650 9 750-0i 420 9 oo.. 2) bustion of fuel as a function of water content. water content.jo 2 o . - CM 94#0 IV .... L 6S t95 0...'locepuncr..-mbustion Qs. kcal/ke.. density. 1) Heat of corbustion. kcal/kg nf 3) Low-sulfur mazout with 50 0 C conventional viscosity ( 0 VC) of 14) High-sulfur mazout with 50 0 C conventional viscosi.75 985 49$ ro.TABLE 4.1.'ug 5oA g \ .3 350 ý76C-ý 240 9 640... Fig.n Q. 1) Low heat of combustion.. 2) - 249 .. High and low Fig. Low-heat of corn- heats of combustion of fuels (dried) as functions of density.21 Heats of Combustion of Lcw-Sulfur and HighSulfur Mazouts (Dried [2]) 1 2 Tounuao cropu2a.

kcal/kg F) kcal/kg G) Losses (figured from QA = 10. kcal/kg Due to water impurity Fr'om evacuation of formed water in ized state E) Sum of losses.: The calorie equivalent Q1 QA 7000 1. E F G'A Bon . A fuel with a working-mass heat of combustion of 7000 kcal/kg is known as a conventional fuel.465). Table 4. . a conventional unit heat of combustion equal to 7000 kcal/kg has been introduced. which is determined by the formula Q. The thermal-engineering characteristics of mazouts and tars calculated by these formulas are given in Tables 4. thermal-engineering characteristics calculated by the formulas given in Table 4. For comparing fuels and solving substitution problems.22 Decrease in Heat of Combustion of Mazout as a Function of Watering [5] A B=N.1 125 11.11.E F a G 0-66626 1 105 2 3 5 210 315 525 98961 O 8 7 15 1575 2100 2625 3150 36 6 870 2291 81741 21.TABLE 4. KP = QQ The volumetric heats of combustion of cracking mazouts are usually larger than those of straight-run mazouts. V vapor- %.26. for mazout is To evaluate mazouts as fuels.24-4. M 20 9. - 250 - .3 30 I27.27 shows the theoretical volumes of air and mazout combustion products that are recommended for calculations.23 are employed. Fuels are compared on the basis of fuel calorie equivalent.9 =. 37.2 A) B) C) D) Water content. as well as for establishing norms for consumption and requirement planning. 2846 7619 340 7064 3950 6505 632 638 I848 9617 644 I959 I9606 656 1181 9286 737 9728 718 "46 77 800 8. % Loss of Q.

033 VN! W. XXS/ma R02' 11 V" . content in dry smoke gases.3 /ma X^ fU- 80..80 -6z1e S McUM So2 ma I ma ropionei TODMAl3.fuel characteristic 3) 14) Where Lf .' ooas S02 Q' -io 00 a X 14 rte esW.O-uapuIza.= 2. .the theoretically necessary quantity of air for 1 kg of 5) fuel comlbus~tible mass. MXIca'/m 1 2V" 31 oftx mamaux raaon ma I3x# ropmoeil Uaccu TODNDaR.NaceM Toflansa. % ~2 20 a 80 j~ 7 Alann~mazhiaoe co~xep~xaiwe S03 a 07Xnx 14soniaX rasMI. 13 Pso8jnPA~aaJflHo pAaa2ORne SOI. % P -0..5 Vw?+VP 1. kg/kg RO: . OC TesmuePTpaTyp 1- e+ ' = Note. p.37 H"-0).).volume of SO1 to 1 kg of fuel combustible mass.TABLE ~4.367- Kr 8 Vro. c gand cVP are the heat capacities per unit volume of the dry gases and water vapor in kcal/(m3(NTP)-deg). Pbo.3 PW' 1. 7) . 8)l * j6) jof j k I MI(NTP)/kg - 251 _4 .23 Formulas for Figuring Thermal-Engineering Characteristics of Fuel Tenaoreznu'wecae sapamp~cuimu I P 2 7 3 P- zapacTepcuc~an TonzaUM 2.043 (Sr-(?) InPOAYXToD JIOREOr C n S BAuUOBUx rasaa (CO2 + +SO%= RO.cAS/m Vr 28'. xr/ca' 'o 15 T0 V T' -TeopeTu'aecxan Pefimi.ofiem wozimax napoD n poAYKTaz ropeonu i xa rop~ovet MUCHM TOOJIEM. xo/39 Cropiu3X +0.tawenie uojxnnoro riapa.hao9 .the maximum content of products of complete combustion C and S In the smoke gases.927 niia/u 9 K' or= -9HP+1 10 V" -o6isem cyxux ruoa na I xj ropw~eLI UaCCU TODAN3&. 1) Thermal-engineering characteristics 2) Formulas 8 .1260 40' " 5 LP-TeopeTu'wccn Heofto~amos x oo-1cro34l' p 6 HO. 114 pH. Maximum SO.

M 0.94 7. !J.3 . • 6 8 0.'lll.0 0.24 .0 864.60 13.volume of dry gases to 1 kg of fuel corioustible mass.91 . 500C viscosity tn "IC of Low-sulfur mazout.620.1295 2070 0.50 0.19 1.42 0.M .10 0. ..oj-- anazocrio npR 509 C: oBY 85. /cm2 2 PH 2 0 .. r .5 15.0 5. Mas OCeu pOfly ?rO croaam 8 JIb•lmo.0O188 0.002M4 o.52 0.(NTP)/kg 1 Partial pressure.00025 0.650.04 . a 'I) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mazout Elementary composition converted to combustible mass.04 0.43 11.volume of water vapor in combustion products of 1 kg m3 (NTP)/kg Vv of fuel combustible mass.00184 0.137 20• 0 H.% ""S __ yl y Vocv. kg/cm Tg .3229.0 fM 0 104 1A 11 OAM 0.55 13.3.4l. kg/cm Theoretical combustion temperature High-sulfur mazout.520. Ii.partial pressure of water vapor.41 1M. m (NTP)/kg PS02 - 13) 14) 15) partial pressure of Q0_2 .o0212 10. 65 M..007 . M RS3 .o08 1.980.7 10.49 3.7 1102 5.M 8.46 13 Maocep•m•cu (*BY) amoc'no 2ps 500C: 4. 50 0 C viscosity ( 0 VC) of.I l ••i ep~qotl /nlo B Id MIDIII 1107111 OM YI N _ _0_3_ 1apwanalmOe AAMO.40 1.1362 U7.theoretical combustion temperature.0 0.210. 12. TABLE 4.48 MA .A0S 1 8.7 1 0.o.7 M 01277 . ml(NTP)/kg Vg . -. 2060 20 506 87 10A 0. 7.9) 10) 11) 12) mS(NTP)/kg V9 s9 VP .32086. gor 0 C.9 84.91 10.46 M"..1295 2070 .07 0. % 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Volume of combustion products at the retical air exce-s. Fuei characteristic a Coefficient Theoretically necessary amount of air % 6) 7) 8) kf/kg mi (NTP)/kg Content In smoke gases.2 _ _ _ _ .7N 1MV 1U.%qecTS W ANNmOe xonffa- CW Z xo.34886. 0 1. .24 Thermal-Engineering Characteristics of Sulfur-Containing and LowSulfur Mazouts [14] 2 UOteeCMoM Ha POPlO- qI BC.69 M 67.8 0..I 802 Cr Hr 8' Van an'so.540.52 3.48 3.6 15.36 11.0. 1008AI B~n ras m.0o1•0.02M10.76 15.58 11.19 1. 10.volume of moist gases to 1 kg of fuel combustible vlg mass.0029 10.791 0•.9 85.

7 17i0.75001907400 Toponnan yp 9 09 5.25 Elementary Compositions and Thermal-Engineering Characteristics of Mazout-Substitute Tars [6] 2 45 One~w"ApWUEWYS% 8910 ~il . 0.f TABLE 4. Combustible mass Ballast Heat of combustion QR.I 0. 1. 13) sV ii• -25?-•5•`4 .m Conventional viscosity at 50 0 C.2 i 8 20 00C 2"• 2 Ty.50 9.8 l.3 Ban 29 MIR 1121 aonyaouc0.110 o to w0o0 90A0. 1 00 12.95--126 72to...72 1.24 90 7 1 2 M lii !i 9. 4 "a~ze 0.0 9.. 1M.7170 0 16.80 .x 26Cyzv.iy4'KRoc*2 23n2 Caime~ax 2 70 7 .' e3 t 72 8.8 neperonian 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Tar Method of extraction 8 Density at 20 0 C.3 2000 20CC 2' Vo-.7 t7. 1 6 8 swo NAA0.eab-..20 7 05 0..0 1.60. OVC ' Elementary composition. % 14) 15) 6) 7) 2) 9) 10) 11) Volume of water vapor in m-n combustion products.2 . raamouxa- 4.5 2 O7 700O 84../.'96 I5 87 0A 1 0. 3 1 m (NTP)/kg Shale Tunnel Wood Dry distillation.4 12 3T1415 S1 Auor or WP AP - I+I 17aRe.o: Ro1 a1.29 9 2Tnaea 2 C~a ernEauFa. at aa 1.. % S24) ma ks in Maximum content R0a Volume of dry gases at a 1.96 Il 8.10 0 83i0 0t.75 18ýgo83o"2AiU N 40I2021 m94 I 'm Jt§ t-l•120 - t. CA 0 .0..-.30 1. 10. m'(NTP)/kg Theoretical combustion temperature . n xa.5 t.5 873 9X .04.0oo U 02 20 mw 2 5 Apenw . Fuel characteristic 8 Theoretically necess'ary 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 25) 26) Coal Coking Approximately Lignite Gasification Semicoking Peat quntity ofa23) 12) dry gases. kcal/kg Coefficient ..1'.

0. kg/kg Maximum content of cornbustion products in dry gases ROmaks % Volume of dry gases Vmin sg at a = 1.90 15. r10.290 87. H gases..Vp at a = 1. 1) Mazout 2) Volumes.90 2090 1) 2) Mazout Coefficient . Cgor Mazout 20.36 1. rn 3 (NTP)/kg 8) 6) 9) 10) 11) 12) Volume of water vapor in min combustion products.305 87.00 16. 87.40 1. 20. VRON ....32 1106 1032 "Volumes: V V0 .06 IA2 1. /kg# mI(NTP)/ 3) Low-sulfur 4) High-sulfur.82 16.80 t3...70 16..TABLE 4.19 16.18 1. ULAocepUNCT•I .air.37 1.06 0.27 10.80 tO.28 1..30 15... rOCT 100 . AUSS 1501-57 Low-sulfur High-sulfur... TABLE 4.90 0. 12 1501-57 .48 1.. m3 (NTP)/kg Theoretical combustion temperature Tgo at a = 1.58 0.. VH0 ..43 13.26 Thermal-Engineering Characteristics of Commercial Firebox Mazouts [6] 1~ 2 34 I s4 So .60 1.15 10.. mSO 3 MaaompmcmA ii Bucoxocpuucn. 10..321 14.48 2080 2080 2090 2 10.320 13.86 0.00 2. V* - VN 2 - nitrogen.triatomic gasee.285 85.water varor. rOCT 1501-57 60..06 10 11 40 . .51 812 am 1. BhWORocepilcHrMI 13. 7) 3) 4) 5) Fuel characteristic 8 Theoretically necessary amount of air Lg..38 0.20 88. - 254 - .00 10.80 10.? 7 Theoretical Volumes of Air and Mazout Combustion Products [9] 2 06WeUM.35 0.I so I 6 Vý i t 9May: 9 M&Srr: lIl .291 87..75 13.

3) mazout.1.345+0OJOOSSSI)x(3.28 are recommended for determination of residual-fuel heat capacities [11.931.. = 0 p1 .1+. KpeWs: (OA~0. 4. C. B) temperature.28 indicates the deviations of the calculated values from experimental data for determination of the heat capacities of mazouts and cracking residues. VC Fig.3. the error ranges up to 5. A) Heat capacity.0.9 R.5%).C F &or 20 A*100(.60 mn:sh paw: 1.• 454 k446-. 4) cracking re5idue. The formulas given in Table 4. TABLE 4. 2) mazout 1. 13). Heat capacities of .904. moa B oayn 0.t-Q") 2.Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductivity In solving problems of fuel preheating.q 442D 6W M 80 XC WU N B re.3. Better agreement between calculation and experiment is obtained with the Kragoye formula (error below 2.75--1. pic a 0.009.tW~o 120.@iopria a Vann": C-1O. 12.72-0.9J G Ann ItpSS"6Octert*" i-o3. K. These heat capacities are listed in Table 4. 2. kcal/(kg'deg). and especially in determining the heating area of the coils and the amount of heat expended on preheating.C Au qWMEnr ocVos - 255 .28 Formulas for Heat Capacity 1.nepowqp. p4e . Table 4. According to literature data [12]. pt' 1) mazout.4m. it is necessary to know the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the fuels.an"ato 3 STU: cmS+0. 0. 5) cracking residue.044.00 0.9% at temperatures to 260 0 C when the Kragoye formula is used.00609 )Am: lonomaZ maaa? oso.03+0I 1) 200 0-_4V E 4 EAo A. 0 C.914.0.•naouts and -racking residues as functions of temperature: O0° .

A) B) C) D) E) F) Formula For petroleum products with density PI of Temperature range. front 60 to 120"C for cracking residues G) H) 1.I.906 g/cni 3 . . 31. O 3 4Kpexuar-muayni BY&.9 (experiments of Z.905 g/cm'.973 g/cm3. pis = 0. VCioo = 16 (experiments of N. °C Fig... 3. TABLE 4. OC..31. Kragoye VTI.t 0ttO .. 0.. Por cracking residues For nmazouts Fortsch and Whitman K. % [3] To 20 to 1000C for firebox mazouts. .e.29 Thermal Conductivity Coefficients of Mazouts ""40S600Caa 706Clam• 3 3 1lpteuorouui&Lu BY60 4At . . 4) cracking mazout so from Groznyy refinery.B.4 (experiments of N.50. 0 = 31.39 and VCso -60. 5) mazout.4. 0 C DLsagree'ient between calculated and empirical data. B) temperatui. . P0s = 0.39 U BY40'. Thermal-coneuctivity coefficient as a function of tem3 perature: 1) Baku semiesphalt from asphalt. kcal/(m-hedeg).4.01O. Vargaftik). 4/101 A~41iG- - -____ ___ 'Jo~oso 50 10 1B TeMnepamypo. VCso = 4. Geller). P20 . VCsb . Pis = 0.0.S. 2) high-viscosity cracking residues. V 0 = 3.11 .B.94 4) Cracking mazouts. . . VCs0 .8. Vargaftik).11 Ott b012 S 1) Mazout 2) Thermal conductivity coefficient In kcal/ /(m'h'deg) at temperature of 3) Straight-run. 4. Vargaftik).B.8 0.94 (experiments of N.959 g/cm . A) Coefficient of• thermal conductivity. - 256 - . VC.09 CO. 2.. 3) straight-run Krasnovodsk mazout.

200 'Ij -'8 2• Fig. 20 mazouts. - 257 - . and 0. i0o. 3) firebox mazouts.1 kcal/(m'h'deg) for light tars and up to 0. 4. e'mal conductivities of highviscosity [3) cracking residve6 arc given in Fig. transport via pipelines. Table 4. t is the temperature in °C at which the heat capacity is determined. Nos.5-0. drainage from railroad tank cars. The thermal conductivity coefficient can be determined from an empirical fcrmula with accuracy sufficient for practical purposes: o1. It is recommended that the thermal conductivity coefficient given in the table for a mazout with VCso = 4. 200. 14) (coefficient of thermal conductivity A) in the range from 30 to 700C.49 kcal/(kg. 2. For approximate calculations of tar thermal conductivities.29 gives thermal conductivities of mazouts [l. a heat capacity of 0.8 for Nos.94 be taken for No. re6) firebox mazouts with VCso = 80. respectively.4.For practical calculations.5. 'hi. 20. V~s. Viscosities of Liquid Boiler Fuels ±10% for temperatures from Viscosity is an impoi-tant property of mazouts. Viscosities of mazouts as functions of temperature: i. 4. g/cm'.1 OOmet) where p is the density of the petroleum products at 150C. and VCs0@ . and 40. it is recommended [6) that X be taken equal to 0.deg) is taken in the range from 0 to 100 0 C for mazouts.15 kcal/ /(m.h'deg) for heavy tars.45 to 0. The error of the determination is 0 to 2000C. tankers and barges. one that determines the possibility and conditions of their application.1= -•. atomization by nozzles. u 60. 5. respectively [9].39 and 60.5 kcal/(kgodeg) for tars [6]. 4. and that for mazouts with VCso = 31. 40 and 100. .

1C. Viscosity of cracking residues and mazouts as a function of temperature: 1. 1. 80. even minor temperature fluctuations may affect it strongly. Nos. The viscosities of mazouts at the temperatures indicated in the AUSS's cannot be used in drawing. 100. 1.036.O D T"e~o~n parn.0 at 200C. while at temperatures from 50 0 C down. B) temperature. 6. B) cSt. 60.03•4.044.026. At high temperatures (70-100°C). 1. D) temperature. %' Fig.006. 1. ). 7. 5.5). respectively. 7) shale mazouts. 2.6. 12) Bugul'ma petroleum with density of 1. 6VC. The conventional viscosities of mazouts have been adopted as the basic index for grading them.L j 2000 K\ \ - 50000 300 4" 0 100 -r- 500 0 4100 50 150 20 - 24 80 10 70 60 30 20 50 8 4 3 Ile 50 60 70 80 30 .044.spectively. 1. B ccm 20000 W 5000 . 17) firebox mazouts. A) Viscosity. respectively. a change In temperature has little influence un viscosity.02?. °C.004. 8. 4. respectively. respectively.4. 9) fleet mazouts F12 and F5. 4. 14. e.005. C) OVC. 10) Baku mazouts with 200C densities of. and 20. 1. 15. It is measured with a special viscosimeter and the viscosity value is expressed In conventional degrees (VC). 1. 1. 1.031. - 258 - . 13. 1. 4. A) Conventional viscosity. since viscosity do ends on temperature (Fig. which correspond to Engler degrees (E°).058. 1. 3. 9. 11) Tuymazy mazouts with 20°C densities of. Inferences as to their viscosity-temperature character-lotic:.0O 1/0 120 /30 f4O I. 16.046. 40.

outs usually retain mobility at temperatures near the pour point. while the same ratio does not exceed 1. Mazouts from sulfurous petroleums contain substantial quantities of paraffins and asphalt-tar substances (Table 4. they can be transported and pumped relatively easily at temperatures around 00C. but also lose mobility (fluidity) at temperatures higher than the pour points determined by the standard method. However. Mazouts having practically identical viscosities at temperatures of 500C and up and obtained from different petroleums or by different methods show different changes in viscosity as the temperature drops (Fig. they not only snow increased viscosity. the viscosities of mazouts depend on many factors: raw-material quality.7 the .43_ cosity-tempera'ture relation for tars. and it is even larger at -100C.The dependence of the viscosities of mazouts on temperature is expressed in an alignment chart with the coordinate grid proposed by the ASTM. Table 4. At temperatures down from 200C.9). the ratio of maximum to minimum viscosity reaches 5-7 even at 0 0 C. and even at temperatures below 00C. The straight lines. 4. the viscosities of' sulfurous mazouts are many times those of mazouts that do not contain sulfur.6 shows the viscosities of cracl-. even cracking ma2.30). and Fig. At these temperatures. which characterize the change in viscosity with temperature for various grades of firebox mazouts in this coordinate grid. their viscosities do not rise very sharply. have almost identical slopes at above-zero temperatures. method of extraction. Straight-run paraffin-free mazouts from nonsulfurous raw material have a comparatively shallow viscositytemperature curve down to 00C.6 for low-sulfur mazout. the nature of viscosity is also important for sulfur-containing mazouts. However. In straight-run sulfur-containing and in cracking mazouts (Fig. The viscosities of paraffinfree cracking mazouts increase more rapidly with declining temperature than those of straight-run mazouts. The viscosity increase associated with formation of structure greatly impedes pumning at low temperature. the higher the absolute value of its viscosity. paraffin and gum content. Drainage and pump transfer of paraffin-base mazouts are possible only after they have been warmed to a temperature above the pour point. and may in first approximation be regarded as parallel [151.3).ng residueý3 and firebox mazouts as functions of temperature. As the viscosity increases with falling temperature. which correspond to undisturbed (maximum) and disturbed (minimum) structures. The heavier and more tarry the mazout. and thus as the temperature falls. chiefly paraffinic hydrocarbons that they contain. From 100C on down. sulfur-containing cracking mazout pumps considerably more pcorly than -259- . Having low pour points at the same time.30 shows two mazout viscosity values .4-1. Figure 4.the structural and residual viscosities. 4. the limiting shear stress of paraffin-base mazouts rises sharply [51] as a result of crystallization of the high-melting. 4. in the low-temperature region (down from +500C).

3. = 60. 4. Viscosity of tars as a function of temperature: 1) gasgenerator tar from Chelyabinsk lignites. 2.. •. 6) coal tar. OVC. A) Conventional viscosity. B) temperature. OVC. .8.. . 4) straight-run F5 fleet mazout. 3. 2Wc 200 -- 8 N i2C 80 4 f"O \' A kMeauo W 5 -R z5 ~ * 00 70 80~ 20 30 /0 50 60 70 i0 B TeMnepoamypo. A) Conventional viscosity. 7) mazout.200L . 4.~~~ 8 oeo5so JoWo/AV B reMnepamgma. 4.7. 5) peat generator tars. 60-__ 20 - " \ -• - 8 f_ •VCso - 0 8 Fig. 00 Fig. 2) F12 sulfur-containing cracking nazout. Viscosity-temperature curves of straight-run and cracking mazouts: I) straight-run F12 fleet mazout. 40 sulfur-containing mazout. 6) straight-run No. - 260 - . 5) sulfur-containing cracking mazout with VCss = 20. °C. B) temperature.

A6 13. inum ny) spa v"amm. % Conventional viscosity 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Maximum Minimum Straight-run low-sulfur F12 Sulfur-containing F12 cracking mazout Straight-run F5 sulfurcontaining mazout.zoo 20O0 \ 0 V JP AV 2 "O-'0 B Te.8 147. 4)12 1 npanof uoperos01 aayT 012 . 1.2 so 866 W 49B 267 008 '1000 728 4564 2920 17736 3274 58682 101O 12 CepammuoA uo neproumm m5 npm.4.0 11. nmaks m 3813 (at -10*C). % Asphaltenes. turbed structure. 1600 1P C l" C uo "" PC 9 8 --If° q 8 9 8 989 10 MsaiocepucmB.0 t193518 551 2111W527 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Mazouts Paraffins.a.. T Fig. % Adsorption on charcoal. VCjO .30 Viscosity-Temperature Characteristics of Mazouts 2 a t 5 6 7 y.nepamgm. 4. (°VC) at temperature of . --viscosity with disturbed structure. VCso . -261- . 3) cracking mazout.4 U2 446 95. nmaks 0 1465 0 (at -10 C). B) temperature.14 9.12 (from low-sulfur petroleums). 1. A) Vis- cosity.02 2.. poises.g 4X8 USA 1.12 (from sulfur-eontaining viscosity with undispetroleum).TABLE L4. determined by Zalozetskiy-Goland method. Viscosity curves of low-sulfur and sulfur-containing mazouts at low temperatures: 1) straight-run F12 fleet mazout. VCeo . 0C..DO 7. 2) straight-run fleet mazout. % Tars.06 0.38 (from sulfur-containing petroleum).9.4? 9.5A 5.

Pumpability of mazouts as a function of temperature on laboratory apparatus: 1) straight-run P12 mazout.A °Xo / 800 0.48. 2) straight-run sulfur-containing F5 mazout.*C Fig. A) Output. VCs0 = 4.10. 0 C B) Temperature of products (In 0C) after days in railroad tqnk cars C) And air temperatiru during shipment. g/min. TABLE 4. B) 5 temperature. 3) sulfurcontaining F12 cracking mazout.31 Cooling of Petroleum Products as a Function of Time en route and Loading Temperature [16] A Temnevflm-pa sewn'npoflYITOM O (a °C) B TeUnepTypa ulpoiyimn ItUcxept. - 262 - . 0 C. VC 0 = 12. VCso = 11. - 200 z 't5• i boaopouvu0 B 7emnepamira. 4.up C7TRm cre m 8 0p: C z apu -emfepaType Boamyxa 11o pemm M"e3oa8 -toot 40 50 60 70 80 7 8 t0 i1 13 __20oC 8 to it 13 14 -C0oC C -200oC 13 M 18 20 22 13 15 18 20 A) Temperature of petroleum products at loading.4.

..JI 70 4 Fig. ordinary tank cars: 3) No..... 4....... (9-) DPV yaM~MYt94 06C _ 750 C1 50001 2M 0.. 40 sulfur-containing E) Shale.....676 10C 320 300 C NfanocepIMCTMai E Cnaugeoul 4 mrcz 724 4 .. 0.... aoomv B-106 B /7plu aUCm~piH'.. thermos cars: 1) No...377 1...........448 0.... hours........... Table 4.732 326 2320 3730 . o40 mazout..31 presents data on the temperature decrease of petroleum products during shipment in railroad tank cars and Fig. 4) No.. .. 80 mazout... During the winter. 20 ........ mazout in railroad tank cars.32 Viscosities of Various Mazout Grades at Low Temperat ures A ________________ B Baoen. OC.. a low-Eulfur mazout having the same viscosity as the cracking mazout at 50 0 C (Fig..... 4...... A) Mazout temperature........ 40Q and 80 mazouts during shipment in ordinary and thermos tark cars [52).. Decrease in temperature of Nos. above-ground mazout pipelines without heat insulation.... 80 mazout....... 4.... 40 ...... 2) No. Firebox mazout: 20 30 20 ........ A) Mazout 3) Viscosity (in poises) at temperature of C) F12 low-sulfur fleet D) No.......351 1..32)..10)... mazouts show quite high viscosities (Table 4. • TABLE 4.. At low temperatures........ and above-ground storage tanks may acquire a rather low temperature...11......077 1... 40 mazout. ..11 presents curves of the temperature fall for Nos... and they can be drained from tank cars only after warming to the following temperatures (in 0 C): Fleet mazout: F12 . B) time in moving cars..... 40 and 80 mazouts (AUSS 1501-57) during winter shipment [52] in four-axle railroad tank cars unloaded at temperatures of 60 and 7 0OC.....54723 2260000 4415000 DCepinc•aA 40 . 263 30 40 - ........

.wa3yTIa B3XO'OCTRO 30 42 48 52 55 62 25 18 . kg-s/m.. h.....33 Permissible Mazout Viscosities for Transfer by Pumps of Various Types and Required PreHeating Temperatures A Tun HaCOCa B A peienhman [151 oBy/cem U3ROCh 2n_ -l ° °!°_ 4010o 28 i0 C Tpe6mebrie TeM•pep•&ryp (a .Q noAorpena Ua3YTOo M*POD 1200 0121 50 05 D BEmHouie u me. Screw and gear 200/1500 (output drops at viscosities below 10°VC) F) G) H) Centrifugal pumps rated at 30-40 tons/h Plunger and piston types 75/550 (mazouts with viscosiries up to 1501VC can be transferred)...qaTUe n Uop-noeUe 30-- H75.%EtearI HOCTNhO 40 ml!.. A ...550 (moryT nepexaIu eatM ... Mazout from paraffin-base petroleums.12... lrm. xircel//t1 TABLE 4... 300 ....... G CXa. B) viscosity. Thecretical dependence of average drop diameter on viscosity. 0 VC/cSt Required heating temperature (OC) for mazouts of grades No. - 264 - . 50-60 40 and higher [ll] a2OC-S290- -- - _1... -L Fig...60-80 ...to 1500 BY) A) B) C) D) E) Pump type Maximum viscosity [15].1.. $6812 4 8102 68100 B 8. - too A) Average drop diameter..q3KoCmb.200!I500 E (Emi e 20 35 38 42 15 12 cepela'Urie n poWS•..ouARTeao• t00 BY cUmaMoT 30/-225 45 55 62 65 68 78 35 22 F L•ent•po6emjnue npou3so.

since pump mazouts. 5) for fantype air nozzles. 7) maxi. cm2 i•.300 - - - 500-70 d720 *~40 . ping water. V'zh is thle klnt'rrntlc viscosity. Maximum mazout viscosities: 1) for screw and gear pumps. 4) for steam nozzles.J2. cSt. 8) for fan and compressor air nozzles. .6 for a 1 . recommended mazout viscosity.Vi 2po. VTI alignment chart for determination of mazout viscos- ity and temperature necessary for normal performance of' various nozzles and pumps.13. pp niltpp -X5 -- . is also necessary to A warm nazout to pump it throughi pipeI f. 2) for piston anod plunger pumps. B) conventional viscosity. 6) for compressor air nozzles. the efficiencies of centrifugal pumps fall at A the same t ime. 4.. 9) for mechanical nozzles. • • _ • • Vig'o• r' It The decrease in centrifugal-pump economy with increasing fuel viscosity can be appreciated from the Baklanov formula [15): II qv is the pump ef'!'iciency in pur.ump with 100 nun in dirunetc~r.30 IAO0 Fig. 5.0..nt. A) Kinematic viscosity. C) temperature. Sis an vxpor.output declines with increasing viscosity of the lines. 0 C. 3) for centrifugal pumps rated at 20-40 tons/h.mum inazout viscosity for mechanical nozzles and recommended viscosity for viscou:~X liudx5 steam nozzles. 0 VC. .

! h} . and may not exceed 2-3 0 VC. 4.1. m/s Kinematic. f"1-t-et m-aouts are heated tc the following temperatures: F5 to 65-750C.2 M.0 0. - ~.34 presents the recommended transfer' rates for petroleum products with various viscosities. For the mechanical nozzles of seagoirg-vessel boiler installations.Gear and screw pumps have stable efficiencies and small dimensions and set up an even nonpulsating pressure. 1.3 1.12 [171 shows the theoretical dependence of average drop diameter on mazout viscosity for various transfer speeds on the assumption that the coefficient of surface tension. and F12 and V20 to 90 and i00lC. to ensure such vismooity.0 A) B) C) D) E) F) Visoslty or petroleum product Average transfer speed. On 2uction line On delivery line. the mazout viscosity must be lower than for stationary boiler installations. and geometrical dimension are constants. a/qa CXmne .red warming temperatures (taken from the alignment chart) for the various wiazout grades. Table 4. Figure 4. The ma..33 presents maximum mazout viscosities recommended by the VTI for transfer with various types of pumps. It also gives the requ-.311 Recommended Transfer Speeds for Petroleum Products [16] AfE3Hocn u I B CpernxRn BpoApmcxopoom nepepauw.2 . respectively.5 2. den3ity. TABLE 4.auMM 12-28 28-72 72-148 &6-4M8 438--977 1-121 2-4 4-10 10-20 20-60 60-120 -2 1.3) or Table 4.5 1. cSt "VC ConiventIonal.t1 1.5 20 1.aue 0 I OB sawuuuin 14.'imum viscosities of mazouts and their preheating temperatures can be determined from an alignment chart (Fig. they can be used to transfer mazouts with relatively high viscosities.8 1.35 as functions of nozzle type. Table 4.

perature for Burning Mazouts with Various Types of Nozzles [15) A IV BMAoC~b HUmr. Po6P6m HempsacpTseUIsUo II S o IO' -- n . in 30 267 - . 0C Not below H) I) J) Mechanizal Steam High-pressure air (compressor) Low-pressure air (fan).. . . .Pf CYnW Do"*0U -. I E F 16VOROCMUF -o G 75 A ouf 90 H MoxI 6/-45 3'5/125 20 so too 200 T Iapoase 15/-120 6/-45 40 60 s0 100 200 20 60 I 80 '10 200 20 40 so 103 12 110 120 135 85 95 VO 08 112 80 93 t100 103 108 118 80 93 20 55 J Bo yam-e Hanopm0e npeccopsue) aucoio(xoW. . TABLE a4.-. OVCfcSt Allowed Recommended Mazout grade Preheating temperature. .. 3 5 Required Viscosity and Preheating Ten.84 1y ______ Aio.75 5/--35 40 65 75 7 80 90 65 75 8 90 100 85 75 K Boanymue nanopowe (tezr- Hn3xo- 12/-90 51-35 60 72 AwropUae) Go 80 100 200 78 82 85 95 100 103 10e 118 A) B) C) D) E) F) G) Nozzle type Mazout viscosity.O-afb IOG (a ODY) qor TWAyP IPC II PC.36 Influence of Heat Treatment on Viscosity Properties of Cracking Mazout with VC.y/m MAP".li12 . 22 cymu ou 2 M124 21i11 16 34030 I iMPUoo6p.TABLE 4.0 I43OU 553 l&% 14100 361 I fit WO 20 T. -. Tpo~PM0 I 6PoGr ' 41po. no*eI 147.. = i1..PU.o•opm .ois . 1250 '1. 10-.

7 81 Viscosity (°V') at tern-.. The viscosities of cracking-anzout.1) 2) 3) 2 V'..2 5t.. . J. V'*scosity changes most sharply on preheating to 70.tY . •!.A 494 1 )I N14 l OwM'lý i.ti't fic hr t Be fc he'at after heat treat- Va~rlous.uu.. Mazouts containing up to 5% water show a particularly distinct viscosity increase at temperature.' : v . The viscosities of mazouts also vary with degree of watering. Mt 268 - .of 30 0C and lower (Table 11. The viscosities of cracking . I 18].. Preliminary heat treatment 1ower:.nd on prior heat treatmnent and the derree of s~tructural b'reak<°o:•n..q-sulfur straight-run 5) Specimen C'ir&'ox mazout.illt'ut'-containinr. 11.E C 0 6 46.' .-. firebox "acking mazout *>flfur-containing straliht-iuir firebox mazout . The influence of 30 inlr 6 heat !"e-t:mrnt at 1001C on the viscosity of sulfur-contalninrg cracking ma7out appears in Table 4..: :l straight-run paraffin-base mazouts are not constant and let:o.8 1) Mazout *) 2) 3) 4) Water content.o..:•rr . 4.4 4. ' . Ktp..Mm~* .a:. . ftor L.36. _I Cor ( 0 V(C) -' ri. Watering mazouts to 2-3% has practically no influence on viscosity.5..ing the heat-treatment temperature above 100 0 C has no'marked Infliuence on the viscosity variation. •tv!r •.•ltt *•': -.t..11 318 273.nt neat treatment t.*ll~l• iM 1.•:T'r':1iLur. .• :T .•.5 t25.:'c II .t: (•l•l 115.9 691.6. : .the temperature at which the mazout shows distinct structorf L' almost 20 0 C [2...•y• (e111111 C' ri |•[ 14 1'4.)[ ~ •.37).1.. rll.6 161... increase to a greater degree on watering than do those of straight-run mazouts.. perature of F-12 sulfur-contalnln7 cracking mazout .-100"'C..'lll11101 Il . % ).q ". 'T~iy' O&.4 23 r "1: _ýA - .

pm. 0 C. 5) VC$O = 11. B) temperature. 4. Average drop diameter a function of surface tension. kg/m. '°' Fig.38. Surface tension of mazouts as a function of temperature: sulfur-containIng firebox cracking mazout: 1) VCso = 60. temperature.38. A) Conventional viscosity. VC50 = 4. Surface Tension The eff clency of fuel atomLIzation depends cn surface tension - 269 - .14. 3) VC5 0 = 14.8 4. m/s. sulfur-containing straitht-runr filcet mazout: (. 9 IS feoe t3 f(* Pe! So 50ON -- Fig. B) temperature.7epomyJo. B) surface tension. Average drop diameter. ergs/cm -. aVC. With fallin.14 shows vlscosity-termperature curves for dry cracking mazout and the same fuel containing up to 15% water [P91. A.16. 2.15. ' .1. VC5 0 = 2o.4. 7) VC 5 o . A) Surface tension. °C Figure 4. 4. The n ierals on the lines indinate relative veloci'y.2Fig. Viscosity characteristics of \fuel S• watered fuel: 1) dry boiler fuel. the difference between the vls~osltles of dry anC watereJ mazouts will be even greater.4. 2) boiler containing 15% water. 0410 50 80 200 1j 7Mnpo&mypo. As 5 I6*10 - B 7oft3wocmmae NON•Ax8xo4N A 30 50 o~o~ V-2 B TeN. 8) low-sulfur fleet 2 mazout with V<Cse z 12. sulfur-containing fleet cracking mazout: 4 ) VCro = 1".

. V:.5 30.? - 29. The pour p~oint~s of fleet mazou'L.. the iargfrom nozzlets (Fig.mazouts have higher surface tension (Fig. The surface tension of Iliquid '. C' UPil Te'uUpaTyp 700C gooC 1200 C .-C01u:.38)..oiler fuels drops linearly with rising temperature.0 I MnIHy 1MCX t~ 3S~ 3 1 -- 29. "VC at 800 C 4~) Surface tension. and those of firebox IMzouts 10-36 0 c. iir'face 'Pen3 lot I:cii r-V'.out 6) Baku mazout 7) Bugul'ma petroleum.39).' 11 40.j~ e ' fuel. Usually. 20 - .. z i!rii. We encounter fleet mi. The pour points of stra-ight-run mazouts from paraffin-base petroleum are usually considerabhly higher than those of mazouts from naphthenoaromatlc potroleurm::..01 28. .031 1i1 3M. UL'). thi Ifl)r' 1] 'HCult wil and -rood funmxii rn..:! 31.9 731. 1)t' .rtinjflne atomization icw-t.s.2 A. and the production nrocess (direct distillation or cracking). . 14.4 .j 27. Increased degrees of refinement of the raw material raiiie mazout pou~r points markedly (Table 11.. dynres/cm.-lty types (Table 11. the degree of removal of light f'ractions from the raw material. according to AUSS 3pecifications. and high-viscosity cracking mazouts with pour points from 25 to 3140 c. may not exceed minus 5to mrinus 8*C. r~ Vi 'I1 tY ~ .8 27.. Pour Point mTnit-i on Ithe chemical nature of The pour points of mazout~s 1' the raw material. at temperature of 5) Tuymazy ma-.co.zouts with pour points as low as -300 C. firebox grades uip to +li.y.lIa:.4044 I1.i-vi:.16) than lo'.. ajid i A.8 30. tenLsiori.TyiIMa3ilnetlir M113YT Ir0514 1.3 29.20 C and above (paraffin-base). Lhe combiustion of the .9 2) Density 3) Conventional vllcoslt.u~ '~ ..I ty Cracking I tulr '" A.

1 14.e. An increase in the time of preheating (over and above the heating time set by the AUSS) results In a sharp decrease in pour point (Table 4. on the temperature and diration of heating and the cooling rate.39 Variation of Pour Point as a Function of Degree of Refinement and Viscosity of Mazouts 11ft CarcoO uepepaom 2 3 Yc¥ioanax npu 50. Usually. this is explained by a change in pour point as a function of heat-treatment 'onditions.40).8 80 7.41).. The kinetics of variation of the puur points of various mazouts during heating can be traced in Figs. the maximum pour points of mazouts are observed on heating from 30 to 70 0 C.% ""By_ '4Te meperypa Two C (rcT 1533-'42) 5 Tyfiaammmaan 7 fxasuacca !1pnman naeperom•a 8 To me S2 * 4. OVC Pour point.Tne pour points of mazouts as determined by the standard metnod (preheating to +50'C) may differ sharply from the actual pour points of these products under operating conditions.alues on heating from 80 to 100 0 C (Table 4.38 5. - 271 - . 4. i. TABLE 4.1 19 +40 -10 -4 -4 +2 1) 2) 3) I" 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Petroleum Refining process Conventional viscosity at 50 0 C. 0 C (AUSS 1533-42) Tuymazy Direct distillation Ekhabi Same Mixture of Ishimbay and Tuymazy Mixture of Stavropol' and 2nvly Cracking.CI cTaapono.59 0. The -28CC mazout pour poinrt established according to the AUSS and below does not change on heat treatment.19.cXoI n 6an~ucucxol * 11 rtpexuur 1 40 9. A further increase in the heating temperature to 130-150 0 C has no influence on pour point. and the minimal .26 t 2.17-4.78 -14 -8 +3 -21 +22 +03 9 Cmsec mrn6aAcRolS Tykfaanexot 10 CM.

B) warm0C.40 Guideline Heating Temperatures f)r Mazouts to Obtain Maximum and Minimum Pour Points Te~tmeparypa narmsa KUYTRo (2 "(.. 'C.. Uphotl . .. peromxx .2 Tolmnno TYpI.epa. . S3 ALI A 0 60 20 P Rovo~pee. Ftg.. 2) Tuapse. 60-70 20-30 80--00 80--0C 8 50--60 40-50 20-30 70--90 70-90 90-100 ScepImcTre upxmoA nepe- roaR . A) Pour point.. The numerals on the lines indicate the pour point of the mazout. VWso = 36. ing. . 4. VCso A) Pour point. Pour points of crackini m-zout. lhapannUcTmIe MaayT pe nar-NasyTh . 'C....loCepHRCTUCe . 4.) Z nonyqenoR •... as functions of prelir77.•. TonoqHue IVAoTcxKe MRayTm: Ma. s5c3uMaft . .... 0C.17.. Inary heat treatment: 1) Groznyy. . . mpe-nnr-maayTU 10 ceptINcTUe 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Fuel Heating temperature of mazouts (0C) to make pour point Maximal Minimal Paraffin-base mazouts Firebox cracking mazouts 7) 8) 9) 10) Fleet mazcuts Straight-run low-sulfur Straight-run sulfur-ccntaining Sulfur-containing cracking mazouts. 9C 80 100 Fig.18.. P) warming.TABLE 4. Pour point of Groznyy paraffin-base mazout as a function of preliminary heat treatment. ue..

ng cracking mazout. 2) sulfur-containing cracking mazoit.20). Variation of mazout pour points in time: 1) sulfur-containing cracking mazout (pour point +5 0 C) treated for 30 min at 70'C. cays. VC5 0 = 12. Fig. 3) straight-run sulfur-containing mazout. tz: -10 1-2 0 - B BoeMn 8IwepAw• cgIdm7u Fig. B) holding -22 0 C) treated for 2 h at time. 4) sulfur-containt. 2) same. Pour points of fleet mazouts as functions of prior heating temperature: 1) low-sulfur mazout. 0C. OC. A) Pour point.38 (pour point -14 0 C). 4. The pour point of mazout is unstable after heat treatment original vhlue during subsequent (70-100 0 C) and returns to its storage (Fig. for 2 h. A) Pour point.bi 1:'0 Ak -30ML 4g aoo B relyaepomrpa p~oodpodomfu.19. VCso = 12 (pour point +30C).20. VCso = 12 (pour point -19'C). VCs 0 = = 4. - 273 - . 4. 0C. B) heat treatment temperature. 3) low-sulfur F12 mazout (pour point 700C.8 (pour point +5 0 C). 4.

A. 1[encc the flash point-. _ . P aII rll Il . This indicato: becomes particularly important fcr fuels used in shipboard installations. +4 -18 -20 -19 -9 -1 -20 -28 -28 *-23 -8 -26 -30 -28 G Manocepmacmiu -30 -30 -30 A) B) C) Mazout Pour point.•4m 104 112 _ /i. and tho:se or firebox mazouts in an ce. TABLE 4.qpnltcwi To we IJ(poeu Iloxeo~aaee 132 164 1381 121 typOrcuaa n. 20 treatment for cracking mazout G) Low-sulfur F12. rtil. where they arc stored near crew's quarters and boiler rooms.TABLE 4..! :•. "Ton I(pe4xr M4Wy L BY. 7CepmNo(2 "TeI11111 I oC (no 'OCT D 01533-S2) C am AwepaTypa aoelR 4 Maayr E CepimcriI xpeunorMasyT 012 -6 -9 -14 -12 -20 -25 F Cepmicri waayT 20 xpewirrO12 -5. the flash point . 20 40 40 MC. 'C (AUSS D) E) 2 hours Sulfur-containing F12 1533-42) cracking mazout Pour point after heat F) Sulfur-containing No.u.iaai: e l WaaY7 IUJ '"'t 134 75 8 84 rlonI rotikl 98 106 7 109 112 140 1t 65 34 so 62 12 8 1 . IaOOT"X. When determined In a eloiv. "I511".-.i is usually found to be lower (by a:. of fleet mazouts are determined in a close -rucible. Flash Point The flash point of a liquid boiler fuel is an indicator that permits inferences as to the fire hazard that it represents.• JI ToLaim Ntqton -1m iVII Il •e!U l..41 Influence of Heat Treatment Time at 700C on Pour Point o~Ce saCTIU R.42 Flash Points or Hol tr ." :.evI open crucible.n'o() than that for an open device.

275 .•m. 3) Customer's data TABLE 4 . min Flash point.44 Change in Flash Point on Heating n d 12 3 so to Iyso go . without 3) 4) Flash point before preheating.20 Shale mazout Coking Yarega petroleum. °C 2) Refinery data. "C 1 Tmehpmw 2op~fa Aaumi Uea% C 3 ffms "~re 3 96 775 88 88 85 87t 92 90 9 si 88 91 02 1) Flash point. °C Flash point on warming. T"m~--MM t0 6• 1) Method of producing mazout Conventional viscosity at 5) 6) Heat-treatment time. TABLE 4. OVC agitation.. to 7) 8) Cracking Direct distillation .43 Change in Flash Point of Cracking Mazout during Shipment in Tank Cars 1 2 A- Tenepapa . oC F12 fleet mazouts H) I) J) K) L) M) N) 0) Direct distillation Same Cracking Firebox mazout VCs 0 . 2) 50pC. 12 h *C. average sample 4) Top 5) Middle 6) Bottom.n.A) B) C) D) E) F) G) Fuel Method of production Flash point (0C) determined in Closed crucible Open crucible Difference between determinations.

frequently have lower closed-crucible flash points as a result of their content of volatile decomposition products.ns Lolinr. after which even prolonged warming does not affect flash point (Table 4. 1) 2) 3) 4) Index F12 low-sulfur mazotut Sulfur-containlng mazout Straight-run F5 102 84 6) 7) 8) 9) 5) Fractional composition S>art of boiling Distilled over at . when mazouts are warmed in open (unpressurized) vessels.76 - . but only to a certain limit. C 358 IL0 Teuseparypa Bcu3WMXa. their temperatures must be 10-20. mazout can be warmed to a temperature above its flash point. flagration. have !iigh•er boiling pointi than contain more of the high-boiling .C below their flash points.42). Viscous mazouts (heavw ý) the low-viscosity gr. and especi~ily the ]ow-viscoslty grades. OC "tart of decomposttion. which dissipate in an open device Defore enough of them have accumulated for de-. In closed containers under pressure (oil preheaters.44)..: . coils. OC *IIn % by volume. below 330 0 C (Table 4. Low-viscosity more or the diesel-fue.45 Fractional Cimpositions of Low-Viscosity Ma- zouts [5] IIOpKsas&W CThiS MNIay? 012 apavnol 5 ":ylWNr 111 )neperOHNN 6 0)axnno•fuA cOcTaB: naqano xinenzi.Cracking mazouts.. Under the conditions of storage in tankq.-ature determined by the standard method [181 and depend on tank volume and the level of the liquid. the flash point also rises. piping).4 3 ). When cracking mazouts are heated.. Low-viscosity (light) mazouts contain more of the light fractions than do the viscous (heavy) TABLE 4. the flash points of mrazouts are usually slightly higher than the tempe. Fracticnal Composition The fractional composition of mazouts used as boiler fuels is not regulated and not determined. OC. Thus. and hence the diffe2e:nce between the determinations ranges up to 700C (Table 4. mazouts. of he fleet type3 cortain 20% and .45). the flash points of these mazout grades usually rise (Table 4. 0 C F12 cracking L)) Flash point. OC neperoHnexcg up. OC: 10% 20% 30% 40% 267 314 330 348 352 M7 225 254 287 322 346 257 300 335 350 34S 50% -- 358 94 360 -- 9 Haqaao pawaaomemiN. During shipment and storage.

5-12% boils out below 350 0 C [3]. Increased c.35 of mechanical impurities determination of mechanical impurities accordinM to AUSS 6370-59.fractions. may cause local overheating. The depth of penetration of the flame is reduced.46 Influence of Solvents on Content of Mechanical Impurities in Mazouts 2o~ep. packing and gasket fi- bers.5% . thereby interfering with• the fuel-atomzizng process. sand. buckling and deformation of the boiler tubes.•ts contain2ng up to are used than when low-viscos•ityare employed.generally h ve initial boiling temperatures of 300 0 C and above. are often determined along with them. In 0. Nozzle wear is more rapid when high-viscosity cracking mazouts containing up to 2.echanical impurities fleet mazo. The lighter part of the fuel.oiling fractions are detrimental to completeness f combustlon and increase the amount of smoke and soot formed. which are settled out simriltaneously. the asphalt-tar substances present in th• mazoutzl. burning in the front of the firebox. on the aveyage. coked carbon deposits. They clog filters. In - 277 - . Mechanical Impurities in the Fuel The mechanical impurities in mazouts consist of minute particles of iron. I ey 1 ) Fuel 2) Content of mechanical impurities (5) after scruTbi~ng with 3) 4) 5) 6) Benzine Benzene Chloroform noncomustible impurities (%) Content of 7) Fu2 cracking mazout 8) No. The heavy particles of the fuel.~ne m6uon 6zvmme wav. the walls of passages In nozzles and nozzle heads. nozzles and valves and cause wear of TABLE 4. burn with inadequate air. The heav Lest mazouts -high-viscosity cracking residues -. Co! ustion of fuels with high contents of light distillates in fir( oxes that are not adapted for such fuels also has its effect on th combustion procass. thrown into the interior of the firebox. after scrubbing with 40 firebox cracking mazout. with the result that more smoke and more soot deposits on the lining and working surfaces of the boiler are formed. etc. utents of high.

... the stated mechanical.hI h w t .)AIO neperoux 012 .... and the true amount can be determined by using various solvents to wash the precipitated impurities (Table 4.ho t-at content of' "excl.tuent3 'iri. x r. these . Rpe~ tujr-. .47 Average Content Mazouts ] . In heavy thelr' content ranges up to 14-20% Fuej.'ttoe from its cokIn.. their contents are deternLined by "excise" tars klTable 4. Iy nclud'.z:..: belng most detrimental. . and car '.. TABLE 4.... Cep-1HcTm.47). ea .d•.a3yT 40 .'... ..nt a .. CoklnF c'aI/:vlty t .03 0.22 15.59 8. - . also d0.'t ! xtract....5 8) 9) 10) 11) 1. J ..-~p~m "" HM liAWnut . L *. .48). Cracking mazouts .. Ir -:l :nd on he-at In -.. . and the formation of emulsions with water are associated with the presence of tars in mazouts.. with the ahr K:±lteen. I 'p6.46)....47). 14.nt in :i-ut. Tar Constituents The tar'constltuents present in bcIler fuels are detrimental to fuel properties and complicate use conditions.32 0. ( e. t. icurat'ý1y tliarn dow th.viscosity higher contents of "excise" tars.phaltenes..feoct their properties in different wayL.8 2) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Mazout Tars Asphaltenes Carbenes and carboids "Excise" tars Coking capacity F12 cracking mazout 40 cracking mazout 7) Straight-run F5 sulfurcontaining mazout Straight-run F12 low-sulfur mazout No.tabl':..t-. impurity content will be on the high side.iuts Iln WvIng a higher content of asphaltvn.I.6 28 28 5.•.3 6..... a:..'d oil and Solid S~' 1..-r t''i :--. 200 firebox mazout (cracking residue) [3].ý tar content more ac!hiracter. ftoz'. nay ..ont.:..d~ed i'.. carbenes and carbolds pre-.03 40 72 10. ii. fuel call the .'x.1. 1lToaoqasu 200 (xpex•nw-ea-c Tom) [3]) . The tar constituents are regulated only for fleet mazouts. - 17.cos t:/ (Table 14.-... n.1[n.e Tabo Ice 4.1.. !nd.: •( ir'•ucn. Maatv (%) of Tar Constituents in OHY 2.. 13. The tars. of the mazout.h7her thl.. .-ut..63 6. Tine asphalterne ...• Act.19 1. Loss cf stability of the mazouts..OCMa Mocopaiudx Maa3YT Ur. Ma3yT :]pR. disturbances in the process of burning them.::s.6 14... the asphaltene con- tent. '.. s ?Ahg~h-vt:...MOA -Opero"xi 05 .'' . .. ! a .. the htiher th. Cracking mazouts differ from ritraight-run types in having here.ur•u ily un...94 011 0..f" tars.12 4.. the of th.:.64 0. C~ona[Ac~mE. c:'a.this case.: iech-.79 16. the greater the tav content..10 No.-. ..c'...'ru. Rpexulr-iiaayT 012 10.. "Irdt lrry (le-i(.ontfnt capacity..

