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COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS INFORMATION consists of facts and items of knowledge. It can be anything that has meaning to people.

Usually information is expressed in words and numbers. However, it can be expressed in other forms, such as sounds, measurements or pictures. Ex:     A list of names and addresses. The contents of a letter. The words of a song. A map.

DATA Is information in which it can be processed. Ex:    A word processed letter stored on a floppy disc A song written as sheet music so that it can be played. A telephone conversation converted to electrical signals to be sent down the wires.

PROCESSING INFORMATION Information processing is the organization, manipulation and distribution of information.  Sorting a list of names and address into alphabetical order.  Producing a letter with a word processor, saving it on floppy disc and then sending it by electronic mail.  Transmitting a conversation over the phone system. PROCESSING OF INFORMATION WITHOUT MACHINES Ex:   Listening to songs and deciding which ones are best. Reading a map to get from one place to another.

THE DATA PROCESSING CYCLE When data is collected and processed, whether by computer or by other means, a set of operations is carried out on it. The sequence of operations : data collection, input, process, output is called a data processing cycle.

The value of a data item at a given time is represented by the size of the quantity measured on a fixed scale. raw data. or manipulates it into information we can use.g. ex:     A A A A computer. such as summaries or totals EX: An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) computes the deposits and withdrawals to give you the total in your account. telephone. Searching data. The main types of use involved are:       Presentation of information.INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) is all types of equipment and programs which are used in the processing of information. including numerous arithmetic operations or logic operations. Computer: (ISO) A programmable functional unit that consists of one or more associated processing units and peripheral equipment. . Handling information. Control and measurement DIGITAL AND ANALOGUE DATA A device is digital if some quantity in it can be set to a number of different separate values or states. Data is then represented by combinations by these values. fax machine. facts & figures) and processes. USES OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY The term ‘information technology is also used to refer to the uses of this technology. A computer may be a stand-alone unit or may consist of several interconnected units. without human intervention during a run. calculator. that is controlled by internally stored programs and that can perform substantial computation. Usually the devices are binary and data is represented as a succession of 1s and 0s. An analogue device is one in which data is represented by some quantity which is continuously variable. sorting it into order and analyzing Producing modules of real situations Data communication. multipurpose machine that accepts data (e. COMPUTERS A Computer is a programmable.

Eckert and Von Neumann built EDVAC the -1st stored program computer. 1880 – Dr. 1977 – Stephen Wonzniak and Steven Jobs built first Apple Microcomputer. 1960 – Gene Amdahl designed IBM System/360 mainframe computer – 1st general purpose digital using Integrated circuits. the first programmer suggested binary Data storage rather than decimal. 1947 – Mauchy and Eckert built ENIAC – 2nd Electronic digital computer. 1951 – Mauchy and Eckert built UNIVAC 1 – 1st commercially sold. 1840 – Ada.Herman Hollerith developed the punched card that would contain data coded in form of punched holes.HISTORY OF COMPUTERS  3000 BC the ABACUS a rudimentary first computing device developed  1642 – Blaise Pascal built the first mechanical digital calculator Pascaline. 1975 – H. used by military to compute ballistic data. 1963 – Olsen with Digital Equipment Corporation produced PDP-1 – 1st Mini computer. 1976 – Seymour Cray CRAY-1 Supercomputer. 1949 – Maurice. 1950 – Turing built Ace – 1st programmable computer.    1822 – Charles Babbage invented Difference Engine with a mechanical memory to store results. 1944 – Aitken built Mark 1 the first automatic. Ted Hoff of Intel Corporation produced microprocessor Intel 4004. 1939 – Dr.              . John Vincent Atanasoft produced the first prototype electronic computer. sequence controlled calculator. 1980 – Lower cost Personal Computers.Edward Roberts – 1st Microcomputer.

Magnetic Tape COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE .Block Diagram of a Modern PC CPU ALU Internal Communic ation Registers Control Unit Input Interface Input Devices Keyboard Mouse/Joystick Light pen Scanner Infra-red ray Video Camera Microphone etc. Floppy Disk. External Storage : Hard Disk. CDROM. Storage/Input Internal Memory RAM (Read/Write) ROM (Read Only) BUS SYSTEM Output Interface Output Devices VDU(Monitor) Printer Speaker etc.

Floppy Disk. CDROM.Block Diagram of a Modern PC CPU ALU Internal Communic ation Registers Control Unit Input Interface Output Interface Storage/Input Internal Memory RAM (Read/Write) ROM (Read Only) BUS SYSTEM Processo r Main Memor y ALU Control Keyboard Mouse/Joystick Light pen Scanner Infra-red ray Video Camera Microphone etc. Input Devices Output Devices VDU(Monitor) Printer Speaker etc. Magnetic Tape Output . External Storage : Hard Disk.

