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PRACTICAL WORK BOOK

For Academic Session 2012

FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM (EE-474)
For BE (EE), BE (EL)

Name: Roll Number: Class: Batch: Department :

Semester/Term:

Department of Electrical Engineering
NED University of Engineering & Technology

SAFETY RULES
1. Please don’t touch any live parts. 2. Never use an electrical tool in a damp place. 3. Don’t carry unnecessary belongings during performance of practicals (like water bottle, bags etc). 4. Before connecting any leads/wires, make sure power is switched off. 5. In case of an emergency, push the nearby red color emergency switch of the panel or immediately call for help. 6. In case of electric fire, never put water on it as it will further worsen the condition; use the class C fire extinguisher.

Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation (combustion) of fuel. Three basic conditions when met, fire takes place. These are fuel, oxygen & heat, absence of any one of the component will extinguish the fire.
Figure: Fire Triangle

A(think B(think

ashes): paper, wood etc

barrels): flammable liquids

If there is a small electrical fire, be sure to use only a Class C or multipurpose (ABC) fire extinguisher, otherwise you might make the problem worsen. The letters and symbols are explained in left figure. Easy to remember words are also shown.

C(think

circuits): electrical fires

Don’t play with electricity, Treat electricity with respect, it deserves!

Feedback Control Systems
NED University of Engineering and Technology

Contents
Department of Electrical Engineering

Lab Ex ercise Sch edule
Session No. Exercise No. Page No

Date

Title of Experiments

Re marks

A - PID Control

1 2 3 4

1

2
EX 3:

To Study the closed loop automatic control of level To Study the effects of Proportional, Integrative and Derivative Components on the Automatic Level Control System PID control of Flow rate: Familiarization with the plant To Study the effects of Proportional, Integrative and Derivative Components on the Automatic Flow rate Control System

3.13.2
EX 3:

3.33.5

B - Analogue Servo Trainer

5 6 7 8* 9* 10* 11* 12* 13*

4 5 6

Familiarization with Analog Servo Trainer Preliminary Procedures for Operation Transient Response of the DC Motor

C - Modular Servo System
EX 7:

7.0
EX 7:

To become familiar with the system Parameter Determination of the Modular Servo System: VMAX, km, kt Parameter Determination of the Modular Servo System: τm, kp Parameter Determination of the Modular Servo System: Gain verification, τ1 and summarization

7.5.1, 7.5.2
EX 7:

7.5.3, 7.5.4
EX 7:

7.5.5, 7.6
EX 8:

Closed Loop Position Control System Design: Introduction and Pre-Lab EX 8: Closed Loop Position Control System Design: 8.6 Procedure
8.5

* Because of the excellent coverage of the subject, the experiments are taken from the Manual of Control Systems Lab, at the Lawrence
Technological university, By Professor B. D. Sweet.

Revised 2012 UP/ SAH

the pressure sensor set at the bottom of the vertical column of unit TY30A/EV is used see the figure bellow: 1 . 1. Connecting wires. 7. 1. DIN cable.3 Theory: MEASUREMENT OF LEVEL AND PRESSURE With pressure and level measurements. Pressure and Flow rate transducer kit G30A. Level and Flow Control kit G30B. 6.1 Object: To study the Close loop Automatic Control of level and the effect caused by the variation in the conditions. 5. Power Supply module PS1-PSU/EV.2 1. 3. Module holder.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 1 Department of Electrical Engineering A – PID Control Exercise 1 PID Control of Level 1. Level. Attachment unit TY30A/EV. 4. 2. 8. Equipment: Measurement Unit mod. IU9/EV.

Ms where: p = pressure (in Pa = Pascal = N. it is sufficient to measure the pressure to obtain the level.81 m. of a liquid in a tank. 2 .g. the STRAIN GAUGE ones have become the mostly used. which is the height. or when. this means that each value of the column corresponds to only one value of the output voltage. If "1" represents the level. bellow). the pressure at the bottom will be given by: p = 1.C. We can say that a variable or information is analog when it varies in continuous. Among the different available pressure transducers. the level of a liquid is linked to pressure. the water level of the column) can take infinite values.s-2) Ms = specific mass of the liquid (kg. according to a law of proportionality. THE PRESSURE SENSOR: Under static condition. Consequently.m2 = 10-5 bar) L = level (in m) g = acceleration of gravity (g = 9. it cannot be discontinuous by its own nature. This means that an analog variable (in our case. voltage which behavior follows the water level in the column.m-3).Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 1 Department of Electrical Engineering DEFINITION OF AN ANALOG VARIABLE: An analog measurement ring permits the generation of a D. The operating principle of these transducers is the piezo-resistivity (property of the materials which change their resistance as function of the deformation to which they are subjected). So there is analogy between the level and the variable representing it (output voltage of the measurement system). The four resistors connected at Wheatstone's bridge are taken from a silicon diaphragm (fig.