. . ..... 4..90 12. ..57 X111tI~ft..48 Content of Asphaltenes. p'u'affits.O 38 (500 C) 9. ..... .. 80 C) Asphaltene content (A). . E) Content of.00 7.... . 5.cepting mechatitcal impurities. % 4.. ..... 2? o' ait 250*C !2'jo] 1% ..4 (800 C) 11.I0 1. 60... 2...70 2.. .. 5..... .Xof the cnrbenes and carboids settic within 5 h... .32 380 (500 C) 14... .. . 1pewuar-OCUTaRo O~eccxoro asbota . To meS . .. 22. 40 cracking inazout B) Ccnventiorial. are precipitated cor.. Same. ex. Carbenes and Carboids in Cracking Mazouts A MatYM B NIOUM 1c ~D "A ++ E 3.... and up to V dur~ng.. At 120 0 C.. ..79 16. Tars Asphaltenes Carbenes and carboids Oils 6) 7) 8) Mechanical impurities In oil preheater Conver'ted to mazout.:11 Gp¶PRI...4t .... 2.. . viscosity..... Same.... .26 0.00 121.7*fnemiT~ co~Cp~tSuwnx 1~2 31 B . tarry Lieposit....8 59.41 1. ..... .130Ot1 34. ....90 11.TABLE 4i.. .. 6 and 7 are data of the Odessa refinery laboratory [19].. 60 OVC 3. ..40 Note..26 1. 4.60 14. ... Same... -279- .80 100 (500 C) 19.. ..... ... 5eTrozr.. . 93 3.11 8. ... . and 3 are data of OHA1Mo.59 2.. P .36 120 (500 C) 11. To me 80 ..151 3.... .. TABLE 4... A) Mazout 1... 6... .. 7.45 76... . ....98 8.. No...4 (8011CQ 14. ....22 2. . .. RpexffR!'UaaYT 40 . 5. No.. .. In storaKý of boilecr fuels ctnd with periodic warming.. .. No. 1...Varatively quickly. Odessa refinery crackinrg D) Carbine and carboid conresidue tent .42 0. ... To *9e.30 16.48 7...2 (75aC) 9.37 - 1) 2) 3) 4~) 5) Sample for determinatiori of sludge content... . 0 . .419 Composition of Sludge ()from Oil Preheaters 1 flpo~w Am o.... 2. . 1..aae..

Odessa refinery cracking Carbine ana carboid conresidue tent . and 3 are data of OHHMI... ...00 . 6 and 7 are data of the Odessa refinery laboratory [19).. 14. 2.79 2... 2.... At 120 0 C. Jpeiwalr-OCTaTOX O.. 120 (I0 C 5.42 0.....41 1.90 2. 60 °VC 3..00 16...ej..11 1.48 3..26 1..59 21.2(75'C) 4.... 23.....10 A) B) C) D) E) Note.... To nc 80 .. .e•eworo sasoa ... Same.9. ...x uap-..30 16.48 Content of Asphaltene.90 0.. excepting inec:.....49 Composition of Sludge M%) from Oil Preheatv . tarry deposits are precipitated comparatively quickly.60 9. .80 19.. 2... . Same.. C 7...36 I 132 i..26 12..57 U.s 2 2 B"0 3 ODoWOD. To As .......e.22 3... .... 4... . . paraffins.70 2. No.... me* 0. No.......593 3. 735 01 u...4(80'9 mr-m 40 . 22.98 11. 7.. In storage of boiler fuels and with periodic warming....d 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Sample for determination of sludge content Tars Asphaltenes Carbenes and carboids Oils 6) 7) 8) Mechanical impuritied In oil preheater Converted to mazout. % 4...TABLE 4. Content of .4(80'C) 100(50-C) 14.. No. 18........... Mazout 1. 5.30 11.... B fepecume-1 a raxV~rUuSM.... .... and up to 9•% during 22 h at 250 0 C [20).. 1.6% of the carbenes and carboids settle within 5 h.... . .anical impurities.3 xau.. 80 Asphaltene content (A). .. .. ..40 14.. ...31 59.. To m 60.. .. TABLE 4. Ra 114by?. Same. in Cracking Mazouts A nrabenes and Carboids B c OBY D 0e I. 38 (50 C) 380(500) 8..279 - AA .. . . . ... 6.. 5. .45 76X. 40 cracking mazout Conventional viscosity.

VCso . the viscosity of the mazout. The lighter the mazout. zout.6.23 0Ce 34 17 4 36 5 61 85 85 .030/1.20.73 0. 023 O. VC5o . When water is mixed with mazout. depending on the temperatures of the mazout and the air. The more highly the emulsion is dispersed.7* 1. the mazout may be watered up to 80% [25). the more stable it becomes.5 0.o~au 44 n 2A 0.w o. and the amount and nature of emulsion stabilizers (emulsifiers).4 0 'Settling at 70 C.nt ~.1. light mazouts and cracking residues as functions of temperature. 0. .s to 20-30%. Figures 4.0 S6 ui'. . 4.o•.. - Fig.01O VRc 480 050A -.5. the dispersion of the emulsion depends on the viscosity and density of the mazout. In this case. the result is a hydrophobic emulsion of the "water in oil" type. 4. VOs0 . A) Density. • VCso . When hot water is used for washing with a hydraulic monitor. B) temperature.15.89 02O 0 60 80 100 B TeineipomYpo. In turn.22 show the variation of the densities of water. 3. water content in emulsion I-281- . oil barges and tanks to remove residues ranges [24] up to 50-75%."C TABLE 4. the more rapidly will the water separate out from it. The emulsion formed when low-viscosity mazouts are mixed with water is usually broken down comparatively easily by warming it and allowing it to stand. 6) fleet ma- firebox ma- 0. VCso = 22.1 .7 16. The watering of mazout washings caught during thorough cleaning of railroad tank cars. 7) water. 5. VCso= 12.21 and 4.20. Density of low-viscosity mazouts as a function of temperature: 1) shale mazout. 2) 7 •zouts. the settling of the water depends on the density of the mazout..50 Effectiveness of Deemulsifiers' * ~3qR 1 iI ""=• DpeNONA. and the steam temperature and pressure.21.?~OrnC RMyXIS 6btea I HowusTs OITONS- Aeowyllbrnope 70170. *C. the thoroughness of mingling of the water with it.

004.005. OVC. con-282 - . 4. 1..022. 7. 1.058. °C. °T Fig.23. A 49J 2 C Fig. In this . respectively.006.026.036. The :A tibl Izer. 10) Baku mazout with 20 0 C densities of. i f4 BfloePi7~O. in bottom layer. h L4) Amount of water separated. respectively. Emulsions obtained by warming mazouts with live steam are more stable than those formed by mixing water and mazout. 1. tons/m 3 .7nePomjvPO.tho perslstnnce of453the emulsion deptrnds on the amount and t•rroot~.ivenc. 2.0 O'gO .s of emulsilon stabl~lizero present In the mazouts. 1. 13) Nos. A) Density. Viscosity and density of various mazout grades and water as functions of temperature [21]: 1. respectively. % Without deemulsifier OP-7 AIL. B) temperature. 8o. 8. A) Density. 6o. C) viscosity. 14) water. 1. 1.0 O 0 /00 W• M• a• B Tm. the degree of water-droplet dispersion Is substantially higher than in low-sulfur mazouts and. Change in density of cracking residues. 1.ng time. % 5) 6) 7) 8) Amount of water in mazout after standing.:t:. ln emulsions of 5ulfur-containllig .046. 1.0. 3. 3. 80 and 100 mazout.1) Deemulsifier Dcemulsifier content.nfzouts (especially cracking mazouts).. 11) Tuymazy mazout with 200 C density of. B) temperature. 2. 4o and 100 mazouts.:ome of the tars [221.* of water-mazout emulsions are chief ly asphalteres and . 12) Bugul'ma petroleum with 200C density of 1. 4.044. 6. mazouts and water as a function of temperature: 1. 0 C. 9. 5. % 2) 3) Stand.034. 4) Nos. 5) water. 4. 1.22. 1. 1.li wastes.031.

O 0. zouts [27-29].00 26.5 10. R At high temperatures (110-160 0 C). The rate of water separation varies with temperature.Z 1.ops 5 6uavap c nm. greater. proxanols.23). separation of water is inhibited by the very small difference between the water and mazout densities. and from Nos.51 Influence of OP-7 Deemulsifter on Strength of Film and Surface Tension of Straight-Run Sulfur-Containing Mazout 2 flpomI'Wu • T """ g YSmmobI1 5fa3Y. 40 and 60 firebox mazouts in the 110-140 0 C temperature range. TU 330-48). One of the most effective methods of dealing with emulsions OZhK. VNII NP-58. while stable emulsions form in sulfur-containing mazouts because of their higher asphaltene contents and are difficult to separate by ordinary settling and heating. 4.7 I's 8. 80 and 100 mazouts at about 210 0 C.51 [34]. As a result.50 1A ii - 283- .sequently. it it usually heated to 40-700C and then allowed to stand for a long period.3 0. the rate of separation of water droplets from low-viscosity mazouts is considerably higher for identical temperature conditions than the rate of separation from high-viscosity grades. when higb-viscosity mazouts have their lowest and practically constant viscosity. TABLE 4. and others are recommended as deemulsifiers for firebox ma- "is to use deemulsifiers [26). Water is removed most effectively from Nos. Water separation is particularly poor in high-viz'cosity firebox mazouts.50 and 4.7 U5 4.0 3. Here the water must be allowed to settle out under high pressure (up to 25 atm for No. proxalines. 6" uiuuYim. the emulsion is almost permanent and the water doeei not separate.yrabopou on-? - O. 100 mazout) [25].5 5. the persistence of the emulsions will be considerably To separate water from the mazout. Mazouts obtained from nonsulfurous petroleums (espeoially low-viscosity grades) separate quite readily from water. Active deemulsifieri for low-viscosity mazouts include hydroxyethylated phenols OP-7 and OP-10 (TU 3554-53) and sodium salts of sulfo acids (alkali wastes formed in acid-alkali scrubbing of oily petroleum distillates. In sulfur-containing cracking mazouts. and at temperatures below 100 0 C. water fails to separate because of the high viscosity of the mazouts (Fig. The efficiencies of deemulsifiers are given in Tables 4.

Mazout F12: 1) settling without heating. at the points of production. 5) settling with 0. combustton deteriorates markedly and the boiler's efficiency and steam output fall. A test of OP-7 deeynulsifier under industrial conditions (0.51). ergs/cam Strength (persi: tence) of film. - 284 . the effectiveness of deemulsifiers can be eval. heavily watered high-viscosity mazouts and nazout rinsings have come into use as boiler fuels for stationary boilers without preliminary dewatering. SO 24 48 72 98 124 B ApeP omcmoo. Pluronic L-62.24. 4.e. Separation of water from mazouts in the railroad tank car.. % Surface tension. A) Amount of water separated.24). v Fig. 4) settling with heating to 600C. i. sulfur-.uated by two indices: 1) the strength of bubble films (from their lifetimes).- i 2 2) 3) 4) Product Deemulsifier content in mazout. Recently. B) settling time. When the water content in The emulsion is over 30%. s 5) 6) Mazout without deemulsifier Mazout with OP-7 deemulsifier.25% OP-7 concentration. and Teepol are regarded as the best of the imported deemulsifiers. standing at 6000) has confirmed its bigh quality (Fig.25% of OP-7 deemulsifier and heating to 600C. 4411. 4. this is made possible by formation of a water-mazout emulsion with the water (up to 30%) uniformly distributed through the entire volume of the fuel by means of a high-spred mechilical disperser or by direct bubbling of live steaw or compressed air through the mazout [24).cci taining FS5 mazout: 3) settling without heating. 2) the decrease in surface tension (see Table 4. since their effectiveness is then higher than when they are added to emulsion. h. 2) settling with heating to 600C. % of water introduced into mazout. In laboratory practice.. It is recommended that deemulsifiers be introduced into the mazouts be2^re they become watered and form emulsions.

8 " UOO"Noa~n ims 10 Ao 0. vanadium.0 2.7 12 Boaeo 3. aluminum.0-3.878 0. All vanadium c. % 2) Average density 3) Average contents 4) Sulfur 5) Tars 6) Asphaltenes 7) Average content. The vanadium contents of recroleums increase in the following order: paraffinic * naphthenic + aromatic + high-tar asphaltene petroleums The vanadium content tn petroleum depends on its sulfur content (Table 4. Vanadium Corrosion Liquid boiler fuels usually contain from 0. the vanadium content is substantially higher.'h Content in Fuel.3-0. Compounds of vanadium and Lodium cause corrosion of the metallic surfaces of boilers and gas-turbine plants. they may also enter it together with the drilling waters.0 0.00 81.96 0. Ruzovna.1 8.5B 1&57 3. Sulfur and Vanadium in Petroleunms [5) SCo~mp.863 0. Salts may be present in the petroleum In dissolved form (chemically bound salts) or in the colloidal state (complex compounds of metals).70 5. contain about 6"10-% vanadium..01 to 0.12 2.10-2 %.44 1. Kara-Chukhur. calcium and sodiuw. and other petroleums.7-2.3 0.53 0.42 3.0 0. This is formed chiefly by metal salts.mpounds concentrate in the asphalt-tar fractions of the petroleum.a.0 2.2 9A8 12.ckel. n. Groznyy petrocontain (2-8).52 Relation Between Content of Asphalt-Tar Constituents.-. such a6iBalakhany.7I "P.. and - Sleums 285 . % 7 Cpwucoom= eOCePJ as 49 cepw CROX ga 1. Cr I a.0 1 ]C6AU 0A0 6.70 t.2 7A29 1) Sulfur content in petroleums.5% ash.10-%.I0"*%. 1 CPWXX 2 "a 3 CpCXUUS EoS. In sulfur-containing petroleums from the eastern deposits. reaching 1. mg per 100 g of petroleum 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Porphyrins Vanadium Up to Traces More than.9 38 is 7.52). More than 25 elements are encountered in the ash left by comb'stion of petroleum. TABLE 4. Low-tar and low-sulfur petroleums from the Azerbaydzhan SSR.4 0890 30. and Turkmenian petroleums (2-3)'.8W0 0. chiefly among the asphaltenes. The basic components are iron.906 O'n 0.

... I.. 6 Cypaxacas Saaxauc mus ......01% in sulfur-containing cracking mazouts [5)....53 lists vanadium contents for certain Individual petroleums.... The vanadium contents of mazouts obtained from certain foreign petroleums are given in Tabl 4... % 14) Vanadium...A 17-51 Tyiaaa m ..35 30.... Table 4.. I1A56 .8 3. Pousamaacuaa ...... ..L94 65. TyAuaca .. . 20 firebox mazout.. ..... [30).33 31.18 IN6 0. ........ . C...6 63.. ... To .... 20--35 0. Straight-run sulfur-containing fleet mazout contains up to 0..-averaging (5-6).... . Iu naenms ........ou..0297 P.012% in Nos.... 5.. which is absent for low-sulfur mazouts or present in negligible quantities.. and in elevated sodium content.........zordiag to Demenkova and Kurbatskaya . 0......60I 12...0237 14Ty~uancauam 4 ..23 5.30M.... )Iruryaea'eaaa .. . 14 CTaporpoamaal I.... C .. 0.p6a 0..0181 ......) .355 & I.37 .. -uM6a 1 ... ...0..J 1) 2) Petroleum Ash. 0....54). .. . (MaNIN..51 16 O natpaa.....53 Vanadium Contents of Certain Individual Petroleums of the Soviet Union 1J M 'M .. 0...6 2.. . .. ...... and to 0.... ....020% in cracking residues...pau.47 35. :Detailed analyses of ashes from various mazouts has shown that the ashes of sulfur-containing and low-sulfur mazouts have closely similar compositions (Table 4. . the content ranges to 0... I. A.. 11 1opacnomacm .. to 0... ...0234 ) Ce"epoaCAcadn C......... there is no more than 0...023 ao .. ..0 10. % 8) 9) Balakhany heavy Aoscnagyl 3) Vais on ash...044 Aex•e douo 03... 0..0005% of vanadium.... ca C M p A . . to 0.t4 ... ......003-0... In F12 fleet mazout obtained from nonsulfurous petroleums....81 anca.. 0.7 64.. I... ..... . .... .55 2A no .. mg per 100 g of petroleum Remarks 5) 6) 7) Surakhany light According to Dobryanskly - 10) 11) 12) :13) 1i) 15) 28u - Chusovoy Krasnokomk Ishimbay Tuymazy Starogroznyy A..10-'. T ...) C.. 6.. 60 and 80 mazouts.. ..21 61..-.........007% in No.0114 0.I8 hpacan aucaa: . I ..... 40.. ..0044 42. 2 naa . H.5 10...... The basic difference observed in sulfur-mazout ash consists in the presence of vanadium... 7.lfui rop....an (enf...64 OAroj n'"M 'iycoascn.. 30 m Oim~i 2auia~AiAk &iaccu I XpacfoIacl' C (MaR . TABLE 4.......55. ... .007% vanadium.6r....... 0.7. . .Jlmrcu. 1y p A X Pt .52 I "io M CMapMaRa. ....01 8. Fyaeo 27 3UnebaaI....

16) 17) 18) 19)
20) 21) 22) 23) 24)
25)

Oktyabr' Tashkala Nebit-Dag Zhigulevsk
Syzrany Romashkiny Bavly Tuymazy D Same, S,
Krasnokamsk

27) 28) 29) 30)
31) 32) 33) 34)

Zmiyev According to L.A. Gulyayeva Buguruslan R2 Ishimbay, west massif, P,
Krasnokairnk S 2 (Mart'yan) Severokamsk S 2 (Mart'yan) Syzrany (gate level) S, Tuymazy S 1 .

26)

Severokamsk

TABLE 4.54 Composition of Ash from Sulfur-Containing

and Low-Sulfur Mazouts [54)
"2 n.-•4
W37? HS Cub- MMU'mmu 4al•U•U

I

X

T7~MeS3-

sou

SCepa, % ..

3onsa,

............

.............
mepamla

2,2

0,183
2,19 1,91

I,d

0,076

0,106
am8

0,

7Anmouu ,atapos, %: si qacti a xano= CI ..................

a ........

........
...... .....

20,39 16,11

28,33
3,03

8,17

269i
2,6

NA.. . ..................

CA. .. ..

, ..
Fto

Ni. .......... • . ............ Al ......
..... V .......

..................

.. .. ......

.90,74 C•a
. 1,04 0,61

2,50

27.93

9 1,0 Cum
8,7

6,73
9,62

5,B
6,4

42= 0.06
14.44 CaM

.............

.............
..............

8.68

1OOac-,I

SiO, ..................
. NaO .. C8................

a3 -UaYUa, %: 301e
...........

45,63
3,09 9,,31

4,46
5,66 20:5"1

1,2

MgO .............
F00,

5,20 .......... . ..... ........... 20,43
t.1,87

16,25
18,05

12,9
29,01

AI.O.. .... ............. ............ V206.. NO$ .......

6,

17,00

9 CAeM
,,38 57,3

9Ce

47 ,45,,

9

0.13

1) 2)

j)

4)

index Sulfur-containing cracking mazout from mixture of Stavropol', Saratov and Bavly petroleums Sulfur-2ontaining ntraight-run mazout from Tuynazy petroleum il1eet mazout from II'skly pe' role um

5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Sulfur Ash Anions and cations in eral oart of mazout None Traces Oxides in mazout ash.

min-

II

2.87-

TABLE 4.55 Vanadium Contents in Mazouts from Foreign Petroleums [31)
5 Dvoson3 Be yma . .. .. . ........
... .. .

58,0

0,115

40,7

....................
SHp .. .

45,0
32,5

o,0503
o'Otes

13
57J

SCY*Awomcau
7 Hpax ......

Apaq .

........

17,8

0.0148

153

...............

.

45,8

0,0303

17A

1) Origin of mazout

2) Mazout yield, % on petroleum 3) Ash, % on marout 4) Vanadium content, % on ash

5) 6) 7) 8)

Venezuela

Iran Iraq Saudi Arabia.

bility and technical-economic performance of these machines: heattransfer conditions suffer, the exhaust-gas temperature rises, and, as a consequence, the power and efficiency of the boiler or gas turbine [GT] (rTY) decrease. Furthermore, ash deposJts intensify the corrosion of metallic surfaces and damage boiler linings. The growth of deposits is accelerated noticeably in the presence of sulfur [32]. Table 4.56 lists compounds that may form during combustion of mazouts and their melting polnts [33]. Table 4.57 shows the composition of firebox-mazout ashes and deposits from gas-turbine machinery [35]. In this case, the deposits on the guide vanes and buckets have about the same composition as the mazout ash (with the exception of the alkaline-earth metal oxides). Table 4.58 gives an analysis of deposits [34] taken from the heating surfaces of a boiler installation after operation on vulfur-containing and low-sulfur mazouts. The main components oi' the deposits are identical to the mazout-ash cimponents. The main content of deposits taken fro the regenerative air preheater is iron. Typical of all deposits is the absence of chlorides, desp.tte thp fact that the mineral impurities of the mazouts contained larg: quantities of them. For the most part, the deposits consist of sulfates. The basic difference between the compositions of sulfur-containinr,- and nonsull'urous-mazout deposits consists in the former's containing vanadiuni and more insoluble oxides, which interfere wltn cleaning. Deposits form more rapidly and in larger quantities during combuStion of sulfur-containing mazouts than during combustion of low-sulfur grades, and are
-

Despite the relatively low ash content in boiler fuel, ash deposits form on boiler heating surfaces and the in-stream parts of gas turbines when it is burned, lowering the operating relia-

288

-

TABLE 4.56 Melting Points of' CompoundsFomdnCmbs tion of' MazoutsFomdnCmu12
205025721450. 250
-

5Qima. aarvamNHm

Al 0~

Alys0 Cma? uuwiomn u ... Oazcmaý CA806 CY34S I Jsarn. n I1 i Ixc Menema.. FeimOag xArman . . . . %2 mavn.MX50 4 *1*bnan. . .. W1 1ccy~uao& Imien. . . N1So 16 OhCb zYpeumu . . . 910 CY1 1y4aT naTpRu.Na8?a
B

7 7oo0c aAwe0
-

48C Or aFasO H2'C a gO WBCsmIO

~

2O
-

-

0720D

?YBhO aTPZN.

.

80,

N-

2509 CaNas4&8d?

19 fnUpocy~h4aT naTPRX uWMamis 20 Tpexoxnc& Ulmpexoxmah mam21

NAASO V

1070-

400-

2 Onucb

AM..................V20. .1800is nalwa . . .m Ra~pnx N&O-V Ot O 3N!agO

0970
ZuSO,

Cy~uba? UXmca

2ý OpTosaua~aT ~OTabalfa=a M

Da~pnn 2 2 OPTOaUBAAST izATPUa U 2 ý 9PpOUaBCJ2I?
DNKO.1R 30108

Meanau&AIa O1ptOnaU898?

SNa

1BaDUmAa WRejie. . . SallaAa? 2 lan&ana ifaviiji.. .. ....... 33 Tote. .... ........

2N1 V1,% MISe 1 3N10. V '00 -? Poo,0 .v 5 V06 Fe,0, .2, 5

V0

3 85

-

7400'C a ZnO
-.

84.0860

900-

3

Na 0 -V 04 .SVWes 2Na,0.Vý104 . 11140.ao

1) 2) 3) 4I) 5) 6)

7)
8) 9) 10) 11) 12) :13) i4) 15) 16)
17)

Compound Formula Melting point, OC Possible reactions of' compound, OC Aluninum oxide Aluminum sulf'ate 70000 to A120 3 Calcium' -,Tide Calcium s~ulf'ate Ferric oxide Ferric sulf'ate Magnesium. oxlde Magnesiuil sulfate Nickel oxide Nickel sfautte Sillhon dioxide
Sod~.uin sulfate

18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29;' 30) 31) 32) 33)

Sodium disultate Sodium pyrosultate Vanad~um trioxide Vanadium tetroxide Vanadium pentoxide Zinc oxide Zinc sulf'ate Sodium metavanadate Sodium pyrovanadate Sodiun orthovanadate Nickel pyrovanadate Nic~kel orthovanadate Iron metavanadate Iron vanadate Sodium vanadylvanadate Same.

2 89-

TABLE 4.57 Composition of Fuel Ash and Deposits from Gas-Turbine Installa-

tions

2 CocmSS SoaM

oTauKmHea,

m1c. %

iMapHA "9829a X upCAoaWumcsm

Mmumns~~~ 0 I ,,OF0108 .... n mnoo.V o. IAO SO I.
.

3
5
7

suyT

40 npnmoA -oporoum: 8ORR Ton lIona... ........ oawxouun c nanpannioux

.....................

9,48 28,84

3,20
1,34

... c nanpaaauxionx aonarox; 91 4 ............ OTAOMWHORCR c pa6oqnx JIoaITho ................... . OTAO(OMeIn C Tpy60x perenepaopa ........... . . . .. 9 Macyr 60, o6paaez 2: A4 SoRa Toraimma ..................... 5 oouI a C HUanpaun5jutux nonaSore; 73 . .......... ovJmWeHRm c pa6ovux nonaoTO ................... _ IoKocemHn C Tl,'yGoK porueparpaa ........... ....... 1 MAayr 40 c npncasxoft, o 6 paeA i: 12 8o0.a TOnfiuna . ... II . ............. ............. 13 aona ronuas 2 .......... ... ............... 3or1 Ta onID (cpeAnuat cocTan) ....... ......... ..... mownoteumn C gAanpanmomXx noualoK; 204 .. ......... 1 a•yr 40 c npucAooA, o6paaet 2: nwlS rOnAUDca . .. .. ..... . ... . ..... . .......... ]9 soma onMnas 2 ........ : .................... I OR& Tons annua 3 ....... .................... 1.4 0ona ToUaRN (cpeAui cocmax) ................... .... r_2z C UMpSc anpasaxww1 oa.,UaTO..... ..........

5

saY? 60, oipaaen I: 4 aona TOUin. . . . ............................ OaomennU

6 oTJOIIWIR c pa6oqui

nonuao.; 113 '.........

onaHo... .............

11,50 23,22
18,46 21,53

12,56 19,7t

1,72
2,00 0,75

3,97 18,8 3,58 3,69 2,86 1,75 4,93 12,00
1,35

4,8
0,75

S 25,90
27,62

0,45 29,30 7,38 83,20
t,99
--

16,84 29,05 13,77 29,16 1,88 4,74 18,67 17,87 10,02 29,J6 11,06 16,37 0,52 1,01

1,82 1,83 7,78
0,65

3,45
-

1,96 -

-

2,65 1,00 0,73 J,39 1,43 14,82
1,22 1,20

7,08 a
3,24

3,23 0,78 9,29
40,7

--

-

31.f0 48,26
-

-

27 54 24,28 3,57 17,9 14,6 15,40 21,4 20,J3 8,61 17,46 22,36 ft1,88 29,6 I 13.80 16,80 29,3 16,80 17,70 2,24 15,13 -7,65 16,75 19,22 19,33

1,32
5,30 3,06

1,21
1,44

9,9 1,1b

1,63

17,9 4:3,0 26,7 3,3
-

13,1

114,5.0 f8,00

1,.01,30 1 1,20 t0,' 1,36 7,41 8,4' 1,52

1,50

419

2,40 18,8
.,3 2,80 2,t3 1,52

4 M

a Mama........

.. .. ......

.. ..

4s meimma.. ......................

.. .. ........... ..... 20,6

2,260
21,06

4,601
4,60

4,20 13,001 10,70
i,1O

7,07

2,40 46,4

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Fuel grade and test time on machine Composition of ash and deposits, % by mass Straight-run No. 40 mazout Fuel ash Deposits from guide vanes; Deposits from buckets No. 60 mazout, specimen 1 Deposics from regenerator tubes No. 60 ma7out, specimeni II

10) 11)

6)
7) 8) 9)

Traces No. 40 mazout with additive, specimen 1 12) Fuel 1 ash 13) Fuel 2 ash 14) Ash from fuels (average composition) ]h .5) No. 40 mazout with additivý', specimen 2 16) Fuel 3 a.h 17) DT-2 18) No. 40 me2zout.

290

-

.4q- 4ui.H I 0 I' i.tit~ A 0 0.onu NN~ N~- 4OI q -Cd 6m . 0 0 1H I4\4. 014 ~W 4 kt. C4~U aaLC " 04 a~* 291 . r.. od kip TIT :I 0 Q a I 02 0 40 4 0 cCZ Met_ da~ ýtq 2 C41 (f ~oti "o I.

time 5 h): 1) before testing.n Is manifested most strongly when the fuel ash contains about 50% of it and at the proportions 87% VaOs and 13% NajO4 (Fig..ndiu.5V2o.59). F5 mazout (V stickier and tougher. With increasing fuel v na(ium Qcntent. Corrosion is intensiflea when vanadlum and sodium are present together. on laboratory model machine (gas temperature 65000. fatigue. the temperature at which the corrosion appears decreases (Table 4. At temperatures below 600-650 0 C. specimens after testing. 2) exposed to combustion products of F12 mazout 2.aEsIy. the vanadium is converted to the trioxide V20 3 (a black oxide with weakly alkaline properties) and the tetroxide V204 (a blue-violet oxide with amphoteri' prooe-'ttes). V. 4. which melts at 625-C. the corrosion of iror alloys becomes most intense at a. -3:1 vanadiumn-to-iodium ratio (% by mass). According to Ye.. The egg-ersi'. 4. ! temperatures above 650%C. Togethe. the chief cause of deposit formation is found in the sulfates. 3) same.25) or intergranular failure.o. and lon 6 -term strength and plastitity of steels decrease slmu'taneo. Appearance of 3Khl3 steel.al (Fig.26) [35).um pentoxide melts and is deposited on the heating surfaces cf boilers and gas turbines. and the complex vanadylvanadate compound Na20. der.'anad'. In steam boilers. Contact between vanadium oxide and sodium may result in the formation of the low-melting vanadates NRV0o3. 40 and 60 sul'fur-containing mazouts fail after 1-2 days as a result of rapid oslt buildup. It is assumed that when the mazout zurns. It appears at 6500C and Pbowv wher. che recorded cases per*ain to -292 - . variadium corrtsicn Is s-lkom observe0 at the prevailing steam parameters. the static.E. Owing to its adhesive properties. Hign-temperature or "vanadium" corrosion results in accelerated oxidation of me. NayVO. at temperatures below 12000C (the latter is a yellow oxide with distinct acidic properties). (V = 0%).73%). deposit formation is associated witn the presence of vanadium [36].. At temperatures of 600-700 0 C. . tLe fuels contain l11C-3% of vanadium or more. and the sodium sulfates in particiUla.with the corrosion increase. it traps and bonds the other ash elements of the fuel. 4. NV*0.eness f v.25. Vanadium and sodium deposits cause intensive corrosion of metallic surfaces of boilers and the in-stream parts of gas turbines. . Evans. and that these are converted to V2 0 5 in an oxidizing medium..Fig. Gas turbines operated on Nos.

% by mass... mm% B SO -so V:OAmvo% Fig.a 850 LESH- ..... -293- .i0-1 • C) EI-437B D) None up to 850 E) EI-435 F) Same G) EI-602. %. Am CSH-4 B .5 and boilers 6perated on sulfur-containing fuels. Corrosion of EYalT steel as a function of V20s:Na2SO4 ratio (test time 60 h): o) corrosion of EYalT steel at 750 0 C by natural deposits taken from buckets of GT-6LO-1.TABLE 4.. Ao m•(a ")u 6nlWm nW§Koxwa VMS O3IUE NCPiU . B) % by mass. H.. A /W s5 or W B 75 50 2 0 0 Na 2 4 .... QGH-W FTo 750 7550 0 645 620 700 660 55 W45 040 620 m A) Steel B) Temperature of sharp increase in corrosion losses (in OC) at fuel vanadium content of . A) Specimen weight loss...........59 Temperature of Appearance of Vanadium Corrosion as a Function of Vanadium Content in P5 Fleet Mazout S-no.26.. 0 2 ..... 4.

.. 0.7 0. The alloy nimonic (which has a nickel base) exhibits the greatest stability against vanadium corrosion.012 0...31 14.28 1.56 0. 0.74 14.3 13.10 ~~B -EI-. 0. RemaInder Nimonic Same EI-437B By calculation..05 0.4 0..L5 1.00 - Ocran.. .11 0. 4. .06 0.05 .32 - 1.. the steels listed in Table 4...38 F)cuona 34.2 0..92 0. % Other elements EYalT Base F) G) H) I) J) K) high-temperature rapid corrosion of steam-regenerator tubing.08 0.24 24. J 8H-437B .33 0...023 0.47 7. ..72 14...007 t.. no cs A) B) C) D) E) Steel Content of chemical elements. OJSC0. 549W O.85 0. 314-765 ..1 0.10 3.. 0M 2..3U5 To me 0.46 0. .e INUMM4.77 o•6 ln .2 AO nyaDoe 'TI Nb 0'5 - No 1 - re E OCRoH goo -- P -- a Al CAjCZPYrneanewmez -E D DJltT ...45 %ocnona 2.11 0...10 0.. .C-eV ICr I 17. but also on the chemical composition of the steels.82 37. : 0. ..009 - . H HuMounx .8 N1 9... 8H-417 . Steel EI-481 also shows lower than normal stability.. In this case....00. 0...010 0. .... -- 2M00 4.72 15.63 0.44 0M00 0. . - 294 - 4 ....92 - - - 0..45 0.4 - 18.006 1..33 0.10 1.18V.. corrosion stability drops off sharply....5 Oe -J . the rate of vanadium corrosion will depend not only on the vanadium content in the mazouts and the operating temperature. .10.. .0022 0.48 0.36 2.67 12...34 0. The high corrosive aggressiveness of vanadium comes into evidence when boiler fuels are used for gas turbines (the working temperatures of the in-stream parts are 600-8000C and higher)..02 0.. 8H-612.55 &cTCaahH~oe 1.8 OOtO 0. Nickel-base alloys are subject to considerably less vanadium corrosion than iron-base alloys (Fig. which is explained by its contents of molybdenum and vanadium and Its high carbon content. .07 0.62 8.- - -..TABLE 4.007 0... 81H-617 ..06 0.9 - F OH-405 .... 0..05 0. Ce : Pb= 0.... With molybdenum present in steels (steel EI435)..7 1. 20. 0.231 14.55 0.76 1. Because of their corrosion..013 - tA3V 3..OMB..89W 0.64W 2.40 18.006 0...3Cu.013 G I HO0 OH-481 .27).005 * 0.39W 0...35 41.007 0.009 -- 4..51 0.60 Chemical Composition of High-Temperature Steels and Alloys nOuouM . % A C j81 Mn B CoAGePMR..37 0.02 15..84 0.31 0. 3h-725 .. 1. .60 cannot be used in the production of gas turbines to operate on mazouts with high vanadium contents at gas temperatures of 700*C or higher.99 8M-607 .

%. which is soluble in the fuel. MgSO". 39. A) Weight loss. hydrogen sulfide. and various organic compounds (mercaptans.27. -295 . Magnesium additives are most effective in the proportions MgO:V = 4.air preheaters. Gas temperatures (00): 1) 600. kaolin. 37. The contents of sulfur compounds In mazouts are shown in Table 4. MgO. etc. The for the most part Is practically 5nffected. 401.62. of vanadium content.5. water economizers. C) vanadium content x 10-3. sulfides. 4) 800. fuller's earth.61).and iron-base steels as a function Vanadium coi'rosion is inhibited with the aid of special additives and by diffusion coating of steels. 41]. elementary sulfur and mereaptans) are present in mazouts than in the crude petroleum or light runnings. 5) 850.B At B 3H-D83fwP" - Fig. MgSO4:V = 9 or Mg:V = 3:1 [35. and the magnesium salt of oxidized patrolatum. Much smaller amounts of the most adressive and toxic compounds (hydrogen sulfide. The buildup of deposits on heating surfaces and their corrosion can also be reduced by lowering the ash content of the mazouts (by a factor of 2-4) by scrubbing the fuels with water and by separation using deemulsifiers [42].. 2) 630. B) BI-481 (iron). AWhen sulfur-scontaining fuels are burned. (or sulfuric oIn this case. vanadium content Sulfur Content in Liquid 8o4ler Fuel The sulfur content of mazouts depends on the sulfur content in the crude petroleum (Table 4. ammonia. are acknowledged to be the best additives. those produced in siliconizing and chroming are most effective [38. clay. 3) 4. 680. we have the so-called electrochemical Thacid) corrosion. iron smokestacks). mg/cm2. Among the diffusion coatings. Corrosion of nickel. D) EI-435 (nickel). This lowers ash content by lowering the sodium and calcium contents.). Sulfur may be present in the form of elementary sulfur. intensive corrosion 4 of heating surfaces is observed at points where it is possible for the vapors present in the smoke gases to condense (downstream surfaces . disulfides.

0 . SO is also detcected in combustion products.24 0..0 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 0.87 317 & I8 3. 2.ic.. % . % Before heati. the SO. ~ so. content tirthe smoke - 296 - .0019 0. however.54 0.42 0.92 2.0058 0.007 0.TABLE 4.002f 0.4% for small fireboxes [43] and from 0.0244 0a 10028 Moi 0. % Hydrogen sulfide Elementary sulfur Volatile mercaptan sulfur compounds Mercaptan sulfur After heating for 5 h to 90-95 0 C.e TR I3.40 C• compWAu.58 3M I 0. When sulfur-containing mazoutg are burned. (oA2 00o ) A D(200-3002oa) 2.0175 iJ.04 0.0022 0.0075 3410 0.67 2A14 1.5 to 4. The conversion of SO2 to SO in nombustion of mazouts represents from 3.0 3M A) Su'ilfur content.021 0.0020c00008 00007 0r00000 . TABLE 4.2 to 7.aic ine oeu. the sulfur is converted to SO2 . % 9 Cepuuc'iAI Vaalt uasy? 10 ~a' apncif 10 Ata•<.61 Sulfur Content in Petroleums and Products Obtained from Them B 2.014 0. When sulfur-containing fuels are burned.32 0.0% for large ones.0138 00 0 CT3 0U.0021 0.03 0.62 Content of Active Sulfur Compounds in Ma- zouts [141 2 3 XAo narpmaun. % WUE U4I5s Iin 1 at 4 5 6 7. % B) In petroleum C) In gasoline (below 200 0C) D) In kerosene E) In mazout. . According to tha literature [441. 1 Sulfur-containing mazout Low-sulfur mazout None.0'8 OMI 0.aeID •o m E U .0087 0.68 3. 0-.O0Mo010M 0M 111 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Product Total 6ulfur.pan"(.54% 2. •'. from 5 to 9% of the sulfur present in the fuel is converted to SO.

The dependence of SO formnation on fuel sulfur content and temperature is shown in Fig. Figure 4.7. %. ft4008 0 k 4k x:4 0-- /b -- . Table 4. and the excess-air ratio.29 shows the smoke-gas dew point as a function of sulfur content [453. B) sulfur content. formation depends on the sulfur content in the fuel. . which penetr. Since the rear surfaces of boilers (air preheaters. as well as that of vanad!um. when the excess-air ratio is increased from 1. ewpoint as a func- tion of sulfur content. 4. With rising flame temperature.gases (by volume) may reach 0. the amount of SO. 4. A) Dew point.ates to the surface of the metal and intensifies its corrosion. it is on these surfaces that most of the sulfuric acid condenses. which corresponds to the partial pressure of pure water 65 vapor in the combustion products (44).40•- Fig.9.. 4.30 shows it as a function of sulfur content and the amount of air used in combustion. °C. The rate of corrosion under exposure to sulfuric acid depends on the -297- . B) sulfur content in fuel. %. the corn>.63 shows Lhe free sulfuric acid contents in deposits. 0 The presence of SOs in the smoke gases raises the effective initial water-condensation temperature to 120-15 0 0C as against 450 C. 2) 1600 0 C.28.1 to 1.28.tpvved that SO formation depends on the catalytic action of sulfates and iron oxide.005%. content in combustion products as a function of fuel sulfur content. CC* B Co64xu %r• Pig •. SC. first increases and then approaches a constant value at a flame temperature above 1750*C. oxidation of S0 2 to SOs is doubled [43). economizers) have temperatures equal to or below the dew point of the smoke gases from sulfur-containing mazouts. the acid enters the deposits and remains there in the form of Vree sulfuric acid. % by mass. In the presence of deposits on tha heating surfaces. It has been x. Firebox wall temperatures: 1) 1200*C. (load) temperature. while Fig. SO. A) Content of SO$ by volume in combustion products.

. .05 .i-"'. B) sulfur content in fuel.oR TPy6 a.. Kostrikin and V. C Bepxmx pRAOB Tjy 6 8(ooMaIaepa (YrSooM) . A) Dew point... -tents.... Dew points measured in operation on fuels with various sulfur conThe numerals on the lines indi- I... C3 X30. forufe.I -13 Fig..77 29 "A U a -- 19 25 tO 20 8KAPr....N....9 ft 52 70 1) Material 2) Content 3) Other 4) Inconel 5) Carpenter 2G 6) Steel 304 - 7) Steel 310 8) Cor-ten. 1.C5 @1 F C uRgw x pn.0.. TABLE 4.. / - 80 S A o2 3 4 5 •epbl B CoOep. W 96 cate the air:fuel ratio. % by mass..22 70" 02 *Acid determined by method of Yu.'ao-exu.....30 .. Cmb310.. ...1.63 Free Sulfuric Acid Content* in Deposits [2] ibl•eb'o oi'. o... ...007 0... Rumyantseva. % 3) 4) 5) 6) FS5 mazout F12 mazout From lower rows of' economizer tubes From upper rows of economizer tubes (at gas duct) 7) None 8) From convection-bundle tubes....5 0...... . 1 1.....8 oT OC.. TABLE 4..ono ahAepa .. .. 178.75 0.. OC. 7 C Tpy6 xoeimunmoro n 5. 298 - .30...M.64 Compositions of Steels i C No r 414 0. 3 Na377 0.....•g nPOG i•.4 01 0. 2Coapwaitne cuoeoonoa HASO..4 0. 1) Deposit-sampling point 2) Free H 2S04 content.... . 4..-Mac. .5 1 20 J% 2 o 2epwaEMP % NI CU "P 3 - 5 KepuneMp 20 .

N. in the fuel to 1. Ni. 5.K. A.G.D. 55). In residual fuels with vanadium. C[46.V. Puchkov. cor-ten steel.isulfur intensifies the vanadium corrosion of iron alloys. Losikov. and Cu.. B. i. Protection of the heating surfaces by raising the wall temperature also raises the temperature of the exhaust gases and lowe. It has been established [50] that the rates of corrosion of most high-temperature alloys by the combustion products of distillate fuels containing up to 1% s4lfur are even somewhat lower than when low-sulfur fuels are burned. 1957.6k. in turn.s the efficiencies of boiler plants substantially. masla I zhidkosti" [Motor Fuels.acid's concentration. icheskiye trebovaniya) [Petroleum Products and Products "rom the RefinIng of Solid Fuels (Technical 2. the high alloys inconel and carpenter 20 have low corrosion rates. while corrosion is intensive at temperatures from 1100C to the dew point of the sulfuric acid and below 65 0 C [47. tually encountered. in collection "Motornyye topliva. Among the less expensive low--alloy steels. The compositions uf steels are shown in Table 4.V.e. 3. Costoptekhidat. OiLs and Additives].4-1.I. 1959. Papok and Ye. which. Fat'yanov."w. while not affecting the corrosion of nickel-tbase alloys [39]. has oeen suggested [45].G. insigniftcant corrosion takes place when sulfur-containing mazouts are burned with a wall temperature of 65-105 0 C.. and the concentration of the condensed acid is not constant because of the varying temperatures of the heating surfaces. (Te. Osnovy primeneniya nefteproduktov [Fundamentals of the Application of Petroleum Products]. Use of corrosion-resistant steels for the rear heating surfaces involves great difficulty.. Kozhevnikov. Tyazheloye zhidkoye toplivo dlya - 299 - . Little study has been given the influence of sulfur on the corrosive aggressiveness of fuels at high temperatures (from 600 0 C up). 1959. Gostoptekhizdat. According to [48].eprodukty i produkty pererabotki tverdykh topliv Specificatic's)] Standartgiz. depends on wall temperature According to VTI data. Steels 304 and 310 are also recommended [49].. This steel has good resistance in the H2 SO4 concentration under conditions similar to those acrange from 40 to 90%. Englin.6%*causes REFERENCES 1. 47].. B.A. NeL. Z. Vysokovyazklye mazuty kak kotel'noye i pechnoye topllivo [High-Viscosity Mazouts as Boiler and Furnace Fuels]. Increasing the sulfur content some intensification of corrosion. A. edited by K. which contains up to 97% iron and small additives of Mn.. Semenido. Gostoptekhizdat. since the corrosion rate of each metal may be either highest or lowest at a given acid concentration. 1963. Geller. 4. Cr..

. 1957. 13. 14. N.. A. [Sulfur-Containing Mazouts as Hi gh-Energy Fuel].M. 19. L.gazovykh turbin [Heavy Liquid Fuel for Gas Turbines].. GONTI. VTI. Aznefteizdat.. 9. Perlov. Gostopteichizdat. Teplovoy raschet kotel'nykh agregatov (normativnmyy metod) [Thermal Calculation for Boiler Installations (Standard Method)] edited by A.. 1957. ?rimeneniye vyazkikh kreking-ostatkov v kachestve topochnogo mazuta [Use of Viscous Cracking Residues as Firebox Mazout]. et al.I. Sudovyye parovyye kotly [Marine Steam Boilers].. B. 1957. 1952. Chernczhukov..V.I.. Raspylivaniye zhidkosti forsunkanit rAtomization of Liquids by Nozzles]. Gurvich.rtykh ustanovkakh [Combustion of 'tquid Fuel in Industrial Installations]. 16.. 1958.A. 1963. 12. 15. 1956. S. Forsunki i m~zutnoye khozyaystvo goryachikh tsekhov [Nozzles and Boiler-Room Mazout Economy]. 36 (1930).D. Szhiganiye zhldkogo topliva v promyshlen. Gosto~ptekhizdat. G. -300- . K. 17. Sernistyye mazuty kak energetlcheskoye toplivo. T~vanov. Dvoretskiy.. 3. Tekhnicheskiy slovar' pc topTlivu I maslani [Technical Dt~ctionary for Fuels and Oils]..S. 1 (1957). Berman. Kuznetsov. Kantorovich. primenyayemyye za rubezhom [Fuels and Oils Used Abroad].I. Dvoretskiy.. Topliva i masla. Katsnel'son. 9. Rabinovich. Pererabotka neftyanykh osta~kolr lspol'- 8.. M.. 20. Sudpromgiz. et al. 11. Gosenergoizdat.. N. Vitman. P. 2. 1939.. ITElneftegas. 10. Nagiyev. Raschet nefteperegonnoy apparatury [Design of Petroleum-Distilling Apparatus].I. Osnovy rascheta neftezavodskikh protsessov i apparatov [Fundamentals of the Design of Petroleunm-Refinery Proce3ses and Equipment]. YIV~etal1urgizdat. No. Gosenergcizdat.. Emirdzhanov. R. V. Gostoptekhizdat. 1961. Karabin.M. N. Dvoretskiy. KIhimlya i tekhnologiya topl~iv i maseli. 6..V. Gostoptekhizdat. Guttsayt. A.T.V. Elektricheskiye stantsii No. 1963. Papok.K. 18. Paleyev. 1950.I. Grigoryan.. Ragozin.1.. G.M. N. Tzv. 7.. A..G.M. A.F. 19141.A. 1943. G. Gosenergoizdat..

Inst. 1 (1958). Khimiya I tekhnologiya masel. Neft. No.II.G.k.I.. N. F. V ¼ 25. J. D. V. A.. Neft. 29. P. in collection "Fiziko-khimicheskiye i ekspl'uatatsionnyye svoystva sernistykh i kotel'r~ykh topliv" [:Physicochemical and Operational Properties of Sulfur-Containing and Boiler Fuels). khoz. Inst. 30. in collection "Bor'ba s korroziyey dvigateley vnutrennfego agoraniya i -301- 31. I. Tuf. 22. 299 (19148). 1958. Ooatoptekhizdat. Nikolayeva. S. Opyt ekspluatetsii ustanovki po obezvozhivaniyu mazutciv i mazutnykh zach-istok [Experience in Operation or P Plant for Dewatering Mazouts and Mazout Rinsing).V.V... 1at'yanov. 9 (19641). khoz... Levinson. No. Vol. L.M.. Inst. Fat'yanov.V.. 1957.. Neft. Lipshteyn. 1961. 39. VII...I.N. ýalikov. G..S.. 34. U. UT. Kiliner. Golovistikov. No. 14 (1960). Losikov. No.A..A. Ginzburg. A..M. 3149 (1953).. Rzhavskiy. No. raketriyye tcpliva I"I Gost~optekhlzdat. B.S. collection "Motornyye. Sukhodol'skiy.. Seinenido. collection "Prisadki k maslam i toplivem" [Oil and Fuel Additives].M.N. No.. Zul'tser. Shcherbakov. R.M. et al. 3~4. Levchenko.. AN SSSR. No. 6 (1952). Khtmiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel. Petrol. Ye. A. Fetrol.. Rzhavskiy.K. 214..K. Ye. R.zovariiye yeye produktov [Refining of Petroleum Residues and Utilization of its Products].A. I. No.. Gostopteknizdat. reaktivnyye S edited by K..... I. W.. 26. I.. Dukhnina. Garner.. 1 (1965).. Lenwrence. khoz. Petrol.. 1958. A.A.. 23. 9 (1957). 353 (1953). K. Killner. Papok. loff. Avetisyan. $35. 32. W. No.. 12 (1959). giya topliv i masel. Komarciv. Khimiya i tekhnolo- 27.C. Smirtiov. .D.P. Yutkevich.O. t21.. J. A. Gostoptekhizdat. GOSINTI. IV Mezhdunarodnyy neftyanoy kongross (I~th International Petroleum Congressl. D. A. 39.. Teploenergetika. Ye.. Nikolayeva.Ya.J.J. No.. 28.. Korobt~ov. Ye.. Levchenkc. Progressivnyy sposob sliva vysokovyazkikh riefteproduktov (A Progressing Draining Method for High-Vi''scosity Petroleum Products).. 1957.. Izd. 1962. 33.D.

Grumley. cit. Inst.gazoturbinnyich ustanrnvok"' [Anticorrosi. Gorbunov."1 Mashgiz.W.a'-1kons (a Survey)]. 39.D.. 1951. A..D.. Kra-ovitskly. Sorokin.M. J. Energomashitnostroyenlye. Pept.on Measures for Internal-Combustion Engines and Gas-Tturbine Installatiorns]. Ye. A. loc.G. Naval Engrs. Bur..Korobov.I. 4(j 41...L. Rendi. 51... loc. R. 42... Vanadium Ash Problems in Oil Fired Boiler.. 44..K. 49.... V. Fletcher. Ye.eum Prciucts). 2 (1953).G.V ..F. 45. L. Gosenergoizdat..3.Ya. St'. Fuks. N~o. No. Nikolayeva. 53...Yu.. Mikulin. 214.H. 2 (1951). 29.-osity aiid Plasticity of Petrol. T2ravszheldorizdat. Kropp.E. 47. 1 (1956).of' Boiler Insta1. Tr'ans. A. 2 (196?). A. et al. 65. Yu. Fuel. Cort.. 1956. K. Clark.A. R. S.I. cit.. A. )ýo. J. 1962.A.. loc. T. Mashgiz. Pastukhova.-stovykh povrerkhnostey kotel'nykt ustanovok (obzor) [Corrosion of Rrar Surface.V. 0 zashchlte khvostovykh poverkhnostvey kotel'nykh agregatov ot korrozii s gazovoy stororny [Protection of Rear Surfaces of Boiler Units from Corrosion on thfý Gas Side].V. 50.. R.G. Fat'yanov.--. T.. B . Fat'yariov. Kovalev. No. lo-. 19149. G. R. 36. Ye. Kovalev. 78. 29.V. No. J1. M~i~. Lositkov. N. 4i6. Petrosyan. A. P. ASME. 4996 A1eksan- drova. Gostoptek-hizdat.roblerns Associated with the Lice of Heavy 52. loc. Invest.. L. B. A. Kor'-oziya kl. 43.A.V..A. Shyi vysokovyazkikh gruzov 1z zheleznodorozhnykh tsistern [Drainiage of fHgh-Viscosity 1Loadis fromi Railroad Tank Car3l. 31(. Mines.I. Barkley. cit. Soc. in collection "Bor'ba s korroziyey dvigateley vnutrennego sgoraniya i gazoturbinnykh ustanovok. S3ndrntiv. Yutkevich. xni.' *02 . ZhPKh. 55.A. A. ~ 3alezin.D. Inst. Fuel. cit. S. Vyazkost' i plastichnost' nefteprodukt~v (Vis.M-.I. 187 (1956). 1958.rgic. Vedenkin. Wilsdon. cit. 38. 188 (1956). N~o... Kuznetsov.. P.. 1962. F. . 48..~. Maksimov. L.. "1953).

calorie = obv. Fat'yanov. in collection "Fiziko-khimicheskiye i ekspluatatsionnyye svoystva sernistykh i kotel'nykh topliv" [Physicochemical and Operational Properties of Sul- fur-Containing and Boiler Fuels).Fuels. obvodnennyy a working (watered) kaloriynyy . 2 (1958)..combustion MH .min v minimal'nyy . A.us! = - 248 250 250 251 251 251 251 251 253 265 265 rab. = uslovnyy = conventional or = sg v sukhoy gaz = dry gas Bn= vp a vodyanaya para .D. rabochaya. volatile operating 3 = s = sukhoy = dry r = g a goryuchiy = combustible H = n = nizshiy = low B = v = vysshiy = high 6 = b a bomba = bomb paW.o68.vvoda a liquid water -303 . Kan = kal ycn .minimum x a zh . Manuscript Transliterated Symbols Pag~e No. August 1959. 244 241! 244 244 2h4 244 245 p = r = rabochiy E = 1 = letuchiy working. 54. R. 55..A.zhidkost' P . 1958. Teploenergetika No. GOSINTI. Petrosyan.water vapor MaKC Bnr rop * maks a maksimal'nyy a maximum vlg vlazhnyye gazy = moist gases gor = goreniye .