INPUT DEVICES Input devices are used to feed data and instructions to the computer system. Control Unit:. Ex. of input devices  The keyboard  Alight pen  An Electronic digital weighing scale interface d to a computer  A document reader  A mouse. INPUT FROM KEY BOARD The usual keys supplied are  The alphabet  The digits 0-9  Other text characters  Cursor and other control characters  Keys which change the function of other keys  Function keys. It consists of ALU. Input devices provide the interface between the outside world and the computer system for this purpose. CU uses a system clock which synchronizes all tasks by sending out electrical pulses.  Optical Mark Recognition(OMR)  Optical Character Recognition(OCR)  Magnetic Ink Character Recognition(MICR) . ALU:. control elements and small memory units called registers.This interprets any instruction it receives from memory and directs the sequence of events Necessary to execute the instruction. DOCUMENT READERS OMR.The heart of any computer system. OCR and MICR A document reader is a device which read data straight from a form.THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT Processor:. Ex. An input device is a peripheral which accepts data and sends it to the central processing unit.All calculations and all comparisons take place in this unit.

In OCR however the reader has to workout what the characters are.OPTICAL MARK RECOGNITION. These are pressed to produce action when the user has moved the cursor to the right place. USES OF MOUSE:  To select options from a menu or from a set of icons.  To position the cursor when editing text or using a design packages. Ex: marking multiple choice question papers. APPLICATIONS OF OMR The documents to be read have empty boxes to take the marks. Scanners were originally design to scan pictures but they can also be used to read text. OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR) An optical character reader can recognize characters from their shape. MOUSE A mouse is an input device designed to fit snugly under a hand while it is moved about over a table. The mouse is also provided with one. The person preparing the data makes pencil or ink marks in the appropriate boxes. two or three buttons. . There has to be large number of documents to justify designing and printing them. The data to be input has to be simple because the user can only make marks and cannot write any information. moved or deleted. (OMR) OMR is a system of reading lines or marks which have been made in exactly the right positions on a card or document. These have been preprinted on to the documents together with information telling the user what to do.  To select an object in a drawing or a piece of text to be copied. Moving the mouse produce s movements of a cursor or a pointer on the screen. As with OMR light is reflected from the paper and form the ink.

Video output. Sound output. maps. GRAPHIC OUTPUT Includes line drawings. . Text output appearance ranges from type writer to typeset quality. SOUND OUTPUT Ranges from the message beeps produced by the computer system to the human voice to music and other forms of sound. Soft copy. TEXT OUTPUT Is simply alphanumeric characters that makeup our language. presentations business graphics. VIDEO OUTPUT Photographs (still images) or moving images such as television and video taped material Again we have 2 principle kind of output are:   Hard copy. Graphics output.OUT PUT DEVICES There     are several ways to produce output: Text output.

Line printers – Prints one line at a time. Ex Low speed impact printers (Daisy wheel print head. . Primary disadvantages are expensive maintenance and the high cost of toner cartridges. Cost of printing media. Fast printing and high quality graphics with color. Ink jet printer DOT MATRIX PRINTER This mechanism enable the print control up to the dot level on the paper. Speed at which printed pages are produced. . high resolution Medium level noise but high cost. Fast but noisy wear out ribbons very quickly.PRINTER A printer is read only device. Page printers – Prints one page at a time. The basic criteria for evaluating printers include:      Quality of the printed output.Prints one character at a time. BASIC CLARIFICATION OF PRINTERS    BASIC Character printers. Eg. Laser printer. Sound level during printing. Conservation of paper. driven directly by a computer and provide permanent visual records called hard copy. LASER PRINTER     Excellent print quality and font selection. can be used to produce both text and graphics. Dot matrix printer head) NON-IMPACT PRINTERS Form characters or images without making direct physical contact between printing mechanism and papers. METHODS OF PRODUCING PRINTOUTS IMPACT PRINTERS: Form characters or images by striking mechanism Such as print hammer or wheel against an inked ribbon leaving an image on paper.

although they may also produce less complicated charts and graphics. Thermal plotter.INK-JET PRINTERS Ink jet printers’ transfers characters and images to the paper by spraying a fine jet of ink. TYPE OF ♦ ♦ ♦ PLOTTERS Pen plotter Electrostatic plotter.  A monochrome display a single color against a different color background  Color display can show variety of colors. Offers nearly the quality of laser printing but not the speed. MONITOR Provide soft copy out put.Describe the degree of details in a video display. Comes in either monochrome or color. The higher the resolution the characters and images are sharper and crisper as fill image. Resolution. Low cost alternative for high quality printing. . Those are especially useful for creating maps and architectural drawings. PLOTTERS It is a specialized output device designed to produce high quality graphics in a variety of colors.