"Chapter 5 ADDITIVES FOR FUELS Additives are substances added to fuels in small quantities to improve their use characteristics or preserve their original properties. both hydrocarbon and chemical li. 5) compatibility with other additives used in the same fuel. As a rule. The first two groups of additives .I! . some additives are used in quantities of 1-2% and more. CLASSIFICATION OF ADDITIVES A classification of additives appears in Table 5. and rocket fuels. or in its components and limited solubility in water.1. Addition of additives is a convenient and economical way to improve the qua~ities of a fuel and sometimes the only way of obtaining a fuel with the required qualities. Fuel additives must meet the following general requirements: 1) complete combustion withou• formation of deposits. The relative demand for the basic types of idditives can be judged from the following data (tentative calculations for 1965 for the USA. 4) stability in fuel solutions under storage and use conditions. 2]. One or more additives may be added to a fuel. jet. 2) no detrimental influence on other properties of the uel. a given additive may improve several properties of the fuel (multifunctional additives). Additives may be used in fuels of all types: aviation and automotive gasolines. 3) good solubility in the fuel.those that improve the motor propertie of fuel and their chemical stability . thousands of tons) [31: - . additives are introduced in small quantities (fractions of a per cent). 1.are used most extensively. diesel and boiler fuels (including residual fuels).

including rust inhibitors Automotive gasolines Fuel-system deposit detergents Diesel and jet fuels Additives that reduce deposits in cylinde_-r-piston an group of engine Residual fuels Vanadium-corrosion inhibitors for gas turbines i1l. Metal catalytic effect of metals on oxidation of fuels Jet.Improve fuel motor properties 1. Additives that prevent accumruation of static electricity 3. diesel and boiler J. Othqr Aviation fuels "n additives S2. Additives that prevent formation of ice crystals in fuels V. Predetonation eliminators ("deposit modif4 prs") Aviation gasolines Automotive gasolines Leaded automotive gasolines 3. 3.1. Additives tha¢.4 TABLE 5. which fuels prevent formation of insoluble residues in fuels Additives that reduce detrimental effect of fuels on apparatus and mechanisms All types of fuels Anticorrosion additives.1 Classification of Motor-Fuel Additives Groups and types of additives Type of fuel in which additives are used I. _wa 1. Antilcing additives Diesel and jet fuels 2. including those that raise cetane num- Jet and diesel fuels bers II. shipment and use In engines All types of fuels 1. Fuel crystallization temperature depressors 3. Additives that facilitate use of fuels at low temperatures Gasolines 1. Additives that improve stability of fuels during storage. Dyes . Dispersing stabilizers. Antioxidants Same deactivators that suppress 2. Additives that prevent microorganism spoilage of fuels Gasolines Distillate fuels Jet fuels - 305 - . 4. Additives that iniprove combustion of fuel in engines. IV. 2. Antiknock additives 2.

. Antioxidants ... Metal deactivators .. Among the group III additives.e most important and most extensively used. the aviation-fuel additives that prevent formation of ice crystals are most important. and others..... the antioxidants are encountered most commonly.275 Antiknock additives form the bulk of the additives used because of the high concentrations in gasolines. the production and consumption of which are relatively small-scale........ additives with bactericidal properties have made their appearance... On addition of antlknoek additives to a fuel..... the anticorrosion additives a. facilitate spontaneous ignition of the fuels in diesel engines (raise cetane number). Among the additives of group IV.. whicn dfcilitate use of fuals at low temperatures. chief among them are the rust inhibitors.. Additives that improve the motor properties of Jet and diesel fuels are produced in much smaller quantles.. which reduce the harmful effects -f the fuel on apparatus and mechanisms..... 417.. prevent detonation (antiknock additives).. and also because gasolines predominate in the total consumption of motor fuels. they have been in use for more than 30 years.. Among group II additives.. ADDITIVES THAT IMPROVE MOTOR PROPERTIES OF FUELS Antiknock Additives Additives of this group include substances that improve the fuel-combustion process in the engine.. Very recently. Additives that prevent accumulation of static electricity have come into use comparatively recently... their development was prompted by establishment of the detrimental effect of the vital-activity products of microorganisms present in hydrocarbon fuels [4].. Deposit "modifiers" .. its stability against detonation rises.......Antiknock additives .. Additives that correct predetonation ("deposit modifiers") are intendei for f'igh-grade automotive gasolines...... which have the important functicn of protecting engine fuel apparatus and pumping and shipping facilities.... supplements and additives is s...... their action is based on improvement of the conductivity of the fuels.. Dispersing stabilizers (data for 1961) Corrosion inhibitors .... - 306 - .......hown in Table 5.725 3. The remaining additives of this group were developed later........2. The first antiknock to come into extensive nractical use %as tetraethyllead.... 2.23 3........... The relative Pffpntiveness of antiknock components. 713 0...5 1..451 2..

.. the sulfur compounds have practically no influence on the antiknock properties of hydrocarbon mixtures..1 4Ko½ OK UOO T3 o..(C a).... -307- ..3).2).1).....5 b T3e5am' . but.. Te traethyllead Tetraethyllead (TEL] (T3C) is a colorlesp transparent liquid that is heavier than water.. 2 20 H.......2 Relative Effectiveness of Antiknock Additives [5] .. 5. 13nfpncanwu 14"eypaxap6omu .05%.....)NH 1OrOAYM s I jAusax . The first portions added to the fuel have the greatest effect.uwas -.0... .. .. Its properties are listed in Table 5.. "1 2Kc= 1 CH.ne . MTUJOSKI CaiP .(CH)OH Ni(CO)h . 1 C. . Sulfur-organic compounds lower the effectiveness of TEL to different degrees.....H 0.. . P.4.. .... .ocarbon mixtures containing sulfur is sharply lower....... 5......3..0 W 3..0 300. .. about half of all of the TEL added is used unproductively in reactions with sulfur-containing organic compounds (Fig.6)....... In themselves.... 5....0 . The fraction of the TEL expended in reactions with sulfur-organic compounds remains constant regardless of the total TEL concentration (Table 5.. depending on their structure (Fig..(CH...5 and Fig.. but the effectiveness of TEL in hydr. 1) Compound 2) Formula 3) Relative effectiveness with respect to benzone 4) Components 5) Benzene 6) Toluene 7) Xylene 8) Ethyl alcohol 1))Supplaents 10) Toluidine 11) Aniline 12) Xylidine 13) Additives i4) Nickel tetracarbonyl 15) Iron pentacarbonyl 16) Tetraethyllead. on the average.. when more is added..... 5. at a sulfur concentration of 0...... ... .TABLE 5.. .... the octane numbers of gasolines increase only insignificantly (Tables 5... The receptiveness of fuels to TEL depends substantially on their content of sulfur compounds....

mm Hg...5 399..9t 1.. 0.3 26..98 t.]: 1) performance number.TABLE 5. C4H. a/cM' .3 ?hysical Properties of Lead Antiknock Additives and Scavengers [5. .45 1..431 187.88 2..1.Brt 323.0 8.HC NO ... ml/kg.HsBr C. *C: d i 3 naz:amne1.. ... - 308 - .. . ..0 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) index fEL Tetramethyllead Ethyl bromide Dibromoethane [TML] 10) 11) 12) Density at 200C. B) content of ethyl fluid.7 5. 2) octane number..180 204. I lTemnepaTypa. . (C2H.61 1..194 200 C.). 5. 2(0) to -28 " i8 -118 +10 132 -56 14 259 --2 napoO npL no PeO•y % 200 C.8 1. 6] 6 6 I •4opMyaa . 6) 7) Dibromopropane a-monochloronaphthalene 8) 9) Formula Molecular weight 7u&~'cmu. Temperatures. A) Octane number. C) performance number.938 r. Increase in octane and performance numbers (on rich mixture) on addition of R-9 ethyl fluid to B-100/130 aviation gasoline [7.HdBr.35 1. 0C Boiling point g/cm3 (TMC) 13) 14) Melting point Reid saturation vapor pressure at 200C. . IAeONIX 12 u-enm .Pb (CH..) 4Pb C./a Fig. 'V. pm. cm..995 108.. BpI I OloT-o8erib 162. .652 267.

B) R-9 content. ml/kg. 5. Octane number (motor) of isooctane-heptane mixture as a function of tetraethyllead concentration [9]: 1) without sulfur. B) total TEL content. 0. A) Motor octane number. 5. A V- B m6uee cov cut r34 Fig. ml Fig.05% S. 3) average values for all sulfurorganic compounds (0. kg.9.05% S.3. 0. ml of 1B-9 per 1 kg.05% sulfur (experimental data on all sulfurorganic compounds fit into the shaded region). 4) with benz lmercaptan. A) Active TEL content. 2) in presence of 0. Amount of "active" tetraethylle. 2) with isoamylmercaptan. 45 aSO 0 45 A~ B t*aovmu P-1.2. ml of R-9 per . -309 - .3 a function of total tetraethyllead concentration in fuel [9]: 1 without sulfur.05% S).d .

- 310 - .oIm ns 70 59 78 80 73 84 85 79 88 87 83 9' 88 84 94 89 85 95 neperos- rpomneuCKNx rlaps nwoxwe 15 fl'ý4uiome (52%) x apoMa'ngecmsn 165=0v IaTaAUTnMecxoro xpeXnura (aDyxcryueu- vsm~ro) (35%) 1) Fuel 2) Hydrocarbons predominating in the products 3) Octane number (motor) on addition of .4 Benan KR cxux IR04OA up.4 Receptiveness of Certain Hydrocarbons Gasolines to TEL [7.821 1042041$ 46fJ 1 0 - 4 a--Fnit aoom6 10AaRmauz 1 5 HopManbume uaparn7 lUapaSuoaue CTp 3OHEX 0 30 44 55 S0 96 91 93 10 100 101 97 99 103 105 nso.. g/kg of TEL 4) n-heptane 5) Normal paraffinics 6) Iscoctane 7) Isoparaffins 8) Alkyl benzene 9) Aromatics 10) Alkylate 11) Isoparaffinics 12) B-70 gasoline from Baku petroleums 13) Naphthenics i-) Straight-run gascline from Groznyy oetroleums 15) Paraffinics 16) Catalytic-cracking (two-stage) gasoline 17) Paraffinics (52%) and aromatics (35%). 81 Touana and 2 ¥ranoaopu.TABLE 5.101 .100 105 t08 nao- 110 112 .. 8IPOXMUNS 3AOM ______ _ 3 oxnvosoo M• mo (uopum M•Ol a" o Towmon43 01 0.06 Apo~mne~ems nap&aiuHoace CTpOSEMV 12 Deuhivn B-70 us 6axes.H&4Tenopue 13 .

.. . 333133468139 2D70. .......sk petroleum Thermal-cracking Paraffin-base petroleum Naphthene-base petroleum Catalytic-cracking 0C K) L) Motor octane number on addition of . 0) * P h cpeAnsuaawTmo 5 4 .. A B DF 1 *V~~3iFW ..cxot8een zoo= . n U xaýTonoaow as" 1 40 15 44 52 80 1.. 231t2442160Uit176to .... .... . -n132 6 2060. . 65 7072 73 1604 7175780 "VIKa•aTumoCxorow XpOemn: 2322t2 43 7205 Wfraoxomcupw .. on addition of 0... MnlpxmoA iq op- m: -- noa Tylka8-... S Tepuu'ecoro xpexaura: 4 3 81 128 179 201 0... .. Start of boiling End point Sulfur content..043 40 48 55 f 483861 6 I1681800 130643380 1 1.. 76 52 8i H3 148 172 004 58 85 7t 73 162 33 48 75 107 14 164004 59 69 74 77 189674062 931H41040S00464757982 133 58 55 8 8 10 10 It 5 4 T uapamuscirotns4w.. ...5 Receptiveness of Components of Automotive Gasolines to TEL (7) rpyuua O aas- 0mm..2.. . xous Q no ae R nUo WCo3cWot xýTx . ... ..... .31 7878 8080 T7a84h 77 8 5 N1 2 I ... . % Aromatic Oiefinic Naphthenic Parafrinic Fractional composition. . iaawa). .. W) X) Heavy crude Liht crude g/kg of TEL Increase in octane number Y) Catalytic reforming (platform process)....mor P4pumora (UaT43 1 8 488667 W IN W 0AW .I TABLE 5.. 8 no Ox pacmomaexoiE .... .. XZomore mpup YK&AXEM"M~.J w ..41 g of TEL per 1 kg - 311 - .. % M) N) 0) P) Q) R) S) T) U) V) Strdigtht-run From Tuymazy petroleum From Krasnokamsk petroleum From Central Asian petroleum From Il'skiy petroleum From Khodyzher. A) B) C) D) E) F) G) H) I) J) Gasoline Group hydrocarbon composition...... ..

***4 is the per.5 73.52 76. .6 - 65 14.0 42 63.9 N 70.. K 47 41 67.3 55 70.3 36 61.5 1..TABLE 5. 60 6.4 5377.5. C is the TEL concentration found from the actual octane number according to the TEL receptiveness curve of the same fuel without sulfur compounds.lponfi.0 .9 56 70*955 69. 3. a mp'm m nn'aI J 7 I 9 oYIUR3O 8 91 4 Irma S4 NA IP- 4 4 0.1 4877.8 76.0 67. 65A 4 2.8 56 6MA 53 59. 50 *Here and below. the TEL concentration is given in ml of R-9 ethyl fluid (1 ml of R-9 ethyl fluid contains 0.1 67.a quantity calculated by the formula where C.3 4076.5 70.0 4873.50 (62.4 60 53 67.mpsumnIr 11301192R.5 50 57 55 - 68.0 ..82 g of TEL).9 39 82.-entage of active TEL .4 A cep.2 54 66.05% S) on Tetraethyllead Receptiveness of a Mixture of 56% Isooctane + 44% Heptane [9) S6 •nn . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Concentration of ethyl fluid. . **Octane numbers determined by motor method.1 .0 37 74. is the practical TEL concentration. 67. - 312 - . .* ml of R-9 per 1 kg Octane number** without sulfur Octylmercaptan Octane number Benzylmercaptan C) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Propylmercantan Isorimylmercaptan Diethyl sulfide Diisoamyl sulfide Dibutyl disulfide Thiophane.8 55 61.7 40 65. 42 42 59. . .8 38 41i 39 51 55 54 so 40.0.8 50 67.6 Influence of Sulfur-Organic Compounds (0.

30% heptane. The first portions of the sulfur compounds cause the greatest loss of TEL effectiveness (Figs. 5. %. ml of R-9 per 1 kg. B) sulfur content. %.i I F45"4 U B Ct•xsue e I Fig. %.1 4j 4Z V3 44 4S B CCepaOXcue Ct. %. 5.6. B) sulfur content. Influence of sulfur concentration on amount of active TEL "A" [9] in toluene. B) sulfur content. 5. 20% diisobutylene and 10% isooctane).6 shows the decr-ase in TEL receptiveness as a func- -313- . Influence of sulfur concentration on amount of active TEL "All [9] in mixture of hydrocarbons with diethyl sulfide (40% toluene.4 and 5. A) Active TEL content. ml of R-9 per I kg. A) Active TEL content. mixture of hydrocarbons with benzylmercaptan (40% ~48 4 CA o4oFo . Figure 5.5.5). Decrease in TEL receptiveness as a function of sulfur concentration for an arbitrary gasoline with average sulfur-organic compound composition [91. X Fig. A) Loss of receptiveness to TEL. FA t44 A'S 5 F 'g 5. 20% diisobutylene and 10% isooctane).4. 30% heptane.

Tnfluence of degree of t'rominl substitution for hydrogen In scavenger mol~ecule on deposition of lead in engine combustion chamb~er (12).6). % of quantity introduced with fuel. 11]. WM#IAute 3l0-- CHBrCHDr krig.7.ber of bromine atoma3 -31~4 . Sulfur-organic compounds also lower TEL detonation resistance during storage of fuels. Fig. Halogen compounds .12. mxnole/kg. phosphorus and other compounds []0. Tetraethllead cannot be used in pure form as an antiknock additive for gasolines because the products of its combustion settle and accumulate on combustion-chamber walls in the form of scale and the engine stops ru•nning after a certain time. 5. g. Increasing the number of bromine atoms in the alkyl bromide molecule increases its effectiveness as a lead scavenger (Fig. B) scavenger content. 5. 5.ts.i3. 15% disulfides. JI - --tration Influence of scavenger concenon buildup of deposits: 1) dibromometnanes.r effectiveness has been found to be higher than that of compounds containing chlorine (Fig. 15% thiophenes and thiophane3.'ocarbon composition of the fuels. Bro•ine-containing scavengers have come into widest use.tion of sulfur concentration for a conveýntional fuel with average sulfur-compound composition (50% sulfides. The receptiveness of gasolines to TEL is also lowered by certain halides ýTable 5.the so-called scavengers (Table 5. A) Amount of deposg. B) num. The decrease in TEL effectiveness due to sulfur-organic compounds does not depend on the hyd.8) are used to remove the products of TEL combustion from the combustion chambers. 2) dichloroethan-.7). ~At tTO?4PftXMM# £JNDCU- MM9er. 10% mercaptans and 10% polysulfides).7). A) Lead. since the'. 5.

. .. .5 3..33 8 52.3 50....•..0 Ut I.06 U -.0.0/ 4.1 0.. Mr.o. 0..1 0..... ...7 2. 0. . 4-TPOEiR./17A 11/. .15/5..oline durIng engine operation.0 0.17 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Composition of antiknock agent Amount of deposits taken from each part in combustion chamber.t0 69. .3.. O.0009 0. g Amount of lead inposited in combustion chamber as scale 315 - ..- omen OUR=_ rB83o UOUa-aReUS... mPe..."AMHJIaOxop _lTo m .1 0.58 CA 2. ....t)O Up...-- Engine Com- ~8 n. ./1/4.8 2. . . 97.8 1..m. 105.. qN Hi 4 A _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ maw......0 6.1/4o~I ..84/63.. g Lead content in combustionchamber deposit.34 40. -. 0. g/g.4..a. . . 113..!yTfi!xqoxJ11 A .... a m u 'll 9 10 Itoawmo 12 - I 3 nopmemb KSM MM re ii !~ia & 4 HOR UMTK 5 aysu 6GM" raaa j 3 . ..8 5..... .8 of Scavengers on Deposit and Lead Buildup in bustion Chamber [12] Tnfiuence 27 JRoMMem M uM...0 5" 1 1..6 112* 1040 .8 0..05/0..071 S1..3•/3.M 2..0922 9...90 (2 ...7 0...3? 97"..I 112...J5 0. 0.0 0.) + 1 ro we ..4t1/8...ZC 6ea aMHuocu a.TABLE 5. $ Octane number (method l-S) with 3 ml of ethyl fluid per 1 kg of fuel Decrease in octane number Without adiitive 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ii) TABLE 5.. % Piston Exhaust valve Intake valve Cvlinder head - 7) 8) 9) 10) Total amount of deposits in combustion chamber.36 V. .5 0.. -. 0..1M 112.umCa 30 (~ToA samI m.. .n op . % Quantity of lead introduced with .4 n-propyl chloride n-butyl chloride tert-butyl chloride n-amyl chloride tert-amyl chloride same.xaOpmn.50/04 0.6/j4. .6 113....9 53..21/50...2 1......... . .1 1.7 IA 8j ..AoAb) ...89 54280 AStAC(*u6jpowteu (i M@b) 0..40/13.. . 0.4 0.4 112. .a ..-Amennop .. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Chlorine compounds added Chlorine added.7 Influence of Organic Chlorides on Octane Number of Leaded Isooctane [13) i i n•.66/4U.... C-.. tmpenmax...u• onm.

... mac. .4euna... N.0 ...-aalmoa i• .. Sn6po~npona.. 3 0.. no less than Dibromoethane...1..0 34. .Caelp-6yu4aMXo40l 4TOP& e cum 146ni ..se-•naen~aaa tb7T'. .. 1.06 <3 4 7 55 37 156.X 0.. hence an ans:ject tio... 0.1 (AO 100%) 54.......9 Composition of Ethyl Fluids [8...Zjwponna......06 . ... 4 moammo -1810 11411111411 Cra . 3 xARA flux . %.. %. %6 ...4 5. -NAT .0 33. s poisonous. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Component Type of ethyl fluid R-9 1-TS P-2 TEL...5 - 1 Au~noxneamvea. no less than 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) i Mac.06 0. 70....uu te3u.....9).. . 0.qco:. ..4.) La4Ociajaboe RoJ ectNO 13 Hanoa......03 0.. 8 11pM D•OAIM o . %... Mac.02--.Ide..3 548 81. ..?3Z4.. 14] 13 P-9 TDC. TEL is turpose.0 Oxidation Stability of Tetraethyllead [15] ....in•m•...dant is introduced into the ethyl-fluid composition (see ao+ 5.To 7 we .5 660.a.S.IGHoxVopn4Taaaua.5 0.... .06 >63 ...amu.. Mac.. +00A S++ . % by mass. % by mass Antioxidant (p-hydroxydiphenylamine)......3 . % by mass Thinner (kerosene or gasoline) Remainder (to 100%). Q.......... ma m 88 aa Y19 . mac.•nsa......13 Her 06 ..... no less than a-monochloronaphthalene. Et-] 1 fluid is a mixture of TEL with a scavenger (see Table 5...03 Dibromopropane. % by mass.5 12 HpacUnean.% .. . . 7 To we .02--0. me uenee a-.. % TEL without scavenger TEL (1 mole) + ethyl bromide (2 moles) 15) 16) TEL (1 mole) + dibromo.... %.0 3....oznuuz o cosamma. aunn).10). no menee ... During storage....' ...1.1 0. For this lye is added to ethyl fluid."O.I 11) 12) 13) 14) g Amount of lead removed from engine....e .... am*o. % by mass. 1 oxidation and decomposition (Table 5..0 68 :t 0. - 0.... TABLE 5.... •u-pts~r. 0. and adding it to gasoline increases their toxicit To prevent accidents resulting from irregular use of leaded olines....... ethane (I mole) Same. 1.l % (-oxccn.. 0. . TABLE 5.... ..4423h.. it is mandatory that they be colored.5 - 0. 0-015 0. ["a " p 1Cneaalra..i 0.ia raaoaos muAmoom 15 u55.iuea. % by nuss Dyes...... .1 F ...n4yua4•uoa.... .. nenenee Mac. Msa..• x..02-0.... .oenee ..9).. jugpou~ai.. T* •..03 (vcpocnun. no less than Ethyl bri.. % by mass... 12 btap 1 4'vrc 58. bpo..

Fig. h. 2) with butylboron additive.U 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Stabilizer Concentration.4-dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol None. B) test time. g to 3 ml of TEL Number of days necessary for formation of visible sediment Amount of sediment formed after 33 days. Influence of additive containing boron on gasoline octane number required for automobile engine [29): 1) without additive. 5. 13) &V A B goemp uacnsowmiv Fig.10.9. ml of TEL No stabilizer mg to 33 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) N-ee c-butylaminophenol Same Natural cresol a-naphthol Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol n-dipropyl-p-phenylenediamine 2. Change in spark-plug resistance as a function of test time [22]: 1) leaded gasoline without additive. B) running time. megohms. 2) leaded gasoline with tricresyl phosphate added (spark plug performs satisfactorily as long as its resistance remains above the value indicated by the broken line). 3) experiment continued without additive. A) Plug resistance. 5. A) Required octane number. h. -317- .

0C. A) Resistivity..12 Influence of Lead Compounds on Spontaneous Ignition Temperature of Deposits [21] O. 5.1 yraepo•+O5NH... TABLE 5. - 318 9 .500 2(00-230 350--470 1) 2) 3) Composition of deposits Carbon (soot) Carbon + lead-bromine compounds 1) 5) Carbon + lead-phosphorus compounds Spontaneous ignition temperature of deposits..2UoYI AepoJI+c33U0o34oc~opuu.46 V PbBr ZWM PbTr 2 4 4L 4- Fig. Resistivity of deposits with various chemical compositions as a function of temperature [21).11 Fuel Octane Numbers [21] after Running Engine on Fuel Containing Phosphorus Additive (1100-2400 km Traveled) A C D A 11B C D 2 4 90 94 88 24 4 94 9 8 90• A) Vehicle number B) Required gasoline octane number for previously used engine C) Gasoline c•_tane number for engine after operatio n fuel with phosphorus addiD) Lowering of octane requirement.. OC.... megohms. e. B) temperature.. C. . MX A 9 zoo B 4X 00 u•mnsmmipa..©ain OVOfeHU.....1W~@Itfl*.11. IYraepo.. otlu- 1 (came) O poruuczhe cuea*- 5TSP~oepa~pa icii1aon-OT. -r TABLE 5.....

. - 319 - ...5 Iso a.8 . ..... 55.. The performance of high-compression engines using leaded gasolines is improved by the use of additives that contain phosphorus or boron (Figs. B TCTpa&rnjz(..L. 16-21].11 and Table 5. The smaller number of cases of uncontrolled ignition in the presence of phosphorus additives is explained by the fact that lead-phosphorus complPxes lower the ignition temperature of carbon to a lesser degree than do lead-bromine compounds (Table 5. Mer 0... Such uncontrolled ignition causes power losses.. As a result of formation of the lead deposit in the eombustion chamber.. A. 1.... .4 I 64.8). . use of TEL as a gasoline antiknock additive results in 'avy deposit formation (see Table 5. rough running." A) B) C) D) E) Alkyllead compound Octane number with . 55..8 63.hteyn and K.0 64.. .. Tetramethy lZead Use of TEL in engines with moderate compression ratios and in gasolines with motderate octane ratings and moderate aromatic contents is more effective than the use of TML (Table 5..11).I Even in the presence of s3avengers... fN0aeu.6 G • Teipa mcrjeacanae ...12)... .m8zDo . Fastova) A A~nuuntminitomoe cowmnem A01(nnmooe B qMcmno 0 Xaob68m / OOUNS . In highTABLE 5. noise and an increase in the rate of engine wear [14. F TeTponaouponnzacanun. o6pase D i E ToTpauTn.....6 70.....0 t3Tn....N....8 55. 5. Ashbel'.zcanenit ..... Lead scale on spark-plug electrodes may short-circuit th=m [21-23S..0 J TpI13THIOT... .B..0 0.2 57....6 63... specimen 2 Ethyltrimethyllead Diethyldimethyllead Trlethylmethyllead.13)...9-5. 62M 65.8 558 63.. mole/kg of compound added Gasoline. .1TpH-mnc Jl3Tum11UM eT~ancanIeI 1.13 Antiknock Effectiveness of Alkyllead Compcands when Added to Automotive Gaso2ines (According to F....0 67. specimen 1 Tetramethyllead Tetraethyllead F) G) H) I) J) Tetraisopropyllead Gasoline......0 65..0 64 3 67. I 57.2 I 62. especially in modern automotive engines with high compression ratios (9 to 12)..2 57. . incandescent particles appear and may cause detonation of the mixture. A3o8rlaa .. .. TerpameTwacan-e .... Gol'a..2 66...... o6paaeu 2 55...@e3 9...0025 C0A00 C Besain..

8 86.2 32... ... 40 0.6 .17 92.... .8 87. % Octane number with 0..8 88.... ...4 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Method of determining antiknock stability on addition of TEL TML Research Octane number of gasoline 6) 7) 8) 9) Motor Road Vehicle with automatic transmission Vehicle with manual transmission. -0. 101...0 28. ..6 E Y ym -el' -eAIr xTe ?O ....0 102... TABLE 5.3 Cu UCbafleA.5 38...0 16......i4 Influence of Quantity ui A Ofli'it'ic ...15 Comparative Antiknock Effectiveness of TEL and TML in Reforming Gasoline Containing 40% Aromatic Hydrocarbons [26] L aft=M e'rA ouMBE SN-o0o TeoWA cToRN.3 88.3 98...Z 0..4 0.oe 21 "x= 1 MOTOpuM..8 ml/liter of TEL Research method Motor method E) F) Improvement of antiknock properties (difference between octane numbers of gasolines with TMT and 1 TEL) Road method.0 99A 99..NMCJO M /AI 0 0.8 05 OA A) B) C) D) Content of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasolines.0 100.TABLE 5.0 39. ..5 0....7 0....? 9U 101.8 98.1 87. 'zom 14A 48.e % . 99.0 S uAs uTo0o46HfO na aDTo1o6UJe C aC Tomantnecmol Tp&ac1 CcCne c pyqio& Tpailc~cuel .7 43..1 0.6 0.. ( ozian M oa C o hO 0 0Mm....Hyd .8 0.- _ o mp ..0 100.3 104..8 99.2 90.9 0..3 m S. 100....6 2U 110 0.5 Ol 1...5 -1. (Aopoxwi: 0 SllccenonaTeanbcx2s . -320- .5 0... ro bons in Gasolines on Relative Effectiveness of Tetramethyllead [TML] (TMC) [25] A CoACepI aRiK ONThAIoDo apoMaT'URCON Z B Tx .....7 0.To A O 96..

-0..9 --0...5 -0.... tetramethyllead has better antiknock stability than TEL [25]..25 & b va i A OAS s Pb so I m I Beaou ...5 -3.7 9 o-caOs.... ...16 Effectiveness of TML and TEL in Mixtures* Containing Aromatic Hydr~ocarbons with Various Structures (27) l PUR= sul-mR enflefnix ormfa .. ... -1... 1) 2) ýromatic component Dffference between octanenumber values of mixtures containing TML and TEL in amounts of 0. 1i -0-...2 1.16).. . it is more advantageous to ise TML than TEL [26)...9 -2..0.. The lower boiling point of TML by comparison with TEL and its higher saturation vapor pressure (see Tatle 5... 2. and a smaller one when the octane ratings are determined by the motor method. When TEL is replaced by an equivalent amount of TML (with respect to the metal). the relative effectiveness of TML increases (Fig.. the road octane nmnbers of the gasolines increase on the average by one or two units [25-31).....6 .2 0..8 -2. .2 -4. -0. ..0 -0 ........5 -1. ... 10.. --2..2 1. The relative effectiveness of TML depends not only on the amount of aromatic hydrocarbons. HE-IyTE•a6eSMOO. ....0 -. 4-Tpnmew a6eaoa ... 15 mpem-13Bym6eeoa ..ý S2 iPO.... In gasolines containing iore than 30% of aromatic hydrocarbons.... ..12)....0 -2. Toayoa .... The maximum effect from the use of TML is observed when witiknock stability is rated under road conditions...8 -0..15)... . .0 0..7~ 1..0 -0.a cnoa... 3ij6uo... .3 *Mixture of 40% 40-octane gasoline and 60% aromatic hydrocarbons..O -0.0 0....3 2. but also on their :tructure (Table 5....28 g of Pb to 1 ml Research method Motor method Benzene 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) o-xylene m-xylene Isopropylbenzene 1.0 0.....8 0.TABLE 5..14)..aT2qOCHKNl X(3ONOUOT cMA_c"OMPutUw3ZTMOU C.. .o.. An increase iii the aromatics content in the gasoline raises the relative effectiveness of TML (see Table 5.4-trimethylbenzene n-butylbenzene sec-butylbenzene tert-butylbenzene...3) favor the opera321 - ..4 0.-. 5.4 0.. substitution of TML for TEL has only an insignificant effect or.6 -0..9 12 f.. With rising lead concentration [32] in the gasoline.... ..7 -3.0 -1. en"op-ByTnl6eBno. .lsopoDKan6evaos .2 -2..6 -2. .....14. . .. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Toluene Ethylbenzene octane gasolines. -2. I..... research octane numbers (Tables 5.2.....0 fO 0. 5.. ......6 0...

84 g of lead per 1 liter).....15i t1 26 5 si M3C-500. fractions of theoretical. . TUC . ......12. Influence of concentration of phosphorus additive on number of cases of surface ignition in combustion of catalyticreforming gasoline (66% aromatic hydrocarbons) with TEL and TML 2) gaso[33]: 1) gasoline with TML (0. 5. dowu om meoperaodenu' Fig. 25% T3C +75% MOC-750.. .97 F 113C-250 .2 0. ..84 g of lead per 1 liter). 6697 50%~ T3+50% VNIC iO. A) Change in octane number on substitution of TML for TEL.06 E 75%.. A) Number of cases of line with TEL (0. I I z0 0 A• 0. . 2) motor..~2 ~A 0 4205?45 479 Y B YoueHmpo1uu T13. .APII.17 Properties of Tetraalkyl Derivatives of Lead and Their Mixtures [29] +~ Ui I Coeinzneuuq C18010 A Co. f7 70.. surface ignition. TUC ... B) TEL concentration.. ..4 0. 3) research... . .. ... . . B) concentration of phosphorus additive. mpl/n Fig. Influence of lead concentration in gasoline on effectiveness of TEL and TML [32". TABLE 5..MN OW&Wa Ab lie rn TC .. .6 0o... 5.. ml/liter. . ..15 ?SAKI 75 45 73A4 77. Octane numbes: 1) road.13.. T3C+25% TMfC 66...511 100 322 2- ..4- BRrxuemmpaeuR voc~opqoo npucadKU. 64..

'4lncxo ammo~nsoEet.5 I 1 '0.31 3. * 2. 0.3 1 0.ne....4 A) B) C) Lead compounds Lead content.e ORTanow-e .1% Z 1.42 xiria omanooe ineso no.5 unit or more. (a %).18 Effectiveness of Tetraalkyllead in Determination of Road Octane Ratings for Premium Gasoline [28) B T~PSw~mnMama - - F E J{o.85 g of lead to 1 liter of gasol.54 080 0. oes 1a O.3 nocut no cpavaemao c TSC. % by mass Relative saturation vapor pressure at 20*C D) E) F) TEL 75% TEL + 25% TML MEL-250.1 CA. l.2% I* •.a 0.01 5 q 4.9 3 0. 60a 47 14 93 50 06 29 82 62 84 77 75 50 A) B) C) D) E) F) G) Index Tetraalkyllead MEL-250 70% TEL. O ee 11 A*1VMIMI oJ% -p0.. .X60OOe.1 unit or more By 0.. i3 .5 eoA.0 -0.24 88 26 0.39 3 f 18 517 4 08 5 G Cpezrree noniameue 9044mui" H 1(on.an'iecmo OineuOu .02 cnyae.2 1 .ibmajiOch: J n0. 0..pa COMOfPNO a oeatNme. 8 844 0. 25% TML Number of vehicles Number of evaluations Average increase in effectiveness over TEL.18 0..maecso nApoW.. PA .04 0.. road octane numbers H) I) J) Number of cases (in %) in which octane number increased By 0. CCN:!.. 5. . TABLE 5. 0o..19 Influence of Sulfur-Containing Compounds on Receptiveness of Gasolines to TML and TEL* [27] a OCE•IHNOM. TABLE 5.uc.?1 t.

.o~ioua. A.. ..aa~~54 0... 46 rCpamaoao 8 2A . .7 |]nponnuorpmau 70.. ay ¢ycma .. . 2..2 -. tion of engines in which there is substantial nonuniformity of the distribution of the gasoline fractions among the engine's cylinders.6 48 -0...2 en.0 If 2. 3 I p. When an engine is operated on a gasoline with TML.. I 'pr . 5.. 4...:..19)....20)..3 ... o. A 1....7 ..5 00unayUcYcaai 13 2.0 h-rayOR aao.•hte~UUO ___ __ __ ~ I 80 W . mixtures of TEL and TML and compounds such as triethylmethyllead (MEL-250).50 5 y..6 lC oy*'WO u ... 44 50 80 ..1) 2) 3) Sulfur content Octane rating decrease by comparison with gasoline not containing sulfur Research 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Motor TML TEL Disulfides 0. 80 ... 2.6 •J . .Me'roxcuyCYCuaR 2...1. 40 43 57 1...9 0..1 2.0.6 n . As regards their influence on other operational properties of gasolines.17).TolIovau.. 50 6 ...20 Effectiveness [34] of Various Compounds as TEL Promoters (0.. ?cI OCJN . . b lIlpoi.. the cost of TML is somewhat higher than that of TEL [25].. so. phosphorus additives suppress uncontrolled ignition by deposits more readily than in operation on a TEL gasoline (Fig.. TEL-TML mixtures with TML predominating are most effective (Table 5... Additives that Enhance the Effect of Lead Antiknock Compounds Organic acids.4 1..18).6'ouoIax p. -.Toayn~ouaa .. diethyl[di]methyllead (MEL-500) and ethyltrimethyllead (MEL-750) are prepared.. 2. ] leu P. . ..2 - 324 - . the present time......oi 12 Ip. . For this reason.. ..•ueug __ __ __ _ Ii j _ __ Coq..rtejkanxaj.. . Mechanical mixtures of TEL and TML are more volatile than the corresponding tetraalkyls with unlike radicals.13). TML is practically equivalent to TfL. esters and various acid derivatives have been tested as additives to imorove the effectiveness of lead antiknocks (Table 5...6 1..t .. ..6 | lou~oomq 2... *.. The spturation vapor pressures of all these compounds and mixtures are higher than that of TEL (Table 5.'caa ...3 . TABLE 5. I4 L.flmueietnaxopuao haonu . ..8 ml of TEL to 1 liter of Fuel) .1% sulfur Thiophene.unaon.0 1... TML is more sensitive to sulfur-organic compounds present in the gasolines than is TEL (Table 5. 4j ... Covpai•oj 3 0."-t 67 22n-ToAymnosanN 2.so.. 1. oA...0 0.. (h~1It~3nN80 .2 ...

A tt 6?Ha fan x~al ~ . l 61 81 49 I. 85 0.. mole/kg 17) Change in octane number 18) Carboxylic acids 19) Acetic 20) Propionic U) Butyri. 80 -0.am AMO? 0.. Osp . 0. u .1aHI9oaoI .63 MPeM-.IEXAUaaiOa481 ..1 ..ypanbunolk Knew~om 40 cycolrac.4). 2 P-Xaiopupon:UOvoaa. .0 0... 80 50 94 93 2. ... * * L.uypaBLnsiOr1D..7 .1 -0.2 a.. Senaoflrnrl surupnji[. 03 . TO)*BTUAT.auanflIODOjA Rae4 Ir 47 n-pe a.. attema. na 1goT? 7 lffPn.. . 1 '.. .... K~eCIO? ....x0 -la '1 50 -.' Tep une a geT ... yiM.1 39 penOBTanne* *a.A 0..9 IA 1.E~y~zUTNJi~hg?. 42 AnHpmGY~OM yicycunzf asrx~pK 6... 017 1ap60uo3M1 Un~COT 4: a5 -..9 -3...cpa -YjfiO-O~xx 6enOS .. ..0 . "r.. .0O .. MyPAUbVnoR 2 yneyrgoi ArmaximLpouannOA....T.1 Cisec arAPRAG. .708emaoua.0 .... -0.:4 .ir1-r~peM.2 10.. a amzh4er 110 60 90 40 3j t. 0suuMe~JTARsMT Beiuxz6e=aTea C o~u M~ -0.....c 22) Treimehyac 23) 9) T~metylact~c24) Cy cl1ohe xan ecarb ox.up nmaneaeaol TM. .60 103 77 84 .. N..3 2.3 OYP4)YPnaa1nera? 5.0 [InRcAjfNaeSRnqU HSUODMXOa I. 80 I-1.0 56 ..oro aunrups31 TO M .... so 1..YC. ..A.9 1.Ii c 25) Acrylic 26) Crotonic 27) 63 3 8-dimethylacryl'..... _0 0.40 43 /n e-BYinaiotaJ *t~p Cum .... .6 0. .... 36 n Pem-BYTna1e=OaT 1.20 (continued) 25 XllapyxcycHaa.. a-hAiewaqeiT a61tId fl2OUdMha~evt~szamj 1.1 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Compound 16) Concentraticn.. 42 I -3. . yuuK~.... 37 rnpem-ByTajhzn~mxrpo6.5yTyw3IoaM 3j)Hp &...MPBTR& 4ypaiiiap6ouoDOo TT?.6 66IPNoA.6 )I~VOOUITT2.5 45 A~nmea6~aoa 9ýpflhlTapiloA xacajoma 46 .. 1 0 0.2 Menxaaa~mT 56 .. - 34 mpem..1o 80 I-0...u0 ...MIT.. 20 ..0 HaoftmalI(OUT B6u2a9ea M ..__..0 mpeo-BYTzR. . J uJ p mO y n on~ T JOh. A ... 4s 04j 0.NO. 5 Seonaxueru 'l M j w~ f r ~ e u .f. . 44 An-mpem-'Byr.nr xflJo - ..~om a.. ..5 -2.1 AON 0..0 0.yM~UPOUNoHa 1... * 40 me 95 80 8 . 0. p mA m ~ k a 0.9 MPeM-BYTmaURTpO. 38me-YMRA4p80 . N-AHMn.d....J mpem-By~j.Jo1..uapR.c 2P) Býn zoIc dkI o-toluic G) p-toluic Phenylacetjic Methoxyacetic Acetyllactlc Formic -hydroxydecanoic Pyruvic Salicylic Nitroacetic Cliloroacetic 0-chloropropio1 nic Dicileic Esters Acetyl glyCOl re'rt-butyl acetate -325- .9 0 ..3 40 40 --0.7 -0*.. 2A 2.TABLE . 1.. soao 32 3 MPeM-BY'nTzpUeTPUOTz. .. 30 TifponWOmsoErt N-AteTIMaRAIRSmniaTo 7..

optir~un concenratritoni increase 1.).16).ing TEL ..ý (PFtpr.qI.18).. 67) Acetic anhydride 68) Butyric anhydride 69) Mixture of formic and acetic anhydi'ido!s 70) Mixed anhydrides of formic and acetic acids 71) Aniline propionate 72) N-methylaniline acetate 73) NN-dimethylaniline acetate 74%) Pyridine acetate 75) Benzol~c anhydridE 76) Denzaldehyde bittyraldehyde 78) Propi~onaldehyde. only theIr derivati ve. gain A-z achieved by ad~dinF acLds to rating3 Ft 5. Th. etc. liowevter. thpret'orc'. A cnieal wth highor octvane .ecie"r~~ b adiled acid and1 Lt.ccorro.1) Adlr~tln of inon~c~arboxyltc acids. '_cetatc.. ir.can be uls(d. washouc of additives by wuter.F-Ir.e 33) texrt-butyltrimethyl acetate 314) rert-butyl methacrylate 35) -ert-buty1 benzoate 36) tert-butyl-o-methoxybenzoate 37) tert-butyl-p-nitr'obenzoate 38) t-ert-butyl ester of furancarboxylic' acid 39) tert-butyl methoxyacetate 140) tert-butyl phenoxyacetate 4-1) tert-butyl ester of acetyiglycolic acid 42) DI-tert-butyl ester of maloric acid 43) tert-butyl ester of formic acid1 44) Di-tei-t-butyl ester of oxalic a:ýid 45) Di-tert-butyl ester of 3uccin4 c acid 46) Di-tert-hutyl ester of adipic acid 47) Di-tert-butyl ester of a-elaic acd77) 148) tort-but:'.31) 32.. An Increa:. etc. whIch frszacetle acid and ¶sothutvlerwf -rn therr~il docomnomititon. 326- .8 iveness.yl acetate 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) Propenylidene diacetate Pinacol diacetate Methyl acetate Isopropyl acetate Isobutyl acetate 60) Pec-but-yl acetate 61) Vinyl acetate 62) Isopx'openyl acetate 63) Phenyl acetate 64) Benzyl benzoate 65) Furfuryl ac.(F:r. 5.5Late 66) Carboxylic acid derivatives. .also Incre~tses thie effrectiveness of tne acid additive(Fi.detrimental to some op- er'ational Prorertieýs ofl warolrinc.:at~c-. t.Iydrocarboni content in thýý gaso11nir.nnmict 1ce. With lrcrtca.' Same tert-buttyi propiona'.nctlytcrt-butyi. .he-Pr(_r7.*! in *.critent inther i the thI. Adu!ition al" arýIds tncrease3 antlknoýi %ailt only In acid3 have no influlea'deOd Pgsolline8.-Ivye agrre. In the usnc of PJtthe c-nce on i~aso1I nr octano rati n..l-dimethylprepenyl acet ate 514) ao-dimethy lphenylet'. ConmPound:' that manifest their~ actIvIty r-nly after df-cornrpositiOn are less offective than the oriIinai ~icld:.1 cyanoacetate t~)) tert-butyl nitroacetate 50) itt--hlrb zo ate 731) tert-amyl acetate 52) Terpcnyl acetate ý53) l.

14.6 ml of ['34J: 1) without TE. B) TEL concentration.16. a$ 414 ~ KlUCI)JMAMAClb' octane number on receptiveness of Fig. 2) 0. B) acetic acid concentration. 4SS B 734 A mpuu* To3ue Fig.. Gesoline octane rating (see Fig.V3 A " . A) Research octane number. 5. mi/liter. B) acetic acid concentraA) Octane TEL :o 1 liter. 2) 0.5% acetic acid. % by mass.0% acetic acid. rating change. 5. Influence of acetic acid ccncentration on octane rating of gasoline (43% ar-m:r1ici.14) as a function of TEL and acetic acid concentrations [34]: 1) without acetic acid. % by mass.5) by research method 3) 1. 5. I1It A 02 . 41% paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbf : .8 ml of TEL to I liter. tion. 5. 3) 1. BKik~mieimpous WKcW4 Fig. 2) 100-octane gasoline.15. A) Octane number increase (research method).octane rating 99. - 327 - .&. 16% olefinJcs. Infllence of initial gasoitnes to acetic acid [34]: 1) 104-octane gasoline.

3) 29%. - 328 - IL . 5. Effectiveness of acetic acid and tert-butyl acetate [34]: 1) acetic acid.. A) Octane number increase.18. 5. A) Change in octane number (re3earch method). A ~'42 44 U5 A.19.7 __. octane-rating methods [34h]: motor. 3) road. A) Octane number increase (research method). _" -100203 '0 4050 Fig. B) concentration o: tert-butyl acetate. Dmoova'e~*xpauuo 'prch'od ruceomal Mac. B) acetic acid concentration. % by mass. mmole/kg. mmole/kg. B) concentration. Influence of amount of aromatic hydrocarbons on receptiveness of gasolines (original octane number 100) to acetic acid [34]: aromatic hydrocarbons: 2) 43%. 5. 2) according to various. Comparative data on effectiveness of tart-buty! asotate ) research. % Fig. 5 '00 1 auiemoan'a MMAn704" Fig.-. 2) 36%. 2) tert-butyl acetate. I Y :' 0 KoN•fe~pauuQ 1?9 s 50 ~mdm.17.

7% tert-butyl acetate :-7].5% by volume) Octane number Increase due to additive.'. 5.6P.. - 329 - .2 1. PO/4 Fig. ml/liter. '~AV O.1 1. A) Octane number increase.% onaaCpsn M000 2250 94.3 0. B) TEL content in gasoline.8 95. TABLE 5.5 2500 30O0 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) I 90. Revolutions per minute Road octane rating Without additive With tert-butyl acetate (0. Fig.20. B) TEL content in gasoline.4 0. % by volume.70'mue 73C I6-m-9u'. 91.1 92.i bCoS•.:ntent.?a' 452 473 t06 =~0 w'ig B Coep.7 91.6 0. 5.9 92. A) Optimum tert-butyl acetate content. C) octane number increase. 2) increase in octane rating on additlon of optimum amount of tert-butyl acetate.21 Effectiveness of tert-Butyl Acetate as a Function of Engine Crankshaft Speed [36] 2 Aopommoe o014fowo Mitno 40pr" MR&n ommofOIlO I L y-rox- p#M- wau0M UPSAKU "(.21. Influence of TEL concentration in gasoline on octane number increase on addition of 0. Influence of TEL concentration in gasoline £37] on increase in octane rating and optimum tert-butyl acetate concentration: 1) optimum tert-butyl acetate c.WuU rUC 0MfYuie. ml/liter.

g 1... . 2) motor... 96 below 0 [35]: Formula .. 0..22. .. % by volume.. B) 102-octane gasoline.8 f16 1. rubber.. ......2 1..25 .. compatible with solutions :tt-er additives. noncorrosive.. etc.... a) Increase in octane rating.... Tert-butyl acetate is a colorless liquid that mixes well with gasoline gasolines in any proportions [35]... A) 100-octane gasoline... 1) 2) 3) Additive concentration Base gasoline Octane rating 90... 5..... they have rather broad concentratioui ranges corresponding to the maximum effect. ..no I OHTIi OBOZr. flash point (closed crucible) . nontoxic.22 Influence of tert-Butyl Acetate Concentration on Octane Number (Motor) [36] of Leaded Fuels of Fuel) (0.....50 . they do not damage paint coatings......5-octane gasoline.... 0. ....TABLE 5..... Influence of tert-butyl acetate concentration on octane rating increase of automotive gasolines [37]: 1) research........5 93..... P 4A C B Qa b mpem-•'1 025 woaemomo........ 88.......00.. ...7 - 89.. o&Nwx % 0...O ... . `C boiling point ......... b) tert-butyl acetate concentration... This compound and its are stable.5 Octane rating increase Base gasoline + 25% alkylate. ......... Temperatures...... Below we list the physical properties of tert-butyl acetate CH....0 Fig. ....2 4) 5) I's 93..... 92...0 0.......50 475 7..3 0. Molecular weight . .. - 330 - .-C-OC-CHs \CHO 1 l1b 0....uuc UCRO O BWO 0R0. .6 90....3 90... .... C) 105.8 ml of TEL to 1 liter 1 HofqeiITPR:tR I~pUiiea X 2 BaoMA __ __ Gensan i 5 Baso30BI OGm2+26% 138l * 1 que...

. . 5.. . that which ensures the largest octane-rating increase.24 and 5..23...866 1.24): with increasing paraffinic content and decreasing aromatic content.. .21). Under road conditions. . 5. Manganese antiknocks The high antiknock effectiveness of certain manganese comreported in 1957 [38.. tert-butyl acetate... Solubility in water at 26... Here the optimum concentration of the ester. In evaluating the comparative effectiveness of TEL and - 331 - . 39)... C 5 -Cs isomers.." is used in the USA to enhance the antiknock stability of leaded premium automotive gasolines..22). the effectiveness of tert-butyl acetate depends on engine operating conditions (Table 5. As regards effectiveness (Table 5.. ...25 and P'ig. % ...23) and behavior in gasolines. and its ficulty. MCT and MPC are solid crystalline substances.20) and with increasing octane rating of the base gasoline (Fig. .... The highest effectiveness of manganese antiknocks is observed when they are introduced into A-56 and A-66 gasolines. 5. bearing the tradenames TLA or "Octagen.gnesium additives introduced into individual hydrocarbons and gaso*. 41] were also observed for manganese methylcyclopentamanganese cyclopentadienyltricardieny~tricarbonyl [MMCT] (MUTM).. etc.3870 0..cloud point ..... various T'he antiknock effectiveness of m-.19).. .. . ... The raw materials for production of tert-butyl acetate (isobutylene and production presents no difacetic acid) are not critical. .. It averages 0.nganese antiknocks deThe receptiveness of gasolines to . also increases (Fig. ... . below -60 below -60 0....21). ... .. the gasolines become more receptive. . MCT and MjCT are quite similar [44)... ... Refractive index n~ . while M1MCT is a transparent low-viscosity liquid with a light amber color and faint grassy odor [42.75% by volume [37]. meltingp oint .. .... .. . Introduction of equal quantities of TEL and MCT has about the same effect. . Alkylates. 5. 5. gas gasolines. . 43].62 The largest increase in octane rating resulting from addition of tert-butyl acetate is observed when antiknock stability is rated by the research method (Fig..22). ..7C. High antiknock properpounds was first ties /40..... At the present time... . and manganese pentacarbonyl CMPC] (nKM).... . The effectiveness of tert-butyl acetate increases with increasing TEL concentration in the gasoline (Fig.. bonyl [MCT] (UTM) At normal temperatures. ...Ines of various compositions is shown in Tables 5. . .. show high receptivity to manganese antiknocks. the opcomtimum concentration in the gasoline depends on the latter's position (Table 5.. 1 pends on the chemical composition of the gasolines (see Table 5.. Density pil ...

77.P.0 74.3 qecxoro p"4iop. 12) ethylbenzene.. ETUS~- .3 [77.. .4-trimethylpentane.. A 0 Fig. r2 a M• c MUrM B • S24- -1 8 1 F. .1 71. 86.2. . 9) 2-methylbutene-2..0 87.25)..1 83. OxTaHosoo %WCAO.4-dimethylpentane.oTopuni xr12 C PCMR . 4) 2. . 1) 2. 8) methylcyclohexane. 5) triptane.. manganese is found to be more effective than lead (see Table 5. Zarubin) T Toas • o-oe ucao.. Receptiveness of pure hydrocarbons to MMCT and TEL [6]: a) research octane numbers. B) MMCT. 6) 2.8 78. A) Increase in octane rating on addition of 1 g of metal.23.. 20 b 12 5 6 7 8 S 10 1I11 2 3 .0 95.. C) TEL..9 81. 2= 3pc~| POMOH 4 me=o I= 3 7 4 NTOA ClLý r ea es. - 332 - . I !0x13H.. I 9Cmecb 40% roayo-: 60.manganese antiknocks in terms of the equivalent cuantities of met. I O/xs 5 11TM MIXTM 5 ITM ?". . 3) n-heptane. 83. 7) cyclohexane.9 95...23 Effectiveness of MCT and MMCT (According to A.0 72.6 72. TABLE 5...2 78. 5. b) motor octane numbers.r euaooxtaua a t. Gureyev ani A.8 70.COAI.al introduced into the gasoline with the antiknocks.A.5 76. 11) octene-1. 2) 2-methylpentane..2-dimethylbutane.M menC600% uaooxTan +40% renTan . 10) diisobutylenes.8 - - aa +30% rent- ua + 20% anuuo6yTnneua + 10% 1 .0 82. raunc aTaSAU1- iecxoro xpexonra .9 78.. .4 85.

8 741 85.0 70.3 64.6 76.6 66. - 333 - I.24 Influence of Antiknocks on Octane Ratings of Commercial Gasolines and Their Components [45) 2 0n1rTaBoo qzcao on 50UHN0306 . 75.9 75A 81.2 .8 70 80.8 802 75.. .6rr oRip m .. neperoun 74.9 853 23.0 84.7 71.7 87.1 72.3 '72.9 65..ao . 89.5 80. 9) 10) 11) Mixture of 40% toluene + + 30% heptane + 20% diiso1'utylene + 10% isooctane Cacalytic-reforming gasoline Catalytic-cracking gasoline.0 ].. .7 89..0 79.3 79.6 69..2 82....m.8 797. 64. g/kg Straight-iun Thermal-cracking Catalytic-cracking 4) 5) 6) I. 77.0 71.9 77. - 72.8 8408 74. 1. XOamu u ope 004 1 6 TDC..1 76. #/w 0182 1 2~l 3 Dos 7 A- ifo */me 14 A..8 77.4.7 7U W 87.8 8 fpnmol 7V 7U.6 67.1 78..6 73..4 70A 79.m. 74. 86..9 87.. 72.* 7) for the research method 8) 9) 10) MCT. 1 g/kg MCT MMCT Research octane number Mixture of 60% isooctane + + 40% heptane. .5 73.. 75.1 *g. 0 JaTS(AUTqeCJHro xpeKaEra . 2 ...0 78. . 0...3 80.7 9 Tep~innccoro xpxara. 68.. stands for the motor method and i..71 70...1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Fuel Motor octane number Without additives With additive. pa.5 59.7 62. .2 -- 6.5 71.5 ...81 89..91 85.1 81 0 87A 8.g/k p 11) Catalytic-reforming.5 6. . 1) 2) 3) Gasoline Octane numrber withnut antiknock m. TABLE 5..3 80.2 784 74... of determining gasoline octane ratings. .1 81.0 74.m.5 8&9 805 A-66.* Octane rating on addition of ant•knock TFI.8 75A 79A S4. 58..7 63.2 80.1 I3...5 84.0 8t.0 76.9 80..9 11 MaTaaoTMqecRoro 4iopuanra . A-72 69. .m..3 77..5 70.. 69.3 81...

2) MMCT alone.8 99. 5) 3TEL + MMCT.132 0. Increase in gasoline octane numbers on combined addition of M. The first portions are particularly effective (Table 5.725 1.066 0.1 97.7 98.27). The amount and nature of sulfur compounds In the gasolines have loss influence on receptivity to manganese antiknocks than that to TEL (Tables 5..? EV&Yr•.283 05.529 92.TABLE 5.6 0 0. 5.529 0. g/liter. 3) TEL + + MMCT. thus the research method usually indicates higher effectiveness of manganese antiknocks than the motor method (Fig. Calculated on the Basis of Determinations for 24 Specimens of High-Octane Gasolines [431 2MUTMonc a .6 94.3 97.00 1.264 0.3. A) Octane number increase. 5.e codepxawJe Nenmalna.26 and 5.J 96.24. the greater will be the effect of a manganese anti- 334- . 4) 2TEL + MMCT. B) total metal content. The sensitivity of manganese antiknocks to engine operating conditions (difference between research and motor octane ratings) Is somewhat greater than that of TEL.132 0.066 0. The greater the amoun 4 of TEL in the gasoline.0 93. g of Mn to 1 liter 2) Research octane number 3) TEL.0 95.50 0.24). Manganese antiknocks sharply increase the detonation stability of gasolines containing TEL.264 0.28). e Fig.792 92.MCT an% TEL [6]: 1) TEL alone.25 Average Receptiveness of Automotive Gasolines to Antiknocks (MMCT and TEL). 10 2-r "-I I A0 0.1" nHRI i R-nnR m o-_ 13 2 Omanomos VcCojg.7 96. ccneA. e Pb Ha 0 0.7 1) MMCT. g of Pb to 1 liter.

? +o0.4 94. 5.4 80. 0.0 0.5 +- 0.9 0.2 . 80. 30% Heptane. 0"0 93.OOM 1. Vi .0 lOBeasamepaaxn-. 94.3 6 0.3 01 94.8 G.1 - 0.9 0J0 93.4 9. .8 94. TEL.9 95.5 94.4 18 8 0.05 0.29). MCT Octane 6) 7)Motor number 8) Octane number increase knock (see Fig.82 83.0 0. 81.005 0.5 94.8 0 - 04 95.05 0..005 0.82 0.t . 80.42 0.82 0.3 +At mix-.82 1 A2ynzcy.6 94.0 0.3 93.0 9.0 0. % 12) ture 3) S5) Amount of antiknock.1 0 "3 0.3 2.2 -B. 1sz9~ ~ i3 .4 2- - 0.51 0.1 1.82 -0.2.02 0.7 0. "=Aff4 6 9 mo ms'. 81.5 - 0.55 93. which consists of TEL and MMCT In the proportions 0.7 15 2.31V0. -0.8 - 0.2 0.82 - 0:8 - 83.005 0.8 31.6 4.7 0.0 0.9 0.26 Influence of Sulfur-Organic Compounds on Receptivity of Hydrocarbon Mixture (40% Toluene.7 1.02 0. 0 1 95..4 0. 50] is higner than indicated by the motor octane number (7ig. -8.7 0.82 0.2 0. 20% Ditsobutylene and 10% Isooctane) to Manganese Antiknock and TEL [9] 2 0 . 's 80.9 82.052 g of Mn to I ml of TEL [47. This epromotivng" scisof mainganese on the knocks [49.0 0. This "promoting" action of manganese on the in the USA in the new k•clzed is antiknock effectiveness of TEL AK-)3MIx additive.I TABLE 5.05 0.3 t.4ra 6 0. 48l.80.02 0. - o 06 5.04 0.9 08 80.0 4. - - 0.4 80.3 22.3 0.0 0.82 0.2 91A.335- . 1) Sulfur-containing compound added to Amount of sulfur.24).02 0.005 08 . 0.81 0. -4) g/kg Research 9) 10) Benzylmercaptan" 11) Diethyl sulfide 12) Dibutyl sulfide.4 .4 1. cg.25 and Table 5.8 0.005 0.05 0.? 84. 5.4 0.7 80. (see knock 5.5 83.5 11 ESTaIncpyanau 0.8 ft Ss/W - 833 3.3.B +0.214). 0.3 94.5 M2. - -- - 08 0.

5.4 67.7 5.27 Influence of Sulfur-Organic Compounds on Receptivity [9] of a Mixture of Hydrocarbons (56% Isooctane + 44% Heptane) to Manganese Antiknock and TEL* SI Ceoo=rmuoec K oeauuWuue CCS-P U po~las..0 .5 67. 5.2 65..8 g/kg MIxture without sulfur Benzylmercaptan 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Fropylmercaptan isoamylmercaptan sec-octylmercaptan Diethyl sulfide DiUsoamyl sulfide Dibutyl disulfiue Thiophane.ax.. the total amount of deposits formed is reduced (see Table 5.9 2. 5. 8 COW . 14 O I0u pi @O"UIO- cosepixanaI....0 5.7 45.05 . se 7 cMeci.0 67.nnsoamsnacya . .euu1oe 2 RWN .1 0. 1) 2) 3) 4) Sulfur-organiiý compound added to mixture Amount of sulfur.31).0. 64.• 0.. 8 enuivwepxemraz ..3 2 2..2 66.5 2.' 0...3 7. .. The deposit formed on combustion of gasolines with manganese antiknocks contributes to surface ignition...82 14 ONlT&RODOe elma -- 6 ELTm gO #/1 - Ynebkme m .2 2. When scavengers are added to manganese antiknocks.. 0. The optimum concentration of this substance.27). TABLE 5...82 g/kg OctaLne number OCUtane number decrease Mk"T.33) and sparkplug operation improved. that necessary to convert the manganese in the fuel to the orthophosphate. Its frequency is practically directly proportional to the MCT concentration in the gasoline (Fig.. ..5 66.3 2.6 65.b•sw ....The influence of manganese antiknock (MCT) on deposit buildup is shown in Tables 5.UOWi. 0.5 65.4 1.4 66.. ....Xepxanf'r f. .un U% 3Tx~ 0. 0. is 0..5 7. IL1nporn epamU A 0. The amount of deposits [51) formed in the intake manifold of an IT-9-2 engine using gasolines with MCT Ls smaller than when "EL gasolines are used (see Table 5. 5) 6) 7) 8) - 336 - .9 65.. % TEL. 0.035 .. An effective way to lower the incidence of surface ignition in engine operation on gasolines with MCT is to add tricresyl phosphate to the gasoline.9 7.7 2.05 Mop•Owrnn-$px&=a #! 0.05 A .2% of the theoretical amount (Fig.9 65.0 1 67. 0..6 65.05 ..5 1.26). 1 nua~ucy.0 0.4 65.2 *Octane numbers determined by motor method. 1 l..7 72 73 68...30-5.05 I5 Tc.05 ..n6yraAncy ya .33.05 .4 4.

0 ...5 4.0 0..9 1.. Increase in octane numbers of gasolines on addition of FqMCT in pure form and together with TEL in rating by laboratory methods and on full-scale single-cylinder engine [63: 1) fullscale single-cylinder engine..2 13 11J3 5. too ...C3 0 coos 0... 3) m...6 O..0 5. - 337- 1 .... 7. "eu.7 9. g/liter of MMCT 6) Alkylate 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Gas gasoline Cs-C 6 isomers Average gasoline Regular Premium.25..5 o6mu-ro copra . D) in gasoline with 3 ml of TEL.8 97... A) Octane number. .2 5.. 1) Specimen 2) 3) 4) Research octane number TEL Without With 0.182 Ia me50a UOi oro ranona 6enam .0 83...2 5. x.8 7A 2.. 2) reseaich.. S flpeonnannoro copTs .. 5. 6.8 ml of TEL to 1 liter of fuel 5) Increase in octane number with 0.6 98.TABLE 5.. .a cJS Fig. 6enanu r~peanki C --C...7 91. B) manganese content. C) in gasoline without TEL...7 ..or.8 104.... ... 88. --" - # 85 0 '~Is---O~a 0S S4j B Co~evepa Mamue C d enuyU's &VrXT . O wSioao.0 2.8 11aop.28 Receptiveness of Leaded Gasolines and Their Components to MMCT [43] L Incao.93. 710 85..0 93. .. .8 ml of TEL to 1 liter and .......9 4....8 2. oxmy f-o-•io O"UA . 0. D)1 .6 1..n. g/liter.8 2..

7 93.6 100.9 92.3 88.) 97.5 98.264 0.7 94.111H M P o OvmH Moe queno (Nme)NIGrNnj3 WOeCffi oe'roi • ao (iiXPWbIM UaijRa CHOPOCnMZ u MR .0 97.J 95.2 00.i T.4 99.264 0 0.8 99.9 1 100.3 0.4 83.132 99.9 96.066 0.4 95.6 97. 6 73.5 98.29 Eft'ectiveness of Magnesium Antiknoiks under Road Conditions [49. 9.8 97.9 90.4 97.5 0.9 99.066 0.026 0.132 0.8 92.3 96.9 68 99.6 91.7 0.4 9H.5 99.3 96.ue 1 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) TEL.8 99..7 0.6 0.7 97.2 95.7 89.8 93.0 1) .9 97.A Hh 1O'f 500.5 88.5 82.4 98.3 95.0 96.6 96.5 99.7 97.8 7. MCT concentration in fuel .9 93.3 97.2 86.8 97.5 95.8 90.264 I1O.1 96.132 0.ous crankshaft speeds 8) .4 99.1 99.528 0 0.0 86.1'.3 86.0 82.2 94.8 94.8 97.792 -3.2 94.4 96.6 97.1 9j.2 f6.132 0.066 0.5 95.3 to008 89. ) rev/mnn 9) Average 10) 1).4 100.6 89.6 92.9 1i(.0 90.20 6/u 06/M tfl 06 20 /.6 97.2 94. F '~ "~ 5.ow HaIc'~e S.6 96.4 92.3 99.paeho. lIw on surface Irnit!ý.0 94.3 89.9 94.4 97.066 99.0 jIU .0 99.0 84.5 97.3 94.528 90.7 95.9 lOB 0 6.8 99.MbNj 061 3300 Mul A 0 0 0.3 94.3 83.8 99.7 97."luerlce of MCT concentra- XI tIon In g.4 93.0 99.6 96.7 97.4 99.6 94.7 90.4 99.792 0 99.0 97A3 97A 89.1 99.01caio - -PO AeToaaTIuS) n'.0 98.0 97.8 98.5 Q7.5 87.2 03.0 85.2 86.3 W 93.7 2-.4 95. 50] - "2 )C Owpotaonoe .n [441].7 00..264 0.6 98.0 0N026 C.9 89.0 P0. A' jiuTllt)r of surface-tFrii iorn 1 .0 96. 'liter Octane number Research " otor 7) Roal octane number (modified method of rating from detonation decay curves) at I .5 96.j q4.5 9 .6 85. 91.7 85. wl/liter Manganese.0 97. !n h.TABLE 5.8 97.2 98.8 98.

. 1) 2) Antiknock used in gasoline Amount of deposits (in mr) at antiknocK concentration of . . IIT 41 32 - 339 - . 25 .8 & 12.... .4A P'-9 #. ..e0 iIo 4TeTpAST'XcV.p~ouzsapr~seq ..6 M4 S28 7.. .. .. .. Y u TP -4 -o Nampa (a1-. Deposit buildup on special collector valve.. *.. ... B) TCP (TKO) contents % of theoretical. .. # 0.31 Influence of Antiknock Content [441 in A-66 Gasoline on Deposit Duildup in "IL-120 Engine and on Deposits in Intake Sytem of' IT-9-2 Tester Engine 4Itetowu3.30 Influence of k.0 .27... ... .rbonyl. TAB LE 5..27 054 3 k .am AR e.. 5.. . TABLE 5...2 * 4 -hour test.7 OA 14..M6OO A 2°°' B 4f1 42 IV S0 7m mcopemuve•a oep 1711u8 rAt o* Fig...4 .tiknock Content [44] in A-72 Gasoline on Deposit Formation in Engine of IT-9-2 Machine* 2.. .. .R o 7 M 8. .•n•lTpHF....8 .) am xOnempIe'IOfNTA7 Ao a n rsa x UtPN tie "?a Aeioua- I0.. A) Number of surface-ignition pulses In 5 h. s I xs ... 31 :::o +~ Aaxii0rQUAQP: ( I . Influence of cricresyl phosphate concentration (in fractions of quantity theoretically necessary for conversion of all manganese to the orthophosphate) on surface ignition [44]. . . :)I•nltJIo'3eTaAne. I 20 I t. g/kg 3) 4) 5) No antiknock Tetraethyllead Manganese cyclopentadienyltrint. * 1'o 7 .

....3J8 7.. . 0.40 5. ....0 1) Gasoline 2) Deposit formation. w (6 pomac'ul sTar )* . 6 pounciruCT am- RON .ma ro- 4. mg/h 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) A-56 gasoline V-70 gasoline Amount of deposits in intake system.. ..65 4. 0.~a•• Wr..1 OAO 5.i"OCurt..4. . 22 22 22 30 9 16 17 25 110 12h0 19..4 10...oiline was 330 h...ono-a-opm __ ____ ___ _ _ ___ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ __ u*14nn'ecTso umaim~ '. ... ...32 Influence of Amount of MCT in Gasoline on Deposit Buildup in Engine and on Deposits in Intake System of Test Engine [44] flarapOo6r.8 uiuocnreaui 6...41 0. 0.0 11..1) 2) 3) 4) Gasoline Deposit buildup..ý305 c.. o/lx: ... ..20 .. ..14A 19... 611exoAmak ... g/kg..I . TABLE 5.. its t o.. r .. r.. 4 4... TABLE 5.. mg/h initial 5) 6) 7) Same + antiknock 1 ml of R-9 to I kg 0. ... HlMlqecTrCO OT01O•- 2 ne A-5S le B-70 ss| 5oe 5/I' 0 noA-56 ue B-70 ...0 21......... 2. .8 * !QTM its t xe c ..... mg/h Initial Same ' MCT..64 1 0..0 10.03 *The tost: time for the leadei ýra.80 11..29 .. 0.82 8 TZIC it& I a c . ""a ny_- a 7'p W I~t•llitt ____ 110 ____iI0 i3 * LATM ns t ne 6@3 0.. ... ... 0. .0 1l 11. ...~16 Att~Ta.. 7To He + IUTM.. .8 g of MCT to 1 kg. .... . mg/h Amount of deposits in intake system.29 ý!'0.snn.. 6ue-..35 : * eUO tITMN .. - 340 - ...50 .....65 1I 1...39 OtO 4 .8 ....... .33 Amount of Deposits [h4] Formed in "Moskvich407" Engine over 100 hr of Testing on A-66 Gasoline with Various Antiknocks ....

8 g of MCT to 1 kg + 0..8 g of MCT Color Optical density with respect to distilled water on FEK-M w1th blue filter 9) 10) 11) to 1 kg + 0... Repea 6 04UM A oinu 1 me..8 # 4TM I 8+0..a1S-70 .e•a.. .00 qepea 24m o6pawti 10 1l1Bemon++O.8 # LITM n I X8 ....TM urn . 21 0 0pa..05 0.n Bunas qepe•48w ocanox 12 o6unjun I Jm o e 48 i 0..0... after 24 h Behavior of specimen dur- 5) 6) 7) ing storage in glass yessel in dayligilt Isooctane + 0.01 0.... 23 . ... . a ITM 9.. nomymuen •epea 24[0 ... with preBenzene + 0.8 a 1ATM n I MI -.. .07 0..8 g of MCT to 1 kg with bie-ethylxanthogen.BeCs. TABLE 5.8 e UITM IUem3nu To me CA•a•oF 2 I x. cyina 16 ..1% spOU-..i+0. • noN MMU oMAo- e 4TM na 13 Eoaaoa + 0.24 Sxve+o0.... 2 4 Ge. . •TM ..8 s LITM Npacnoro .aeuimd 3* 7 0.. ..1o% -.01 0..0.2 +0.. 15 l. 9 To -e 0...02 2 2.eiiao... eamul •6paet UOMyMX 18 Eenioa+0... ....24 M 0..00 a. 3 llaooxTau+0... g Top of piston Cylinder head Exhaust valve Intake valve Total 0.. .0ot meaeoro 8...1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Antiknock Amount of deposits.!% pyrolyzate Precipitate ifter 48 h tate after 6 h floc-ulent precipi- - 341 - .34 Stability of Hydrocarbon Solutions of MCT during Storage in Tight [44] 30"oM'mc T3crugR~nap rUos~ezee oOpmz nirn S2 1 o mg @•-M no uZRNn ew-a CM pmen mune pl nrunC9 5 laoona-(-+0..8 g of MCT to cipitate.8 e. momyrms aepu 72% 1) 2) 3) J) Fuel 8) Isooctane + 0.8 # I. cypaza %spe96 % To 2 0 FUeuanu A-66 + 0...8 g of MCT to 1 kg Colorless Heavy 12) 13) 14) I kg Heavy precipitate after b8 h Benzene ' 0....01 e/K.4 aa ......8.u. ..8 g of MCT to I kg with ethyl bromide 0..8 g of MCT to 1 kg without scavenger 9) 10) 11) 0.. Cono-enEnoxanel| A-72+0..1% pyrolyzate Same Specimen turbid.... poixaaTa.a I ie ..XM T 2'Bsa..82 g of TEL to 1 kg with scavenger (ethyl bromide)* 0... NA I ..8 I xa+0.

tellurium.8 g of MCT to 1 kg 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) Straw yellow Gasoline cloudy hr A-72 gasoline + MCT to 1 kg B-70 gasoline + MCT to 1 kg Faint yellow Gasoline cloudy hr. the chemical stability of gasolines is lowered by addition of MCT.15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Benzene + 0. and chelate copper salts.8 g of MCT to 1 kg + 0. chromium.34). potassium. However. The effectiveness TPC (Table 5. after 240 0. IPC was used abroad at one time.8 g of 0. copper.scavengers for the Iron oxide is an obstasle to the extensive use of ferrocene. Addition of MCT is not detrimental to the low-temperature properties of automotive gasolines. the lack of effective .35). it did not come into use as an antiknock additive because the iron oxide formed on combustion of IPC was deposited in combustion chambers and increased engine wear. Most thoroughly studied as antiknock additives are compounds of iron and iron dicyclenentadienyl copper: iron pentacarbonyl [IPC] (nKK). thallium. but then production was stopped [53-55]. The corrosive aggressiveness of gasolines with MCT is approximately the same as that of gasolines containing R-9 ethyl fluid (Table 5.01 g/kg of Sudan red Red A-66 gasoline + 0.01 g/kg of Sudan yellow Yellow Specimen turbid after 96 hr Benzene + 0.37). gasoline color does have an influence on the chemical stability of MCT in hydrocarbon solutions when they are exposed to sunlight (Table 5. The physical properties of iron-organic antiknocks are listed in Table 5. existent gums and organic acids is observed much earlier in the oxidation of cracking-gasoline with antioxidants in the presence of MCT. Vigorous absorption of oxygen with a simultaneous increase in the content of peroxide compounds.36.8 g of MCT to 1 kg + 0. The effectiveness of IPC as an antiknock is 15-20% lower than that of TEL (Table 5. certain compounds containing iron. and others have high antiknock properties. extensive tests of IPC .38).. During the '4rs.10). if ferrocene Is about the same as that of It is preserved even when it Is added to Leaded gasolines (Table 5. the amount of existent gums is found to be somewhat higher (2-4 mg to 100 ml). cobalt.3)) [I6]. Chelate copper salts [621 are characterized by rather high - 4a .cre conducted in the USSR [56-60] to determine its usefulness as an antiknock additive to kerosenes (Table 5. No scavengers have been found for the combustion products of IPC.. (ferrocene). nor does it increase their acidity.8 g of after 72 While the addition of manganese antiknocks does not cnange the color of gasolines. Other metal-organic antiknocks Among the other metal-organic compounds.

..... 8 9 c a8TEDONCJIETe.. length of oxidationinduction period....... . ......05%)...i Solaas a along e m sun I A. 6e8 OMRCMC29UR. #UTM e • HzcaOifocm.. 06 It 43 23 4amm6cme 100 XA" GKoRM 11DOCSO me~ta"& ......93 0.7 10 15 2 -- 10 Xmmeexas c5main5ebc: 6ea aaBT•NoKcJaSrJA.... min 15) With pyrolyzate (0........ . ...35 Influence of MCT and TEL on Physicochemical Properties of Automotive Gasolines [44) ? 1 3 4T IaRZOA.... *OEiws ] Norolonpo.....310 C nepnooa oKnCeus3...8 g of MCT to 1 kg 5) Acidity. x.4 .05%) . CXosoUou (0. **Oxidation for 2 h at 110 0 C........ X8 3a cuoCpm ... mg of KOH to 100 ml 6) Existent gums."* mg per 100 "Ml 11) Without metal 12) With copper 13) With steel 14) With antioxidants.. P-i0.. Mha(zcaulaas acmz a nzaannme): @.. 5 9 uxui.94 7 0ox 6 O* 0... 7 Horpjoasn.. n-oxcu2AR4euamEBom (0.5 0... 0A 0. - 343 - i ..N .005%) 17) Wich ionol (0........iRMN...05%) 16) p-hydroxydiphenylamine (0.. 1) Index 2) Original gasoline 3) Gasoline with 1 ml of R-9 to 1 kg 4) Gasoline with 0.... mg to 100 ml 7) Corrosion....005%) .oA.. "zmThALHOCrb 3iHyKD.TABLE 5. existent gums after oxidation.... 170 385 - 130 21 M- "*Test for 10 h at 75 0 C.. mg/m 2 (steel plate test*) 8) In gaseous phase 9) In liquid phase 10) Chemical stability without antioxidants.. 0a( wqecXnO CMAUo US UA 100 XV.'a3 aToM (0. KOH na 100 XA .... UFMBoBoA 0.............0%)......

.9 73.0 57..0 - 72. 52] Holuul~all renTaxap~offs..0 -W..8 630 60 -C0..0 72.... ...0 79.6 64. U L040 ...0 63..3 - 66.37 Effectiveness of IPC and TEL (According to D.oRTaua+40% ios:~ . Fastovoy and A. 40.muie ATomolaul e TOM~PHUSl: m-renTua-.. 7 50% R330XTaHa+50% ..5 2.8 68. 5.5 166....0 64.. .. oOni P-5 A/*...8 79.1 . 0C 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 36) 17) 18) Boiling point Melting point Solubility In hydrocarbons Good In water Insoluble Toxicity Nontoxic.....0 67...&. . 9 Tem-epaxypa....... .. .6 584 TI .0 5C. /er 7...anuoiiionaf 6csn- 56..7 ulpfluvronaBme: 56....Fe (CbHb)... ...-. ..5 10o 1. a.....fl 61 61..0 - "b-1".S. . Stasinevich...nBe~a Fe (CO)..5 j2..1O TOWHJU3 A00UBIOR S"3 4 o 0of 101...0 - 80....0 73.. 177r'OKC1..5 61.TABLE 5.7 6&4 72...0 - 65.6 76. 6.4 71. 73.0 50. 72A4 - S . ......457 1.0 5 66....0 81.eus-....2 77..... '4 3 .A ..0 N 4. ....2 67.8 58...8 77.. .6 81. n3..7 6.0 70.2 61..0 - .. . : . .... OC: 0 e ... Gol'dshteyn) 2ý3 Towlano C OsWrnOIDOO 'qUC. ..8 70A5 75.5 - 83.0 79.L.0 54.. 102. 1 1 nanvit 1 2.CTOopSWMOC. 5 1...4 68.. 60% ')Aer'wo•.0 0.. ..... .4 73 73... ... 4 (DopMyna .8 71..36 Physical Properties of Iron-Organic Antiknocks [6...: . . Al I......\ I ...4 60.0 344 - .....M 2 ...-rcntana .0 76.. K....0 .4 ...# .......2 66..5 62.8 67..4 76.3 !.5P A.mb..4 70..u ... • yraeComopoax ....N.0 6 40% lnooxralla+60% ... 15 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Index iron pentacarbonyl Iron dicyclopentadienyl (ferrocene) Formula Physical state and color Pale yellow liquid Yellow crystals Density Temperatures. 14h. TABLE 5. ...0 70... 63-0 60.0 56. .0 61......5 -21 4Xopomas 249 +174 Ie pacTDopnoTc lie ¢oXcAR. [1A"•T'iofin.Gu..qUoCT.8 623 65..0 48.8 UP [u .. XU XpucTu- S.... 6 "HOCTb 6neAnlO-)0KTOrO i". 54..... ..w 6a@n~nuw• 53..12 67.0 65. ... ... COCTORU1e E RANT .7 76. .. 1...... ! \•.0 67AI --9. 2.. 55.. .. ... 5 011a88qo0=oe 8 rlROnTm..1P. .. .om•...

me no Raoe u/ Ap A Z~epocxz nex IIFA C EA~CJW: . 0.202 Asea(UI)01. ...39 Antiknock Effectiveness of IPC and Ferrocene [611 on Additton to 60-Octane Gasoline Mi' *~u.112 64A.t Am. wees 4 neaaap~oaa •eqaIK ) o. hieaxoncu ..M. TABLE 5..4 69.2 691 82. 34 42 44 49 18 33 55 57 28 42 64 33 50 69 08 42 57 A) Kerosene B) Octane number on addition of IPC.. ..0M 0... ml/kg 40% isooctane heptane 50% isooctane heptane 8) of pure 9) of fuel 10) 11) + 60% n+ 50% n- 60% isooctane + 40% nheptane Commercial automotive gasolines Straight-run automotive gasolines B-70 aviation gasoline. - 345 - .. No.. ml/kg R-9.. ...oS •o ..1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Fuel Octane number fuel Octane number with additive IPC.t06. f fluawn c04tu. 57) S B O... .... .&ll In~ &0e41W 3 3 DUO~ i 7.38 Antiknock Effect of Adding IPC to Tractor Kerosenes [56.. ...... .o [5NRUX2O. ..06.? ~ nb33 gaa 4) 5) { 0. 1.08TA- (oppotteii1)1 l 0.. 1 ?52 710.. Groznyy Maykop. =AX(eae...o56 0... oGpaaeq 2 . 0..mencanr ...29 i opa3e .. . ml/liter C) D) E) F) Baku Specimen .12 0335 76.92 0. TABLE 5.. ....310 79A 1) 2) 3) Additive Additive content Octane number Iron pentacarbonyl (]?C) Iron dicycloperitadienyl (ferrocene). EFpo1......

56 0.4 80.88 0.2 6.41 Detonation Stability of Gasolines with AdditLon of Aminomethylene Ketone Copper Derivatives (According to F..2 71.28 2.8 - 66.0 69.0 65.4 95.'64 0. .528 0.. To).76 0. the gaso"I'l- ..ne whose copper der 1vative was added to .4 77..6 77.92 .28. -....4 70. g/1.0 0. R.0 0...meinaM no1.. Ccanae 0.Trnaammnorexceu-1-on-3 I -M.64 0.64 0.01 q1p(30013DObiT. -••.4 0 I 87..7 91. 7) TPC.2 66.6 71. o.1 G8l.1. - 65.5 79.6 66.28 1. j2. esaz e..5 71..1...) 1 M MJo-o 2 0 - OT3ao-.'I• 69.4 68.0 71.4 96.5 73..2 90.528 93. Ashbel' et al.76 2.0ToTuaauuno-5-ueTUarCX- '.4 75. g/ilter 3) Iron-organic antiknock 'rn g/liter 4) Iron in gasoline...28 1.792 94.. na CDT.T 1C q.8 0.A 1) Content 2) TEL in gasoline.85 0. .64 0.ooe •ncno ape aoOa90mnem ~Me.6 71.IjFiX 0.76 2.0 76.3 89.A 70. 34 23 14 .2 71.Cb ItBOCMH H 0.. 1) Aminometh) .5) 6 1-MeTu..o.-•eoanw..4 67..0 0.56 0.0 0.6 1P-MeTmnamaunonuhiTra--on-3 80.0 I 79.0 0..laino6y'rm-t-on-3 7-31Tnaarnno6yTeR-t-oH-3 Sern-f-oo-3 1 (MeTuIJe'Ia "nam e TOo) . .7 70.. .264 0.••.2 79.8 (Deppottoo 0.5 77.AM.4 . I 72.4 L: I-.9 92.. 490..0 7.84 I 'f(tenaeuniorpoflIaaix.0 68.0 0.2 71. .1 70.2 - 1-M.2 87.1 79.-892) 6(0 1af.16/w i oie.5 -- 6.2 6.2 17.1 0.28 I 6 00 I00 77....6 64..u~or" 64. TABLE 5....0 0.ter 5) Octane number 6) Ferrocene gasoline.:-nu l52"MemAs'..7 77.0 7 0..4 1 7t.. mno-4.j06a8L1H..88 1.4 65.. ooi I o Il(o.0 73.264 0.8 - Sevc~an.% TA'autoowreu-1-ou-3 ri.018 o~o.8.40 Combined An'iknock Effectiveness of TEL and Iron-Organic Antiknocks [61] 1.TABLE 5..792 88A 92.6 65.73)2 0..2 79..B..4 68.me •. hl*1 MV-1we flpOl l 1o1ibMOTOpHX .5 - 65.neu-1-on-3 ..6 79.6) TaNa(0.56 6 0. OTfRa' a i•.58 0.q 0..5 77..1.2 79.88 0..I1.6 69.' .0 - c1 wl-u-3 . u. 5 00 0. osa-4 73%.

2 76A4 76.2 67.0 Ila 1 I .0 70...r navimna ~a~IIrn.)n addition of . tives B-70 gasoline (70.2 - 69..7 74..2-octane) Salicylali~oakylimine 10) Salicylalethylimine 11) Salicylalhexylimirne Sallcylaiisopropylimine 12) Salicylalheptyllmine.ni~niai 3a~n~~lH 78.4 76.4.ilila.ene-l.4-octane) Mixture of heptane.0 71. Salicylalbutylamine -347 - . kI-direthylpentene-1-one-3 12) l-Methylaminooctene-l-one-3 13) l-Ethylamino-5-methylhe).-Methylaminobutene-1-one-3 (methylaminomethylene acetone) 7) l-Ethylaminobutene-1-one-3 8) l-Methylaminopentene-l-one-3 9) l-Methylaminohexene-l-one-3 10) 1-Methylamrino-5-mothylhexene-1-one-3 (methylaminomethyleneisopropyl acetone) 11) l-Methylamino-11..2-octane) 14) Automotive gasoline (61.4 60.A 74. 2) TABLE 5..) fiw Z K ..-one-3 14) 1-Ihopropy lamino-5-methylhe xene-l-one3 1 15) 2-Methylaminopentene-2-one.42 Antiknock Stability of Gasolines after Addition of Salicylalimine Copper Derivatives (According to F.0-octane) Automotive gasoline + 10% benzene (63. tives 3) B-70 gasoline (69.Ciuniireccinitu 1 mmnarn-a..5 - 69.6-octane) Mixture of isooctane and heptane (55-octane) 5) 6) a..nlnnTR1I!al wi.mole/kg of copper derivaOctane number after addition of' .2 85V K 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Salicylalimine whose copper derivative was added to the gaso- line mole/kg of copper derivaOctane number . Ashbel' et al.) 2 Om00 -10DOAf~~ ("(07.8 - 740 75.8 75.8 71.7 75.0-octane) 11-70 + 10% benzene (71.6ni~nfH 1 P.O RU7...B. isooctane und benzene (56.2 - 65.2 - - 59 W 66...8 74A4 - 74. 71.~nixa.8 69.aimonponnanMull..

..43).B...o 6OU 81.6 71.. C) octane number.43 Receptiveness of' Various Fuels to Copper Antiknocks* (According to F. •jAA- .09%..3 67. $ by mass.. Table 5.4 e6.0 40..2 77." - 10 6esmun B-70 .. Increasor In octane and perform- A ' .75 ml/kg) Automotive gascl.44)..V-0 ' AM MWU~- ance numbers of fuel on addItion or monomethylanJilne [6).8 a" 6W g 74..?8.ine Straight-run gasoline B-70 aviation gasoline Isooctane-heptane mixture.2 SAsTroo -60.. A) Performance number..TABLE 5. 11 ilaooxtau-renTANoDAa . NonmetatZic antiknock additives One of the most effective antiknocks among the aromatic amines [63-701 Is monolwethylanriline (N-rvethylaniline.1 5614 C8. instability in storage.. c ALna1qo-mfi 77.0 57 72 53 79 07 70 8t *Content of copper derivative 0.) 2 wuj ve 6ua5E nommou (au* 72.. li Plir.. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Fuel Gasoline octane number Without additive With copper derivatives Ethylaminomethyleneacetone Methylaminomethyleneisopropylacetone detonation stability (Tables 5.1 53. However.. . the accelerating effect on the oxidation of gasolines. SB) methylanillne concentration. 5.0 55 64... .. They come close to the iron-organic antiknooks in effectiveness. 9 nopimoromlA 6euamn K4. and precipitation onto intake-manifold wall:n have made it impossible to use chelate copper salts as gasoline antiknock additives. .41-5. Ashbel' et al. 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) With TEL (concentxration 0..2 83.o 5418 55.

...maanmm .0 70..0 57..5 630 .45 Influence of Monomethylaniline on Octane Rating of Paraffin-Base Straight-Run Gazo- line [633 r~ 40.5 0.. CHNHCH.5 a1 s 6. *The effectiveness of N-methylaniline xao taken as 1.5 75.0..6-dimethylaniline. 6.47)... CIcHNH. .5 80.'1-V-T&Y . In the presence of monomethylaniline.8 0. o-TIu.This compound also meets other requirements made of gasoline addi... At the end of the Second World War.44 Effectiveness [63] of Aromatic Amines* A B C Oram s 44101- Coe*Naue f BArnNH...).6-Dimettylaniline G) H) I) J) K) o-Ethylaniline 2.6 0. N-MesTE-2 6-Aumeumamm.. TABLE 5. . to 2% of xylidine was added to many aviation gasolines in the USA and England [641...6wefl. CH....... the effect of monomethylaniline is not weakened in the presence of sulfur-containing compounds in the gasoline (Table 5..NHCH... _NAH_ *e (CH.. .. (CH ).. when the production of up TEL was not sufficient to meet the increasing demand for it..... . 5.H.0 66. Unlike tetraethyllead.5 73. .08•...M 1.. A) B) C) D) E) F) Compound Formula Relative effectiveness Aniline o-Toluidine 2. .0 5.. .... 0.. tMt to j N-Me'T.. TABLE 5...C HNHCk1 (CH ). I N-MSeTUNaHuMR . Monomethylaniline is more effective when added to low-octane gasolines (Table 5.... 51..C.5M•349.. Its introduction improvcd the antiknock stability of leaded and unleaded gasolines approximately equally (Table 5.0 0.. the performance nudbers of aviation gasolines are increased (Fig....28).. I ....0 "anw qu e repbo uetaiasas lavau..45).. 7. J .. .46).0 60.tives.3 F H 2.. ...6-Diethylaniline N-methylaniline N-methyl-o-toluidine N-methyl-2..6-Anarzaaawsauu..0 •S N). .. (VOT * 1uM 435 I 53...071 77. CHNH 0.0 50.. I '47...

*2.-1.oTopmdlt NtaO 0.. Containing monomethylaniline.1) 2) Octane rating of original gasoli.0 8 2 3 78.to) 78..0 89.07... 8....03~~ . 4 A- fbsaw= 3i 73.5 1 85. .1%1 t..0 0.5 A 0. 7&0 7U.0 1) Amount of technical monomethylaniline added.1% Eth%. $ 1) 2) 3) 4) Gasoline Motor oettane number Without ethylmercaptan With 0. I 71. monomethylan 'Iine.With .5 815 0 1 72..5 8o.02% TEL 6) 0.lmercaptar on Octane Rating of Gasoline Containing TLL and Monomethylaniline [63] 20911AHOsDe "one S! I * 2Ouam isms %: BUM 03m Iowl.02% THc5 % V 0..P 87.04 added-4O•74..06% 6 toEo -.0 M. Containing TEL. % 2) Motor octane number 3) Straight-run gasoline 4) Gasoline containing 5) 0. TABLE 5.5 83A 84..1% ethylmercaptan added 5) 6) .5 78.ne Octane ratirg (motor) of gasoline conLalning o. 46 Influence of Monomethylaniline on Antiknock Stability of Leaded &asolines [631 o-a• 0'XOuosoe qacao (. ethymrcpta solo 4).06% TEL 7) Mixture of gasoline with benzene (60:40).O .0 76.5 90.350 - ... 3 0. % by volume TAB3p 5.0 n840 83.47 Influence of Adding 0.

Increase in fuel. 351i- . sulfur compounds. cobalt. are used as additives that raise the cetane number of diesel fuels. A number of other substances among the esters. • . The ad- B 0 4 Fig. % ditives are used in low-cetane diesel fuel's in to produce fuels with cetane ratings of 45-50. The effectiveness of the additives depends on fuel chemical composition (Fig. have been investigated successfully for the same purposes [111.. Additives that Improve. Additives of the alkyl nitrate and peroxide type also improve the combu'•tion of jet fuels. iron. etc. Conbuation catalysts. chromium. can also be used to improve combustion [74).29. amounts of 1. nickel or manganese.49. The effectiveness of the additives is greater in straight-run fuels than in fuels made from cracking products.0% by mass are given in Table 5.A mixture of aromuatic amines with monomethylaniline predominant was at one time manufactured in the USSR under the name Ekstralin and used as an antiknock additive (AUSS 3737-47). A) Cetane number increase. Fuel Combustion in Diesel and Jet Engines Alkyl nitrates imd peroxide compounds that accelerate the preflame oxidatiorn of the fuel.29).48. cetane number on addition of 1% of additives as a function of sulfonating hydrocarbons in the fuel [ill]: 1s 4) nitrates. thus promoting ignition. Data on the cetane-numbet increase obtained when alkyl nitrates and peroxides are added to fuel in amounts of 1. 5. 5. 2. B) content of sulfonating hydrocarbons. chiefly organsic conpounds of inatais such as copper.0-2.0% The physicochemical properties of the industrial alkyl nitrate additives area listed in Table 5. 3) peroxide.

13 19... Axnam-pay .. Antloxidation Additives (Antioxidants) Antioxidants are added to fuels In quantities ranging from thousandths to tenths of a per csnt.0 17.. ..TABLE 5.. .. Ow 2NNm 2CRAM "DMI 14 Tiaepm.0 0......... . Inei ouWuezm quea toa. .. ... . The additives also moderate the detrimental effects of' the oxidat!on products formed. .49 Increase in Fuel Cetane Number or Addition of Alkyl Nitrates and Peroxides '73) llpnoajms I aaao •'oiaa 0*8 Dpsi~ana 1aunouo Cee Ia3 USluEmdoi-......... Soviet and foreign commercial antioxidants are characterized in Table 5..50....0 44...qmu. 152 00 42 u 8 Am-"UNTPaT .. go 105 1) Additive 2) Density 3) Refractive index 4) Temperatures.2 fe.. ... MENT AND USE AT THE ENGINES SHIP- Additives of this group include substances that tend to retard the oxidatior processes of fuels. flepeicih renTua . ... 352 - ... depending on the type of antioxidant and the fuel.. 0. OC 5) Boiling point 6) Flash point 7) Molecular weight 8) Amyl nitrate 9) Isopropyl nitrate...... 4 itiouponuampp SByTxamrrpaT ....els is deerimental to their quality. Amyl nitrate 3. ...... 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Additive Cetane number of fuel without additive Increase in fuel cetane number Isopropyl nitrate 7) Butyl peroxide Butyl nitrate 8) Ileptyl peroxide.. TABLE 5.. ADDITIVES THAT IMPROVE THE STABILITY OF FUELS IN STORAGE. Oxidation of f... SIlex 6yrua .....998 1.0 20...48 Physicochemical Properties of Alkyl Nitrates [71....... .44. 9 l1jonlpnxlfltpaT .... - 72) 1701..440 39:A 49.02 1. ..413 - 1 i .... ..

0$ u400 - 0 WinIyuENosso . ~ e PINo in=ma a-auMjgr m 32..6-di-tert-butyl-14-methylp-phenol) 13) White and light yellow crystals 14) Automotive and aviation gasolines.4-. 5. UOP No.004 oe d0.3PgA~Mau iamm.03-. Topanol M (N. Light gray powder 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) Aviation and automotive .50 Commercial Anti. mo 2 0£53J 1144 005*3531 &aumgamualma.'oxidants Used to Stabilize Various Types of Fuels [14. Diopon No. 1) Additive 2) Concentration used.0 5 pau 23 0306 - s 3164 is0 105. % by mass 3) Physical properties 4i) External appearance 5) Density 6) Temperatures. "AoOIMR0101)amnpmauma I 7Ye m too . jet fuels 15) Topanol A (2. 22. rt-butyl-p-phenol) 11) Pale yellow liquid 17') Same l6) p-hydroxydiphenylamine :3.WM' As.eobutyl-p-phenylenediamine) -353 - . 4?74 22 2~4u'gian 4220.44-a3uWINua+ 01001-0#08 PU 6=-me fP96f 140-252 - M5 J184 l7To we 247u"!"m 211a~o4.4 (ehsoau UOP1 34 II. 5. aviation fuels UOP No. 29 (2. - *Contains 50% of absolute methanol or isopropanol Rs a solvent.TABLE 5. XMI~~~ 32 eq.dimethyl-6-t. 75) 2 - ~ ku~h M1 41-4F-"0- 1--A-o - __ 11 Tow l5T~oanon A (2.0". 0C 7) Boiling point 8) Melting point 9) Flash point 10) Molecular weight of active component 11) Field of application 12) lonol. Tenamen-'.-asolines Diopon No. 4' (N.oso 33 A I 35 1 Kitemmonfl 1.0 lot3 I oauuim &o".N'-di-. Topanol 0. Diopon No.n-butyl-p-aminophenol) Liquid Chiefly gasolines.4 Ammanw UOP 14 * (1. Tenanen-2.. mg-a- 044.

1 ep~ax crnanaeana uacta oT cmaro.5 tit pac:-ropa a-oxcnjnh/er.. grade "B.. C . . .ai 0.." UOP Nc.i uTnr . . OCT1-.. 11 0. 100 ..4-di-tert-butyl-'-methylphenolI dissolves without limit in fuels and is completely insoluble in water..25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) Red liquid Recommended for aviation kerosenes.)pScTnop aInnHeuI 6O: lDP Tb pa" S 1) Index 2) Norms 3) External appearance I4) Solid fused mass from light gray to gray in color Melting point. The alkyl phenol antioxidant Iool...2.35-4 '/393 6) 7) 8) Reaction of water extract Neutral Impurities insoluble in benzene (for content of 4 g of the product in 100 ml of benzene). . tractor Icerosenes Recommended for aviation kerosenes FCh-4 (phenols from coal-tar fractions) Wood-tar antioxidant. 1" (phenols from wood tar) Pyrolyzate Brown liquid. 8 fpnmecn..2 0.UA6ern. Principally fuels containing cracking products.7.51 Technical Specifications for p-Dihydioxydiphenylamine (TU U-3639-52) 1 3Bnem-min foxamuwi J 2 Hop-m. %...AA 6euuaona). •. n fte. rlpn iodraae. The most widely used among domestJc antioxidants is p-hydroxydiphenylamine (phenyl-p-aminophenol). ceporo xo ceporo ix-ma 5TenepaTypa n1a•meav..... 'C 5) ...05 I OPacrnoptuaoer. 930. which is effective in all types of fuels: it stabilizes the decay of the tetraethyllead ih leaded aviation gasolines and the oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons in automotive gasolines and aviation kerosenes.'1...iramima n rien3one (4 a Im 10O .nn u IM0 .. m. .zne 0-70 . A disadvantage is its poor solubility in fuels. %... nepacTaopumme 9 Genaose 4 npoopym * (npR eonep. no more than .. which makes it necessary to introduce it into the fuel in the form of a solution in aromatic hydrocarbons or in h73hiL! aromaticized gasoline.Ka-•m Wooaee . 69-74 iIeiTpS-aR 6 Peaxuwnx sotuo.. TABLE 5.. to improve sulfur-containing gasolines FCh-16 (phenols from coal tar water) Dark brow-n liquid Below Automotive gasolines.

. .. not abave F. 0 C. . **Below 310. -351:- Fractional CotP03itaon . a 20~x 61 00 .. % not above. not above 1") Watcr. ... Dernsity p. the soltion must be transparent. % B2t0l acetate.. TABLE 5. 5... * * * *sa 2 on-iss Tcimoo OT M...entc.Qme. mg of KOH to 1 g.MS oae.. =s6m mpoms: 8 200 C noe reroaus: 5Rh. including water... 17......BOAa. not above 2) 3) "1 ) r b) Distill below .. a0 04 *Effective as of 1 January 1965...) 10) Phenols... 16 o27A""06viOpusroFnORTCI..%. 6oae . r %'o .. not below 1]) Imrpuritiee insoluble in fuel 12) None 13) Acid numbOer... *1) Index FCh-16 Wood-tar antioxidant External appearance a4) 5) Homogeneous brown or dark brown oily liquid.C.52 Technical Specifications for FCh-16 Antioxidant (VTU MNP 590-56) and Wood-Tar StraightRun Antioxidant (AUSS 3181-63) 1 4 Bitemma = floxamsamJ .. 1 MORN E*0P&CT2OJPMMM 12 mOTCnnS 14 flnpmo6xc9oze'PWA1m' 6ea 'CawaaOoa A'60 .oom nI 7 -aohC. 1 ftmu xacuumeR. .. e 13izeameOTOJnuEnS xe KOH ma f s...75 ml of solution of p-hydroxydiphenyJ. as6o... RO MOMS ii .xau. 3 npaeHSCS. %: 8 COileMasaou..amine in benzene (4 g to 100 ml) to 100 ml of gasoline. free of mechanical impurities 6) Dark oily liquid not below V.0paomul pz A~ o6aaasxuz 50 as 1 aumomUTnMa. not above 11) Inc-ease In tar cont ?nt in 10C ml of gasoline on addition of 50 mng o antioe idant.pid.... .9) 10) Ash. mg....o6 ~ 26-00 C eeoxm m .... 'iuoo. 8) Conp. 4" 7as 16 Ao amumua * %.. 11 "reaoxRopatn"M "M . X8. nS . not above Solubility in B-70 gasoline 11) On addition of 0..* % by volume. ... 16 •..

. fo~a % .. . ... . % by mass 7) Ash 8) Dean-Stark water... s5n2omazAo240 . rupoinczbuoo meo. % .II TABLE 5.53 Physicochemical Properties of FCh-4 Antioxidant (TU MNP 285-49) TABLE 5. . 3u KOH na& inaun...1bliml amwp ma . s0 6 ConepWAauS O-XSonc. 150 12.. TABLE 5.. 1) Index 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Norm Density Molecular weight Hydroxyl number Neutral compounds..0 $l3 ... 7 lpou st. B ... .1. 5 AI.... .....pa... 3oabnucrb...-o Gos amTuoxIcaRie. 3 5 25 13 30 20 3 4 *Concentration 0..55 Effectiveness of Antloxidants in Gasoline* 1 2 14 Automotive cuoau iaurMlecam (9 ju ma too A0 q An 4j Bemoan IKaTanaunsecx.... 1) Antioxidant 2) Existent gums (in mg to 100 ml) after oxidation at 110 0 C in the presence of copper 3) 2 hours 11)Catalytic cracking gasoline w~thout antioxidant 6) 5) Grade B wood-tar antioxidant FCh-16 7) Pyrolyzate.3Scucuo. %...... - 356 - . % .5 Rneno'rnoo 1"Wn• AVo. mg of KOH to 1 g of fuel Content of o-dibydroxybenzenes... 0 It Ohpoa.0"%by mass. 5htoaecRynnpuM nwo ... % Acid number.. cooSAobJe ...54 Physicochemical Properties of Pyrolyzate 1 1n o -1uaa 4noen 1 noaT 1. 613nn 1) Index 2) Norm 3) 4) 5) 6) Density Content of fractions boiling over below 240 0 C. n cpog . . ..073a$ 0. . 8 no An-l~y z CT&Pxy.......002 CReOa 12 p ....r .. HSIpMnuM.. Mau ...