.  Whether they can store data when the computer is not running. READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) .Read data means to move it or copy from the backing store to main store. CACHE MEMORY Cache is an area of memory that holds frequently accessed data or program instructions for the purpose of speeding a computer system’s performance. WRITE – Data means to move it or copy from the main store to backing store. 8 BITS 1024 1024 1024 1024 B KB MB GB = = = = = 1 1 1 1 1 BYTE( A BIT CAN BE EITHER 0 KILOBYTE MEGABYTE GIGABYTES TERABYTE OR 1) A BYTE is a small group of bits treated as a unit. Here data is held temporarily whilst processing takes place. A single character can be stored in one byte.DATA STORAGE IN COMPUTERS STORAGE OF DATA The number of instructions and amount of data a computer can store in its memory is measured in bytes. It is usually the number of bits needed to store one character. STORES DIFFER IN:  The speed with which they can be accessed.  Whether data on they can be changed. Tow main categories of storage are  Main store  Backing store MAIN MEMORY (MAIN STORE) There are two types of memory  ROM (Read-Only Memory)  RAM (Random Access Memory) Memory is the name given to a group of chips inside the processing unit. READ . Normally a byte consists of 8 bits.

To store the contents of the screen BACKING STORE A STORAGE MEDIUM is the material on which the data is stored. It is not volatile. If ROM was volatile it would lose.as the temporary store for the program which is running and data it is using. 2. 2. Characteristics of backing store 1. Floppy disk. ROM is permanent data and programs on it cannot be changed.  PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory  EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory  EEPROM: Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) Is memory which can be read from or written to. Data is usually accessed using read/write heads. CD ROM Storage DRIVE Is the piece of equipment which rotates the storage medium and access the data on it.  Hard Disc: Is a rigid magnetic Disc COMPACT DISC . RAM is temporary. Each surface holds data in circular tracks. They are not –volatile. There are four types of ROM. 3. These transferred the data while the medium rotates in the drive. Access to backing store is slower than to main store. As the working store of the computer.Is Memory which can be read from but not written to. the data is stored on the medium until it is deleted. MAGNETIC DISCS A typical Magnetic Disc has two surfaces or sides. There are two types of Magnetic Disks  Floppy Disc: Is a light flexible magnetic disc. It contents can be changed. Magnetic tape. Eg. To store data being transferred to an from peripherals 3. Its data and it would not be possible to write it back. Each track is divided into equal sections called sectors. It is usually volatile. The application of RAM 1.

MULTI-MEDIA means presentation on a computer of information combining animated and still graphics. Ex. Data is written to the disc using a powerful laser beam to burn patterns in the surface. Electronic books which are 8 cm in diameter. Access to data is faster than floppy discs but slower than hard discs. CD ROM’s of other sizes are also available. sound and text. A CD ROM is a compact disc normally of about 12cm in diameter. The discs are exchangeable and easy to transport.All types of compact disc can be read by a computer if you have the right player interfaces and software. .

A Record is a subdivision of a file. Storage of Files Creating a file Organizing data into a file means creating a file. It usually consists of a number of separate parts called records. Saving a file Copying all record from main store on to a backing store Types of file . It consists of a set of items of data which together can be treated as a unit. A data file is an organized collection of data.DATA FILES Facts about Files The term File is used to describe any data or program stored on a backing store such as a disc or a tape.

Often a network is located in multiple physical places. such as a single building or a college campus. but often link hundreds of computers. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines. satellite links. Computers located far away use a special form of data communication – telecommunication or telegraph. dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous). Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) . Local Area Network (LAN) . linking as few as three computers. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. LANs can be small. Computers that are located in the same room or office building can communicate data through a direct cable link.MAN is basically a bigger version of a LAN and normally uses similar technology. Wide Area Network (WAN) . Linking one computer to another permits the power and resources of that computer to be tapped.Data Communications Data communication is the process of sending data electronically from one computer or similar device to another. It also makes possible the updating and sharing of data at different locations.LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area. It might cover a group of near by corporate offices or a city and might be either private or public. . and data packet carrier services.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK Star Topology Ring Topology WIDE AREA NETWORK .