006 ~tO npx iOe C (3 7o0 14 Oxacasims 0....6ab Inui. ..... % by mass Test conditions Time necessary for formation of ?0 mg of gums to 100 ml of fuel.bnamemlbl] 5 Bewuuw mep-wiswela ... up-- ui zcmu Mw | BOMA% anoiNu Pesau -uo-XVoae .05 6 •os 6..56 Influence of Antioxidants on Gum Formation in Automotive Gasolines A1llon~llel . A-72 [O1i: aursonacvuem copm - XpaaeaMM npufm 7I tomp...e 8 ... 6 6haflkM am ..03 - 0... . .. - 357 - ....flut -ocoahl-•iM Apencesocuosnu• cop B . ..0' aeTs- 0...... ... .0....I O a apneyDc7?C8 MTSZ8"P men 30 ...... . 2ir -a...065 0..ow oxacmzinea (!IxPoMnA) .1 .. aftu3.-. .0.I! TABLE 5.06OMe5 8Mq-t6 .d Sem-uu A-71S [165: 0q-16 ..0) same p-hy dro xy dipheny 1amine 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) A-72 gasoline (61) Storage at 45-50 0 C in presence of copper plate (3 cml/liter) A-72 gasoline [65) Oxidation at 110 0 C in presence of copper catalyst More than 16) Improved wood-tar antioxidant (pyrolyzate)...0o65 O. . 16 YNy•ran. days Catalytic cracking gasoline [63] Without antioxidant Storage at 400C FCh-16 9) J. vadTnOcITe.w. .. untea 168J: 603 AUTolcz0X COPT& B. Vq-ss .. 1510 1'I*) boa" * 13 10 n-o0caNzq4eana... To me . 0. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Antioxidant added to gasolines Antioxidant concentration.08 12 - 10o t Xpa•no ups 45--5o q naacum 11 Bemsu 6 6..

.... • T.....__l -- OuaataTaseo 89 Amla 9Kaiaemrme mr u•m.004% by -ass or p-hydroxydtphenylamine Baku straight-run ...o On asomuxamo..-Oxn-h .. ___ __ ° n aui_... 0.........604%I~l 5 6 cyp....l 0.. _ _ _ 0"MOMR "w a0% ....ol%......... lO.............. 4 6Tona.. .. 1) 2) Gasoline Period of stability according to AUSS 66t7-56 (at 110 0 C).. . naums.TABLE 5.... a. 8) FCh-16 9) lonol TAPLE 5...58 Chemical Stability of Leaded Aviation Gaso- line Components* [6) [79) 31~ ~~ 2 .... MTEL content 0.. 06pO I........ 9llouon ... uiuo.57 Effecti . Was:m ...........ness of Antioxidant in Diesel Fuel ContaiZnrg Cracking Components [78) 6 '...3"% by mass. meo ____ ___ ao um. ... hr -3580 3) 4) 5) Without antLoxidant With 0..... 1) Antioxidant added 2) Antioxidant concentration.uwcuu:I 1Ov aaMua06suaoaza I I live OpMOl MaUm ryp PipeIl ..1 0l 0015 54 37 42 33 3 3 27 23 a1 24 *Oxidation for 2 hr at 120*C in the presence of copper..... ...mS: L__ 0 1.... . .. L3 _a............. 13o•pea I .ra (am"auom Samu): llM opciti NI... .. He a 20% X0020 M ma..' mg to 100 ml 4) Fuel with 30% cracking component 5) Fuel with 20% catalytic cracking component 6) Vuel without antioxidant 10) p-hydroxydiphenyl7) Pyrolyzate amino.. ( :....... nPuT 7T -- 8qdma..... I *.. % by mass 3) Gums. .4au'wule e....... 12 TOXueqecaff U < .5 ......=.....

...60 Effectiveness of Antioxidants in Aviation Kerosene Containing Cracking Components (80] 23I Ame N=114K" M* Apsmomm qcomt 6m 0.. <t >8 N 1) Index 2) Gasoline without antioxidant 3) Gasoline with p-hydroxydiphenylamine 4) Stability period according to AUSS 6667-56 (at 110 0 C).. % by mass Time of exldation at 110 0 C to formation of 15 r.-Hydroxydlphenylamine ~... TABLE 5. .. .Ca % * _ onain IS O0t _ jaw~s I's _ L _ IN 1O _ M- 4exumoaft~au c.004% by mass) 5) TAPLE 5..... tion components) 14) Technical alkylates.. 8A0MM pOoMnMu Caunfaa'oro oaWa....59 Effectiveness of p-Hydroxydiphenylamine in Retarding Decomposition of Tetraethyllead in Aviation Gasolines [72] 1 4ncpnoA cr63a. (0.. 5flpojaoaiicvsuocn.01 . 0. zpaum~as ma cue-. min dint 5) '0 " 8) - PCh-4.05 1OU MI 5a Homa ..359 i00 ml cf ruel.... b Permissible dump storage time under conditions of southern zone to formation of lead-containing precipitate.. 4 .. 4 .... JEoInmo 22 CAW...Doci• 5az 3 I vi rOCT OW-56 ..g of gums per Amount of gums.. *. mg to 100 mi atter 10 h at 110C 7) Ioncl Grade B wood-tar antioxi...........6) 7) 8) 9) From Surakhany petroleum From Balakhany petroleum From Bibi-Eybat petroleum Catalytic cracking (avia- 10) 11) 12) 13) From Gur'yev petroleum From Orsk petroleum Technical alkyl benzenes Specimen ..p . ycoAOf (Up3 HIOOP. .0ea5m Me... 1 to to 1) 2) 3) 4) Antioxidant Antioxident concentration...

are useful only to stabilize fuols containing unsaturated hydrocarbons. II) T-1 fuel. 5. D) with p-hydroxydiphenylamine.51-5.60 data characterizing their effectiveness when added to certain petroleum produicts. and FCh-16 from the semicoking-tar water of Cheremkhovo coals by extraction of the phenols with butyl acetate. The content of phenols in the antioxidant is %. Pyrolyzate i:. even the most effective ones. E) with lonol (0." 2 pyrolyzate) and to phenolic antioxidants obtained from coal . In this process. which is then boiled off.05%) and metal deactivator (0. 1) oefore storage. Influence of antioxidants on retention of thermal stability of aviation fuels [21) (storage for 4 months at 50*C): I) T-5 fuel.01%). mg rer i00 ml.05%).Phenolic antioxidants from coal and wood tars. and Tables 5. C) with Ionol (0. some of the less active compounds in the wood tar are =onverted to more active antioxidants [78]. which accelerate hydrocarbon oxidation. Metal Deactivators Metal deactivators are added to fuels to suopress the catalytic action of active metals (for example.FCh-16.54 present the technical specifications for the basic domestic commercial antioxidants. It is obtained from the tars of destructive distillation of various species of wood [76) (preferably i'irch and beechwoods). 2) after storage. Ro q 3. copper)."t2 "1inhibitor preparation.30. 2/391 360 - . A) Sediment in oxidation in LSA at 150 0 C. FCh-4 antioxidant is obtained from the kerosene fraction of semicoking tar from Cheremkhovo coals (TU MNP 285-49). obtained by pyrolysis of wood-tar oils.55-5. Ccy #a# shose C Fig. Tables 5. B) without additive. it repre-ents the 230-310 0 C fraction of these tars. Grade B wood-tar antioxidant is inferior in effectiveness to other wood-tar antioxidants (grade "A. FCh-4. % 2 1F 214~40 AV~ I C awCW J3~ CIP-00f.85% [77).

.31. B) storage time. 1) gasoline with antioxidant only.61 ?hysicozhemical Properties of Mftal Deactivators 2 . A 0~ j 4 5 g B p. _ - LI Fig.S00 - -- L. ir Fig. - - sf I HIt . Ih.32. 2) in the presence of copper. 3) in presence of copper and metal deactivitor.36 - 9 ?lZHu. "o NVW 11S1 . •AIW 4 I B Spie. - 3 7'-1 -- 6 9 i. owa ~. 2) gasoline with antioxidant " S0 -0• 4Z 4 O 1oZ and metal deactivator. Stabilization of aviation kerosenes by metal deactivators [15] (oxidation at 110 0C): 1) in the absence of copper.00mq 110:211us. TABLE 5.100. A) Gums. 5. B) oxidation time. months. 5. II) middle climatic zone. mrig to 100 ml. Influence of metal deactivator on storage stability of gasolines [131: I) southern climatic zone. mg to 100 ml. A) Existent gums.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Deactivator Formula External appearance Melting or pour point, 0 C Density pJ0 , g/cms Solubility Disalicylideneethylenediamine (AMC) Lenion-yellow plates In fuel, benzene, alcohol; insol,.hie in water

10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

1,2-Disalicylidenepropylenediamine (AMA, Tenaten60) Dark amber liquid Same Salicylidene-o-aminophenol Lustrous orange crystals Difficult in fuel, good in acetone.

TADLE 9.62 Effectiveness of Metal Deactivators in Cracking Kerosene [751
CMonm nDOCe ycOpemwOO

A'ITR3OHECJiI¶~th

,I4OTPa HM OUNG12"Nut
Mae. % meleAa

2

3
5

a As

A o10M
o

..

.,*

Ia
6

XX06&629"Nue MU"oPA

11P

7n-OxcnAn 811oo* ..... 09-0 .. (Dq4 ....
coPi

-ezax-,.
.....

02
.0.2

24
24

129
68

26
30

t8

.........
. . ...

0,4
,i

2. 24
I

32 64
212

t9 19 28
-

10XAPenesfcomonhuI
B ........

34
50

*Oxidation for 4 h at 1000C. "**I is salicylidene-o-aminophenol (0 013%); II is disalicylideneethyer.ealiamine (0.02%). 1) 2) Antioxidant Antioxidant concentr~tior, Sby mass Gums after ac-eleraVe.1 oxidation,* mg to 100 ml Without metal In presence of copper With copper and metal deactivator udditive*# 7) 8) 9) 10) p-HydroxydLphenylamine ionol FCh-16 Grade B wood-tar antioxida.nt.

3)
4) 5) 6)

-

362

-

Cm

TABLE 5.63 Stabilization of Tetraethyllead Decomposition by Metal Deactivators [98]
Couiepuanne suaosoa

1
Ao6auneuue AeaNaTMOP

*3"'
alms

-

4
X0 0NE-

P-I5 5a"
pc"t14"'0ON3wexlU 70110-

6a/m
3m n
013m

Awlsa tG"AU

@aMR

7

BeUauu aDnaBAOouI1Mt 6e3

npUcaox .........
9 Caanqu, nAeH-o-annII04e. 1103 ..... ......... 11 ,J-caaun.uJxnte 3YaaeuAuamun ........i....

4,1 10
.

2V97 4,05
4107

36-ia.waa
10 Ocywcouey

8

4,t
41,

5

1)
2) 3) 4)
5) 6)

Deactivators added Deactivator concentration, mg/100 ml R-9 ethyl fluid content, ml/kg Before oxidation
After accelerated oxidation Sediment after accelerated oxidation

7) 8) 9) 10) ii)

Aviation gasoline without additive Abundant, white Salicylidene-o-aminophenol None Di3alicylideneethylenediamine.

TABLE 5.64 Effectiveness of Metal Deactivator in SulfurContaining Diesel Fuel with Catalytic Cracking Component 1__ _QPaU_ _ _
_ _ _ _ _

[2

me. %

au to@

=30-ar

4Tonanno UAO .p....................,6

7eC RfamOMS{OMN

4
. .

.o..ia

C04-4 . .. .. UeMAX&..,. .. .. .. C ARMUaTOP@3i NBRMm.S . . ... a •ammUTOPO

0. .01 084 3A0

18 8,

*Oxidation for 2 h at 120 0 C in presence of
copper. 1) Specimen 2) Additive concentration, % by mass 3) Gums,$ mg to 100 4) Fuel 5) Without additives 6) With pyrolyzate 7) With metal deactivato.-

ml

8) With FCh-4.

-363-

In themselves, metal deactivators have no significant antioxidant effect and, as a rule, are not used without antioxidants. Their optimum concentrations are 5-10 times smaller than those of antioxidants. The metal deactivator forms, with the metal ions, complexes of a certain structure, in which the metal is in an inactive state. Hence only compounds capable of forming complexes with "claw-like" structure (or "chelates") can be used as such additives. Salicylidenes - condensation products of salicylaldehyde with amines or aminophenols - have come into use as commercial metal deactivators. Salicylidene-o-aminophenol, disalicylideneethylenediamine, and disalicylidenepropylenediamine have proven most effective. In ready-to-use form, the additives are 20-50% solutions of the salicylidene in toluene or xylene as a solvent. The properties of metal deactivators in pure form are given in Table 5.61. Their addition to all types of fuels - gasolines, aviation and diesel fuels - is recommended. Tables 5.62-5.64 and Figs. 5.30-5.32 show the effectiveness of metal deactivators in various fuels. Metal deactivators are also effective in stabilizing the decomposition of TEL even when antioxidants are not present. Dispersing Stabilizers ment in Fuels that Prevent Formation of Insoluble Sedi-

Dispersing-agent stabilizers are added to fuels that have a tendency to form insoluble products on oxidation (for example, those containing sulfur, diesel fuels with cracking components, distillate boiler fuels), with the purpose of pirotecting the fuels from oxidation and dispersing insoluble products that have formed in them. These functions may be performed in the additive by two or more different chemical compounds or by a single compound exhibiting both types of properties. As a rule, dispcrsing agents ,re surface-active cuzmpounds. They prevent the coagulation and adhesion of fuel-insoluble particles into large aggregates that are capable of settling. The action of the dispersing agents is similar to that of peptizers in colloidal systems. Formation of insoluble oxidation products is observed in medium distillate fuels, including the kerosene and gas-oil fractions, chiefly as a result of nonhydrocarbon fuel components: sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds. This process takes place slowly in most fuels at normal storage temperatures. Fuels containing active sulfur compounds and considerable quantities of cracking products are an exception. At elevated temperatures, which may arise in the fuel systems of "hot" modern engines, the oxidation processes of unsaturated fuel components are accelerated and measures against the formation of fuel-insoluble products become an important use problem. Dispersing agents are classified as ash-containing and ashfree depending on their chemical nature. The former include metals
-

364

-

I.____

4

TABLE 5.65
Physicochemical Properties of Dispersing Fuel Additives
Dnafffm

To eq",, ........... 5 B~axoem xRov&aamee.C
4
cm ...............

o0 2
ips 1000 C,

0.8740

i8-20
--

65
-

20
1

.

u 6 Koa04mmn -uosmox ,• 7 To nepaiypa, PC: smin ...--........ T KOH s&t s . . 10 Racno~ao* wnO, x#u s, i huoon , aso, use. oxPacr~opsu , %oer ms e . .%. ...
1.5 kenovriomr aXnnusews.........

t 6
04

0 OZ 14 m a m

16 Mexammecmie npmoxcs, %, se 6onsee---

sI-1.. ................
.

17 BoA, % ............

. ....

*The commercial American additive "DuPont FOA-2." A copolymer of dodecyl met.hacrylate and diethylaminoethyl methacrylate. "**Experimental specimen. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Index SuJlfonates (ash) Polar copolymers (ashfree) Density Kinematic viscosity at 1000c, cSt Refractive index Temperatures, 0C Flash point Pour point Acid number, mg of KOH to 1 g TABLE 5.66 Technical Specifications for VNII NP-102 Boiler Fuel AC~dtive (from VTU NP 39-59) 11) 12) 13) 14) I1) 16) 17) Water solubility, % by mass Less Ash, %, not below None Alkali equivalent, mg of KOH to 1 g Mechanical impurities, %, no more than Water, %.

...... ... %, He 60-es 6Komoao .*OITJO19
4flao,,om

Qg", me ,,-,

0.960 5.0 t80
78

5rocT

80
i0

qaond a Ao co7 9ua"So ,-uneaui, 9c , no Pumo
o 3050C reperouna"u, maine .................

%, N1 %,

39w-47 !no n. 4 nerowmol T ms, kjOCT 2177-4S
OcTiTox nose omva 05%

noassu 6um noMmiMC n-pu Imm~paI7o 2W

1

xno 350•o'
acnumpsu

nmperovxerca,

13~Tevn~p&Mys, OC:
i
(a 15 23cMAItUn

om . .. ....

....

.........

95

,S m" .................
, us 3um

oxpurom Terms),
.

-0 -......

55

rOCT 43-41

FOCT IM13-42; 6se np5. "napE sa0aro a 11ociw*
wuwro karpoea M W C

6

-

365 -

i

TABLE 5.66 (continued)
flo~~asaPU

j

Rpu

MTezzl

1WCOUMTaxa

171H - oe I

cagin, ue 6oaee. ............. 18 Koxcyemocn, %, no Noee ..... ... %, us NO19Cynl•.pye.fue BeffecTN, ................ .. . . 21 Bo.a, %, ; 6.

,ucao,, 1

ia * apa0O0

0,75 98 2,0

18

FOCT 2070-55 rOCT 5937-5t
FOCT 2706-57, n. FOCT 2477--4

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11)

Index Norm Test method 0 Density W• , not below AUSS 3900-47 Amount of naphthalene, %, not above Section 4 of these technical specifications Fractional composition Start of boiling, 0C, not below Distilled below 3050C, %, not below Residue after 95' distillation should be mobile at 200C

12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21)

Distilled over below 350 0 C, %, no less than Temperatures, 0C Flash point (open crucible), not below Pour point, not above AUSS 1533-42; without preliminary or subsequent heating to 500C Iodine number, g of I to 100 g of additive, not above Coking capacity, %, not above Sulfonating substances, %, not below ... , Section XI Water, %, not above.

TABLE 5.67
Influence of Dispersing Stabilizers on Formation of Insoluble Residues in Fuel during Stoý.,age [81] 1"
fpicamtJusa

2 Ia

Hepacmropuuu* o001o03 (8 S Hase AA) 100 nocne xpaxeanx upa 43 C

13
s•Be Upscamm ....... Aaumanus. .............
.............. 5S

4i
15.0

........... . 7 Cyab4opav , eTaia ....... noIARUp.. .................

2,4
0,6
13t

9,0
7,6

nfloaapUa
2) 3) 4) 5)

5

1) Additive
Insoluble residue storage at 430C 6 weeks 18 months Withuut additive (in mg to 100 ml) 6) 7) 8) after Alkylamine Metal sulfonate Polar polymer.

-

366 -

.44

TABLE 5.68
Influence of Additives on F,',e bility r6]
A
To,,iao

Thermal StaYeoaouu

AAN B DPCoca

IoNIZUTpI a
npua ,

D

OUamo meC'o U tOoA,

E

F CwgCi, TOGanna

r-2 Bea npuaxx
AnaqarueMCNe aMaM

G

-

206 C, 6 •. I C La2CMrI Xot Uo

0
I

c 30% xpewmrKoMUONOeTa

0.05

J

G

Cis-Cm6possu
0,05 -

B-24

Tounnno 'IC-t, Bea Dn caRXK 1 coaepmant•o HAan Tam•'e0,045% tepmance a&Kamm TRHOBOI CFJp,. G C,.--C

K To me
6 C 0C, 4 q, 50 N Cý.OAB oS.
I nVaacTa om

20
$

*

L Touazuno T-I 0 Tonaeuo TC-1

Set nPcamn

flomaa.UU M -ol-iim

0,05
--

t•

GFOA-2 Sea npca.a floaXpRt

0.05

K To me

2

M FOAI A) Fuel J) K) L) M) N)
0)

Fuel TS-l containing

B)
C) D) E) F)
G) H)

Additive
Additive concentration, % by mass Oxidation conditions Sediment, mg to 100 ml Mixture of fuel T-2 with
30% cracking component Without additives C,@-C4o aliphatic amines

0.045% mercaptan sulfur
Same Fuel T-1 Polar polymer FOA-2 150 0 C, 4 hr, with copper plate
Fuel TS-l.

I)

120 0 C, 6 hr, with VB-24
bronze plate

as salts of petroleum sulfo acids (calcium or barium sulfonatts) or of naphthenic acids. The ash-free dispersing additives incý.ude aliphatic alkylamines and the so-called polar polymers, which are products of copolymerization of two (or three) monomers of which

one carries the active properties of the additive and contains a polar group (nitrogen base), while another is a nonpolar compound and forms the oleophilic part of the additive, which ensures that it will be soluble in the fuel. The third monomer, if there is
one, performs no additional the copolymer chain. functions, but serves only to lengthen

The physicochemical properties of various dispersing stabilizers are listed in Tables 5.65 and 5.66. Their effectiveness is characterized by the data given In Tables 5.67 and 5.68. Figures 5.33 and 5.34 and Table 5.69 show the influence of adding ash- and ash-free-type dispersing agents on the high-temof fuels. perature filterability

-

367

-

I
ýf

-

-Fig.

5.33. Improvement of diesel-fuel filterability at elevated temperatures from the use of dispersing stabilizers: 1) fuel without additive; with amine-type additive, 0.05%; 0.05%. A) Filter resistance, mm Hg; B) test time, man.

__32)

B
A g 0 f

41V
J20

A

o

1J0

'&o

240

.0 &W

137L0xuwAuw

ucnbmaxu4 mwN

Fig. 5.34. Improvement of high-temperature filterability of aviation kerosenes from the use of dispersing strbilizers: 1) fuel without additive; 2) with sulfonate additive; 3) with polar-polymer additive. A) Filter r'esis'ance, mm Hg; B) test time, mi.

In residual boiler fuels, dispersing st;abilizers prevent formation of sludges, ensure compatibility of different fuels and inhibit the scttling of asphalt-tar substances. Use of these additives makes It possible to reduce the amount of l.abor and money spent on removing asphalt-tar sediment from storage tanks. This mthod of cleaning tanks is about 30 times more economical than the most commonly used mechanical procedure [82). The additive VNII NP-102, which is a fraction of naphthalene homologues, basically disubstituted naphthalenes (see Table 5.66) is an effective commercial additive for residual fuels. VNII NP103, a modification of this additive, contains, in addition to the naphthalene homologues, small quantities of various elements: 0.26% barium, 0.12$ phosphorus EnM 0.42% copper. The barium and phosphorus are introduced in the form of a barium alkyldithiophosphate or a barium phenolate and a-& alkyldlthlophosphate, and have the function of enhancing the dispa-sing and anticorrosion properties of the additive. n..oper is intr-oduced in the form of the .- Improve ccmrustion of the fuel. naphthenate and se
'.

-

368

-

TABLE 5.69 Influence of Dispersing Stabilizers on

Thermal Stability of Fuels [77.]
2
(2

Teppuuuaft m~smsuoae

XAO UaIopeMuE 1n lP),

S4
Pea upica.Aw

a UVn8an
urn ool ne,-

6 ona

T-5

........
. ..

NO.10

> 3>00
10

............ . 8 Aslws+buoe ce~pamro .. 7 -To 1) Fuel

200 f10

jI• >3oo

>300

2) Test temperature, 0 C 3) Thermal st~bility (time to clogging of filter), min 7) Same 4) Without additive 8) Sulfur-containing 5) With copolymertype additive diesel fuel. 6) T-5 fuel

Dispersing additives of various types can be used together for example, polar copolymers mixed with primary alkyl&bixnes (83). In this case we observe a synergistic effect. The recommended ratio of amine to copolymer in such additives ranges from 3:1 to 8:1 (on the active polymer component). The c..ncentration of the combined additive in the fuel ranges from 0.001 to 0.045% by mass. 4. ADDITTVES THAT REPUCE THE HARMFUL EFFECT OF FUELS ON APPARATUS AND MECHANIShS

Additives of chis group include sutstances that are capatle of mitigating the harmful effects that the fuel may have on apparatus and mechanisms duriihg use. They are the corrosion inhititors, additives that reduce wear of fuel-system rubbing parts (antiwear additives), those that reduce varnish and deposit formation and wear in the piston-cylinder group of the engine, and additives that reduce corrosion of gas turbines by the combustion products

of residual fuels.

Anticorrosion Additives Corrosion inhibitors kor anticorrosion additives) can be used effective]y in fuels of all types. Metal corrc3ljn is caused by the produc.s if fuel oxidation or by active sul'ur compounds. Hence the fuels most ;,'ýressive toward metals are those containing substantial quantitlt. of unstable hydrocarbons or active sulfur compounds (chiefly mercapvans). Rapid corrosion iP observed in leaded gasolines as a result of their content of halide zcavengers. Corr-Rlon 4.s intensified when ,ater is present in the fuel - cJther d.isclved or as a separate phe,-, - since the rate of &lectrochemicAl corrosion then riaes sharply.

-369

-

.. .%.. %.0 2.0 1.. .... . 3b. was.. ......... ms KOH -a 18-20 15--25 1....o. 4) V 6) 100% calcium sulfonate 7) Oxidized petrolatum 9) Flash point (open cruc~ble). 8Basmocm ftuesua~meiiax.%.. not above 13) Water. 5. %.c no cmnewy 6pou4. . not below 10) Alkalinity.. 10 IX*oAuo. .1 . 4...c. 10t0 C . not below Ash. .....). 1. 8 Mexanm•aqcs Upffos. 0. ..i 2 2 A 5 Copepwau-e. ..014 i ~yrU 0.... (a .... 0AV" .0 "C le me . ......• ..6-Horo cyL40HonaTa AA.... %. 0 C. . . .... 0....... . % I-370- 14) None. i •oas..t..0 3.... on lubricant B 2) -rype 5' Content....02 1) Additive 3) %. ccrn) 500 C .. .. .. 9C 'e Im .. cern 5 Temnepapypa acuumra (B oxpwrou mrae)... .. %. not below 11) Ash. i. ups:.uoay..5.. 6. W. tIa 11 3oabucMr.. .. mg of KOH to 1 g... . cSt Flash point (open crucible). 10 Index KSK calcium sulfonate ASK ammonium sulfonate Kinematic viscosity at 1000C. 9 BOA& .71 Physicochemical Properties of NG-203 Additive 2..0 - 6-8 25-3 150 7-10 9 TemepTpa ?ur.. .. solswse.0 OA 1a...... not below 8) Mechanical impurities. 10-15 170 2....Wa. ..... xWUeMaTn•ecxaR ups j009 C. *C. .. . WMM. 7 ox0c3aesaoro ueTpornama ...... 8) Kinematic v:t3Cosity (eSt) %.. mg t~f KO01 to I g. KOHu a n'. .....e. 12 M Msamqct. ..70 Technical Specifications for KSK and ASK Sulfonates (from Interdepartmental TU) i Cyrn.w*. ... ..2--14 f0--12 6-- -25-50 180 .OO..TABLE 5..o.. not below at 12) Mechanical impuritie:.. .80 7 eamnoci..0 ....... . not above 10) None...... %..... ..nllMXn (a oiDp*aTo- 13' ai-47--10 KJIU- t.. 9) Water 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) TABLE 5. mas assay: O 10%C... 15? TCT* 3r 4 Bmasvoc. 2. not below Bromphenol blue alkalinity..1 . .

9HF-10Z(.05 O't 0 0 0. Additive 11) Ammonium sulfonate conoenConcentration* of additrate from oil AS-9.23 0.Aoma"a caunia no Macaa AC4.68 0 to() o0 - 0 0 0 I00D 0. M- 6 8Bea npcajut-. **Difference between 100% and ratio of amount corrosion with additive to amount without additive..05 16 HM-203A (Romeonrpau cyab$oUaTa RSMns n MBUi AC-6.. 3 Brass LS-59 Corrosion... 07 -0.TABLE 5...5 12 KonAearpaT Cya3a4oATa aMMoans xmcaa AC-6. 0 0.0 0.5).om•merpa&T Cy5- 2.05 0.tpuo3 3pow=S33.5 no 13 NounenTpaT e¥s4•ozaTa 6s0..01 0. - 371 - .05 0 0 100 too IO0 too 100 0 3u pa AC-6.) 15 I(omueutpaT cya.6 0.3MW..45 33 66 0 0..5 Lead sulfonate concentrate from oil AS-6.36 4iofua RUM..00% 2 Rona.p•7UI Ko.5) .4oa"a 131 ns na macaa AC.5 Sodium sulfonate concentrate from oil AS-6.5 cyaoozaTa. g/m2 Coefficient of protection.5) ..5O o01 0 0 t159 0.aiu P Do-ag -WW % 6 .5) Calcium sulfonate ccmicentrati from oil AS-6..45 0.. trate from oil AS-6..5 tan sulfur Steel St.5 NO-203A (calcium sulfonate cinoentrate from oil AS- 6...5 trate from oil IS-6..79 0. expressed in 5.72 Effectiveness of Petroleum Sulfonates as Corrosion Inhibitjrs [84) Abnwo.. ooMp3WU!60..005 0.34 0.... 0. AC-9.5 0..50 0 - 0.50 0.68 100 74 33 - - 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 'Converted to active part. "cam npu...005 0..05 11 KoRzteuTpa& cy14io0aTa aiMoans ma uacna AC-9.M 38 M8a"a M soacan AC-9..-6.s 12) Ammonium sulfonate concen-r Straight-run diesel fiu..#* 5 Without additive containing 0.!..• mmpzmama'ouamNs 15 .05 10 7 M00 39 78 00 O.-iKomoeiRrpa"r uao+..5 MAX 14 KOMneunTpa cyaa..059% mercap- 13) 14) Barium sulfonate concen- 15) 16) 9) 10) NG-102 (concentrate of calciumr sulfonate from oil A'. % by m.-9.45 0.5 tive.5 0.

.... 4 9o II •4a~yLI 1.73 Protection if 3teel and Brczs from Corroson by Sulfur-Containing Diesel Fuels on Add .... hydroxycarboxylic acid.63 01azueNn analml. . 12 "I' Jb ... c) they reaot chemically with the metal to form a protective film on its surf ace..2 ..70 and 5. 40-59:[ % ..aUqOCXorO xpexenra c o.$ 0. Mac. b) they have a neutralizing effect on acidic aggressive products.. 1...- t00 0 1oe 4 %...o....aea:..nt. . ..AS-c. . 190 0. o I f0o 1) 2) 3) 1ndvx "IthouL ..'. 0 0...45 0 to0 10..23 40 - . .. . Application of corrosion inhibitors to sulfur-containing fuels is most important for domestic practice. ovoa --vpu: C7. In the fuel... etc. organic acids and their salts... 0.. coepRanTanoBoA CepM: .3.'-us chemical compounds have been suggested as corrosion inhibi+ora: esters. corro ion tnhibitors act by one of the following mechanisms: a) as surfaie-active compounds.ddirIve .carbons are usually stabilized with antioxidantr (or metal deactivators)...01 % ... which also act to some extent as corrosion innibitors. $A. TABLE 5. cozpxoaz'oe 20% xOvn"o•unrn .005 0..... petroleum srifonates. 0.0t 0. 2 I0o1UeHTpa7" cyabo I HoHie~AUTW eC140491 SIToHaT..xnYu 7 ..ýphthenates.ate . Var. Tables 5.. ..71 give physicochemical properties of cercain sulfonate-base additives.au C1.. retarding the formation of aggressive hydrocarbon-oxidation producti.. which prevent corrosion oi metals by fuel in the presence if water.05 ANNhSU o TO11of0 '.. .abnoe Tonanno.2 O... 3 ~I an a. metal n.. diester3.tion of Calcium Sulfonate [84] .. .. ..Fuels which in unsaturated hydr. 12Tua... are r-cst commonly used.% 0.. 0/^8 e/011' . HCP (M 3 C-". by mass ..nUCeNT 3&•8aTh.Ue KMo egspsqar Ae npUcaz... ... uI. 3 sop am e0.5 Additie concentration. neD oxE.6AR 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 oppowN..Sý caiclum sulfVnate from oil c~r. ....... amines.% mepmana..01 CA 4 A"'$C. forming a protective film on the metal by oriented adsorption of polar groups. Rust inhibitors..5 4) 5) -% KSA amnrionium sulfonate concentrate from oil AS-6.23 9_ 0 00 00I 00 0 aVwI JIC-39 ST Smppn.. /aoppo .

Commercial rosion inhibitor the sulfonate. Amines. the problem is eous ammonia as a neutralizing agent.I 6) 7) 8) 9) Straight-run diesel fuel containing 0. Table 5. organic phosDhites. Calcium and (KSK and ASK) in ". sulfonates made from higher-viscosity oils.5 oils.01% mercaptan sulfur Steel St. 011 additives have the major role in reducing deposits and wear in the cylinder-piston group of the engine when sulfur fuels are used. Their action is based on neutralization of the aggressive combustion products of sulfur-containing fuels (sulfur oxides. 3 Corrosion. The most effective corrosion inhibitors are calcium and ammonium sulfonates. in addition to contains %50% of oxidized petrolatum. g/m2 Coefficient of protection.03% mercaptan sulfur.35). nitrates and carbonates of alkali metals. Additives that Reduce Varnish and Deposit Buildup and Wear in the Engine's Cylinder-Piston Group These additives are designed for addition to sulfurous and high-sulfur diesel fuels. but is less effective than sulfonate in the protection of brasses. The effectiveness of petroleum sulfonates as corrosion inhibitors depends on the composition of the sulfo acids and the metal in the sulfonate (Table 5. chiefly the trioxide) or on their conversion into nonaggressive products. t NG-203 protective lubricant may be used as a coiin sulfur-containing diesel fuel.01-0. 5. Effective corrosion inhibitors are produced from nitrated oils [85]. are inferior to the low-molecular sulfonates as corrosion inhibitors. Sulfonates made from gas oils or kerosenes are insoluble in fuels. however. and others have been proposed as such additives. metal naphthenates. The best sulfonates are obtained by sulfonating AS-5 and AS-6. a substantial additional gain is achieved. when the additive Is used directly in the fuel. For stationary engines. which are known as highly efficient wetting additives to oils. The additive contains 12-15% of nitroalkylaromatic compounds It offers good corrosion protection fow steel.25%. % 10) 11) 12) Steel ShKh-15 Brass LS-59 Diesel fuel containing 20% catalytic cracking component with 0. Calcium sulfonate protects both steel and brass well. it is engine's induction system (86] (Fig. solved by using gasfed directly iuto the Foreign additives intended to reduce deposit buildup and wear - 373 - .05% by mass of the sulfonate.72).73 indicates the action of sulfonate additives when used in various sulfur-containing diesel fuels in concentrations of 0. it amnonium sulfonates are produced as concentrates sulfoiaL content in the concentrate is oil.

Mg0. 2S1O. Mgc•- CaM91CO).. Comparative effectiveness of ammonia and oil additives in reducing pibton-rlng wear in 24-8.. Fuelslip. A) Impulses/ /min. IIH.35. are added to fuels used in gas turbines [87]. 96 4i07 49 in the engine's cylinder-piston group (Dislip. FiL. %.5% AiO. 21.(SMI0]JOHI.(Si 4O e)(OH) :39. %. 10 Xmasu HKumor AIMO. C) fuel additive. 4(ao 92% NCO) CaCO 9 MgSO 4 . S o44243 44 4. thus eliminating the corrosive action of vanadium oxides.5% 04% ago M(Mg•.5/l1 engine in operation on fuel containing 1.9% COO An_40 Paauosaunoc'rwau mp9(1 C. 1P*)^0tlOp(OH). have been proposed for use as such additives.2iO was ii 12 MomuopumacUT Al.O)p((AI. - A_ Otives: a D 2 4 1 I 10I t B nlpucauia or m•c.a x me#AuIS.7% MgO. Territe and a number of others) are recipes that incorporate naphthalene homologues.6% by mass of sulfur: 1) DS fuel..4% CaO. :30.) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Additive Empirical formula or composition Magnesite Up to Calcite Dolomite - 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Aluminum oxide Marisallite A variety of quartz Kaolin Or Montmorillonite. 46•. 5) TsIATIM-339. mel I-organic compounds. ing compounds eith the vanadium oxides present in fuel combustion products.J AIO. and amines. 47. addi3) VNII NP-360. Additives that Reduce Vanadium Corrosion whose action is To suppress vanadium corrosion and reduce deposits.74 Composition of Certain Additives Against Vanadium Corrosion 1 UpueaAuM 2 Oluau #opuMaM m based chiefly on tneir ability to form high-mAl-t additives 3 MaraueuT 0J.m: P-0--0. TABLE 5.oMuxT 7 Oxc amumu-a Mmpmma. although they influence the amount of these deposits to a lesser degree. Various compounds that change the nature of the deposits formed on turbine parts.54 C flpuca6.o ------ . 374 - . B) oil additive. a. 4) 14NI NP22k. 96 '. 2) NH3.

36 and 5. Thus.t1maily less staole than vanadates can be used as effective additives. Various natural compounds of silicon.040 1) Steel 2) We:. since otherwise the metal will be bound in the form of the sulfate and will not be able to act on the vanadium.6 0.75 test results for magnesium sulfate.75 Effectiveness of Magnesium Sulfate in Reducing Vanadium Corrosion [89] 2 xKa.058 20. vanadium corrosion is reduced (Pigs.10-1% vanadium. paste or aqueous solution or dissolved in the fuel or injected into the flame in the form of finely divided particles. VNII NP-102 additive and its modification.2 0. Table 5. since their sulfates are less stable.120 0. they may be injected in the form of a suspension. When these products are added to a sulfur-containing mazout with 3.02= 4.039 0. e.170 0. VNII NP-103.08 0.160 0.042 0. magnesium salts of synthetic fatty acids with C1 .096 0.6 3.4 4.2 NO 7A. magnesium naphthenate.066 0.7.-Cao.u a UPm1= 7 U(s) o _& _____ 1 3 .. Since tie amount of sulfur in mazouts is always considerably greater than that of vanadium.g. Rear heating surfaces of boiler installations can be pro*ected from corrosion in operatlon on high-sulfur fuels with the - 375 - .040 0.=.I TABLE 5. Methods of introducing the additives vary.6 7.7 11.9 14.74 presents some of the compounds and Table 5.euMe Be"a Mae.s 18. those metals whose sulfates are tho. have been proposed for use egainit coating of boiler heating surfaces and Control of sedimentation in storage tanks.0• 4. 49 0. and oxidized petrolatum [90]. calcium. Silicon compounds and aluminum silicates are highly effective as vanadium-corrosion inhibitors. 5. magnesium and zinc are more effective than barium. Considerable interest attaches to residual-fuel-soluble magnesium compounds that have been proposed for use against vanadium corrosion.2 5.6 8.37). n ou % #/m / (1 '"" ' A I IWa &&SAM NWaamUU:- 4 % a/* 5 •11481 811807 11W4 9118M 811726 0. 89).0 0. and aluminum.tht change of plate in presence 3) 4) of Vanadium Vanadium and magnesium 5) EI481.052 o. magnesium. as well as magnesium oxide and sulfate have been tested successfully as additives to domestic fuels [86.

2% by mass on the fuel reduce corrosion markedly.zinc. OC Fig. C) EI-602. mg/cmv. since deposits form on the heating surfaces in considerably smaller amounts and their structure is modified. These additives depress the dew point of the smoke gases and inhibit corrosion considerably. OC. perature. B) EI-4B1.2% magnesium salts of oxidized petrolatum into Fs-5 mazout (key same as in Fig. Decrease in vanadium corrosion of high-temperature nickel steels on introduction of 0. These additives have an insignificant effect as regards loworing dew point.aid of additives -hat reduce the content of SO3 in the combustion products and lower the dew point. 2) Fs-5 0 0 (no vanadium content).376 - .10-3%).?-. A 0 0 0 5 0 . and a'nmmonium compounds. Fi. Dolomite and silica in amounts of 0. C) tem- S A6° 70 800 e0 0o 8M D Temnepomypa. 5. 25 4V 5 Aig -•o -o r ~ 6 0 o. mg/cm2. B) chromium-nickel (I).37. Better results are obtained with the use of additives that react chemically with SOs . magnesium. *C. D) temperature. ~ -a ao 0S~ c- ~ 80 r m to 70 .1-0.3 Decrease in on introduction latum into Fs-5 mazout with additive. 3) F-12 mazout A) Weight loss.2% magnesium salts of oxidized petro(vanadium content 4.5.70m pa 2 my w -t me-t r it 5 . 1) Fs-5 mazout mazout without additive. 1) A) Weighz t loss. vanadium corrosion of high-epate SII of 0.

5." which is a mixture of tertiary heterocyclic amines obtained from coal tar.05% by mass of Teramine is injected into the fuel in the boiler ga: duct at a point where the gas temperature is %25 0 °C. a British firm has patented (British Patent 73.•ee~mpcu*u WI.% 50 10 p A 0 402 J04 B Ko. A) °C. 2) without ammonia. In the atomized state.38.490) the additive "Teramine. Change in corrosion with and without ammonia injection: 1) with ammonia injection. Teramine raises boiler efficiency by 1.fYu X II~y9N.021% by mass. 5.39 show curves of the dew point as a function of ammonia concentration and the curve of corrosion rate with and without ammonia injection as a function of temperature [91).120 LFig..1(dU 4o* z B mV. A) Corrosion.5% by lowering exhaust-gas temperature. 4'.39. ethylene glycol monobutyl ester (concen- 377 - .030. . Figures 5. Din fuel.. 1 Fig. Antilcing additives are added to automotive gasolines to prevent carburetor icing. The additives also prevent water from freezing in fuel pumps and tanks. 0. ADDITIVES THAT FACILITATE USE OF FUELS AT LOW TEMPERATURES Additives of this group include substances that make it possible to eliminate operating diffinulties when fuels are used during the cold season or at high altitude. Antlicing additives in use Include isopropyl alcohol. In addition to reducing rear-surface corrosion. 9001 7? . B) probe temperature.38 and 5. B) ammonia concentration point.. g/cml. Variation of dew point as a function of ammonium concentration. A Il 2 B lbom~rswr~j*Ak When ammonia is injected into the firebox at 300'C in a concentration of 0. 41Dew 5. 3) dew point 139 0 C (without ammonia). To prevent suiuric-acid corrosion at wall temperatures below the dew point. the dew point of pure water vapor is reached. 0 C. % by mass..

.. .ao-"aToro AO TOMEO-KOpMl- 16 Rncnoruoe qncjo.... 3.... mg of KOH to I g Saponification coefficient. as 6oes %. %..OTgCpcme llISea~mleme npawec.. meane Mo09 . n3 ... . they do not inhibit the onset of solid-hydrocarbon crystallization. 12ney have almost no effect on the cloud points of the fuels. not less than AK-15 with 0.05-0. %.. not above Water-soluble acids and alkalies None - 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Mechanical impurities...1% depressor Base with 3% OPD Coking capacity.... 9C. . OC.5% by mass)....76 Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Depressors (from AUSS 8443-57 and VTU NP 14-58) -2 3 _ _ Ao1IRz _ 4 C-memno Tewnepayypm Ao6arnenau aac'rua•uz macna.eTOMo AO eneTRO-xOp3q- U .So-.. but they do retard crystal growth... 5 AR-15 rpz OUIn .... dimethylcarbiriol.. Q Bouopac~ruopnume macsonT ff VJenou .. .. TABLE 5. .11MORa 18 GTOsome-Ue Nzcuny. this inhibits adsorption of liquid hydrocarbons by the paraffin with formation of a gel. %.. which have high crystallization temperatures.. they prevent their growth and formation of a crystal lattice. s 6oa...tration 0. 378 - . .5 -m 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) IC) Index AzNII OPD Oil pour point depression.. not below. x&KOH 17 IHoa•ORI•eUnT oMUaeOan.... 12 BoU ... As they are adsorbed onto minute paraffin crystals.1% el6op a .e..... glycerine monooleate. s9 6onee ... 10 - -- -t 18 - 18 - 13 4uw" . . not above Ash.-- 0..... . certain amines and ammonium phosphates [3].. .5 50-70 1i-i6 25--175 2... %. . . -- T Ye. not above Water Color From dark yellow to light brown From dark yellow to dark brown Acid number. i..5V 02 oMnob. %. Additives that Lower Fuel Crystallization Temperatures (Depressors) Depressor additives are designed for addition to paraffinbase diesel fuels... but they do lower its pour point substantially.. us ienee ... . MW 3% HOnymeM¶. - 46--65 M2.. .. 0 6 6a&3ooro upi panU- %.5 Oncmh -.... u&i1.. . . not below Ratio of saponification coefficient to acid number.

...0!.. 14 To mo ...0 " 1) 2) Fuel Additive concentration.... 60%ftypaimexoro ýv i.. ::-Zo fO. aele......... AzNII commercial depressor is produced by condensing naphthalene with two molecules of a chlorinated paraffin in the presence of aluminum chloride. . -7 --8 11 TE~emr ! ........ namely: condensation products of nonpolar organic compounds.g. .coaxposoro. .77 list the physicochemical properties of industrial depressors and their influence on the pour points of diesel fuels.. etc.....- *t -2 4 __8 -. i5m - . OPD depressor is obtained by oxidizing petrolatum. Cloud point Pour point Diesel Summer Winter Below °C 13) 14) 15) Mixture of 60% Surakhany solar distillate and 40% Surakhany kerosene Same..... depending on the type of additive and f~e.01-0.. ..c-o - ---7 -........... of naphthalene with chlorinated paraffin (AzNII depressor)... "XIV4 12 tw...... -7--::: ± S60% cypaxucxoro coxsposoro zr Amecam 3 40% Aoccopcxoro .0 0. by mass % 10) 13) 12) Surakhany gas oil Heavy Light 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Temperatures....... Mixture of 60% Surakhany solar distillate and 40% Dossor kerosene.. . S13 .. soaps of multivalent cations.........2 -2--8 -. .. products of condensation of nonpolar compounds with polar compoundF.....TABLE 5......00... oxidation products of macromolecular hydrocarbons....... .. products of voltolization . Depressor concentrations in the fuel range f om 0..... +0-5_ -04 1..voltols.. .... The same additives as are used in lubricating oils may be used as depressors in fuels...0 0.76 and 5.. .0% by mass. .......77 Influence of AzNII Depressor on Low-Temperature Properties of Diesel Fuels [751 6~~aa.5-1. xepoeua ... ' ...... 1raoU"a • 40% cYpax xpoe0a a 14To~~i.2arTo ..4 .... -379- . Tables 5. e....0 -- 0 --.. ....... a ...........5 "--7 --IN a.

........... Saponification number... methyl and ethyl esters of ethylene glycol... residue......e crystals at all temperatures encountered in w....... not above ..78 and 5.. Since ethyl cellosolve dissolves better in water than in fuels..1aviation fuels (gasolines..the monoethyl ester of ethylene glycol (AUSS 8313-60).nter opfratton (Tables 5..........01 95.....1 to 1.......... it is . % by mass. Ethyl cellosolve does not cause moisture to accumulate in the fuel durinv. % by mass. nD . kerosenes)..0% by mass.. penta.1-0........ losses...ý-... not below .. which prevents separation of water from the fuel in the form of ice crystals.. it may be "washed out" of the fuel when the latter comes into contact with water (for example..... One of the most effective additives is ethyl cellosolve .. The additive concentrations in the fuel range from 0....... no more than ..005 0..... not above ......... no more than ........6% methyl cellosolve and 0... % )")mass..... Water... mg of KOH to 1 g... methyl. not above . % by mass.79).....60 as a prev........... 99]......935 2 94 3 4 7 1. 75...... % b........ Ethyl cellosolve has been used in the USSR since 1955-1956 in aviation fuelsi (jet fuels and aviation Fasolines) [93].... distills in ]28-138°C temperature range.. Isopropyl.. Density p... % by mass..... Dry residue.0 0.... and other compounds have been used for these purposes El... but directly at the points of application....-t added to the fuel at the refino eries. not more than ..... % by mass..............5 1 Addition of ethyl cellosolve to jet fuels in concentrations of 0.80).......... tetra-...... no less than . storage (Table 5.4% glycerine [94J...........0... Acidity (converted to acetic acid)..............Additives that Prevent Formation of Ice Crystals in Fuels These additives are used i...3% completely eliminates formration of i•... % by mass... For this reason.930-0. Colorless transparent liquid 0.and hexaethylene glycols....... not above . The additive PF A-55 Vdii[92' "able 5. It is used In :nilitary aviation for IP-4 - 380 - ...4090 2. 20 Refractive index for product..... Their action is based on the formation of low-freezing mixtures with water.. This additive 17) a mixtureŽ of about 99.81) has been in use in the LUSA since 1957-1(......4 9 4070-1..5 .. the physicochemical properties of which we list below: External appearance .:ttive of ice-crystal %ormation. during shipment of the fuel).... and ethyl alcohols... Ethyl cellosolve content in product. mac. Fractional composition: distills below 1280C....

3 TC42 0 0.0-10. oarpmwzuW 3TaUUJIM hab lis K500 X. l iIl ~I0.3 -0r 4 -381-4 4 ..05 Olt -- 25 2t 2 5 It! 41 0 23 Is 65 41 0.j I 1 0 0.. % 2) Amount of snow introduced into fuel. to 25 46 8 21 1) Ethyl cellosolve content.61 1 O.1 - . 4%0 5 - .00. -55-J i -5..Oat OOl| T-i Ao -60 xpacna.1 0. .1 0.. -t a .o•-' 1-7'Soo C beC -. -30P '.30MAM a Odtj 7O3W15C. P•_• . . COASPW8UM SW Coler 29muo~aw a TMaM. - .3 0. oms 06et aa-49 -. - .ri-.. 5 xPx.. C 0.. 5) Snow introduced into fuel containing ethyl TABLE 5.'osolve is Added [93] 3' STRJ? I~lenOSevnh .20 a I WarI-.OO3 O. nwss aa .3 T me Ac -60 upueaaom TC.0 -__ _T OOcs I 0.05 ~ OO~l ___ I OO' I.78 Rate of Solution of Ice Crystals in Fuel when Ethyl Cel.. 41035 MUTOlg 6 0. s ____ lPfi AkV %DPe~PiCX1UMOParnm HMPUCUaJLI (9 AIIA) .200C~~?P-o -.-- 2 S . 0.. sposimassu -o40 .. o 0e0. R-pU-CMBM• 5 -is .05 6 - •Thau - W -o• - -40 4m. il c ia u"M - ..05 0. % 3) Ethyl cellosolve introduced into fuel containing snow 4) Time to dissolve ice crystals (in min) at temperature of cellosolve.1 - 5 .'p.I TABLE 5.O0? 0.79 Effectiveness of Ethyl Cellosolve Against Formation of Ice Crystals in Fuels [93] 21 (36 UV3 a % . -40 5 xpaCTSAZU --30 5 x~ec?1lgd -CGO Rpmplcrt1- -- - - aO Mpacimaa -60 A08 Mot CMIAM -50 MPUSJJ lea p upmi .moe 5 maa o 0. - 0.

0138 0.0065 0.0075 0.3 0. and is also added to kerosene-type use in civil aviation.1) 2) 3) Fuel Ethyl cellosolve content.0033 0.0083 0. % 3) Water conýlert in fuel (in 4) Initial (January) %) after 5) Month(s) 6) same 7) TS-I 8) B-95/130.osolve content in fuel.3 - 0.0140 0.3% Ethyl Cellosolve during Long-Term Storage [93] 2 1A 22)"120 SOIA owMn 2 V (9 %) WePM 4j TU.80 fuels. % Temperature of formation of ice crystals (00) at fuel water content of .0088 0. a .6-0.3% ethyl cellosolve is explained by the fact that 0.016310.0093 0.0031 0.tals to -60 Crystals at -60 Same. % fuel [95J.0073 .0096 0.0058 0.0039 0.0044 0.7% water was present Subsequently..0060 0.O03 0.0043 0.0092 0.0081 0 0.0015 . TABLE 5.0076 0.r content Ln the original fuels with 0.0101 0.0051 0.0131 0. in the ethyl celiosolve itself.01561 00105 0.0096 * 0.0048 0. 1) Fuel 2) Ethyl ce].0047 0.0 5 5 6 To me T- Q To we 0..0093 0.0083 0.004t 0.. the water introduced into the fuel with the ethyl cellosolve transfers tc the air..0111 O 0.N~ 5 .004" B-951130 'To we 0.3 0. it also finds Change in Water Content in Fuels with 0. 4) 5) 6) No cry7.0095 0.0130 0.0081 0.0053 * 0.0035 0.0113 0.0049 0.0066* 0.0099 0. passage of moisture from the fuel to the air and back (depending on atmospheric Zonditions) also explains the fluctuations in fuel moisture content during storage.0076 0.0095 0.0061 0.0081 *The higher wat.

TABLE 5.. additives that prevent accumulation of static electricity... and certain others are added to fuels. . antioxidant. not below 3) Ash content.. OTHER FUEL ADDITIVES In addition to the additives mentioned above. 6) 7) From To.. The color of a gasoline indicates that it contains a certain additive that improves its basic operational propertie3 (antiknock...08% 0 IP-4 C 0. TABLE 5...08% P-5 * . -5f 00 0C 1) Fuel 2) Temperature at which filter 3) Without additive 4) . color stabilizers. ...).12 8 Xpaca C 174 6 - 42 5 1) Dye 2) Melting) point.. . apa H•OTOJNL.82 Physicochemical Properties of Certain Commercial Dyes for Gasolines 2 4 5 cYA Ma•u• .. The dyes themselves have negligibla contents in the gasoline and no influence on their properties.. %...81 Influence of PF A-55 .. a~r -2 A ~-i -25 j .B Adaitive on IceCrystal Formation in Jet Fuels [92] 2 -TMM Teimepaip. ..% I C0. W .. 6. m amu P" 3e 4•p• 0o•o% 4 qp-. dyes. - 383 - . Dyes Dyes are added to gasolines for identification purpose3. etc.01% water Is clogged. not above 4) Moisture content... % additive 5) IP-4 with 0.. %. 6 E .. 15 7 xpacnul ) - 9 OpamusmI.. not above 5) Sudan 6) Yellow Zh 7) Red Zh 8) Red S •) Orange. 0 C. .

The Ca-aerosol additive ccntains 2% by mas3 of calcium.consist of 14 to 18 carbons.Gasolines conta.:eciai 4MJI .2000.an cueca uono. rag. Table 5.azo dyes that aro soluble .'2-?TUX-reOcXnn) •ya Locyx il I naoDo r ItnVIoT1 (Ca-ufý'3aoa6) . 3/3•93 - 384 - . accumulation of static-electr'inty charges that might result in explosions during pump transfers. aviation gasolines are yellow (B 95/130) or bri. .-i.onpon•iaiun aar Ia8lbqRUE 10 I'acnoi xpomonoiR co.and dialkyLsalicylic acids (Cr-AC) 12) Shell antistatic.. FS093o0` TOTpan3oaM n.nH Bee32113 4. chromium salts of monoand dialkyl- salicylic acids whose alkyl chain. TABLE 5.n--..z1A:lon x HcaloT (Cr-AC) ]1 AnTudlaT.n. 3) Petroleum products with conductivities above 1000 picoohms/m 3 are safe as regard3.. kg to 1000 m 3 41) Benzene 5) Ammonium tetraioauyl picrate 6) Ligroin 7) Manganese oleate 8) Gasoline 9) Solution of calcium salt of di-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinic acid (Ca aerosol) 10) Calcium diisopropylsalicylate 11) Solution of uhromium salt of mixture of mono.ur~ •2ftK~ In water .ij~t.aaT mapraua 7293 PaCTBOp OaJ1LfeDoRI co0!E .. A conductivity as low as 500 picoohme/m Is not dangerous [96]. Additives Against Accumulation of Static Electricity Additives to counter the accumulation of static electricity ("antistatics") are added to distillate fuels (gasolines.nin6 1'EL are colored red and pink (A-66) or blue and green (A-76).111pIuoBoK9CAhe i aMvoumi O. (B l00/3 0)0 The Sudais. M 2 So o W. "!::~.83 gives the concentrations of certain additives necessary tc ensure the required conductivity in ruels.a .flMej 12 5 53 W00 24M 8 Beu313 &2 2 1) Fuel 2) Additive Concentration.are teýe . kerosenes.a zzvaixiw:nuT. Cr-AC additive contaln:. its average molecular weight is \. desel fuels) to raise their conductivtiLes to a safe level. 55% of' a neutral solvent. 4 U-soao e RH.i. • a'.83 Concentrations of Certain Additives Necessary to Attain 1000-picoohrn/m Conductivity in Hydrocarbons Tozlla o 1- [96] lp MA.

tives (fatty acids.M C.--C13 327 280 17.2 21. . kg. can be improved with additives. o 4APARsR. Additives that Improve Antiwear Properties of Fuels The antiwear properties of fuels..CIS C6 1 Cie 240 232 217 21.) 2) 3) Fraction Acid number of fraction.86).8 kg. as KOHM ni IM * Ia " Pop o c€MrA . cOen7Y MD-1. The use of additives that increase fuel conductivity does no' eliminate the need for grounding tanks.) are added to T-2 low-viscosity fuel in amounts of 0.01% by mass of Narrow Fatty-Acid Fractions (t = 20'C) (after A. G. since the synergistic action of the additive mixture is more effective than either taken separately.84 Antiwear Properties of T-2 Fuel* Containing 0. Rozhkov) Huc.87).meno parzu1. When certain addiTABLE 5.01-0. C. on which the service life and operating reliability of fuel pumps and aviation gas--turbine engines depend. its antiwear properties are brought up to the level of T-1 and TS-1 fuels (Tables 5.V. me KOH ual Pp. etc. speclal antiwear additives developed for oils raise the antiwear properties of fuels to about the same level as the antioxidants introduced into the fuel. Vilenkin. Added in small concentrations (C. since the additives prevent only those cases of static-electricity explosions in which the cause is low fuel conductivity. . Klimov and I.the additive contains 2. Addition of this additive in an amounc of 2 kg to 1000 m3 is recommended for all fuels. 385 - .I.I.6 Ci.V. Xichkin. its average molecular aeight is m-2500.5 > 40 = *Antiwear properties without additive Pkr 10.0 C1.ormoe0 2 D - .2 25.5 34. Additives also improve the antiwear properties of fuels at elevated temperatures (Table 5.84-5.7 C Cie 209 197 29. The American firm Shell recommends a mixture of equal quantities of the Ca-aerosol-OT and Cr-AC additives for the trade. pfenols. mg of KOH to 1 g Load Fkr on KV-i stand.01% by mass).1% by mass of chromium and 30% of a neutral solvent. K.6 19. o II *P3U 0I M 1 Kncaome I 2 q.05% by mass. Cto 187 178 38.

Kichkin. 9) Diphenylamine Berzzyl-p-aminophenol = -386 - .V. 9ig0 9 1.I.01% by mass of Aromatic Amines and Aminophenols (t = 200 C) (after A. Klimov and INV. Vilenkin.4 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) *Antiwear properties without additive Pkr 11..TABLE 5. K. )~ 15.5-Arinionapnthoi. Rozhkov) 1 Xuue'gccOe CiPOeHUC K no B-.I.85 Antiwear Properties of T-2 Fuel* Containing 0.8 kg. G. 4 An~maamnaHU CX\-NH-//>\ 13A 5 Beana-n-amaino4eieon ('>-C1I. kg 1.5-AsisuonaýTonz 6H 17. Additive 6) Diawi~nodiphenylamin(ý Chemical structure 7) o-Am~nophenol 8) p-Aminophenol Load Pkr on KV-1 stand.-NH-// \-OH 17A OH T o-Aiuzuzo~eiuo (/NH.2 OH Sn-Awtnaoio4aoo I NH.

. . % by mass 2...2u mp......0 -16. G.... B.I. lllo ... 8 .. . . Vilenkin.S O -" 0. Anta- 2 2.... TABLE 5.. Kichkin...yn--erua.....05 0.. (6 1 -o UNIT 1 KU-i nlVU COAM•PMRH UPUCping. 011-0 .. - t4.6 20. . .. ...i - 3 2........87 Influence of Additives on Antiwear Properties of TS-l Fuel at 1100C [97] eI b a fipuajum CV7KNTTPUS 0pulmb t.. ..1"" I CHI.V...... -- 16...5 I I ftpouBSaT Apenecnoft cuom 1 2 CmEameuue dneos (4pakxum 200-3000C) 15. .6-A n-mpem-6yTux-4-mel'auozio S• ... % flpuAie1m 2 0. ..pe3eeCo. K. M5 18..8 kg.TABLE 5.6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (%-.I.4 •Antiwea' properties without additive Pkr : = 12. Rozhkov) Rarpysaa Pp.. K"...V.0 - -- y oa .naphthol ý-naphthoi n-Butylphenol FCh-16 technical phenols Wood-tar antioxidant Grade A Grade B Wood-tar pyrolyzate Shale phenols (200-300 0 C fraction).. ...0 - ICcop gcopra A. 1) Additive 2) Load Pkr (kg) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) on KV-I bench with additive content of ..-.86 Antiwear Properties of T-2 Fuel* with PhenolType Additives (t = 200C) (after A. Klimov and I.. • CHO CIHO LHe 387 . Texunqeciue 4ieeom. ....-cmonmal annoXman 6 7 13..0? t Tonanso A.01 1_6.... .

. No.2-Disalicylidenepropylenediamine Antiwear additives for oils V-15/2A.2 oS I t 8 J13-23K 0. 203.."TABLE 5.-0--C'//8C--0--COH' \S--CH.--CH--N=CH 01 om US0 AO-Aims O\OH HO/•) 0. (1959). World Petrol. CHO 1. Herbst. 6. Book Co. 0. York-Toronto-London.4 t9.D. McGraw-Hill J. Read. Ibid.N'-Ar-emop6•e'i-n4easB.H. Petro. AeaxTZB 3TO] MeQT$aSJ10O3 /\ . Additive Structural formula Concentration.--CHs--S/ Cepoopranir'zecioe oewmemm 20. REFERENCES 1. (1959). 4. 2. No..4-Dimethyl-6-tertbuty]phenol 2. I. Yong. Frey. sulfur-organic compound L3-309 L3-23K. Petroleum Products Handbook. J.2-An~ca~xnamall. A..87 (Continued) rflPiaCafRAI I CTP7HTYP118x lboVMlfa HN.A1 C.N '-Di-sec-butyl-pphenylenediamine B) 5) C) 6) 7) 8) Metal deactivator 1. 9. CH. 8. 1960. page 203. L ..01 i7A HN-CH--CH-CH. Armed Fcrces Chem.. 15 (1963).1 a) b) c) d) e) 1) A) 2) 3) 4) No.Aanpoun- 1C --CH--N--CH. 388 - 34._CHCHI-CHO 4 N. 53. New 60 209 Kirk. H.6-Di-tert-butyl-4methylphenol N. 3.... % by mass Pkr' kg r Fuel without additive Antioxidants 2. 13. No. Ref.•s ROP// RO/ \S-S-CH--CC1-CH.. 6 nVOTN- npS C AIs AAR mace' B-I5/2A 7 J13-309 Ro\ .J. 43-50.

A. Feygin... 28.. Ind. Bonnel. Kolesnrkov. 1962.. Gostoptekhizdat. Hollowey. SAE Journal. C.. 16. 137 (1953).. Vol.'-Organic Compounds]. Hirschler. V. Zarubin. McCullough I. 33. Sablina.S. Korshak... No. ATZ. "Khimi- ya.L. IV Mezhdunarodnyy neftyanoy kongress [IV International Petroleum Congress].A. 286. Zarubln. 33. ll0 (n145).A. Proc. 169 (1954). Gureyev. Eng.. A.... -Avtomohil'nyye benziny [Automotive Gaso1961. 8. Dzhons.. Ref.. Ind.L. Boldwin. A. Hanson. Campbell. 47 (1953). Gibsoi.. K.. Eng.I. Gostoptekhizdat. Eng..I.. R.P. Wilke.I.P.. Gostoptekhizdat. I. 589 (1947). Alekseyeva. (1945). h.. Sabina. A. Sturgis. Gibson. 92 (1954). 8. Petrol. T9K" Ccles. B.. N. B. Lovell.P.E. SAE Trans. and Rocket Fuels]. 12. 38. lines]. 1959. 663 (1951).. Prisadki k motornyrm topliyam [Motor-Fuel Additives].. Inst. No. Gureyev. R. Detonatsionnaya stoykost' i vosplameny-4yemost' motornykh topliv [Detonation Stability and Flam.. 14. 20.dat.. Petrol. 6. 43. 11. No. Walters. 10.1 . I.. 1. 15. 11 13. Oborongiz. J. Ninch. Chem. Ref. 7. Kh. 45 (1954). Ind.. Petrol. Ye. Chem. G. No. No. 62.. Chim. Doklad na 7-i sessii pc seraorganicheskim soyedineniyam [Paper at the 7th Sesstin on Sulfu.ability of Motor Fuels]..F.. 19. 6. E. 7. Eksperimental'noye Issledovaniye vynositeley svintsa iz dvlgatelya [Experimental investigation of Engine Lead Scavengers] (Trudy TsIA. Z. 23. izd. reaktivnyye i r4ketnyye topliva [Motor.R. 15.. No.. Motornyye.P.' Livings. VIl. A. H. 17. L. 22.K.M. 751 (1952). Gureyev. Gostoptekhizdat.A. No... izd. H. Dunning. M. Am. 5. No. Inst.W.. Subbotin. [TetJet Zabryanskiy.D. 37. Hall. 18.. B.V. 3. 907 (1949). 1947. A. 112). 1946. Petrol.. D.. B. Jeffrey. 9." 1965.F.. Tetraetilsvinets raethyllead]. No. 56. 1-g63. V. 389 - . A. Goskhimi-. E.A. - 21. M. Mikita. Ind..A. 41. 1957.. 6. Griffith. Automob.... BashFAN. A.S 5.H.

Chem. VII. No. U. 44. 305 (1961).24. No.. Meet. M..L. Heath.. dat..a. Steinke. Steinke..... R. 57. Hesselberg. 149 (1959).R.. Eng.L. Avtomobilestroyeniye i avtotransport. 28. 50. 4. Petrol. M. 123/305 (1961).. 2. 189. SAE Trans.. Ind. W. Collection "Novyy antidetcnator dlya benzinov" [A New Antikrock for Gasolines] TsNIITEneftegaz. 30/50 (1960). SAE Annual. Zabryan-. 1. Data. nibson. Stone. Barusch. IV Mezndunarodnyy neftyaVol. Howard. 7. 42... 2 ll/I.L. Patent 2380006 (1957). Richardson. Data. 36. Eng.J. Kautsky. S. News. 43. No.R. 6.L. D. Mikita.. kongress [V Petroleum Congress]. 48 (1962). 25. A. G. 34..S. Kautski. R.E.. Ref. W. K... 192. W. I. SAE Journal. 38. 60.S.. Zaytscev.H. No. Nelson... 5. Oil and Gas J. 38. 60. No. 50. K. (1962). IV. Chem.... Stardzhis.H.E. -390o . J. Cnem. Automobile Eng..Dzh. R. 195 (1962). Eng. 145. 6. G..J.. Richardson. T. 7 (1957). V. Gerard.. Heisler. Stormant. Oil and Gas J. 25 (1. No. W.P.T. 32. 1961.B. 12711 Ekspress-informatsiya. Neuman. 13/53 (1960).. Richardson. R..Y. Eng. Lýerner. 70. 26. Preprints s.R.F. 309 35. G. News. Patent 2818417 (1957). 29. 41. Gurcyev. Barusch. No.M. (1961). Chem. No. Dille. 5 (1961). Eng.J. No.. Ye. Gostoptekhizdat. 30. 2 dated 8/I. 29/287 (1'J60). Fontaine. U. Oil and Gas. No. Kh. Chem. noy kongress. 58. W.K... 37.. R. Dzh. Steuart. 7. Barusch. 28.L.. Gostoptekhiz- USSR Author's Certificate 152526. M.960).. 53. 33.L. 2. 31. J. Uorren.E. V neftyanoy Vol. 193. 1963..R. 13 dated 26/11. No. M. 69. 40.. Kantsky.. P.K.. 56/76 Oil and Gas J. No. 19 (1957). B. U..iyi. 5 February 1962. 1955. No. 309 (1959). Automobile Eng. 27. Perry. M. Lidzhett. No. No. 2. 27. 39.. D.

Nat. 37 (1948). Uhl.. No. No. No.. - 391 - .M. 49.D. 56.M. 107 (1958). 54.. 8. "Neftepererabotka" Series. 19. M. 2 (1938). khoz..P... 42. No. 124 (1948). Okie.. 3 (1938). P. Irlin. 54 (1955). Roberts. Fish. Campbelle. 7 (1961). G.. Petrol. Eng. Oil and Gas J.E. 57. 26. Gureyev. Chem. Petrol. 2203374.. 2694721. Eng. Ye. R. French Patent 720619.. 57. 25.. G.. Nieft.. 50. 2683157. West German Patent 935467. Patent 2023142. 2196447. No. Delargey. 66. Week. No. A.Kitskiy. 50. 9. 56. No. 5. 1091205. 23 (1954). Section C G. K.. Liparelli... No. Khmel'nitskiy. 233 Braun. Netherlands Pat- 62. No. Oil and Gas J..E. Eng. Chem.. 2680758. U. A.. 82/122 (1959). B. No. ent 33394. Eng. Lovell. 126/154 (1960).A.N. 52. 1 (0962).G. 41. Ptashinskiy. 64. 26. Oil and Gas J.L. 10. J.. Ind. V. D. Cramer. NNT. W. No. Petrol.. Roberti. III Mezhdunarodnyy neftyanoy kongrecs v Gaage [III International Petroleum Congress at The Hague]... 4.P... Indian Patent 49769. '.L.. E.. 76. 58. Chem. New..C. Zarubin. U. 635-640 (1959). No.E.. 1083936.. 58. Mapstone. 47. Patent 2680756. Chem. 48. 57. Neft. A. 51. Avtomobil'nyy transport. Nottes..P. Kohle. No. 1951. No. Neft. (1959). 46. khoz.. 9. Erdol u. 63.. 43. Yu. No. 137-140 ý1958). 43. Vol. 12. 55. Neft. Eng. 2 (1938). 40. 47. 23.M. No. khoz. 4. Borovaya. I. 57. 59. Neft. Ind. Oil and Gas J. No. Filatov..S. 10 (1938). khoz. French Patent 1086656. M. 61. I. 1090321.A. Mapstone. 60. (1954). Yu..V.I.S. No. 49 (1959). No.. Fayngar. 53. 55. 5 (1937). 65.. Yu. A. 10. No. 893 (1949). Seledzhiyev. khoz.. Subbotin. British Patent 393252. VII..

N. A-215. 45.. Silishchenskaya. B. 2141 (1955). Roy. R. Biswell.V.... Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv. 7 March 1961.N. Sablina.A. 1032 (1949). C. 48.. Faraday Soc. B. C}iem.S.D. 68. Robins. Trans. 1. Ye.A. Remiz. 70. Chamberlain.. Jet and Rocket Fuels]. 83.. NNT.. Ind. No.G.R..A. Trans.. Sablina. No.N.. 175 (1949). B. Sablina. Gureyev. NNT. 77.A.. Z. A. Soc. 18. 10. A. "Neftepererabotka" Series. 1 (1958). In collection "Motornyye. Rozhkov. 1961. Ye.. Walch.B. No...V.P.. Robins.. Kornilova.. Chapter XIV. 106. Proc. Gostoptekhizdat.. khoz.. Sobolev. in collection "Proizvodstvo zhidkikh i konsistentnykh zashchitnykb smazok na moskovskom zavude "Neftegaz"" [Productlon of Liquid Lubricants and Greases at the "Neftegaz" Refinery at Moscow].A. No. Eng. Ragozin. SAE Quart.P.67. Erd6l u. 78. Ye.I.. Chem. No. G. E. Perlovskiy. N.. 74.M. K. ITEIneftegaz. M. A. 1940. 12 (1962).K. W. Tilicheyev. No. Sablina.M. Farad. "Neftepererabotka" Series. 82. Ye.. 79. Rozhkov.M.A. M. in collection "Prisadki k maslam I toplivam" [Oil and Fuel Additives]. 72. No.. Gostoptekhizdat. 6 (1957).. No.V. U. I. 31. Rudkovskiy.. 18 (1957). A. Azerb. 1998 (1955). Z. Catlin.. Z. 47. Hughes.D. Churshukov. 1962. 73. Vol'f. Gureyev. I... 69.. 1nd.H.A. A. 75. 7. B. Proizvodstvo drevesno-smolyanogo antiokislitelya [Production of Wood-Tar Antioxidant].. 1962.. 1904 (1956). 10. Shekhter. I. Z.. Walch.. 47.D.W. Englin.. Tutuayler. neft. 81. I. Kohle. 1943. Ertel't. W. 1043 (1949). Trans. Gureyev. No. Subbotin. Ind..S.A. Gostoptekh~zdat. 78 (1954). A. Kornilova. Ye. Yu. T. Eng. 80. 71.I. Englin.. Froming.. N... C.. Rozhkov. Patent Sturgis. Spravochnik po aviatsionnym i avtomobil'nym toplivam [Handbook of Aviation and Automotive Fuels].A.... Chem. Kornilo-a. D.. ... Tekn. No.A. 5 (1951). Hum. 84. Schonwalder. 2974025. Gostoptekhizdat. ukebl. reaktivnyye i raketnyye topliva" [Motor. Brown. 667 (1959).. Soc. 45. G. 76. Eng. Ye..

Gostoptekhizdat.. 86. Yu.A. "Nette- 87. T. 3 (1961). I.V.4androva.. Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel. 6. 89. 60.M.A. Dukhnina. No. in collection "Prisadki k maslani i toplivam. I.L.. Vilenkin. Nov. I.. IV Mezhdunarodnyy nertyanoy kongress. A..Ya. M. Mikulin. B..P. Kornilova. 0. A..T... 29.. Losikov. Petrol. Grishayeva. L. 90. Gureyev.S. No.A. 1491. Do1'berg.85. B. 92.. 3514 360 3841 Footnotes 'Topanol 0.. A. Rozhkov.. T. S. Klinrienberg.. Ye. Yu.V.A. G. cit..0. A. Englin.er.masel... Rozhkov.A.N. Eng. 97... Berezina.. 2Grade3 with limited use. Losikov. I.V. -393- . J. lon'.. 19~4 (1959).. R. Komarov. 1961. 88.N. Petrol. Fat'yanov. Chem. Sablina.E. Dneprov.. A.. I. Inst. Tugolukov.. J.S. loc.N.v Nikolayeva.D. 12 (1963)..I.. 411. Lipshteyn.A.I. No. Ref. 93. 297 (1964). Vol. P. No. No. 36..A. 50..M. )1... 11." Gostoptekhizdat. Z. 62 (1961). Manu- script Page No. V. A. Kichkin.A. 31 picoohrn/m 10-12 ohms/linear meter... 8 (1961). A.. Blagova... Poulson. DuPont *ýo.. Koznov.. B. 1957. No.. Petrol.. 98.. Aleksaadrova. 68.1. Smirnov. pererabotka" Series. L. 95. cit. 6 (1L963). Khaykina. Dchertyanyy. 144. 379. No.. Khimiya i tekhnologiya topliv 1. Inst. Sakodynskaya.. No.1. Oil and Gas J. Levinson. tekhnologlya topliv i masel. Avetisyan. Goryacheva. Alek. B.. 1961. 1419 (1958).. tekhn. B. VII. 33 (1962)..V.N. SAE Preprints. 94~. A. R. in collectioni "Prisadki k toplivam i maslam.V.. V. neft.. Zul'ts. 91. No. 0.S. Khimiya 1.V. 96. vW. No.. 13-141 (1955). flazvadovskaya. 11. Rubinshteyn. 3.." Gostoptekhizdat.0. Shekhter.

Manuscript
Page No. 385
Kp=

Transliterated Symbols

kr

=

kriticheskly

=

critical

- ,94

-

Chapter 6

MOTOR OILS
Oil performs the following functions in internal-combustion engines: it reduces wear of parts and prevents them from seizing;

it protects parts from the corrosive action of external agents and fuel-combustion products; it it reduces frictional losses; carries away the heat generated as a result of friction;

it continuously clears rubbing elements of wear products and other abrasive dirt (washes them out); it prevents blowby of mixture (or air) and combustion products from the cylinder into the crankcase as they are compressed. TABLE 6.1 Lubricating Systems of Automotive Engines

1o w
7 Ceeuma
wmasa

rAU"" IAI
8 Kom0116

f"''
°°

bo'uwm~KI

po22.:'ea

10 •amoo matoa,

.... ST"
GAZ-63

,200403001812 An alau: UabTwpma 4pe

A- A4
aT al ovum liters

11 ft"patvtm Maa-I am .......
1)

2)

Index GAZ-51A,

8) 9)

Combined System capacity, Oil filtering ters.

3)
4) 6) 7)

ZIL-164
MAZ-200

10)
11)

Oil preusure, kg/cm' Dual: coarse and fine fil-.

5)

"Moskvich" 407 and 410
"Volga" 1"'--21 Lubricating system

12)

Most modern transport, marine and stationary interral-eombt3tion engines use a comboined lubrication system in which 'he bearings and certain other rubbing elements are lubricated bý circu-

395

-

lating oil under pressure and the cylinder and piston by splash. Exceptions are the verj smallest engines, where all elements are splash-lubricated, and low-speed, high-power stationary and marine
diesels, where the bearings are lubricated by circulation under

pressure and the cylinders by lubricators. The lubrication systems of sertain engines are delineated in Tables 6.1-6.4. If the oil is to perform the functions listed above, exhibit the following basic properties: it must

have a certain min'mura viscosity at high temperatures and sufficient mobility at starting temperatures, so that it will perform properly throughout the entire working-temperature range; it must be chemically stable at high temperatures under conditions of continuous contact with air and fuel. combustion products, arid its properties must not change during operation; it must iot corrode the material of the engine parts and must protect these parts from external corrosive agents. TABLE 6.2 Lubricating Systems of Tractor Engines [1]
,.T-54 A.7

I 3-15 XT3

62 yI

A

8 it

rI9R

12

11 Cncrcii cfnln .

. A

.. . .

13

E•M(CTb, czaeum,
CoMt, AIu.......

25 40

27

12 I{om6 ,iinpoa Huax 7,8 8,5 7A 16-07 35 8 --

4,5
-

7,0 16,4 2-4

8,5 19,2 t1,5

......

33,3
1,7--2.7 1

15 Aaa,aeM e maCa,

i.FI/cx

1,7-2,5
18

2,0-&30

1,8-2,5

16 ,i-ah7pynoa,, MOMar: 17 rpy6od o~ltr . .

MesaxawecssA meemotl aemoiumA

1.5--30 1,8-2,2 18
-

1.8-2,1
ihJ.i~,onOToq-

MeTaljAsqe-

9

20
.laTamnneemi.

uleaSeOi uaacrn-

I
21,

I

uROgON MIrOXfýouS6

cxul

11&9

'$TrA,

io•

..

A(OO-1, |qa1V111rpM.• 0lOI1q8-

1(ACOO-

ACOO-3 ACOO-2 ACOP-2

AC4,O-2 ACIDO-1

tym

To•ymam-

12, It

.wAq~C~ ~ SrpepnROM VOCiA.

um

4

100-t20

27

120

it0

0--100

100

W-3.00 I40-32050

lxO0--z

PON

1) 2)
3) 4) 5)

Index DT-54
KDM-46 D-35 and D-36 KhTZ B-7

7) 8)
9) 10) 1.1)

D-24 D-14
GAZ-51 ZTL-120 Lubrication

12) 13)
14)

Combined System capacity,
liters Pump delivery, liters/mmn

6)

U-1-2

system
-

396

-

15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22)

Oil pressure, kg/cm2
Filtering element Coarse Slotted metal ribbon Full-flow centrifuge Slotted metal plate Fine ASFO-l or centrifuge

23) 24) 25) 26) 27)

Cotton filament ASFO-l Same Crankcase oil change interval, hours 100-120 or 240-250 (with centrifuge).

TABLE 6.,
Oil-System Capdcities of Certain Enginem with Compression Ignition 2 1

5 UAyxTaKTR&vo 61-2A W6/20 1-2A 16/27 1-2A1 5/20 16, 2-6A 19/32

9 qeTupez-

15-30 25-W0 20-50 70-

4-8A 30/50

2A 20/30 4 24/38

82-4=1C

7 8AP 43/6t

t9/30

50 50 430 100 240 375 400- 300 400-O 6TI WU/4 6-12q 05/0 800 2000'250 8SW'30 6-8'i 23/3u 80-,1500 40--80

210

&350 430 750 430

20-40 20-40 20-40 40-100

0) 71kTNK$ 1-6q 10, 5/13 ill i2/46 2-44- 8, 5/il 2-4q 13/18 4-8q•H,6 !21

10-0 i5WJ 5-25 13 1200 5 2-to 60--N 1500 18-.130.- 300 &1-to 250 80 150W 25 1500 ~50, !SO-

too

450600
000

1011

200-

01q A6, 5/4,5

18/20 N2q

7?O

375 370 0•50 75

*The extreme engine-power values and the oilsystem capacities for the minimum and maximum number of cylinders of the given type of engine are indicated. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Engine type Power, hp Rated speed, rev/min Oil system capacity, liters 8) 2-4DSP 19/30 Two-cycle 9) Four-cycle 1-2D 16/20 10) l-6Ch 10, 5/13. 8DR 43/61

-

397

-

e . stationary.. '4..acuxioro 6aXa........ but are better adapted for technolov cal...HaR emKoe• . However... Specific requirements are made as to the quality of each of the oils listed above. kg/cm 10) Oil temperature 11) At entry into engine 12) At exit from engine 13) Oil pumps 14) Gear 15) Filters filter.... . 7 SIC-22 31i SIC-20 ... .e in '.... ... . ordinary oil techni..... Ha * 1 lepenan Amneiiung ita TpO. control In the p"oS~4- 398 - .4 Typical T. ... even in their present-day form. 11 Ha 3XOJW n3 zlDjraTb9.TABLE 6....... locomotive..nepaTypa Macaa: pemNme. .. and they are appropriately reflected In the technical specifications for oils for a given application.•an ee~ne uacna a cacneme.8-16 12 12 a nHUxoAe H3 AnnraTea . g/(hp-h) 2 9) Oil pressuz.. aviation . 8 YCeAbRIAI pacxoA Macza Ha 9KcDRayTSAMOH1fOM 9 ... 3 CuaTema Caaa posa ulax ccyizxapupao 60 5 3anpano'.... . etc ).. marine.. c....for lubrication of the parts of carburetor rutomotive engines. 11 m... 115-125 1 Meci-eiaTrm f 0.for lubrication of the parts of piston-type iviation engines. xr/cxs' 10 Te.. 16) Plate 17) Pressure drop across Motor oils are classified into the following groups on the tasis of intended use: automotive . kg/cm2 ...... 81(A....ubrication System of Piston Aviation Engine [2] ________ 1 XaJpsowplupsm 2 owmmun 4 InpHyanIMO~uoan Om6iam......0 50-85 1) Characteristic 2) Index 3) Lubrication system 4) Combined circulation with dry sump 5) Oil tank filling capacity. 0.....a. ..ystem. 47cJ" ............... whether with carburetors or fuel injection....cal specifications do not exhaustively characterize all pro-pertie ' of Iw oils.. .. diesel . .) ... liters 6) Oil used 7) MS-22 or MS-20 8) Specific oil consumption at rated speed... ... .. tractor.....for lubrication of engines with compression igni- tion (automotive.... 6IpoMeaemoo Macao ....2-3..

c ny6pu.0±t0. 0 WSO N-tor M-12r Af-14r N-Icr l4M. xamrpaoi 340T) SU180 excemtE 32oomo 111H Afeusw~ ospuscToG ID-AnuCoe 43e - 37 Haauaqegue 89TOý10A-Arn ~PcoAARl~mn IsaimN )AMR 4lopcn- Mamaw 111.5 ?d-f2A M-14A M-10B M4126 12 M-6B M-8D M-14B M-1OB M-12B 1-3hi.05 M-16B M-IOA 16..5 8. Motor oils without additives or only wit~h a depressor (Regu-.311CYA1 ~iA]30sts Smsz'asna- BUZ Poaaz1 A. CNBA.20 BS3 8A"uWA-40 SAS-30 &AV-W MAI6I M-360J 00SW 15 Mf-16E - WA8204. man t20 22asuas 24 M-16B Id-20 10Pemoiion- IATA-YUN-e.wa'i ames c ay6puiialop909 iAsusi Tpazc- opiuex so mamosspmmetom 10821- X niaeOAd Bosx ""N. ld-20E AH-2 (Mussioanscp HATH-YHM-O. -399 - .. 16 OTmeascmtenu 1tx-5 Na II IW1I17 VeTO~hM I-8480 x.0:k 0. 48 (cram. raTe0ilI. ccn. UMasi&uu ASA as maxsocepENCTOM pa6orsmux pwIAsAel paftora. CTABA. amug. amT CIBA uutluuu S41 34t. apc~eHI- 14. (6pur. 1P176!64) ( puT. 22 YCT&10Bfi~JH9 ceptin ml~am 3apy6emmus W'" wP 1 2 2fyc~~em'aeluIxTop W =i. Pipx 1000 C.5 M-20B M-20A 20. I Hemntpitvmenu ma xonmems - x~ucawyat MOTOJIM 36 It (6pRY. 480s (cneaqN#~ZV&WW apunu DE? U100 x coo$som 6PuTAmtAo* ID. ABo RA3-204. 173/60. joo isr Fa_-si too C.11 AblauTS.0±*0.R *. Riutof Hotnsby AfI L-L-O00A) 32Tnauo ~ sennCTA CIBA x jAp.5%.SJA M-I0J M-12 MI.54.TABLE~ 6. 111BATuILE02.C0X04ioPCu. CMI mms mus Doines. 2 ma UmTpsom 0sD Cpm 1.0:t 0. 6.801 .HUX II&P61)PaToIdx Ne~i.5 ras-5I. (6puT.Bluz ADEFITSflux Ropintemuz psanTsp&6oraionix t AnuASas. a8 480.iiAPGIOPATOP. 6 U2464. a 1A.(i ( 9 m1~ (tmfol pmyv1) (tAummea 5 10 DnHmomr. X11u9114- pa60on- WWOR pomot clemW09 cvwtaau AAN 0111060NUa~Z cnlrr oprflWUM (0 .-T) CNMsun. MA 480 29 -~p % IA.5 Classifi~cation of Motor Oils [3] 6 7 CDAq 45 A. crami.0 ± 0.5 M-6A M-8A M-tOA 11 M-6E M-8S I 100± 0. CIBA are=. rTABA.M-01 Note. Met Hap~loparop- OumzbIIlIX Uo6uRnboux a amT- 0Sr0M06Rfler Allimuaretz pOB&HUEV DARM TuXOXOtix amiAAR 4)opc Wu caPomaH. 173/00. lar type) are not included In the new classification as being without further Interest. s amspue01M DDUIX ma sspEACIOPA WOUmommbo suE. BAE-20 - SAS. a) 8 r) simI) C.5 MO210.8r M-14B 15A. 480%.

.r W = 1. D-54 or D-38. 480 h (American standard 341-T) and ID.1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Index Oil group and indexing A (Premium type) B (Heavy Duty type) V (Series 1 type) G (Series 2 type) D (Series 3 type) Ye (Mobilgard 593 type) SAE oils correspondIng to Soviet class Viscosity at 1000C. NATI-UIM-6. Ruston.5% sulfur. D-54 or D-38. piston-type aviation engines and diesels operating on low-sulfur fuel For tuned carburetor-type automotive engines and tractor diesels operating on low-sulfur fuel For tuned carburetor-type automotive engines and all diesel applications using sulfur-contaLning fuel For tuned diesels in all applications "ziing sulfur-containing fuel For highly tuned diesels. IG . 480 h. 480 h (British standard 173/6C. 480 h (British army specifications DEF 2101B and U. 480 h.. NATI-UIM-6. 120 h 120 h 44) YaAZ-204.low-sulfur diesel Application of oil For carburetor automotive engines. cSt M-6B 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) M-6V M-8G M-8D M-16Ye Soviet methods and engines recommended provisionally for establishment of oil series 17) 18) 13') 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) Gaz-51.sulfur-containing diesel. 550 h DK-2 (diesel-compressor) on motor fuel containing 1. 480 h (British standard 124/64.•sels with lubricator system for cylinders and FPGG (cnfrr) (free piston gas generators) operating on heavy sulfur-containing fuels 011 according to API (Amerlcan Petroleum Institute) classification. lubrication Fuel Gasoline Low-sulfur diesel Sulfur-containing diesel ID . Hornsby and other engine types with lubricator. American standard 340T) IG. 100 h Gaz-51. Navy Specification MIL-L-9000A) ID. American standard 340T) Unstandardized methods on Bolnes. 100 h. 36 hr Foreign test maclines Pitter W = 1 Caterpillar Foreign test methods Pitt. - 100 - . American standard 332T) 1A.S. all applications For slow marine d'. 36 h (British standard IP176/64) IA. 480 h (British standard 173/60.

sification. it has been proposed that motor oils be divided into 7 viscosity groups. in which each oil is designated by number in accordance with its viscosity. its Depending on the type of engine. depending on temperature conditions and the environment of the machine or engine (open air. D and Ye. Only in recent years have indices characterizing the operational properties of the oils to one or another degree made their appearance in technical specifications for oils. Table 6. FOREIGN MOTOR-OIL CLASSIFICATIONS The basic classification in use in all foreign countries for motor and transmission oils for various purposes is the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) cla'. detergency. or at 210OF (98.-17. and so forth [4].6 lists oil viscosities according to the SAE classi- 401 - .. all other oils from M-10 to M-20 are used during the summer and winter. and certain others. for whom the operational qualities of the oil as applied to an engine with a given degree of tuning with consideration of the characteristics of the fuels used !.Lassifications. together with the most important physicochemical indices. G.g. M-20D is a motor oil with a viscosity of 20 cst at 100 0 C.n that engine are of prime importance. which have a double numerical designation: the first numbei' symbol characterizes the vi3cosity of the otl at subfreezing temveratures and the second at above-freezing temperatures.). B. its thermal and mechanical stressing. form the basis for contemporary Soviet and foreign oil classifications. the SAE classification was supplemented by the multigrade oils. oils M-6 and M-8 are winter grades for automobiles and tractors. without consideration of their operational properties. 2. to correspond to the prevailing foreign classification. degree of tuning. Accordingly (Table 6. M-6A stands for motor oil.5). and the type and properties of its fuel.7 0 C) for winter-grade oils. Tests on full-scale and model machines are acquiring increasing significance in evaluation of oil properties. 1. The results of zhese oil tests.duction process. it must pass the appropriate engine test. ship. it has been proposed that oils be classified into 6 groups: A. group A (Premium). Table 6. In 1950.9 0 C) for all other oils. These indices inc!Lde stability to thermal oxidation. viscosity 6 cst at 100'C. is unsatisfactory from the standpoint of engine manufacturers and users. corrosiveness. The viscozity Jlb determined at 00 F (. etc. group D (Series 3).5 indicates the correspondence of the oil groups to the foreign viscosity (SAE) and property or application (API) c. For an oil to be assigned to a group (series). followed by comparison with a reference standard. SOVIET MOTOR-OIL CLASSIFICATION The prevailing grouping of oils by production methods and basic applications. which are coded with the letter "W" (Winter) in the classification in addition to the number. e. indoors. V. Each type (grade) of motor oil has a code designation.

.6 Classification of Oils by SAE Numbers 1 :4 SAE Dn3mwcm (a cern) ap.0 156 190 90 IOW-30 2600 6.5 1154 13.0 156 6. O.8 0 C 12Da34OeM - (DCMr) 0+11.5 132 II20W-40 20W-50 IOW-40 10W-S0 20W-30 10050 10050 13. the so-called regular-grade oils.85 22.0 139 144 97 113 120 1) No.2 16.2 W57 5. The upper and lower oil-viscoslty values permitted by the classification are rather widely separated for each grade.0 16X8 4. CM 2 BRsvom. cSt 3) Maximum at -17.8 5W-10 5WV-20 5W-30 5W-40 870 870 870 870 2600 4. 2) Viscosity (cSt) at .8 6. -17.TABLE 6.75 9.75 1) SAE No.9* C low 20W 20 5W 30 2600 - 1300 2600 10050 - 880 40 50 13. 4 a a 3 M :0 A0 4 np0 IT~& 2600 2 600 10 ON 16 A 13&0 16.y oils.80C. The SAE classification does not set standards for such ind4ces of oils as their oxidation stability and other indices that characterize the use properties of the oils.9 0 C 5) extrapolated in ac- cordance with ASTM curves Minimum viscosity index.0 140 6.7 presents the supplement to this classification for multIviscosi'.7 - - 1&0 9. 4) Minimum at 98.C 3) Minimum 4) Maximum. and Table 6. Requirements based on tests of the 3ils In special engines are formulated in specifications that take the operating conditions of the oil into consideration. 2) Viscosity.7 16.. - includes 4O2 - a .7 Viscosities of Multigrade Oils 2 Bn3om. The first group.5 16. fication. n 31. TABLE 6.8 IOW-20 M~V-50 870 6.

which contain additives that endow the oils with detergent properties. it differs from MIL-L-2104A. and not imposing any special requirements on the oil. in which special requirements must be made of the oil as regards freedom from sludge formation and bearing corrosion because of engine design features or fuel properties. the ability to prevent formation of varnishes and carbon deposits on hot engine parts. i. anticorrosion additive! are also used in these oils to prevent corrosion of bearings made from easily corroded alloys. Special oil grades were created for very heavy duty conditions . Army. DG: diesels that impose no particularly rigid requirements on the oil (wear and corrosion of parts or formation of deposits on them). which was adopted in 1954. ML: gasoline engines with spark ignition.e. Specification MIL-L-45199 provides a Series 3 oil quality. it became necessary to develop oils that possess higher detergent properties. without design features that might cause formation of sludge. The second group is composed of oils of the better "Premium" grade. developed specifications for Series 3 oils. DM: diesels operating under heavy-duty conditions or using ordinary fuel but not having design or operational peculiarities that make them partic'alarly sensitive to solid deposits forming from the oil. and prevent piston-ring burning. which lontain additives that improve their antiwear properties and antioxidants.Supplement I and Supplement II or Series 2. The American Petroleum Institute (A'I) has proposed a letter system for indicating oil use conditions. MIL-L-2104A and DEF-2101B were In 1962-1963. These oils contain a large quantity of highly efficient detergent additives (15-20%) and can be used in the most highly stressed diesel engines in operation on high-sulfur fuels. In connection with the extensive use of diesel fuels with high (up to 1%) sulfur contents. and having high crankcase-oil temperatures. in having requirements for evaluation of the oil's tendency to form sludge and its corrosive aggressiveness during cold engine operation [5-7]. the new motor-oil specification MIL-L-2104B was introduced. the Caterpillar Tractor Co.. MS: gasoline engines operating under unfavorable conditions. DS: diesels operating under exceptionally heavy-duty condt- . Usually'. Oils meeting specifications used until recently. The third group embraces oils for severe operating conditions (heavy duty. In the U. Over the last few years. HD).S. MM: gasoline engines for medium and heavy duty conditions that tend to promote formation of sludge and bearing corrosion.oils without additives that are suitable for use in lightly stressed automotive engines.

Tests on the UIM-1 machine have the purpose of establishing the tendency of the oil to cause piston-ring burns and form deposits on the piston. The OD-9 engine is used (by method I) to evaluate the tendency of oils with additives to form varnish deposits on the piston. sleeve wear is evaluated by the crescent-cut method. ring wear by direct weighing.5). determining them according to AUSS 5726-53.8 and 6. deposits on the piston. 3..9). the amount of deposits on the pistons and rings are evaluated by a point system. which have the purpose of determining the tendency of diesel oils To fo-rm deposits. MOTOR METHODS FOR EVALUATION OF OIL QUALITY The operational properties of oils for interna2-combustion engines are determined on single-cylinder or multicylinder engines In accordance with a strictly regulated program and on a specific grade of fuel (Tables 6. A 100-h test is also run on the GAZ-51 engine for general evailuatlon of oil quallty in groups A and V (s. Tests are run on the D-5h or D-38 engine for general evaluation of d(iesei-oil quality in groups B and V of the Soviet classificatlon.9). The test method using the UIM-6 machine is recommended for evaluation of group V oil quality (see Table 6. and overall wear by the amount of iron in the oil. in connection with the development of highpowered V-type automotive engines. Also determined is tne amount of deposits on the piston. a quantity determined by AUSS 5726-53. Continental European specifications basically duplicate the American and British specifications MIL-L-2104A and DEF-2101B. These requirements are also reflected in the American specifications (ASTM G-IV-MS). . oxidation of ti.5). The GAZ-51 engire is used to evaluate the tendency of an oil to form sludge at the bottom of the crankcase and in the 1ralve chamber of the engine (see Table 6. rings and special "1'it- nesses" inserted in the piston. The same engine is used in method II to characterize Lhe detergent action of the additives and the oxidation stability of oils with additives.ted above. The amount of the deposits and their nature are determined.is ai!o evaluated In these test:. corrosion of b.tionI that promote formation of deposits and accelerated wear for related to the design of the engine or fuel properties. the API specification for class MS oils has been supplemented by a series of requirements relating to tests of these oils on a number of highly tuned automotive engines..ýel is used to evaluate the quality of group (I aini P wilh.e oil. The IT9-5 machine is used to evaluate corrosive aggressiveness and dettergeacy of automotive oils. In tests on the IT9-3.ton-ring wear are evaluated in this test. Tn additIon to th!3 sarnrtero lis. the rating parameter is the sum of indices for deposits and piston-ring mobility. Fiston-ring mobility. over-all foul!ni of the engine.ee Table 6. The YaAZ-2C4 two-stroke dle. The results of determination of the mobility of the rings.arlntg antifriction alloy-. Tests on the IT9-2 are run to determine the varnishing capacity of automotive oils with additives. reasons In recent years. filter deposits. and cylinder and pl:.

naUM % rTO .. '05 - ..A. e PW6o-1 9 .. 62) 0.. 2 (r0CT 05-62) (rocT (['OCT 305- lWaeah-ioe !1 Xsem own B-70 49) 2 3 Cepa ........6 1 4 PacXoA TOf...f W5 US 180 45 1090 1 2 '-. MocrN OC: 1 6 OVfiUXJM... . ..... kg/h 23) 24) 25) Sulfur in fuel.1-ND..A-9 Il0..... .XXY-1300 12.2 - 1. am . X*1/ (BXIO) 1300 60 - 5-2610 1200 1200 - 30 120.a.. ) 5) 6) 7) Engine type D-54 cylinder D-75 cylinder 8) Displacement...l 17....5- 12 (rOCT 4 ) 22 1.... . nopmam paI I rjpo•POAA(3N"b2OCW5 . flalyUS. - 0....3 1) Characteristics of engine and test conditions 15) 16) Temperatures.5 11540 95 5 1800 21 34-35 - 0$.8IkI1 . OD-9 IT9-.. Xs . .6 0..... 1 8 1Rojmqec9o 2 0 Tona2ho . hp Fuel consumption.....8 Soviet iMiethods for Rating Oils on SingleCylinder Engines IsPAN?( VsCThitA =xaaft QAt ~ 71AXU 4n O.. 1 v Xo......... haacAa r.. kg/cm'.. 1. .. h Revolutions per minute Power. .CJIo o~opoTCoU a j-.. 1005 4749- 1140 135 00 100 2 Seu- 85 2 aeab.7 liters Fuel Diesel (AUSS ... - 1500 4A-4.5 1 3 MOMHO•.. 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) Oil Amount of oil in crank8.. : 2.1-9 H1OAT9-2 UT94 STau ASUrar48. liters 22) B-70 gasoline 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Bore.'a . mm Stroke. Coolant case. UK125 - o00MU. % Less than Boost pressure...o 2 5 l•aanienwe IF/CM. A .. IHM- 135 100 19 2 135- a0m 17MACJ.... 6o..2 0.6 813 US - 0.. no@ 1A- 100 Eaum B-70 rope. mm Running time. kg 0C 2) 3) 4) UIM-. np .46 1 15W 120 3S 318 1050 I 0....7 Igo00 0$6 I 1 S TesmiepaTypa.... '....0 - .aaMsTp nVaRaNApa..TABLE 6..

..•nHAPo3 . 2 1 R{onn1~ecIto uacaa u NapTepO. A-35 4 100 130 too A-38 4 105 130 too HA3.......A - - 95 12... lpo•Ao0nUTe.... XX . T/lca' ..naMeTp qUuMaHpa..... . " . n 1 an rA3-5 i 2 A-33 2 3 3 A-38 i 4 4 A3-204 5. 16 e 1 7 CpeAmo vokTnnoe &aaaenns.5 95 123 1420 5. 9 .204 4 106 t27 A-54 4 25W -- i 140aI1 2 -MooT.. .O 1.. .0 24gAaamm 2 I 2 s Cepa a ronaze..9 Soviet Methods of Rating )ils on Multicylinder Engines r ue ea. .. C 'A-5 6 8 82 Ito 24 1 4 nlpe .... OC: 1 9 oiaa XC. ... .. . xoMC. . % 1.. hp hours 22) 23) 24) 25) case. laimnet 535--40 . i qnco 1.. . .... %.-i.t A. kg/cm2 Temperatures. .0 tO 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Characteristics of engine and test condltions GAZ-51 D-35 D-38 YaAZ-204 D-54 Engine type Number of cylinders 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) Variable Revolutions Der minute Same Average effective pressure.8 A - -- 2 2 Ton0f13 . . mm Running time. mm Stroke. 3O02 1. 5 A-54 6 7 Tna AnraTeOA. A.. 1 o Xog nopmen.. .Be2esn - Azuean. Fuel liters Gasoline Diesel Sulfur in fuel. 0 C Coolant Oil Amount of oil in crank- 9) 10) ii) 12) 13) Bore.. .TABLE 6. 1 6 Temuepauypa.. 1 s qniCj0o o MR3777 . 2.1bhocrb pa... And Power. 480 13 . 6 1420 5..OU ..

.7 f 840 208 Ipnae 1...47 82.. . .) in ID 10 lTan Amennna'J . .6...sooutane + 0. . ._t6....05 111*2(1) %-I 6.. kg/cm - Sulfur. % Method (HD) (Supplement ') No less than. a. Coolant OC Oil Not regulated Air at induction Not above Minimum Volume of oil in crankcase..08 kg/h . .TABLE 6.71 N 39 3 9- -- nON I ' .22 4 : 2 5 tX 0o. IS... . .: 2 5 Toxmsr~p.88 I I = .46 20 146 -3?) 2ANl.e•12u 35•A U "bann .... kg/cm 12) 13) Lubeco Displacement. hp Variable Running time at conditions.. 407 - .0 104 48 1 lot M 1t0 - 2 O Paoo20O ToA U paOo. ox0naM•eU 2 7 Mae= . . 1100 1600 120 1. .m1.. 6562 655 54' 61 7. .Y . mm Revolutions rer minute 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) Diesel 1. kcal/min Average eff(e t. nu paenow.3 65 430 743 3med/MM 151 i474 460 4O '.. a QVaunWo M.. HD..0 1200 425 430 14003 I's ..S. 20 A ma 480 735*f5 MUG 5... . .. . . HD..rt/ 43t 3oe 3-34007 45. . .2 oee 4. Supplement I HD.6 ... 2 8 lie" 34 Ba a.4 I0 am xef L 1 4AWoTV Y 814t 146 208 2. liters Oil change interval. . Navy Series . . pres2 sure.. .b t3o89 16O As £2 4tp¶ 813 Is 31 2 9 uo0A7zaU mRCA 3 20•. . s 1. Series 3 Specification MIL-L-2104B Engine type 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 3h) 35) Temperatures. .1158 £0 so46 0 t. 85 UAV 0...8 ml of TEL to 1 liter 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) Power..2 15 is 22 5. I l65 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 'Characteristics o.... S3Pa&Ooqxu *Ow.0 IS0 I 1 SXo nopmn. U. 1 6 q'lAe o0opoiom6 T - i6s to 2150 19 fpq 7MOgUIbO I 2 4 Cpiie 2 6 xo.. *t. .. 6? lm A!!1 x 1.f' engine and test conditions Pitter Caterpillar Oils rated Premium. ti 8&U 30 sen$ 1.. . e.... . Supplement I Supplement I. .0fo u/I 5.6.. mm Stroke. 1000 20 t. MM . 10 Specification Methods Used Abroad for Rating Oils on Single-Cyllnder Engines Xapaxftpnofun CUjMTWUD _____ ______ ______ W-I AV- IA (1l. . 1 t"2 "enlOMG N 147 a 3 dIa MUM Q 3. h No changes 2 Boost presmure. 4. ..5.1 ! .. .1 £000 20 2... _" 0. . .. liters 36) 37) Fuel Gasoline 14) 15) 16) Bore.. . . .. . ve... hours Fuel consumption 20 ml in 41''. Tenbr ofl' . -- - im.

..3o....5 121 . r. 36 84 1800 300 84 1800 300 I 180 100 77 84 45 1200 300 8 1 5U.. I only. 1 9..("'o iev-loped in England.. JAea terp •a•..4 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6.The DK-2 diesel compressor is used to rate oils 'ntended for slow-running diesels with a separate (lubricator) oiling system.... TIM 3-71C 3 108 127 3. 1 6 Tcnanino.. . CE UI '....... qat'ao r-anntpos . mm Stroke.54 889 95.a 10 AMROu em. ....... . d -4O - .. 7) 8) 9) 10) Characteristics of engine and test conditions Speciflcatioli Engine type Chevrolet General Motors type 3-71C 3NiJber of cylinders Disp7 ...2 5 wenepani MoTopc.caa ... and Caterpillar rnecho-i iG for oils of Seriet... . the( r c(crr :iVe I'r. OC Coolant Oi.•valuat on cC the otidatlon stab IIity of motor o1l1g.. . liters Bore.pone 6 3... Navy (MIL-L-9000A).upplement i (Series 1) oilh.-.th cV.. •.•]s uied by the V.3 9 X0. .. . i 94 i b rasogb 94 107 08. C. iX-I Fitter W'-I m. 1 GM-li I 7 269 17 27 2M 1727 3 6 7 8 Tan Aseralean . Fuel Gasoline GRs oil Sulfur..ae1 a . .. .. .. -% C. •.-I cr rncthod '. 'C: I 4oxmaw Asoigell 7. The characteristics of single-oylinder diesels used abroad to evaluate oil quality are given in Table 6.• . oC H. This table also indicates test conditions.. .Ik U Dopt •'..0'fl 3f6e. . pivlded by' the USA'z Spec1fication M1_K-L-'5199. Testing of Serl. 9000...et.0195-11051 g9COPS... and their ten- Tho Pltter W-1 :m-. j 0. 30 1 'IiUc3o o 6 opoToP 8 ManyTy 3150±25 1 2 rI[O1OJ. 4 Ile.. ......%.vy->ity-ty[.. .. Pa6o.... TABLE 6. ... 4..OIA and .10...... meet Specification5 DEF-2!01b and MI. I. : iveness......ater-']lur enEllie for ornmprehenslve ratirn. that.3 .e oi'1.3 17 9 Beuana 93. Caterplillar metnLd IF i! used t..-? 3 oils on the CaterpliLar 1D and 10 englnes i•... h Temperatures. 1-ate .1 American Specification 14ethcds for Rating Oils on Multicylinder Engines 1 Xa2Pwrepnc 'a-u Mysaraffi N YowO11iIN (CRC-L.KxZTeab1?OC'h Pa6TomnepaTypA..ed on a . hp 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) Revolutions Ter minute Running time. Caterpillar method AD for Series 2 and 3 o-113.• ( '• .S.8 10. Thc m Lehý:1 ..n Power.-?).....{gAzw> . !r-.

.5 (in all t 'st "3) 44) its. 3 1 TorY ~ 2 3 5 (a h 10 .....inxr. - 409 - . 500a..12 Conditions of Classification Tests Provided by ASTM L4 st GIV-MS L011 A i CIUN t I MIX R 125H7&-OPI Cfl 2 o..02% s 46 Am ui.:o more than 7. .... liters 5 (in all three tests) :..-ic. . s) 25) 26) ..aI 2 -2 71 60 o Bc2EMU C 0. -. lls 22 .T:o 3a•nmxa np71(NXN *Xa- 11.Pn-p.I TABLE 6...) 5 49*1 6! 3400 O: ..5 : 1 15.... ruanan-m• 2 2%2 7 %~ 20 Hopl.30O 0 100 0 . hp '. 1 Test No.. I5 2 t (UM 1 .200 16o - 2500 106 1. and sludge Anitiscoring properties Formation of low-temperature sludge. varnish depos- Air:fuel r'atio Valve-8pring tensioning 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) No-mal 136% of maximum Oil consumption. TEL per 1 liter 7) 8) 9) I0' 11) 12) 13) 141) 1 Test No. 5 82 - 4? - 52 82 - 77 "o 1 HO. eM 'TSjlid OCTRHOVT...'i... 2*0.gan -2 50A^UK 80 O..... ..0 :2 I 1I0Os1 25Ea 51 1k 23 (Imiu. 4 1 3 6 2 24 He perUSUIU3 - HOlrmA11011 . Maximum °C traces of scoring on valve pushrods and camshaft Rate of rusting Corrosion.ngine r'unning time Minute-... Not regulated Normal winter Sulfur content 0.IM Hnufhaussw a Koppaoa.. 222 2 5 .. "C: 1 2 T . 29 4 -- 0 1 9531 ..8 -i. hours Fuel of Gasoline vith 0. 28 2 9 q no mlouos (l~nUiaos) 30 O&LmU.ram n . 4i 1 9 90a uoc AmlwUMtAb PsUci..... oo Tsua namiymmm) 40%2 7 .ONI n "lP• 13 1 3 11ADUOA 1a lmulMoiuac WAIT.. Tlran p.6 (as no s 7 4 J 9 1 3 4 0MaS WiUMi - A cXo Wnacnai .oOmrwf. npo..... Tex a uoT ..)1 I 20 121*1 Jos 02 -.16 * 0.9uTBC 40 3 9 36 ejTfjX ps3 U Oqu4nAmsase fob9n8ne R M Oph 0. ....iW....5 . 3 Revolution5 per minute Power. moa 110 mNm a elm= O6plnemo anpoaimespw I RW= Oslo" I - I . .... 3 5 Co 7 3 10 7 I I .02% by mass Crankcase ventil. . 2 Test No...5. ' Io.. .a"M He done 7. "1 1 0 qn0no o0opoToou yguny- . 0 C Leaving engine Entering engine 1) n... Plugged N'nrmal Tndices evaluated Pitting corrosion and 16) 17) 18) 19) 01 teirperature...mo.. S 2 .....1 10ayu OCEUO4AmUM Rep101=1mi Isn calm U Tun.. 42 4 0 1) Index 2) 1958-60 Oldsmobile engine 3) B 4) C 5) 1958 DeSoto engine 6) 1957 Lincoln-Mercury engine 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 311) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) Hours Engine-off time Number of steps (cycles) Total test time.ter temperature. ROC7h ..C .4 NW.

At the present time. The detergent properties of oils meeting the requirements of the same specification are evaluated by Caterpillar method I-H.... AV-I method is to characterize the detergent properties of diesel oils..stroke engine is extensively used to rate oils conforming to Specifications MIL-L-9000A and MIL-L-9000E.-ty at ono. `m•c•. Navy.... B...Irolnert . Piston-type aviation engine:. Knowledge of the visco:. the test erties of the oil the Lincoln engine rates them at low temperatures (see Table 6.f 's propert1es.. 6-10 8-16 18-24 Durlng the cold season of the year and In re-ions with low with lower vi-cos3Itics are used In autoriotemperatures. The viscoLs1t~e...13. (carburetor and fuel injection) .12. The Pitter. all applicatlons• ..S...3Sty. The test on the DeSoto engine permits evaluation of the propvi•th in high-temperature operation.... Testing on the Lubeco engine by the LTD method makes it possible to evaluate the tendency of oils to low-temperature sludge formation (MIL-L-2104B).. or two temperat ireos I usu'... and yield a comprehensive evaluation for oils to be used in Navy powerplants. as shown in Table 6.. duration. this method is replacing the Chevrolet (L-_ test.. 1958 DeSoto..ve evaluation of oil '.dency to form varnish deposits. diesel a•id aviation oil:. Tests on a 1958-1960 Oldsmobile engine fitted with a special carburetor and two copper-lead connecting-rod bearings are run in three successive (no oil change) stages (A.-co:7ty h I . Tue vls. The GiIC Type 3-71C two-.... the required o1-viscosity 0 0C) lie within the following ranges: Carburetor automotive engines ..ico. and 1957 Lincoln engines has been adopted for evaluation of the sultability of class MS oils for use in modern high-powered V-type automotive gasoline engines in accordance with ASTM List GIV-MS. 4...... designed The L-38 method used with the Lubeco engine is used to determine the oxidizabilities of oils arid their corrosion properties.. and type of fuel used..and low-temperature operating conditions. which had been used to characterize the qualities of oils with various series of additives (Table 6. Tests of the series run on this en-gine differ in conditions.12).. C)..........of automotive...11). ally insufficient for c are characterized .. VISCOSITY AND VISCOSITY-TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF MOTOR OILS levels (in cst at 10 For most engines. Diesels. oils air tive engines and diesels.. by the GMC method with the purpose of rating the oil under high. From 1 to 2% of sea water is added to the oil periodically to bring the test conditions closer to those of actual use.. which apply in the U. A series of tests on 1958-1949 Oldsmobile. are glven in Table (...:. of co:m-rclal grade:...

iOf npn 500C K NUHe- 1(11e1t1"waxOC-m DiBR|O- 22 20 14 20 8..__..5 6..5 7.5 5.A310o1 - - 505 A 10.15- 10 0.t<laUi~Th Cl+a61unfllOcrlb I- . %: xaunacna6canp.No 4Iwo Moao o Mesloerpm mOIO B .Ro(Jy1e %.01 0.Dalian. 2 CneuuazbAESMIWOH.005 (Cf opocaM 2 5 BHXK 0.2-11.65 7..02 - 0. IS - - -431 25 il -10l-15 I -11-2 -- -251 -- 0 mem..85 6._ tive engine on average temperature of parts and lubricating oil: 1) middle of top of niston.05 0.3 of O4 0. I0 `!V)JC..8.20 0. us I :.5 9 6.0 8.•y il41tox tills' ut.-05 14.00. 2) cylinder wall (top). A' 110 TABLE 6.. Influence of load on automoZ50 2 A A 50.0- 13 .'eH•u Bo~mvup...Jidillno v~iqOC.05 - 0.. *411 20 U i 0 . K0I1 400: (W. 4) crankshaft bearings. me alItO 110 0. Me umen 1. A) Temperature.5 7 i.ma limp- se oa - .OO0 000. 35 alJ.lp". "i 2 7 INCAOTlO.-1.. 0C..3 crl tipm 1000C. 7 17.02 - n. As 0045 0.3 - tie pocam F. a 9q -ý * I IMEATNM835 1 9 BnOCI rSIHeMaTutrpm 1000 C li uO l i e1.02 - 0. 3) cylinder wall (bottom). 3'• _ 35 65 CKopocmb Mu.10 0..5 6. .003 4 i C II0. CJ um'e.75 12. - 13 1 40. - 1C 0...4 0A 0.303b6OCTI.o10o0. B) speed of vehicle..6 7. re 6o0.' qoH61 roCT t0o-3-e4 10 He I' 6360-58 I1 ooT rOCT 5304-54 • 12 2 ' 1-4 BTY 11n 84-40 3-4 s1 t 22-55 25 W at t 11 ..p 300 350- Fig. A0 "". He 6owee 2 2 .. km/h.(Ot MI TUI~qd(.2 0. I| 1..1.2 - mu.-35 t.13 Basic Quality Indices of Oils Used to Lubricate Internal-Combustion Eniine...5-.7 6onee o3CAO.-812.55 0.1.x OA 4HATI4M-3. i AOI . ..25OZ 02 -" 0..3 0. S J•Ihail&UO0 Incao 7 1 florawaronB 3 *~~rotIa._ _ _.5 1262--68 (lps 5V C) 20 6.me2 Me- me- 17. OC.5 10 2 20 3D 0s MS C| RAN cz)ýo lite I•l t rm iZ C.13 13 1 1 0 o 10 0 O -- .30 0. 5) oil in crankcase.15 0o0 ..CLI. 3 0 TeulipAtyPA 8a8Cr.75 7.250.5 nee1196i9 ti OT . 6..15 Iifl1• 0.0 10...5 4 15.

M -I2V Without additive 7) Motor oil 8) V'rI 0 1) M3-O 41:4 17) With LIAATt1M-339 additive 14.0 (%.005 -m-mo C 3% upucaJWE HAIMC. 600 1500 1000- HlWUe~aTINeC1RoI 4. Be 6onee .I .8 -- 40 5. Special.0 13.0 3.8 IJ~fi maosJA c apnegjV11i 14HATHM-33Q.0 TemInepaTypa a...10 0.01 10. ..7 AMRN lie 6o .0 4 6 3oabnocmb.JSb CGSIMHON Mawr' awmooIAlinhiOlcn I. 0.5 OTHo1c30ze 500 w e flAOROCTHf n PIK C X B~anocrn u1ps uaTuqecxOi 10000C. twAGoppo31wl (1CIN~araIne1 DAa IC7 CTaDRaX Ra cDuttia mappiJ Ct va 30 27 310 27 30 30 - - - - - - 2) .26 026 0. .0 8. BC IW.. 4 3 npZ 100* C . -xne 50 1{oucyeaaocm UPMAKRn IlO Ao6anjeam n6ozee .. ..40 0.. 11) 32) 13) 14!) 15) 16) MT-.0 - 0 C.-L- n~ocm no MeTOZRY IlTIaON Ups 2500C. no eneue. 0C..rIJeaI9IHn.2 0.. imn 0 -30 -20 -20 -t5 -25 -40 -35 -4o -25 -25 ___ -5 6TepmooxImCJIffTCJII~naR c~a611..8026 - 0.5 4. 0.oto50100....0 2...01 0..5 - 9.. ..A TS6Ie ?a0 6poiasa C-3 to 10 10 10 1o 10 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) index Aviation oil AUSS ....0 9'.2 0..000.. oil Diesel oil VrTi NP .TABLE 6. xum..0 8. - He iwenee 5 9.0 - 10. . %: macji 6t3 flpNCSA1.25 0.20 - cnpffC3AXlO 2....3 (continued) Mawia 3 03 IISTOaiOMifhI. . .. .9 ~0 0...5 45-60 29-33 (upx 50 C) (Ups 500 C) 6.15 0. cSt..30 3..0 He weilee 10.0 3.. us KOH na 5 I 6a.8 39 '0 4 136 FIOCT 1882-60 1 I1 37 136 4.. ss .2 Bnawocra.10 0. as -.1. I(ENO&TI1SCX8Bl. 3.6 7A 8. .. 4. . . 44 *a 5 . .. .. DS P.. 8) 1 ) Not below 4 . na6onee 0 ... D-. . usCDIC 5'.0 - 0j.10 0315 0.8 52 1RCjn0TIoe menCJo...10 0..0 25 - 6.26O. '.lbp Dp-. . 7..40 0.70 - 51 C 3% upscan HAHC.. 3 '4 aiiitepa~ _________________________________O 1 FOCT 5808-50 31PMn 7 3 6 36 3 37 1'OC' 3621-51 3.5 7. . .. Kilnematic visco~iity. 0.8 0... 0.8 9.

minutes... 37) AKp-. not below 57) Corrosion (test on type S1 or S2 lead plates).I 20) 21) ' ?'1 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) At Ratio of kinematic viscosity at 50'C to kinematic viscosity :it 1000C. not above Stability against thermal oxidation by Papok method at 250 0 C.. mg of KOH to 1 g. cSt 43) at 1000C 4)1 at 0 0 C. 00. %. not above 56) Thermal-oxidation stability by Papok method at 2500C. % 47) For oil without additive. not above 48) For oil with IMATMM-339 additive... not less than 49) With 3% NAKS additive. 0C. 41) AKzp-. no more than ?ror oil with WMATHM-339 additive. not above 4 50) Coking capacity before addition c additive. not above Without additive With additive Pour point.. mg of KOH to 1 g. not above 53) Without additive 54) With additive 55) Pour point. not less than 32) Corrosion (test on type S1 or S2 lead plates). minutes. g/m 2 . not above Acid number. ... not above 51) With 3% NAKS additive 52) Acid number. %. not above 45) Ratio of kinematic viscosity at 500C to kinematic viscosity at 100 0 C. not larger than ?r "I2 without additive. 42) Kinematic viscosity. not above 58) On S-30 bronze. g/m 2 . 38) Summer 39) Winter 40) AKZp-. not above 46) Ash. no less than (Kith 1% VNII NP-360 additive) Coking capacity before addition of additive. not above 33) Automotive oils with additive 34) Special automotive oils 35) Auto-tractor oils 36) ASp-.

MK-2 zoe o . A)Kinmati vicos ityc~t (V-7. 2) exhaust gases 540-870'C. 10) connecting-rod bearings ~95-205%C. 3) exhaust valve head ~t& I540%C. 4) exhaust valve stem 1505) head of piston 205-425CC.Fig.) p-1.5) 4 83. 8) cylinder wall (top) 95-3700 C. 425-815%C. 9) cylinder wall (bottom) 10-1500 C. 11) main bearings 65-175%C. 12) crankcase oil 35-150%C. 7) piston skirt 915-205%C. Typical running temperatures in carburetor engine [12): 1) combus- tion chamber 2200-2480IC. 6.i). 10 100 000 50000500 10Oi 2 is:1 d~sl A-50 M& 2) p-8. 6) piston-ring zone 150-315%C.) 1T-8.2.6) B)temeraureOOC ~ 2000 1500 3 I-1 I-4.7.

=E10% T ('yryrih P. 1 a•nu*) P.90% 2!55 250 210 206 =SMD 7) Ait *Temperature in 1) Engine 2) Temperature. • 1 • *llm flb 5 IEap6IopaTopflUS 6 •BHraTeaI 10 10 )JIESJ[I BHfl-t2i 7 Pe~100% 198 SIp- -90 CMIC ClZ~7 SP. 3) AKZp-10. ABLE 6. B) temperature.= Pe= t62 60% 187 180 16p17 t4..Cl Engines [8] 2 Teaiparr pa. 0 • S "C i2 16' .4I.114 Piston Temperatures in Internal-Combustion 2Tel . Fig. 6) SAE-5W (England). ad60% 7npH 187 B)90% 164 np5 P. '. °C. = t00% * 0%e 175 169 B re-3 -7 8 P2 12 .=dOO0% f"tiHPo-. cSt. 9)MZMA-40 1 9 first 10 12 7nHP-70% pIston-ring 7A-5 Pe-5 100 1)Z D-4 3 groove.tO0%n 192 170 P.9000 8000 [ 2 AIl -18 -12 -l -4. B rernepamypu. Viscosity-temperature characteristics of domestic and foreign diesel oils at 2ow temperatures: 1) DP-1l. 14) SAE-20 (Argentina). A) Viscosity.= 7nApn 60% P. st 228 (aoaluyeum) )i nM TC A-5 3) Top of piston head 11 Land 0' first A4) piston ring 5) Carburetor engines 10) Diesels 6)HZI_-121 ll)_SS 2)~ Tepraue ~ I:C . 2) DP-8.8 33n 325 210' 237 232 (nP. 5) SAE-10W (England).=t0 IS - 22. 6.

/00 -10 /ZO B rffnI7jtmpoflo. Viscosities of certain oils at high temperatures (according to V. 0C.I. Semenido): 1) MK-22. \ M0 MOO 2 Z 0 2000 3000 A 0 -t5-/5 -5B 7emnepo. A) Viscosity. cSt. 2) AS-5. 7) 325-400 0 C fraction. 0C. 2) MS-20. B) temDerature./n1W 200 600 Fig.5. B) temperature. 1'30 wO /50 6. 4) AK-10. Viscosity-temperature characteristics of automotive oils: 1) AK-10. Sharapov and Ye. A) Viscosity. cSt.G. 6.6. 5) industrial 50. 4) AKZp-6. 3) MT-16. i aI . T toA 4 Fig. alv 4 500• 300 V20 - A /0050[ 20 "30 15 10 - a 2 020 o o 50I B 7emnepamgpV. 3) AKZp-10. 6) industrial 20.

15 and Figs.16 for distillates of lubricating oils from various origins and for oils obtained from these distillates by sulfuric acid Selective purification removes polycy- clic aromatics and tars from the distillate more thoroughly....3 and 6. 5 7 I.6 presents viscosity curves of certain oils at temperatures above 1000C..13 also gives the values of these indices for certain oils.) Engine type C5) ch-8..17.5i 2) Temperature. the viscosity index depends on the group chemical composition of the oil.1 and 6... Generally./1. The flatness of oil viscosity-temperature curves are evaluated approximately in American and West European practice by use of the Dean-Davis viscosity index.. 'C 3) Top of piston (maximum) 4) Piston.5 those of automotiie oils for a broad temperature range. Figures 6.15 Piston Temperatures in Certain Diesels S TtwnsWYM7. Oc 4 NM opme a ) 1. the determination of hightemperature viscosity is usually limited to a determination at 1000C.2). This index determines the starting properties of the oils at low temperatures and their lubricating properties at high operating temperatures. shown in Table TABLE 6.mno3t fully by the curve of viscosity as a function of temperature in the temperature range in which the oil is used: from the oil temperature when the engine is started to the temperature developed in the engine parts under various loads (Tables 6. Values of the viscosity index are given in and selective purification.. and in USSR specifications by the ratio of the kinematic viscosities at 50 and 100 0 C (V 5 0/VIDO).. 417 - .14 and 6.j -(630 .. 6.. the shallowest viscosity-temperature curves are found for hydrocarbons of the paraffin series and cyin the side chains.. Flatness of the viscosity-temperatu.. since the viscosity change as the temperature rises further is insignificant. 6. clic (naphthenic and aromatic) hydrocarbons with many carbon atoms Table 6.... 6. Table 6.... In practice..4 show the viscosities of certain aviation and diesel oils and Fig. and hence the resulting oils have superior viscosity-temperature properties (high viscosity indices).e curve is very important. in zone of first compressicn ri-ng - 6) ChN-18/20 7) 2D-0JO. Fig. The influence of tars on the viscosity levels of residual and distillate oils is 6....

03600 9 Jfit'Oa'rnicot...48 1 61.47 59..4 19.0 10 I52.65 8 i.. TABLE 6.0 17. B) temperature.. cSt.1 666 III 48 6 64 5 56 't.7 13 17 88 42 40 33 307 38 4s 41 56 49 50 !16 l34240.f' Fig.6 $8•4 10.. .. NPF naphthenoparaffilntc hydrocarbons...t ... .. Viscosity-temperature characteristics oils: 1) D-8..'5 V60 1f. ..0 6 7.3 27..4 74 10. AP aromatic hydrocarbons..5 64....O-4l 08440 136 00 16 .7=m21=u2 t % 10 CoAmAutae. 885300 t0 O6its-oiOarepol ..0 10...3 23A 21. 4) 1QW/20. u N N o..I 464 iU _101!10 i944.32 10...1 8.160 I276 -0 1620 42 600 686 480 67. .. 5) 30W..041 7. .43 70. moiom 2 0 Rama cepiommenuoIoioq 1 S 1a I8. . I & -- "1-9 J 3 540 40 13100 15400 xoxommMOt 6Ma4axaae 5 '70o 60Sn .D "f8 20 40 60 W0100 18/-14 -10 -6 -202 8 10 14 B TeM..0 606Il i_182 I3t1 SC4 85 41 .- 0 e2 5000! <• 1 #4OOO -.0 50.ýel chromatography).0 I 10.... 2) SAE-20. PTsAS polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and tars. % - 418 - ...1 6.. . :4... 7) 5W/20.. SIR~MAM 2.t 34:1..55 10.0 1 211. .. 12.ý20 --.. 6.2° 36 ..6 *...96ewna.....16 Viscosity Properties and Composition of Distillates and Oils of Type AK-10 Obtained from Certain Typical Petroleums 2 1 3 uz M Mplr!o0o0 BRIob 0 l 6 Ca8 n (zp12...2 91..7.1 7 6.1 11 7.~maI ". 01 00etaol.|. TC multiviscosity .0 1to.M 9.87 9. .4 4A 28. 52 2 1 Mwaa ceoneumiol owe"m us~ly'el: 1 6aM Go6 qw "Mo ... Ga.2 24. 3) 10W/30.0 8 Is t9 I 37 40 9 55 42 42 5wt~uaxnpiemeik TRWMetA ..0 37 7.60 7...... . 8) 5W... ... . . 6) 5W/30.6II 1 ?.0 30 I 690 1! 58....0 35 6.3 2e.....05 70. 321 100 6.0 60. 0C.. . . I f e 7 L I'<_7 iml . ..i 0 14 ii1TS ANicTHAnnnTUM3 11 no 5 6oansinxoft .3 4 136 lose 120 it 6 a? 62 33 to I0 as 8? I 19 .1 v.9 9i06 . 11 1 1 Note.0 20. 23T~..0 16. .. - /so .. = . A) Viscosity..'epcrNfua. . .1...5 . % flpo'4y -o2c -...2 34 67..46 21 46.0 18.9 64 5 64 - 2..-40 <• •'- •---•_•• 200. 1) 2) 3) Product Viscosity cp at 4) 5) cSt At Viscosity Index 6) qroup composition (silica ... t160 280 26400 45 400 AS200 41 200 51 $00 5 210 8540 9 490 7 470 10370 021 83 "I 901 579 656 77. lll 4"-ol" AN-14 ..t6 0 0 0 -.HarmmmcimfOI .9 6..ao 175 200 2580 8 6aaza~eol Tc 5 4 0 60o 176600 26800 .8000 7000--...4 -- 71.8 I 29.

913 0.30 - 0.958 0. 9 To me.1 - - 800 670 700 740 800 0. . 0. 275 200 244 165 550 580 346 340 680 0.50 300 480 1700 -- 28 - 10 130 - - me.902 248 175 456 177 555 16i 0.. o6eccMoae~hk . 1 1 7eucn.05 1.10 0.17 Influence of Petroleum Tars on Viscosity and Certain Other Properties of Oils [9] 2 Awunu mamna 3 4 5 ~ I7 at w 4I 8 Eaauaxancxn3 AucnTimaxr .966 0. 11.50 0.. .3 10.896 0.884 167 9.80 0.90 0. o6eccmoazenm.45 0. 9 To 0.930 090.8 13.898 0.27 2.1 - - 130 17.. .o6eccmonewmui .• 3 Mn*Ou-n~esTCxxU .unaaciHlfl 6paiTCTOx 1 2 CypaxancxiiH 6pafrTcrox .15 10j. cSt Molecular weight Coking capacity Tars 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Balakhany distillate Same.85 0. 9 To mce. % Aromatic rings Naphthenic rings Paraffinic chains Distillates from petroleum Balakhany oily 16) 17) 18) 19 20) 21) 22) 23) Balakhany heavy Binagadi Bibi-Eybat Lokbatan Sulfuric acid refined oils from petroleums Selective-refined oils from petroleums Commercial oils Industrial 50.894 0. o6eccuoaenahu . oIeccuonemiul . TABLE 6. - 1t19 - . i Heacn. 1010 0.wthancxxt 6paTrCTOx . . o6eccmo~neIIi zaaD.I 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) NPF AF PTsAS Content. 9 To me.. .. tars removed Rumanian distillate Pennsylvania bright stock Surakhany bright stock Mid-continent heavy cylinder oil.879 0.33 400 - 14 16. .302 0. .4 - 3000 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Oil Analysis of oil Density Viscosity Vsc. . . 1 J PyLUmcMnI AEcTRanrA 9 To me. 9 ApctoR me.

... "C . cSt.18 Viscosity Properties of Normal and Thickened Lubricating Oils [10] 2Mawno mum __ A(-6 AH-O 1 HMaO uMM 2. 10 Temnepalypa... 100' 1 C ... structure broken down. 25 68 600 5755 ISO 631 - - - - npf 50* C XC KUneMaT1an0CzcO Ixoc07 npa W00 C . . - 420 - 4 ....... .0 t$.-M0 39...... Thickened 8) q) Ratio of 500 C and 2000C kinematic viscosities Viscosity index 4) 5) 6) 7) Normal Viscosity.. ... 28..... ...5 120 -43 62 7. .. Viscosity propertic... ....... 0 C. rp...0C . B) temperature..37 55. __.....0" C . 16 24 * -30 C . . 9Juexc 31ARe . "C 11 Temnepenypa aaciuaas.....5 42 -12 -34 4... 8 Omeoseae x-neMaTamecxoi DmaxcTm 3... xoTopol xxim310' maCa CramosuuC paunot 100 ns.."ypofi..... lp Semenido): 1) thickened MT-!6. . * -40 C . 6) commerci9l AS-5 (thickened oils are ob' 0I..8..10 120 130 fi0 B Tem nSpamnsPk..0 7.. Sharapov and Ye. . . c paapymeauoil crpyn.. * -2.5 7.... 2) commercial MT-16.2 71...... 0C. b -...... CM: 6 ups 50 C ......... 'T 1 150 TABLE 6....53 "7 Baacn.. 6.... 6 ups -t0o C ..... .. I I I tained by thickening a narrow petroleum fraction boiling in the 00 C rEange with polyisobutylene) (see Fig. 0 C Pour point.. 3) thickened Dp-11..Hot_ I 5 BRxaOCTb. A) Viscosity......8 44 +3 -1H 1) 2) 3) Index Oil type . of 1 normal A.........nd thickened oils3 (after V.I.. 5) thickened AS-5. 3St At Viscosiry wirt... po1ses ]0) 11) Temperature at whiuh oil viscosity reaches 100 pcisee..6).2 120 -25 -48 6. ...L!.. 40 71 170 631 63 282 1259 -. 4) coimercial Dp-11.... . 6 --50 C ...1 Fig.99 55.40 10f.. 6.

..8 12. % gasoline content 3) AKZp-6.2 4.2/14.8)..28... motor oils are diluted to some. 1) Lubricating oil 2) Viscosity* (cSt) in oil at .19 Viscosity of AIIT-!4p and MT-16p Diesel Oils at Above.9 3. 7 9.5 2.2 O3/10..0 120 378 1015 -. These oils include AKZp-6 anti AXZp-10 lubricating oils.2/7. ....8/136. TABLE 6...7/3.20 Viscosity of Lubricating Oils as a Function of Dilution by Fuel AUran 1 P % ~~2 DR311"n* (a3en axnouel.5/44. A4r-14p diesel oil and foreign oils of the multigrade type.7 compare the vi3cosity characteristics of thickened and normal oils. 3 7 5...5 AH3-i0 ..20 shows the change in oil vJscosity as a result of -421 . 6.0/4. polymethacrylates have particularly flat viscosity-temperature curves..5/7.8 4..10..4!69.9 AC-15 .5 186 112.5it9.polyisobutylene... .....19 and Figs.2 8..0...5 -oo 20 70129.and Belcw-Freezing Temperatures (after Ye.3 4.7/18.7 4... Table 6.3/10.0/14.. 3 ARSn-6 .5114.0 8. Motor oils produced by thickening low-viscosity distillate oils with polymer3 .. .. ..nto the temperature range above 1000C (Fig.1/40. CW=M _____1_ 0 25 2Ug17. AI-6 .. Thickened oils retain their properties even I. AN-jO. Semenido) 2 S3nNOoM v~ sU" AATia 567$ 94 its1 520 to k2s 6 a..0 5.... 10.18 and 6. 6.".3/20..5 and 6. Vinipol.7 4..3 .2113. 1200 I)*r Oil 2) Viscosity at temperature of 3) cSt 4) 5) 6) poises AMT-14p MT-16p.-.G.0 2...0 1 168... 15.8% 5. 4/29.8 3....3 3.0 . extent by the highjoiling fractions of the gasoline....8 8.9 5... In use in automotive engines...TABLE 6....7/12.0 *Viscosity at 100 0 C/vIscosity at 500C.0/10....7/23.. Tables 6.

the oil must e-hibit a certain minimum mobility so that it will reach the lubrication pnints farthest from the oil pump in the shortest possible time and so its to ensure a resistance moment M in rubbing elements such that the starter motor or other starting device will be able to work up the crankshaft speed necessary for 6tarting.3 4?ammliBos 2 . the voltage across whose terminals falls with decreasing temperature.0 -1.A ro J ' Fig. 270 5L1n.G. SeAKp-5.A. as well as by the design features of the engine and the power of the storage battery.1 A) Number w" cylinders B) Viscosit:i of oil at 1) Oil Viscosity at 20 0 C.15 117 20 10 0 10 *~5 2 *55 6 9 * 0 * 2) a343 0 AU-10 1420 560 41. 2) perature. - Influence of oil temperature on speed of GAZ ý1 Printne s-orting rev/min. cSý St 3) Temperature at which viscosity reaches C) Minuýes D) Seconds. 3) t.22 Viscosity of Certain Oils at Low Temperatures (after M.I9 * 0 r 3 30*0. revolutions per minute. (ST-08 starter running off two 3-ST-70 b" tterles) (after M. 26°C.9. 7 4H{U- 5 13 v2. 0 C.0 -3&0 -6.'znn oone50 1120 -10 A-1. 4 a ]-0 .. 5.21 Time from Start of Engine to Appearance of Oil at Top of Piston TABLE 6.uarting temperature. -12.. 1) Engine AKZp-10. . 1i 311 A 3 260 .q gasoline dilution.5mfiW. STARTING PROPERTIES OF I'W'TOR OILS At the . -u 1-0V 3 roP0I. 85 st 4) 5) 5) 1) Machine 2 Cylinder 50 AS-10 AKZp-6. C2 C 5 7) I 10iAUm 27 ci.2. 6.P.. Both of these indices are determined by the viscosity of the oil at starting temperature. Vc- [13) A laro'rich [13J) BMo 402W_ M aE 2f cUi .1 W680 -22.-- -'122 - . ..112 *14. 4 I -. 3 xtim 0 ceex 5 t 2 29 * 5 . Filatov): ---shaft speed. nichkin and P. TABLE 6.0 -27.

.ýerminais with declining temperature.... wear usually decreases with increasing oil viscosity...ity on the time required for oil to appear at the top of the piston after the engine has started is shown in Table 6.10 s:iow the influen. Figures 6.. Fir a warmed-up engine.. According to some sources [11]...... npoxag.rmabilLity at starting causes accelerated engine wear (Figs. 0 C 7) Minimum starting temperature (35-40 crankshaft rev/min).21.e of oil temperatura and !'scosity on ergine speed.e from 350-450 St Lt the pumpability temperature.wu..9-6. Table 6.. while the viscosity at which the engine can be started may not exceed 90-100 St. 6 11 show the li.J3-6... oC.. ... -201PC.. Teunepanypa ocT8..... 6. as under the conditions of urban automobile traffic... and accordirg to others [12] it may range up to 200 St. .. .osity (centipoise) at temperature of Limiting pumpabiliy temperature..- 113620 99400 4000 1) Index 2) Oil AS-5 AICZp-10 Vlsý. The viscosities of a wide variety of aviation oils ra '. 120-150 rev/min for swirl-chamber engines. Tables 6..TABLE..... In50-90 rev/r~dn for engines with compression ignition and direct jection.... )OIPHqdToro 9C . Excessively high oil viscosity and the related decreasc in p..22 shows the temperatures at which the viscosi.. 7 Mitunwr..31431 13rjpeAezbn AM4 141(111 2450 8140 -28 -24 6849 -to-1- 5510 22260 -18 -17 C S-30.mitirg values of oil pumpabilIty temperature. .np'ne AMh4 1250 21290 -82 -U8 3A06 5B~maoe~h no) apa uiwierArype: 5Bjaom .... the maximum starting viscosity of automotive oil is 80-90 St.23 Starting Properties of Oils in GAZ-51 1 2 Vson . preferencc should be given - 423 - . Selection if the optimum viscosity is p'termined by engine oper'ating conditions: with frequent starts and stops. 3)) 4 5) 6) The influence of visco.25 and Fig.... MW-22 oil has this viscosity at about 2 0C... and MS-14 oil at -10 0 C....12-6.. The starcing speed is 35-50 rev/min for carburevor engines.. 6... The difference is apparently due to differences in the design and starting speeds of the engines.13). In solvlng starting-viscosity problems..ties of various oils reach the 85-St maximum value for engine starting. I. sana). 9C . and 150-200 rev/min for d~vided-chamber engines..nman xe~Enepa~ypa a~uycla ('5-40 a6/. it is nocesoary to consider the drop in the voltage across battery .

F. 1) Pumpability.: three s'.9i /7" 50V PIgI. ?/m. 3) drag torque. 1) Revolutions per minute.• .I i IIV 40 14I. OAZ-51 engine ove. 3 Fig.0 S2 000 SOO SA ' m.engine as a function of oil dynamic viscosity (after S. 6. Rub-. o 2 200 3*SKDon7*.) Amourt of iron in oil. 2) viscosStoo ity. Pumpability of oil in lubricat- AV ~ ing system of GAZ-51 . kg-m. 3x Fig. 2) pumwabll"8. poises.10..arts and warmups (in r.F. . 6.nshteyn).. I/m'n. Wow'a U. ti 'not ctton of oil umpability in i'ubr 4 cating system I~n-teyn). 1. 2) viscosity. Drag torque (M) and crankshaft speed (n) as functions of oil dynamic visco3ity (after S. g. poises. g/min. 424 .1t.t' Iroll) :. Ity. MoV 6o0 ni S415 [ J00 4CO !0 10 MO0 npr'o~u~oeMocmb. o. Rubinshteyn). LI.11.

eSt... -23 1) Oil 2) GAZ-51 3) ZIL-120 with starter 4) ST-15 0 5) Distillate lubricating oil with 50 C viscosity of 0 6) 2. 4..... 6.7 jOV 2 C3 41J 0 V7 . A) Amount of iron In oil.5 VC 7) Thickened lubricating oil with 50'C viscosity of..PY .. .500 C: e2.27 -. g.0 -.6 -Vm~o nylexof i&.. B) number of engine starts..Vfnfl&M' Fig.... Wear of GAZ-42 engine in starting and warming up on oils of various iiscosities: a) wear as a function of number of 0 engine starts. b) change In oil viscosity (at 5O C) in progrerss of test. ARTAn aarymu•Jutt anarou-Tho na3m ~... 4-)5 .54 BY ..14 - 4O BY .... and warmup on gasoline. ....oco cT-1l /~4 6Tt agTwt pelq 5AinOa' JUCTIA•TURft " 7 .13..U -h3-.. ... 1. 3) starting and warmup on generator gas. 4) startin-.. C) viscosity. 2. .--.-•2 Minimum Engine Starting Temperatures ( 0 C) • S •o OMnSOcT"Io 1p3X PA ar-S. ..TABLE 6.

31). The lead component of the alloys is least stable to attack by the corrosively aggressive products present in the oils 'Table 6.. but considerably inferior to it in anticorrosion stability. ...... Under the conditions of extended continuous operation..26 .. 0i13 from suliur-cortamning petroleums usually show less corte......45 ...TABLE 6. CT-.. Pinkevich that have been adopted in our country.... Tables 6.vIe aggressiveness4 (Table 6. since starting wear predominates in this case. oN 8am mu f%~linwiuP~~SCbam 4 5 rA3-51 . 6. to low-viscosity oils... ..25 Limiting Viscosities that Ensure Pumpability of OilQ and Starting of Engines (15] 1 12 .... .30 rresent the ccrrsion propertles of distil'lates and certain experimental and commercial motor olils. This pertains especially to such alloys as copper-lead....13 presents norms for the corrosiveness of m)tor oils with respect to lead.28). 11000 30000 o 3000-4 DW 000 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Engine Cil viscosities (in Pumpability Starting GAZ-51 cet) that ensures 6) ZIL-120 7) ST-15 starter. which maintain a ce...5 .....26 and 6.. . lead babbitt and cadmium-base alloys..29 and 6.27 give the compositions of typical alleys used at the present time in the bearings of internal-combustion engines....as determined by the group chemical composition of the oil.A... 7 cirapTep eTapiep CT. weay: is reduced by the use of higher-viscosity oils..... The corrosion properties of the oil depend on the presence of corrosivcly aggressive components (raphthenic acids) In t'-em and on the tendency of the oils to form corrosive agents as a result of oxidation (carboxylic and hydroxycarboxylic acids)...25000-30000 18 --20000 6 3114420. Tables 6..1tein minimum viscosity level at the highest operating temperatures.. CORROSION PROPERTIES OF MOTOR OILS The problem of corrosion of the antifriction alloys used in the bearings of internal-combustion engine. Hence the corrosion properties of oils are evaiuited with respect to lead in the methods of the NAMI (DK--2-NAMI) 2nd Yu... . Table 6.. arose in connection with the extensive replacement of tin babbitt by other alloys differing from it in having higher fatigue strength and better mechanical properties....

(BDEIWDM*I 25j-0%Pb.4 TABLE 6. andirliium coating Pure metal with coating.eso. To me 15 To nmie.5-1% Ni.5% Ag.. c noxpuzex . caun MATpu.rab•zoe Cd 1. 2. 7-8% sb.anhse Sn 6 0.25-0..onouaso qncToe cepe6po 'tTIuic jrsi7a= 2:3 TU C UOXpMT3Ne3 2a cazzo n.. with the same coating Aluminum 6..ut €ors 3% CU. small amount 13) 14) 15) of Ag. SauOaaeSEma ConnqoBnCTMV 6a6bMoM a U. mod!..lU.cepe6pf-3Mi 10 Haimneno-. 16 To me.5% Sn. 0 3 .. i% Cu. o0CTaabaOe P 8 To - 9 1Hagm. o..CT-t 6A66nT . Loated Fjme. 0. . 14 To ace...5% NI.. 1% Ca.. curas 7 CNVXO•ISCT-fi 6a6zi5p -10% Sn. OCTrh-aboe Al 21 Cepe6paxri c uoxpunem .. but with a layer of lead or babbitt applied to the surface 16) 17V 18) 19) 20: 21) 22) 23) Same... remainder Cu Copper matrix (sponge) filled with lead Same.0--1. 2.i .fnoIepzBOCTrb MaeconE CZ.. 0.. SOTIJbNoe nmoworo Ag.5% Su.5% Si (5norxa). V).. remainder Al Homogeneous alloy Silver with coating Silver of rather high purity with lead or lead... S he" Et 17 MAo-MIu i& Aasuzuesu.5% Si (sometimes).opoAu.5-1% Ni. 11 WUeO. MOAnoax4WpouMl . 19 6... 054 Sb. I3 CTPIrype O nc oC. •a 13 mTpana hfe~ax (ry6ua)...26 Compositions of Typical Bearing Alloys [12) 1 c=U boMU.fied Copper-nickel matrix filled wiýh lead babbitt. 4 2 npmu.a caumta 2 zflU 22 1) Alloy Afproximate composition 2) 3) St'ucture 4) Tin babbitt 5) Remainder 6) Homogeneous alloy 7) Lead babbitt 8) Same 9) Cadmium-silver 10) Cadmium-nickel Copper-lead Ii) 12) 25-40% Pb.nieaesut 0 7b-2.0% Cu. 20 0PNopoAMM CMURS nOnpM- 0. ..

..... ... .... ... :aAMEa nlpoTrSoaAUnp-Ue - ~t*Xf~eOnYTXC . .....27 Properties of Poured Inserts of Various Types (Optimum Rating 100) [12] 2 CWU3U 12 D ......MocM .. I . % How# .. 13 100 .. ... 8 a s 1U 73 SO V 67 47 cDofcTSaa Xop1 4 YCToiFIInOCTb DPOTuZ ... TABLE 6. 65 1 33M1040 0116 4 Cw 1) linsert 2) Composition of" casting. 51 72 83 87 8 18 88 10 38 o 12 72 38 38 75 100 0 o oo 00 i7 1 25 70 100 100 12 52 48 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Index Allcy Tin babbitt Lead babbitt Cadmium Copper-lead Coated copper-lead Aluminum Coated silver 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Fatisue strength Running-irn Embeddability Antiscoring properties Corrosion stability Hardness Thermal stability Thermal conductivity. .TABLE 6.... .3 47......00 93 80 57 39 23 14 t.... % 3) New 4) Traces 5) Corroded..28 Change in Properties ot Copper-Lead Alloy Poured Bearing Inserts as a Result of Corrosion (16] 1 COCiS8 $238SMS.......fpupaforna. 1 S Tpo 1 7 Ta'waonposoA•ocm .. - 428 - .... P03.

.I TABLE 6.2 0.' "Ar(-10 .7 005 006 OAS 047 34 0. 2. ..0 45.0 828 83...1 200 1) Oil 2) Pinkevich corrosion. .. ... q9Mc-4. 0.S 8Asusawoano.... IJ3invi'pnanbaos 50 .2 4 a u ..55 0..14 0. i -11Ai Icuecb..1 6encaouz 2*1.. 0jo 0. .1 27...... -429- Ii ..uio.. .: •:......: ..0 30.3 108.29 Corrosion Properties of Certain Motor Oils Without Additives [17) a 2 xoppounno veouYE. i0 Anez.. ..nba petroletums 7) After oxidation 13) Industrial 50.cT- RIIK-22 ......2 67. .. 37o0 0 ......8 15. g/m 2 3) On lead 4) On lead bronze 5) Acid number.. MJ-22 a -3-. .. paJIbIoro 50).50 13 . mg of KOH to 1 g 6) Before oxidation 8) Aviation 9) MS-14 10) Diesel 11) D-1l (mixture of MK-22 and indus50) trial 12) D-11 from E.....

.....II6TUR.. 11kMiraJ~'casea 6- 50 73 0 612 2 4 1 7 36 7 4 8 to f - 2EU6&4!1A6&CX&X 12 16 76 13 Macxza 300 c e a P T uOI~nCT~ff($.ax*Acxax 10 9 MacJIsnal. 110 f3 10 89 45 (4* S- 46 - 6 1)Product .. .~ts 2) aC 3) lA!¶Iapprauses& h02-mlae ~~atnas 5CX*) ~ a mosesc '4)~ ~ ..~ ~~3 6 . sumKEOPRM #/As MUcanx M/Mo 7 A3Il j0AYT 4 ~ be3S 3 3 . 1onm 3 . UHARM 70 517 60 5 '7 O1xarmapa ..... ..... .........54 0 280 o 10 Tweaa.... ) orosonofled-roz 6 70 led %7oapu Dit ae i 3 asedouo 8 3 8 5 2 Peacb~ 0......lates.......8 .........50 I o TU~Ate.. a 16 92 77 4 10 5 83 79 28 519 7 14 aNIAC 3a 500HO CSZPHR?3OflC?XE4Ip g xiacumas......30 Corrosive Properties of Di3tillates and Oils from Sulfuric Acid and Selective Refining [18) of Baku and Ernba Petroleums Hopposm can11uoMI Xoppoos ansel8Tfmon evanno. . ~1 3 16 lAf &'U0 CK2 a& enpZCTWX BO OIcaMK+ ..Wh a 1I 36 ? 314 a 92 7 Banaxancicau 20 9 ?Kacas§a n.TZ)HO~aR....7 .. n Macafino..50 50 70 6 a Lau.... .8 70 270 97 ..~a ....TABLE 6.i ..&31 18 31 7 I I haaramcxan fi663 12BDGE-sftaTceoa..

93 110 H18 17.. g/my 6 from selective r6-fine7) Lubricating oil Devonian petroleum ment of Tuymazy S8) •: •!:9 . IanI N •"U. 2. - 431 - . •. 13 114)PAIV CPorroion.. .". oqx6 r 1.4 2.1.. 8 paRAUR aa$?exoDair yrx&- CTWR TYAh~aanuclIoI jAeaon-1 voJopogoxasBoasa 8cexiei: xolr.7 ..tions from Sulfur-Bearing Petroleums (19. II Ni e I I mplpo.:ocarbon fraction (n " .ao.21 144X 2. 7 ABTG 1 cioh &&+T ... P A ("OP 3 U t .42 0.1oe AIT-16 nn cuecs A•enf-.5 3H84 o ~p8~hR fO(~= aoO poametnxii Yr-I 0 )paxi(uJR api.ncrz aef- E8 0 2.A..31 Corrosion Properties of Oils and Oily Frac..0 . ' P _______I. t "k3. •a I.5100) of lubricdting oili 6 11) Aromatic hya.. Teoi .aTu eclmx yt- iiio . ..69 9 RleT L. mg of KOH to 1 g On leaded electrolytic lead bronze . .71.. 2) 5) 6) Sulfur : iaRToaa 6 ..cx%x cepRUTXnj'. oili 6 ) None Aromatic hydroc~arbon fraction (n• n -.97 74. aý wos a alno-max ..86 t.. . . cep-.8) Balakhany 16) Selectively refined (phe- 19) 10) 11) 12) 13) '14) 15) Oily petroleum Heavy petroleum Bniagadi Bibi-Eybat Lokbatan Sulfuric-acid-refined oils Selectively refined (furfural) oils 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) no)) oils Commercial and experimental oils Lubric&ting oil from Emba petroleums Industrial 50 AK-10 commercial MK-22 commercial aviation Mixture of MK + industrial 50. ... 20] (by method of Yu.. cotn 110.2 1. Pinkevich) a.94 COD % 0 Ile 0.'. 2Sufurrg.•i10) il Naphth%ýnic hydrocarbon fraction of lubricatinr. no• . I p.. . . C~m m ~ I o I I ... HOMO•. g/m % mevgprsntof fractionco Oil NaI) or Tuy5mayeonaptrlu content.[ i 3) On lead bronze 4) Corrosion.9 42.. TABLE 6.."ur-containing petroleums 13) Diesel MT-16 from mixture vf Devoninn sulfur-bearing petroleums. . Acid number.. . A .5405) of lubricating oll 6 12) Viesel DS-l1 from mixture of Devonian sulc.. O' S'-..? 20. -yi2ao"G HUSILOIUS |M.

it &id in h)Ie oxidation products that are deposited on engine parti in the Io1M of varnishea. h. c) DS-11 from sulfurous petroleums.14. 1) orlginal oils. A) NAMI corrosion. accelerates wear and is detrl-w:ntal to other technical characteristics of the engine. STABILITY OF OILS AGAINST OXIDATION The stability of oils against ixilat'on by atmospheric oxygen i at elevated temperatures is an important operational characteristic.F A 30 1 60& B FiP. 4) aromatic hydrocarbons desorbed by benzene. 6. This index determines the teadency of the oil to form corrolunively aggressive acidic products that dis3olve it.mul. Formation• 3f insoluble prodlicts results in fculing of the engine and causes burning cf .tions as a function of test time (according to V. d) industrial 50. 6.6mbsc a 1 A7JA 20 M0 40 WO mmcItlaONU Y B flpodAh~womm-bHem'b urn'blanewo.K.iscon rings.7*0='40 50 t7HUo.7. exhitit thu highest corrosive aggressiveness (Fig. - 432 - . The naphthenoDaraffinic fractions of the oils. g/m 2 . In turn. Novikov): a) MT-16 from sulfurous petroleums. 7. b) MT-16 from E!nba petroleuma..V c d Fig. Aromatics are considerably less aggressive. B) test time.nV oflPCo9ilhyd'r. which.d61UMe7oroi b Ua ivenMesUs7 CMe B 0 10 20 10 dA 20 . Corrosive aggressiveness of oil hydrocarbon fra'. whicq are least stable to oxidation. 2) naphthenoparaffinic hydrocarbons.ocamb UCn A* A A0 B 17peoa. sludge and scale. 3) aromatic hydrocarbors desorbed by isooctane.14).

MCeO.t 4. Maca~o 6 7' 181~ IIAC-9.-. min*** Varnish residue at 2600C. . "***AUSS 9352-60 method. OC*# Thermal stability at "2500C.0-4. .5 Howoxyi~umeacjoro auo• .0 4. saBoea Hosolyaf. points**** AS-9. 12ACr1I Hcnoxyg6umeawcioro 9ssoi. -- .0-4A 240 245 23 (280' C) 40 21(260 C) 40 . 54 45 2 3 1 255 3M (26)0C) 43 52 2A0 - 1. 14MC-20 79 9 28 32 12 3 9 240 250 29 29 48 32 1.oroA 15M1R-22Eammcoe 4 . . .. % Varnish. "**AUSS 9787-61 method. . ..32 Operational Properties of Certain Motor Oils [21] mopmme capp.5 *AUSS 5737-53 method. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Oil Motor properties at 2500C* Vaporizability.TABLE 6... % Critical varnish-formation temperature. ****AUSS 5726-53 method.5 from Novo-Kuybyshev refinery DS-11 from Novo-Kuybyshev refinery 4MS-20 from Groznyy refinery MS-20 from Novo-Kuybyshev refinery MK-22 Baku.o. - 433 . % Working fraction.. 4A 69 59 t. % 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Varnish-forming coefficient Detergent properties according to PZV. 1 3MC-20 I'poaenaeoro .5 2.

. . as smI~@BKom apoV'nn- 8 i F lojmf~muivvecxan apowmz~- AC-11 n 9 aeýrot J neang tpamwa .8..UjqeCaXa apoIaTnivecax opaxc1tax .. .... 12 F llo. 6 9 12..... . ..... taaorwxiaqeiax apowamzIEecxaq 4epaciw.. F flonagaKninecRax -xpoum86 ReCuAR EopaANOE.4vexa......28 v eýIt -..Moaan ipau: Ax*15 E MAAnoix.... .. ....¶uitintaoCHAa apoastaMT-I 0 as ce Pz30TH: "qeCixa ýpaKEa.. 5 9 10 A) Product G) MS-20 fromi Karachukhur- B) C) D) E) F) Varnish-formation period. ...... ....TABLE 6.. ...... .K... Dl Ha~eT0Ro-napa$. .t CTM X Ha~preo-ne~aino~pt1 RGO~ . . . ..... .. foniMM.. EMCJxoXU~1crtecxaR apolial. .33 Varnish Formation by Commercial Oils and Hfydrocarbon Groups Separated from Them [221 (method of S. . F foanIqnxannew'aapvim qecIm........ ... . Kyuregyan at 250*C) M4-20 M' caot Ze4~t as cypa aaor aol 6op . . lave'aru-* qecim~ tpax'zmu. ...........IlecRSAEPam"z. 43 .. minH) r4K-20 from Surakhany select petroleum igaphthenoparaffinlc fraction Oligocyclic aromatic fraction Folycyclic aromatic fraction I) J) Surakhany petroleum MT-16 from Enta petroleum MT-16 from sulfur-containing petroleums DS-11 from sulfur-containing petroleums... . j . .5 apounau- 1 17 E Afivoun~Onx'emaxa F H AIT-16 qeczcan tpuwx ~. CO P 1... #~aMM u. .. a 10 j CYpaXaNCR~lk 8týeTH D Ila&vreNo-napaoenioanx opowMAanomirmamen'gca HTeHo-UaPa§HnoJAX opaX. G AIC-20 ias icapa y zy p0Lii14~Teno-napabrnnoax ipaa.

uzycrpnaxbnoe 50 us I4awiaxao-•o80 Niaa'n1pof scE..5 1 i 15 1 sa xapaqyxypo-cypazanccofi NIT-16 VL Z . M4T-16 na w6eucxotIxe . . .t. MT-i6 -as mnupnoseo-xopoftoncexot -neqr .5 from sulfur-containing petroleums AS-5 from sulfur-containing petroleums. .=coe" " 0 % no naB. 18AC-5 eaei an cepri~cuxn4T 5 I 75 100* 9 9 85 50 60 410 - *After P hours..o..5 4. . .0 3.... h Corrosion in 10 h.. .... .. . . .5 3.0-3. ... g/ms Detergent properties ac- 11) 12) 13) 34) 15) 16) 17) 18) MT-16 from sulfur-containIng petroleums MT-16 from Zhirnovskkorobkovsk petroleum MT-16 frnm KarachukhurSurakhany petroleum 6) 7) 8) 9) cording to PZV.. .cxoe 7MC-20 zs cepHRCTUZ D1 ee . MowouHW. . T-6 .. . ..% blFck varnish Useful life. . . .... ... . . -..p.a cepuncrux ne4e# . 6 MH-22 6ama..5 3. .. t00 O0 5 5 a a5 60 70 3. i 11 6pasae 2 . . . AS-9.5 imcovanc~ux it*ell . . 9 MC-20 nas japaqyzypo-cypaxncxot 1 0 06paa04.....0--45 5 5 S/]L2 * 55 75 U tO 20 25 ?. ns cepuncw•ux 2.0-4..0--3.. .. .. aBOTS .0 4. ..... .. points MK-22 Baku MS-20 from sulfur-containing petroleums MS-20 from Zhirnovsk-ko- YT-16 from Enba petroleum DS-ll from sulfur-containing petroleums Industrial 50 from Balakhany oily petroleum robkovsk petroleum 10) MS-20 from KarachukhurSarakhany petroleum Specimen ..5 - 85 1'AC-9.. .. .5 3....lC-t.....34 7 Results of Evaluation of Oil Use Properties by GSM-20 Method [23) 1 % poo uoom..oscxo. +2) 1) 2 3) 4) 5) Oil Varnish formation in 5 hr.Kopo~xo-cxo#.t4 TABLE 6. . . SAIC-20 as m-p.0-3. 1435.. .t0 . 45 30 25 5 0 i +" ..... 8 50 10 20 0 75 90 too I...

35 Physicoohemical and Operational Properties of MT-16 Base Oils Obtained from Various Raw Materials I [24) 2 Bnaolge mamoa MT-id as VOCc-! I na P"" . 2 7 2 8 X030A~xiwelI 0 mpmrimecicas 55 38 0. 2 4 AnntTcamcaweabHue cnoNcTna 2 5 TbpMooIOICJiTeTbffPS Mt1b "S61ilhOCflb 'pi 260 0 C. % black varnish Corrosion in 10 h... .O cepRIon aeqaeg mx Hooo-wY¥unmoro Ox'poI 1. Yaroblavl refinery From sulfur-containing petroleums...... "01'r.a ... 1 9 HoppoauR no Hm~enhiy. as KOH na I a ..oppo u Io'. .004 8 ft a Ita.. ..15 0..oW • M o"XaRA..9 6..245 3-3. 2 2 paGoqan Opaminxu...OA2 N IP6 n / ooo 6114711u I .... 1 ......35 0...'rom Zhirnovsk-korobko-.S TABLE 6. ... e I Z-oe I 1 BnaSwCTm 12 OTiOmOlJHO KIIhCMai'OCXasi XHDOMdT1THRqOO Upx 100 C.r0oleum From sulfur-containing petroleums. IomaeenI pRoýeo a isejoR 17..00 0.5 100 40 1..06 0. X ..113x * e1. 17 48 5S 1 32 16 53 46 67 17 16 18 49 47 4 34 62 31 7 22 69 19 12 24 1 25 260 C . % .5 95 30 1L2 245 3-3.... • no uesToy rCM-20: 3 1 aaXoo6pUoBauio 1a 5 fS..5-3 60 .2 255 3-3. xaxoopt.. % ...pe tt.. -18" 253 0. .. .. % Varnish residue at 2600C.2 .'om Enba petroleums.....3 6............ 2 B soan C .40 0.0 50 3 0 Hicuurauj 2 9 Komone cnolcma no l13B..... a omatp.e CDOiTClda rpi 250* C.. % Vaporizability Working fraction Varnish Antioxidation properties ) 8) 9) 10) poetr'o1 eum I..'....01 0.00 0.......p.5 100 30 1... % qaepuoro J1 Na .40 16... finery Residual Mixed 1DOCC.. ....08 0. 18 - 67 25.... a/as' . ... 3 2 aa .. %: 2 1 YMCfapRC4ocT...7 6.. 0C Flush point (open crucible).. Novo-Kuybyshev refinery From Emba petroleums.....2 -27 222 0.53 16.. . .9 -12 249 0. 1 7 3oJzbJXcTb.... * ... IC 1 s I(ncaoruoe imcio. g/m 2 Motor properties at 250 0 C...005 8 16.si ... i s.9 7. Guam ....5 7 230 0.......001 6 64 32 4 25 1 Src.436 .. ... 3 2 2. % ..a.008 ORSHOCTU npi XHInOMaTIccmofk ..009 17.2 7. ...57 0...5 -15 241 0.40 0. 1 3 ToMnoepaTypa 38crunauni.7 -28 228 0."1111 "ubJabl"s' o HSam O MNI.....50 0....9. 500 C X IWO C ....9 235 4-4.4 255 4..1 255 34 1.5 75- 36 1. % .... OC PZV detergent properties........ mg of KOH to 1 kiniematic points Tests by GSM-20 method 31) 32) Formation of varnish in 5 h. * C .....-1 4 Tomncparypn Pc mHWICa (a OT•fprOM Turne). ccm SEURKOCTU UpS 16... CSt viscosities 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) Thermal-oxidation stability at 2600C. a8 45 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Index MT-16 base oils i. 1 6 HoRcyouocM.08 0....... g/m0...... ...5 55 32 1.o iaa(OO6piL1O~aERN npx 34 1..3 6. 0 C Acid number.. Orsk refinery From Karachukhur-Surakhany 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) Coking capacity.6 -23 240 0.. Te~mepairypa ... . % None Pinkevich corrosion..004 15.. 2 6 aaxoaidi ocT7o0 ppx 2600 C..2 6. Novo-Ufa re- 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) Kinematic viscosity at Ratio of 500C to 100*C Pour point. . 2 0 MWropU.. % Ash.. . % Coefficient of varnish formation at 260 0 C Critical varnish-forming temperature.... .e ..4 245 8....

32 and 6.39. I43 -437 - . the operational properties of oils of the same grade may vary to a certain degree. Pinkevich (AUSS 5162-49). production method and refining method. acterized only by the thermal-oxidation stability index according to K.13). In view Sf :. GROUP CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CERTAIN PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPCRTIES OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR OILS Depending on origin. Papok's method (AUSS 9352-60) and directly by the corrosion coefficient according to Yu. A comparative evaluation made by these methods for a number of motor oils of various origins appears in Tables 6. Experience has shown that these two indices are insufficient for ex:-u~tive characterization of this property of the oils. they permit a more complete evaluation of oil antioxidation stability. and.34. The results of such rating of a series of oil in the IT9-3 engine by the GSM-20 method are given in Table 6. also be evaluated by testing the oil in a special engine.33.K. 8. tests of a number of specimens of MT-16 diesel oil produced from various raw materials. a number of rating methods have been proposed.A. in the aggregate. stability against oxidation is indirectly char-.'A.•.tor cils In the technical speAifications for commerc" (see Table 6. The antioxidation stability of an oil car.36-6. Data characterizing the properties of typical motor oils obtained from various raw materials or by different processes are given in Tables 6.

8825 0.9023 0.5 25 66 22. ..08 0. % .890 0.8 0.4982 1.4G 60 11.' . 56..54 90 9. . .5090 1.4894 1..4940 1. 00.3 31. L) M) N) 0) P) Q) R) 5) r..02 0.) Aniline point KInematic viscosity at iSt c ic. ..8815 1..06 0. . .4885 88 98 97 99 102 103 105 "C I'n~eUS~tN-I Toeqs.. xpi qccxaa N'RHH exM uxocrT cern .4955 1.0 apo~aI.10 1.83 6.. 4* L38 ...3 Tapo~saTHjeCRUSe UTRMHnUWO VMoaM TuOCcxu T$1.TA[.c.-refined Sulfur'ic acij postrefinemen.'9# xow'eun.06 1. Om Acid number. . 1 . 1N0) Viscos'ty index Sulfur.8854 0. 100 C. % Naphthenoparaffinic Arcmatic a) H) I) J) K) Adsorption postrefinetnent Density Refractive index U) V) Heavy aromatic Tars...97 0.93 0... 0. 70 i8 28 9 4 2 xzMowRFpynno(.i exxi COMB.02 PI{ncnoTnoe vwcao.."I..jnOTnOCTL LAnnau-onax flBn3XOCTb o...e 1.8 62 61.... g/m Group chemical compocltion..5 10 1 - 57 26 13 60 27 1 29 5 5.onue .LE 6. . //. I 10. 115 1.64 C.5 uil selectively refined from sulfur-containing petroleurs Distillate Comipounded Dee.oft Ce6Pf•tOe- oqxom' D Macao AC-9.7 42 8.25 0.36 Physicochemical Properties and Group Chemical Composition of Lubricating Oils [251 ?facaa Ro. ing of KOH to 1 g 2 Pinkevich corrosion.5 cewexmmn3k c A BUIe E in cepancyx uago Hr G ~ ' ii ..13 .f Qicppoaux no IIhuenlity.66 95 9.20 0.20 0.4893 1.# KOH sa a .35 92 9.6 fu A) B) C) D) E) F) Index Oil sulfuric-acid-refined from Baku petroleums Industrial 50 AS-9.15 0. .8300 0.0 6.0 83 11.3 1.77 96 OCeps.

6 15.9329 0.9504 1.5170 ...5036 0...41 1..5.4. 0. A cSt 8) •: - IO9 - . At Viscosity index Sulfur.+160 .58 109 so 42 -26 0.95-39.9107 1.01 0.8680-0... . 13 cpe.15 19. - 9-64-11. i 11 Apoiaw~acus 12 xermfe . 5.15 M a c xt 0 AC-14 10 HaTezo-. .e 11 ApouaT. .4848--.5034-1-.. Du.45 U... . . .9052-0. - 8. .99 .37 e -•*- - *The values given are the extremes for DS-14 oils obtained by mixand residual components [275.. 1.0776 1. I . me ...-o. . .23 - 60o o.37 Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Groups Separated irom DS-8 and DS-14 Oils [26 27] 24 i---t S..o .13 6.39 1.8900 0.95 40.4905 1. 90-101 .02 69. 5 - up 1000 7 8 9 MacaoJAC-8 10 Hasme-no-nopamu-o.) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Hydrocarbon group Specific dispersion Density Refractive index Kinematic viscosity.ap#4ImoDu .2-60.9862 .48W0 CS3LI07-0.TABLE 6.60 U44..4722--.Oe 12+ Jor..5340-1.. . .4755 27.99 97-H15 87-46 _ - - 102-120 2f2-155 - 120--i. 1v 1 cpeArne meke .8643 0.8798 1...mee.. ing various distillate . % 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) DS-8 oil Naphthenoparaffintc Aromatic Light Medium Heavy DS-14 oil* To..5390 i0. 97 2 139 162 0 0.

.. 1 0 rpynmoioa x1I~u'Joc)..85-1. 4 0.4820 0... .90 11..... 11 ua qao-naraýmnoIue ....... Bavly.85 23.17-14..' DS-14 oils obtained by mixing various distillate and residual components [26)....40 1....... 6 p 0 C ... 85 1. . .... 9 Copa..E'( 6.........._at coctan.... na 100o .......92-6........ Cen ... 1 3 cpezpve apoMamhn¶fe .. 1 5 CMO. ...... 1) Index 2) 3) 4) 5) Oil DS-8 Density Kinematic viscosity.. .3 13. .TAIT........S *All oils obtained from commercial mixture of sulfur-containing petroleums (Tuymazy..00 1. %.. Bugul'ma and Mukhanovo).Meaue apoMaTimexse ........ 5 BxgaKOCTb xmeMa~nqec~au.... . 7 lhnRexc usm'JEINoC . % ..40 f.0 8..........80-2... .. .20 14. -1440- .......67-27.. .. ...41 3..84-54. . ........28-05.81 52... ...... .....88 .1 48.....63 85-90 - . . I 2 aerxne apOUaTlUeO S .... 1 4 T........ 38 Phyalcochemical Properties and Group Chemical Composition of Diesel Oils from Eastern Sulfur-Containing Petroleums* [26. **The values indicated are the extremes fo....71 1. . 4....C ...97 0...... 7... * floxasaTeab upeaourseaux ).... 271 1 2 UoONlm 1130TSoc e .. .89il' 42.. cSt 6) At 7) Viscosity index 8) Refractive index 9) Sulfur 10) Group chemical composition 11) Naphthenoparaffinic 12) Light aromatic 13) Medium aromatic 14) Heavy aromatic 15) Tars....

. . ... ... .... - - - 2 3 Cop&. AUX 24 226 - oxneseWISf.. - .Ipv 500.... .-. .... . ./rn 44: .19...895 - - 089 SBnnwca gem: 1 RRIUCOMaueCxan.C # OO C.T~paas ZARC~Ha. ... . .. .7bHoCrb no AaHHH: 2 o flHAYRIWOINM1 BSJNOA.. cwen 5 ..0 70..TABLE~ 6. .29 -- - - 1 9CTS611.... min Pinkevich eorroslon on lead plates. 2 21{oppoana no flrrj~nneay Ra CadU1]O3IUi flJSUr32a. % 2 9 RL4TZHORhL0 Mofihba 3 0 apomaTIMKR 9. .... 1 2 Bx3IocTUo-ncco~ax~ XONCTS* UAa. ..co- 3. i 2..4 ... 2 7 Cwunhz .6 46) 1)Index 2) Oil 3) MS-20 4J) From Surakhaniy select petrol eum 5) From mixed concentrates of Karachlikhur-Surakhany and nlroznyy petroleumi From Karachukhur-Surakhany pr4r'oleuna 7) From Zhirnovsk petrcleuni 8) From mixed sulrur-containinr.3 27.. . Oils 2 XaaON 4 flaituawa....5 -- 7115 - 69....39 Physicochem-ical Properties and Group Chemical Composition of Aviation.. .. ...0 2. ....8160 250 I - - "I Tevx~epaTypZ SCflflDK.al Wsy yrxb O78O P R rpoaawa- ne= no$" 9 f70Tlaoeno p.9M0 0.. . 0.....J 0. 23. .. M~ukhanov o) 0) 10) 1-1) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 2?) Density Ki~nematic viscosity. - __ 1 7TeunapaTypa 9 aamusanam.4 45. .2 29. 20.4 72.0 4.. *C1 5 D 0TR1UMTOM TxrM 1 6 a iPUTOUE~rZS . Bavly. % . 6 SS yepeu 7 Ed : )gtw) 35p I MCI 0301..4 4.2 - Saspaontiorme Van3 ~Roagaw~ 25.. % sa/Jg .rpyunopoi xz1Muqecxr~t CTS3....0 i'8 - 50. 0-. cSt At Viscosity-weight constant Viscosity index Flash PoinOpen crucible Closed crucible Pour point Coking capacity AzNTI 3tability Induction peri-d. I SHoXCYeM0Cm.... min Total oxidation timne... itwi.. petroleumns (Tuymazy..0 8M 25.0 -I Z -i I '- - 2 '.. .8 0.. ..8285 I .... %:I 2 5 ma3reuo-nap44uo 26 apoxamwcLne .. .ipn 2 8 X0JAbl~03Of COMEU.6 - 27.. . 2 1 o6nMoe spei. p.. .0 6. 270 --- - I 159..6.. Bugul'ma and.. ..

valves.5/13 S!0bon-bearing depositls [le]j. varnish ant sludge. •--•'w~m. of car-_ temperature in IMCh-10. DEPOSITS IN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGr:4ES The carbon-containing deposits formed on the components of internal combustion engines are classified as scale. S00 X . 6. and on tha top face and the upper part of the side of the piston.-Pbr bO b. sparkplu-s. 3) carbenes. 1) Composition of scale.S23) 24) 26) Sulfur chemical composiGr'oup tion Naphthenoparreffinic Aromatic 25) 27) 28) 29'1 30) 31) Tars and losses Ring composition Napi•thenic rings Aromatic ri.oestion-chamber wallr.•am. 1) Carbenes and asphaltenes. of the pistons. 2) oil. 4) temperature.s. nfluence of piston on comrosilton. 9.15. Varnish deposits are thin varnish-like films formed on t"e piston in the piston-ring zone and on the skirt and inside wall. Scale is coitnosed of hard carbon-containing substances deposited on com. 2) engisi4 running time. on filters and in oil lines.16. %.•engine . 0- " . crankshaft Journals. 5) asphaltenes. in '1udge is a greasy coagulum that collects on crankcase walls.9 Fig.oaow ePIUr.4Fig..54 ml/kg of TEL). Influence of engine running time on composition of scale formed in combustion chamber [28] (tests on gasoline conthining 3. 2 . -44 - .-.C . %.~ocnm .ngs Paraffinic chains.

..I. 6. viscosity 18 cSt at 100 0 C 5) Industrial 50.17. I op 1000 C .8 8. .1o .on on scaling in ZIL-120 engine "2k]. B) kg. hp.9 9 .TABLE 6. Inrluene of' fuel-mixture com)o. X 99. . 6..5 18. 1900rP=0 S4 S20- 140 30 40 C MP'UI0cmb AM.7 4. 2) 1000 rev/min.6 71. 1) 2) 3) 4) Oil Elementary composition..MaAAA Fig. 5. A) Amount of scale.3 f.11. ..ncruxam ~n D9R8ICTbIO 18 Cern oe .sit . 5 1lH•Y•nP. mg to 10 kg of fuel. test time 100 hr. Ii - 143 - . . 0 A I. h. .4 Note. load and effective power of ZIL-120 engine on scale fortnEtion [29]: 1) 700 rev/min.¶abnoe 50. . 3) !600 rev/mlrn. . .40 Elementary Composition of Scale on Piston Face in Aviation Engine [31] 1 I C 2 % DaeMcaTapHMI COCT•a. B) test 'time.IV "Fig. A) Scale buildup. Engine operated on unleaded gasoline.stillate.9 75.h D:. o) 2?000 rev/min. C) engine power.. mg.. % A. Influence of speed.8 4.

7 Aunle nopmns . As the temperature of the engine parts rises ind it continues to run.8 3.. carbenes. . The speed. Formation of varnish deposits depends direotly on the content i of sulfur compounds In the fuel.1 4. 6. 6.TABLE 6.. The compositioris of the deposits and sludges (Tebles 6. rooaoxa rinwnnpa .49 and Figs. Sa result.7 9. operating conditions. 6.7 38.40-6. 4 6. % son. in addition.3 44.42)..48.2 go' 86.. Test run under stand conditions on unleaded gasoline.20)...17. the rate of varnish formation is determined by the group chemical compositio nt" ths oil (see Tanles 6.% 4 5 Ho.41 and 6.5 2. 6. 6. tie engine comes to require fuel vlt'h a higher octane - 41414 am .0 693 2.3 It is customary to Pýi nrtin ri 7cbdepP% an of their elementary composition and their contents of tars.8 2.41 Composition of Carbon Deposit's in Two-Stroke. Gasoline-Fueled Vehicle Engine [32] MeUTo oT6opa yrnepoJwMcThIX Ofo•AlMOHN 1 Macno.47.8 5 2.9 1.1 3. as-.. 6. Ha1amxa nop 3. 1) Carbon deposits taken from 7) Top of piston 2) Oil 8) Cylinder head 3) Tars and hydroxy9) Exhaust-system acids parts 4) Asphaltenes 10) Piston-ring 5) Coke 6) Ash grooves.. Running an engine on fuel containing TEL tends to iniareasa the amount of noncombustible products in the scale (see Tables 6.. running speed.49 and Fig.15.6 21. load and power of the engine and the composition of the fuel mixture (see Figs..48 and 6..18) have considerable influence on the rate of scale formation. Bhau.--yc H1CCTOMI &TUA s .. ash and other products. This rate is also observed to rise when the fuel contains more tetraethyllead and sulfur.. Figs. 6.4 4. . the. 6.19) depend on the design features of the engine.ba..19) and the effectiveness of additives used in it. and the quality of the fuel and oil used. 6. . % 6 I % HzcnTon. 6.16). phaltenes. carboids. Carbon-containing deposits cause many kinds of trouble in oporating internal-combustion engines: buildup of scale results in coking of spark plugs. interference with valve operation and the combu:stlon process. the content of volatile compounds in the deposits decreases (Figs. 6.17.. 8 .15.0 Note.16) and their rates of formation (Tables 6. and a drop in engine power output (FIg. 2 3cMOJNI % n oxca- Aca• 8% e .

.. u iacu C00Mamu4UoNuD..20..pa . 6.M6 60... .40 51. wn.42 Composition of Carbon-Containing Deposits on Components of Single-Cylinder Engine Operating on Leaded Gasoline [33] 2 o06n : ~ep•a- 3 C COu O. NRItlnan.89 18.% Jo% Fig.0 27. TABLE 6.22 I G9. o . I I ..80 5.se . . uanycxlO I o ro..66 12.n.no m nopw=N .. Or.NwMl•l rar>:.. I I •i~• 1A"HI.F. 6.06 • . valve.9 A Moeocmd 27y 3% 459% Yo 30% ..10 5.I .1cjvIc x OTtO)HflIIU Yr~v~wc~w 0T110CH S yot. %..13 4...... B) naphthenoparaffinic. 3) part of head vigorously rinsed by fuel mixture entering cylinder.82 7...20 14. . .800 so- Ak 0 00 • 8 2 g B No'om. % %• " . %. Fig.. 2) scorching of piston rings.. .386 05..09 14.. C) polycyclic aromatic.76 9... B) amount of scale. A) Power losses due to scale.lo s . .19. %. C) combustion chamber surface. 2) top of piston. g rono. I ! 2 I. 81150 45.4 4 r: - . N 4IOHN0.5/l1 engine): 1) formation of varnish deposits on piston skirt. Influence of location of' scale in combustion chamber on engine power loss--s due to scaling: 1) cooled part of head. o-naU vuNotCU % fo o esil.2U 88... .01 0... Operational properties of MS-20 oil from KarachukhurSurakhany raw imaterial as functions of hydrccarbon composition [301 (test on 2Ch-8...20 38. raint CesianaU Ir~OTNMC4NI... A) Scorching and deposition of varnish.

1488-540 I 710 88 - -. 3 mauepa crops. TABLE 6. .I rk"We Coezziiaeua. Engine operated on leaded gasoline containing sulfur..1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Carbon deposits taken from! Total lead content in deposits Content of lead compounds in deposits Leaa halide Lead oxide 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) ii) Metallic lead Other impurities Top of piston Cylinder head Exhaust-valve head Plug.. i++ - - . 1) Lead compound 2) Melting point 3) Engine parts on which deposits were formed 6) Intake valve 4) Combustion cham7) Plug insulator ber 8) Exhaust valve. + + + -- + - 2Pb.erages) [34] 1 2 Teumepaun ne nun...' . . .. .. .. + - 3PbO. OC . cany4a TYPS 4. PbBrs . .. eTamlas AfrNTe... -90-90 - + + + - - Note. 2PbO ..43 Composition of Lead Deposits on Various Engirne Parts (A'. 4 I 2PbO PbSO4. PbSO4. . 4PbO. 3PbBr. Piston head 5) !' aB .. To 01' l ... .. . .PbMrs .n. 51 an -Top WARC SWAC* OD. .... . PbO . + + -.I i5U PbBr. 370 7. ua moropuz oopatosaaauo .

1 1. 6.4 81. with viscosity of 18 cSt at IO0*C Piston skirt Connecting rod uper end Industrial 50.1!4 Composition of Va?'nish Depcsits on Parts of Aviation Engine F31. It is therefore necessary to prevent fori-ation of carbon deposits In internal-combustion engines and to remove tnem periodically from engine parts.50.I 9. and this. were taken Compcsition of deposits Oil and neutral tars Asphaltenes Carbenes and carboids Ash 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Elementary composition of deposits.8 8.53 gives recipes for washing solutions used to remove deposits from engine oil systems.1 Cctam OOed • . formaticn of sludge tends to clog oil lines and pickup screens..0 2.52). upl Maocraxo 18 £ tO0F' C CIM Bepxees 1 1 0 roaoaa mt~ 37.0 9. in turn. 6..8 84.5 48..55 gives the compositions of solu'ions used to remove varnish and scale from engine parts after disassembly. 44I - 4147 - .6 6.1 2. S.51. in addition.1 84.7 Noto. Table 6.TABLE 6.7 b. Engine run on unleaded gasoline. The results of using these solutions are given in Table 6. 7.4 51. Comml o . 6.! I Ma.L 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Parts fr)m which varnish deposit.9 43. Varnish deposits tend to promote scorching of piston rings.54.Wo I c~nn am~o~u a.0 6. causes bearings to burn out (Tables 6.5 0 1 II2 yvc'TpuaAbO0e H o50 106a uopman 1 1 epxuni roaoaxa 49. I rating. c-oeasm ..6 6. test time 100 h. Table 6.2 0A 43.1 1.. % Distillate.0 0.

test time 500 h.70 4.62 - 29.mpeccuon-oe 12.47 73.43 19.37 29.06 8.22 1.a 1 5 xazaxam 5-ro n 6-ro xoneztI 1 6 HaUBUKu 7-ro a 8-ro xone'q 1 7nflpm20Beu 18 -e0 omnpeccenoanoe 12.1• 3..62 5.83 "5.95 - 4.00 30.95 70. rnahLaa 2-.60 41.04 - - 36.96 4.78 7.13 3.imtpoB: -epXanfi nonc 2 2 I'lpoiy8o.31 17.03 0.86 17.08 15.30 11.63 5.12 15.41 3.70 4.51 10.83 3.07 4.76 1.25 11.TABLE 6.96 3.36 73.68 4.25 1.09 2. 1) Engine part 2) Composition of deposits.54 69.61 5.78 2.13 1.51 20.06 2.78 70. r.77 3.24 34. 448- .77 73. % _______--.13 4.79 8.03 8.63 4.53 9.10 75.53 11.66 0.24 1. 8 3.82 0.45 Composition of Carbon-Containing Deposits on Parts of YaAZ-204 Engine [35) 2 CocMaB - RoMoeuA.52 3.81 I I 73.32 8.-Hue ORKHL 2 3 I-r.26 9.62 a 14 manam -ro xonbita Xananxa 2-ro xOIbiýa "anana 3-ro xoa.58 - 13.26 - -- 16.22 15.79 11.53 5..54 - 3.25 1.72 61.63 35.24 Note.27 17.01 4.7t 18.06 54.77 4-e RoNIueccHoHaoe 1 9 5-e n 6-e macaoWc10m3U 2-e xo•inpeccnonuoe 3-e :-o.13 13.87 5.30 5.44 71.25 6.02 75.25 10.79 1.53 0.58 77.65 65.29 13.02 0.a•aa 2 4I Iana"- 52.79 57.24 1.59 10.34 7..15 8.07 - 2..72 0.17 49.15 9.24 13.13 4.33 1. th compression 5th-and 6th oil-conrol 7t" and 8:E'f oil-control Upper zone-of cylinder sleeve Ports .10 17..03 1.76 7.88 7.14 1.48 1.56 40.18 63.00 43.39 13.94 4.52 2.01 2 o 7-e n 8-e macao2 1 ruiaba Etna.47 5.and 6th rings Grooves for 7th and 8th rings Piston rings .55 1.'icmcrno8enu - oa % 1 -AW1 JAeranx en I M 3 I I''l 4 ' 11 a 5j 6 79 'Isx 1 0 roao3Na EMn.00 74.a.99 1.73 4.50 51.41 56.08 - 6.68 19.80 03.29 18.19 5. th ring Grooves for 5th.84 4.53 1.ma xauama 4-ro xomi.66 1.62 4.84 75. rn.34 4.59 80.22 2.55 71.33 2.83 4.36 5. % 3) Oil and tars 4) Hydroxyacids 5) Asphaltenes Carbenes and carboids 6) 7) Ash 8) Elementary composition of deposits.00 3.65 2.60 9.00 40.24 82.15 35.47 4.57 57.niuupoa i i Ilopmewb 13 1 2 lupnte rojoBi a marne I-ro €onlhbi i 83.63 80.60 75..31 -- 1.76 11. th sleeve tive.62 19.65 81. Test run on oil with LMATOM-339 addiSide above 1st ring Groove of .04 2.54 W6.40 26.52 39.36 4.12 1.15 74. % 9) Noncombustible residue 10) Cylinder head 11) Piston 12) Top 13) 114) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) Valv-es.-a 3-a rnabaa 4-.13 37.

2 0.1 13..0 0.0 1.."an nia an xaprepa )IO- 2..47 Composition of Denosits in Engines of "Pobeda" and "Moskvich" Automobiles [31] AntoxoOEAb..7 . %i ocmoaaeV 1 0 qIfo6egas rIoUAon Mi'.. 1. 10. 1) 2) 3) 4) 6) Automobile Deposits taken from Composition of deposits Water Oi1 and tars 1) Hydroxyacids 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Valve chamber First-filter trap Oil pump pickup screen Timing case "Moskvich" Final filter.8 32 13.2 2.2 11 tl Note. 1.2 10.5 73.. .3 4. 78. TABLE 6.0 5..5 73.6 15.6 26.. CTME . ..acoHoacoza 1Hopo6fa uecTepel ...3.. np-emum1 .9 68. Mke.4 70..5 1..6 18. ..5 00 17.0 1.5 1M. In view of the insignificant fuel content in the deposits..1 ' on0oA ROPTepa ftaai.O 1) Oil 2) Elementary cornposition 3) Industrial 50 4) AS-5.. 01.5 67.8 0. % R 0 C 3 I1nAycTpuanhwoe 4 50 .1 4 5.51. ...1 0.46 Elementary Composition of Carbon Deposits on Final Oil Filters of GAZ-5l Engine [36] 1 2 Saexamewnp cocia.1 I 3....:-o Na oopi 3 Coe0M..TABLE 6.. 55..0 6.7 2.9 CU 18. 5. 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Asphaltenes Carbenes.. 53 p06o a 12 O1cmonalilt Itualpa rpy6oA onuCeTxa 2.i 9. it was noc included In the calculations..p OqUCTRU TON)?rt.... carboids Ash "Pobeda" Bottom of crankcase - 449 - .3 59A 57.1 5.5 12...9 1. ... 0. AC-S..

3 10 20 1.7 5.: cTpfaabioro 50 50 6 16W 26 36 10 20 30 40 50 f9." 2.TAB3LE 6.5 oil from sulfur-containing petro- leums 9) Naphthenoparaffinic hydrocarbons of AS-10.48 Influence of Group Chemical Composition of Oil on Formation of Carbon-Containing Deposits on Piston [37) 1 nPoA7yRT rUpo0 IMoo 1pa6o0..3 9.3 40 10 20 30 15. ________ IT to 20 _______ ' 10 20 ~3U.1 zeownf liatTebo-napa$Enowe yraesoacnopzmacaa AC-10.1 4jacfio nviycTpaanvoo 50 3.8 3.1'ecme SpoMaTlqecxno 30 40 5 Ha'Teuo-napa4ssouae yrneuo~opowu )tacaa 13nycTpnaiaoro 50 Ma.7 12. Tests run on IT9--2 engine. Note.3 8.1 3.4 2.5 11..5 YIApoiaTnwece yrneoo~oy0AU macna A.5 H1I yraeBoAopow macaa shAycrpnambsoro 50 8 Macao AC-10. ammteAiRostenod MOM 84 aopmue I a 1404b.ioInuxannemcmbe apo3sawimecine yranojopoAN macaa BAy-.0 it.2 6.1 27. g 4) Industrial oil 50 5) Naphthenoparaffinic hydrocarbons of industrial oil 50 6) Oligccyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of industrial oil 50 7) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of industrial oil 50 8) AS-10.nomeulk Xoce Hi UrPWHUq 1 " rPoSAVTU1 fpon Oa.2 15.7 6.2.5 oil.3 4.5 10 30 40 20 1. 4.5 us CepmeCTIIx 30 40 6. - 50- 0i .1 3.1 oanug.8 19.a. r mnwk.-10. h Amount of deposits on piston and rings.5 30 CIO 8. 1) Product 2) 3) Running time.9 7.5 oil 10) Arcmatic hydrocarbons of AS-IO.4 7.

..5-30 1) Product 2) Varnish formed on piston of PZV machin3.0 uaciia MC-20 ..iy'xm Ba UO•+J• 4 flIIO3IM6 3 Macno MC-20 ne xapalyxypo- cypaxaacloR wom ..000 km during the tests. .mi6o0zee IOU a&30% 2 mom 4 Maacaounpc2o. 8 14 40 so 8 28 Note.....'onpneu3. 2. position of Oil on Formation of Varnish Deposits [38] 2 Upoj..uqecxi...Surakhany petroleum 4) Naphthenoparaffinic fractior cf MS-20 oil 5) Same + aromatic hydrocarbons from MS-20 oil 6) 15% monocyclic 7) 5% polycyclic....4 TABLE 6.. by dceposits -451- .5-5..0 a ..... 5... .x 50% no-nit a. . . ..0-5.' nDanocThom WaITU Oca UM .. Engines showing little wear were selected for the tests.0 4..r-4..... 1) Complaint 2) %) in which trouble was reported with oil change interval of Numbe!r of" vehicles (in 3) Oil pickup screen more than 30% blocked 4) Oil lines completely clogged by deposits. 4 HaJTeno-napsonuo-mn ýpaxtun voxopoAu macna MC-20: 305-4. . TABLE 6.. the vehicles were driven 50.. . oC•S. ...50 Influence of Engine Oil Change Interval on Formation of Deposits [391 Hencnpra•'oci. 5 To me + apoSfaTinecKte yrne- 5.49 Influence of Group Che:tiical Com..ta WRa6. 15% fquiv.0 3..0 5. points 3) MS-20 oil from Karachukhur.3Cerwa HaV.5 6 7 25% 40%* 10% mosonIuJcarecx• u15% . ...

. 5BU-•DA&a aomm-... 12 % 1000--7000 12090-15000 3• <i <... % Thickness of deposits on oil pickup screen..3 40.nn- 1 2 1) Engine trouble 2) 3) Number of cases.. The vehicles were operated under city :!.... .. * IB3rpruT ae uac.1 01O... ...riving conditions with an oilchange interval of 1600-2000 kin.. .______•uparopene uopmneBUZ .1.aae. % Scorched p ls'cn rings ) 01..'o + 10% *6eiaa i ......-1 20-50 30000--40ý'3 80-100 4 Cssme 40000o10 rf >1 Note..4S... ..L1o0I.I.jpuney.' 6) Valves burned.... Ko... 36.1... 3) -- km Screen by Deposits as Function of Vehicle Mileage ___ _ * 2) Extent of oil pickup screen fouling by deposits.a .. 452 .52 Influence of Deposit Formation on Engine Performance [12] 1 HW0Orom __ .0q11o0 ..aaLo..a O 15|6... loayola Pn CU. ...ao ...aA Nalpa. .. ....53 Composition Washing Solutions Recommended for Removing Carbon Deposits from Engine Oil System '39] Aflplt"r"MI A0 ?+ 10% ua$rCUATo.....TABLE 6.4.p•us •. cu.51 Fouling of Oil Pickup 1) Distance traveled by vehicle. ...1 line clogging 5) Bearings burned out 67.. 41I ia Nam on*S2.21t60 "1 ...... TABLE 6. . X0Ao3o . TABLE 6......... . (snpirop. ¢TcipATS Rpm I 911 2 279 0H1 2 403 1609 39 CMA 194I 1W4 . mm 1 nuuua •'n oflt a Tluamn 4) Above.4 ..

chlorinated benzene cona monoalkyl glycol ester (20-40%).....0 C0114b..Opocun Uan AncTRA-Wrl.... 1 2016 . C-Ocb $paRIJnn nucoxoxnnmmmuz )rnzcoAopDAoN. + I-..1•50-75%1) n anrponotooro aoTiiain-a (50-25%) . CuIcb aknmaakmtaa. toluene or xylene Spindle oil + up to 15% of sodium stearate or lauryl sulfate (50-25%) Mixture of oil (50-75%) and ligroin distillate + 1-20% of additive prepared from Ligroin-kerosene distillate phosphorus oentasulfide Canada Mixture of fraction of high-boilirg hydrocarbons containing no less than 50% aromatics and 2-20% ethylene glycol ester The Netherlands conMotor oil (50-75%) + mixture of cresol hnd soap '50-25%) sisting of equal parts of orthocresol and solution of potassium soap with pH of 8. co~epfl•a•ef ne meaeo 50% apouam1•ecxwx yraeDoIopoAoA u 2-20% sraam... 729 329 1955 l'1 Aaranx 1) S3 2) ) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Ccmponents Patent Year Country + up to 10% naphthenate of lead. cojtepanaero 2aTOMOB xaopa (15-35%).... If•UoMeRJfia.. pH xwooporo peaho 8.. 1949 1952 Ruaza 11 69207 13 roaiaaAN! 14 15 2 671 036 19 CIBA 6 16 2 672 450 1954 noro rjuionAesoro a4npa (20-40%). rrarnonesoro soupa .. aa n mhua 153-25%).. W!oTop.1aIe... COCToxma us paissoro uwaa.CToro $oc4opa .S3aux 5esaona c 7-10 yraepoAmm aromauan n MomyseJy (25-75%)..5-9. Kerosene-gas-oil distillate zinc or tin USA Light oil + 10% benzene..... Maca..TABLE 6.5-9. n apoxa~mecxoro yr.1-10%) Mixture of an alkylamine with fewer than 9 carbons (10-25%)..oe MacJzo (50-15%) + cvec& ibp oso..oeaoA Ic•caro (0.. xjiopnpoaawhoro es30oaa.. mOOoanslmnux '%acTeA opToxpenoza n pacmopa Ban..53 (continued) 9 C•e•u.. -1453- ..pncaI nU..... nMetlolero wease 9 yraepOaHUX aTOXOD (10-25%)..0 .. COCTO~MAH 31 L:U3MnfY D9JInH.q1rPOn11o-.--10%). S]...... glycol monomethyl es- ter (75-25%) and ricinolelc acid ester (0...ioaeoro aCnpa (75-25%) a a4npa imnuw. q nf . taining 2-6 chlorine atoms (15-35%) and aromatic carbon (sic] (10-50%) 17) England.. cOpu.aepo~a (10-50%) . .0 15) 16) Mixture consisting of lower alkyl-substituted benzenes with 7-10 carbons in the molecule (25-75%)..e- 2 2 410 603 461 503 1946 CmA 6 nouiyi1uuonl 9 6a...

5 4+0:6 1 2 4 5 8.0 3 4 5 6 3..4 7..3 7..j.4 I3 +03.0 7..TABLE 6....54 Influence of Washing Solution in Raising Engine Compression [i2] n"""'"M 61 1 S I opccn. up. Compression.7 4....wn o. 76 +3. . Amount of water. O noc~ze ~ HOfPC~~KouapeoAO I . . 7 3eneuoe Mwao ...3 9... 1) Component 2...55 Composition of Solutions for Removal of Varnish Deposits and Scale from Engine Parts [31J 2 |.. 8/A 1 M(oMOawno U wi.•.& Ur nt .. o~cuc' CTJb"• b.7 8.mnpec-ut.0 Ie i) 2) Cylinder No..0 6.3 8.3 +1.750 km).0 +2.8 +2.0 6. 25 3 1& 10 8....3 7.6 7. - 45v - I. The parts are kept in the solution for 2-3 hr at 85-90aC. ..5 ..0 5.7 +0.9 6.3 +0.0 8...e 1.9 7. %J'lICA* jbm bmmu pyso3o0t aa 83ToMouJN (npo6er 92500 xu) 7 JlericosoR auTOMO6BAb (npo6er 41750 ni') 1 2 6. g/liter 3) For rleaning steel and cast iron parts 4) For 2leaning aluminum parts 5) Caustic soda 6) Soda 7) Green soap 8) Water glass.3 7 8 6.0 +1.0 +2.oP AO I '4 n:=4 3 upo..L I I 0 - qa'ryNHM1 . TABLE 6.. x /(4 " U.3 +2.0 7.Ia~c'mo lOEM.T..0 +1. kg/cm2 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Before washing After wasijng 2 Compression change.500 km) Passenger car (mileage 41.9 710 6.5 +1.9 7. a. 6 COO.3 7.0 8... Ur/CMI NM3lM -2-OMPM-C-N. 5 ExKzA uaTp. MD . nr~cml 113m-nb . kg/cm Truck (mileage 92.0 +1. washed witn water and then brushed clean.5 s a U)oe 8.7 8.0 6.0 8. - CTkAO Note.

hp. and lubricator lubrication of the cylinders.. 1..... marlne. b) compression ratio 6-8.5 . oll conr.. which have been developed on the basis of manufacturers' data and generalization of operating experience [5].. oil consumption. may be adopted: 1. It is composed of the amount of oil originally put into the engine and the amounts added periodically to replace oil burned..cating-system design. in automotive engines. Q2 is the oil filling of the crankcase in kg.-..-_....5% for new engines that have riot had a major overhaul and from 4 to 6% dependi:ng on degree of wear for all others.10.. ....___________.. OIL CONSUMPTION IN ENGINES Oil._. locomotive)..umpti'n. K is a coefficient that takes account of cylinder and bearing wear and is equtil to: 1... + TV where Qch is the rate of oil consumption in kg/h.. For engines with compression ignition (stationary..r. . centrifugal lubrication of connecting-rod bearings. hp.. consumption in an engine is determined by its operating regime. below 40 15-20 10-25 25-75 30-20 20-15 ]r._lr__.. N is the engine's rated power.......05 for slow engines with ring or chain lubrlcation of the main bearings...... and amounts to about 3.. 1. p l--L --. 1... the following approximate consumption norms. q is the specific oil consumption recommended by the engine manufacturer iji g/(hp-h). design features and general condition. Tr is the working time of the oil in hours....._______=___________ ... g/(hp-h) .. hp. ergine power.. Two-stroke semidiesel engines: a) compression ratio below 6 engine power. g/(hp-h) .. oil consumption is usually calculated in per cent of fuel consumption.2 for slow engines (200-500 rev/min) with the same Lu'.30 for._.2ý-1. as well as by the quality of the lubricating oil... The approximate per-hour consumption of crankcase oil can be calculated by the formula 1000..1 for slvuw cbines with lubricator lubrication. high-speed engines (>500 rev/min) when the bearings are pressure-lubricated and the cylinders are lubricated* by splash..... evaporated and lost through clearances and seals..

05* 1.ccm - 456 - .2. distilled over. 0.'emeR. % Fig.0. My.. 2. 3 OmeoH.0: 1.l 5 consumption coefficient. 3) Fig. 6) consumption coefficient.1oI SA B a r 6xo44nue-u./9.22. IS3 32 • It 1. cot.95 t.3: 198. 215. 1. S193 •363~ 171 .95: 1.0.7?26 40 f . A) O!.8-cSt viscosity on Law- son engine at 100 0 C) [12].05 1. 4) distillation temperature at atmospheric pressure. 6.21. Influence of oil viscos- ity on oil coiisumption in Lawson single-cylinder engine [12].3. B) viscosity of oil at lO0C. St I I I Nava flMa foo'c.. Influence of fractional composition of oil on oil consumption (tests of a number of oils with 6. 1.0. 5) oil. %. fi. 6.3 A 2.0. oC. 2) standard. paciona 1. 0. 0.5 1) Vacuum-distillation temperature at 5 mm Hg.2 2. t. 0 C.

6.fractional composition and viscosity.K. No.22). Blagovidov. REFERENCES 1. N. N. - I¶7 - ...A.. No.... below 50 50-100 100-150 8-6 7-6 6-4 The norms given above apply for oils with certain average properties . Knimiya i tekhnologiya topliv i masel... [Auto-Trac- Papok. I. oil consumption. below 50 50-100 100-150 10-8 8-6 6-4 4... 6... et al. 2 (2963)... I. II. hp.E. In the general case. Beitlnskiy. 2..G.... A definite relationship is also observed between oil consumpotion and oil viscosity: consumption decreases with increasing viscosity (Fig. institute of Petroleum.. and this will make up the major part of oil consumption (Fig. Tekhnicheskly slovar'spravociink po toplivu i maslam [Technical Reference Dictionary for Fuels and Oils]... R.. Avtotraktornyye dvigateli tor Engines]. 1958... Puchkov.N. )4... 22-18 b) four-stroke engine power in one cylinder. hp..:age des moteurs [Motor Otils and Motor Lubricetion].21).. Yershov.. 6.F. g/(hp-h) .. nologiya topliv i masel...... oil consumption.. 10 (1164).. Vols.. The Engine Testing of Crankcase Lubricating Oil--... Technlp.. Four-cycle high-compression petroleum engines: engine power. the higher the content of low-boiling fractions in the oil.... 1962.... K. g/(hp-h) . a) Unsupercharged diesels: two-stroke engine power in one cylinder.... N. 1963... hp 50-100 100-150 18-12 oil consumption. Streets. the larger will be the amount burned and vaporized off. Sel'khozizdat. g/(hp-h) below 40 12-10 3... Les huiles pour moteurs et le grais. Gostoptekhizdat.. Ragozin. Four-cycle supercharged diesels: engine power in one cylinder. London. 1962..V.. hp . Par-I. page 16]. 5. Khimiya I teKh- 3..2.. oil consumption. g/(hp-h) . V.

Korotkov. Morozov. Semenido.I.V.. Gostoptekhizdat.. Dzhordzhi. A. in collection "Povysheniye kachestva I primeneniye smazochnykh materialov" [Improving the Quality and Utility of Lubricating Materials].. N.dinenly. - - . seroorganicheskikh soyedineniy. York.. N. Physical Chemistry of Lubricating Oils.65.. is 20. M. Gostoptekhizdat. Iza. No..V..T emperature Properties of Oils]. Gostoptekhizdat. Gostoptekhizdat. 19. 1959. 1957. S. GostoptekhizNew 9. I.G.. Borovaya. K. AN SSSR.. Kreyn and G..P. AN SSSR.. Rubinshteyn. III. Fuks. M. 10. No. topliv i masel. Vol. A. Khimiya I tekhnologiya 11.. 8. in collection "Khimiya sero. AN SSSR. Osnovy primeneniya nefteproduktov [Fundamentals of the Application of Petroleum Products].and Nitrogen-Organic Compounds Present in Petroleumus and Petroleum Products]..A.. in collection "Issledovaniye i prlmeneniye nefteproduktov" [Petroleum Products Research and Applications].. soderzhashchikhsya v neftyakh I nefteproduktakh" [Chemistry of Sulfur. Puchkov. Neftyanoye tovarovedeniýe [Petroleum Commerce]. 12. N. No..E.G.. Puchkov..I azotorganicheskikh soyr.B. Borovaya. 17. In toplivam" [Additives dat. Losikov. Puchkov.P.V. Gostoptekhizdat.V. Ye. M.7. topliv i masel. Losikov. 6. V. 15. P.. 4 (1958).G. G. 1960.A.K.). Losikov. in collection "Scstav i svoystva vysokomolekulyarnoy chasti nefti" [Composition and Properties of the Macromolecular Fraction of Petroleum].S. B. V. Izd. Kreyn.7-68 5J. S.V. Primeneniye dizel'nykh masel s prisadkami [Use of Diesel Oils with Additives]. Izd. B. B. A. 1961. Firsanova. 1950. Knimiya i tekhnologý. S. 1 (.G. A. soderzhashchikhsya v neftyakh I neft!produktakh" [Chemistry of Sulfur-Orgqnic 458 Novikov. Englin. Nizkotemperaturnyye svoystva masel [Low.E. Ye.. 1951.ya collection "Prisadki k maslam i for Oils and Fuels]. edited by B. Vilenkin. Druzhinina.C. Gostoptekhizdat.19. Motornyye masla i smazka dvigatelya [Motor Oils and Engine Lubrication] (translated from the English)...V. in collection "Khtmiya i"TD-}IT-:• 5. 13. Bondi. Vipper.F. Filippov. 1962. Lukashevich.. 1957. 16. 1947..N. Volarovich. 1958. Demchenko.N. 1960. 14. 18. V.F.S.

. Papok. Ivankina. 130.M. Feygin.. A... A. 11 (1959). Vol. K. R.. L. 2. X. 1951. 1961. K... S. 26. October'.s]. 7. K. Kreyn.P. Yu.. Puc"Wkov. Zarubin. Trudy Trett yey Vsesoyuznoy konferentsii po treniyu i iznosu v mashinakh [Transactions of Third All-Union Conference on Friction and . Papok.B.1.. Kreyn. (1. Yashgiz. B.M. 2 (1)?59). Trudy TsIAM. I .. Yevdoklmov.. Khimiya i tekhnologiya toiliv i masel. TsNIlTElneftegaz.II Izd.S. Oborongiz. A. 1956. 1950. Papok. S. G. 12 0i960). Belyanclilkov.masel. No. S. V... Badyshtova. 1"TD-~1-?15-i 47-6k~- . No.. 1963. K. Properties of Lubricating Oil and Engine Deposits.G. 1960. Bekhlin. loc. 31.collection "Prisadki k maslam i toplivam" [Addi~tives for Oils and Fuel.. P'ipok. IV.V.E. Z. Gostoptekhizdat.. Kazanskiy.K. Gostoptekhizdat. 23.. 78 (195~4). Khi1zn1Ia i tekhnologiya topliv I masel.. 32. Badyshtova. 33. KJleywenova.. No. Ryazancv. et al. 10'. N..G. 29. Vipper. Dumont. 8 %'1958). S.:qneniya prisadok k motornym maslam". Erd'61 u. 30.. AN SSSR.G.V. O....... loc. No. 1ior. SA~E Quarterl:'. Khimiya i tekhnologiya top~iv i masel. cit.-i I tekhinoloviya topliv 1.. Kuznetsova.P. Borovaya. 22. 35. Zuseva.. Kreyn. A. London...A.. Vipper. Transactions. 21. A.. L.L..1. Livshits. A. No.K.A. Wear in Machines].F. Yastrebov.K.. 0. Vol. rExpc-rience in the Production and Use of Mot-. 3L4. M. Khimiya 1.. in collection "Opyt rroizvodstva i priw. No. O. Zelenskaya. Vipper.K.. Zarubin.G. Lisovskaya.F.Oll Additives].P.Compounds Present in Petroleumsi antd Petroleum Products].B.. I. an-d Sludge in Automotive E-igines]. Trafrtoveriko. A.'S.. 24 25.. >i.K.zekhnologiya topliv i masel.. Khimiya i tekhriologiya topliv 11 mosel.S.3. 2'1.A.L. No..B. K. N..A. 6 (1960). E. Puchkov. K10m1ly. 36.o:-. lakovyye otlozheniya I osadk! v avtomobil'nykhi dvigatelyakh [Scale. ZelenskayA'. 194J7.'ovay~i M. Papok. S. S.E.. Kyuregyan.A. 28.K. Varnish Deposito.S. Nepogod'yev. Nagary. cit.akharov...G.. K. R. Kohlcl. Bouman. No.M..

W. 39. A. Manuscript Page No. 1957.zalivayemyy = poured in = 3 = z p = r' = rabota work. V.-f_2-2.V.37. Gostoptekhizdat. in coll(ction "Khimiche.. No. T.. 455 455 455 Transliterated Symbols = = ch . Druzhinina..E. 38. Perriguey. working. Tsiguro. Khimiya Kreyn.5-7 68 - 4 463 - @ C .. running FTD. S. October. SAE Journal. 1949..chasovoy = per hour . 2 (1959). i tekhnclogiya topliv i masel.A.G. FilJppov.F.'kiy sostav i ekspluatatsionnyye svoystva smazochnykh masel" [Chemical Composition and Operational Properties of Lubricating Oils].