The Theory of Automatic Controls. as absolute pressure sensor. This is not a treatment on the Theory of Automatic Controls. demonstrates that the knowledge of the single parts of the system gives the knowledge of the whole system. the action developed by man varies continuously according to the result coming from the comparison between the information related to the value of the controlled variable and the information related to the value prescribed for this variable. the connection between level sensor and its signal conditioner is carried out via a cable to be inserted on the 8-pin DIN sockets marked as "TRANSDUCERS". These actions can be made by the devices composing the "CONTROL SYSTEM. In a manual control. A "CONTROL" is the set of actions to be performed to condition a process until it takes the wished behavior. This device is available as differential sensor or. An "AUTOMATIC CONTROL" is the set of control actions made without the intervention of man. The bridge is powered on a diagonal by a constant voltage generator and a voltage variable with pressure which acts on the diaphragm is taken from the opposite diagonal. The strain gauges are resistors.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 1 Department of Electrical Engineering The diaphragm is then welded on a glass ring which supports it. Examples of industrial processes can be: petrol refinery. in this case.4 GENERAL NOTIONS: Before dealing with the control of level and flow. In automatic control. In the sensor used. when there is a power voltage of 10V. The sensor used in our system has an operation range ("pressure range") which varies from 0 to 0. vapour production. the resistors are connected with a Wheatstone's bridge. metal lamination.07 bar. 1. instead. The dynamic of the output voltage of the last circuit is of 42 mV (which represents the Full Scale Output). in fact. In this system. In module G30A. we just take the concepts of this theory which are necessary to explain the process controls. so the output voltage Vo varies proportionally with pressure. etc. whose resistive value depends on the deformations they are subjected. the system alone can control the variables of the control action in order to zero the difference between the value taken by the controlled variable and the one 3 . the sensor uses the pressure of the water on the column to generate an elementary deformation on the in-built strain gauges. These complex processes consist of more elementary processes. A "PHYSICAL PROCESS" or simply a "PROCESS" is a complex set of physical transformations and/or matter and/or energy transmissions. we will briefly survey the main concepts of automatic control which are necessary to understand the same process.

precisely: * Open-loop systems. Transducer and Signal Conditioner: These are devices which convert the physical variable of the controlled output. A "SYSTEM" is the set composed by the process and by the control system. DIVISION OF THE CONTROL SYSTEMS The control systems are classified into two general categories. into a variable homogeneous with the Set-Point. It is just the shift between the controlled action and the value of the reference variables which starts an action which last purpose is to zero this shift.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 1 Department of Electrical Engineering prescribed for it. An open-loop system is characterized by the fact that the control action is independent from the output. * Feedback or Closed-loop Systems. It represents the ideal behavior of the output of the process. 4 . The "OUTPUT" of the process is the variable of the process which is wished to be controlled. the control action depends in some way from the output. The block diagram of a generic control system with negative feedback is given bellow: The meaning of the blocks and the signals is the following: Controller: It consists by the set of devices required to generate a proper control signal to be applied to the amplifier and then to the process. instead. In closed-loop systems. An "INPUT" or "SET-POINT" is the stimulus (or excitation) applied to the control system.

From Set-point and Error Block of G30B apply a voltage of 0V at terminal 2 and note the display of G30A. • With DIN cable connect G30A to TY30A. connect terminals 6 to 7. 1.30B: connect ± 12 VDC/2A & +12VDC/2A. 9. The importance of these two advantages can be better explained by the fact that parametric variations and disturbances are generally aleatory. INTEGRATIVE and DERIVATIVE. 7.8 to 14 this will enable display to show level of liquid. Inside module G30A. 8. Connections between G30A and G30B: • Connect jack 15 of G30B to input +12V DC/1. 6.30A: connect power supplies ± 12 VDC/2A and 5VDC/1.5A of G30A. Open valve V1 of Unit TY30A to half position and turn valve V2 ON. 3. 14. Power supply for module G. i. 11. 5. • Connect jack 3 of G30B to jack 6 of G30A. Draw graph taking Set-point values on x-axis and level in mm on y-axis. Disturbance: It is an unwished (input) signal which changes the value of the output.5A 4.e.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 1 Department of Electrical Engineering Error Signal: It is the signal obtained by the difference between the Set-Point and the feedback signal supplied by the Signal Conditioner. 13. 2. Also note the effect of changing the flow of fluid by varying valve V1.5 Procedure: 1. Fill the observation table taking corresponding readings. The main advantages of the closed-loop control systems in respect to the open-loop ones and which justify the use of the closed-loop control can be synthesized in this way: Less sensitivity to parametric variations. Make connections as per figure given bellow. Set PID controller to half way position with the knobs PROPORTIONAL. Turn switch I1 to position LEVEL. 5 . Connection between G30A and TY30A: • Connect “+” and “-” present on G30A to corresponding terminals of TY30A. unpredictable if not in their statistic characteristics. 10. Less effects on the disturbing actions. 12. Power supply for module G. Put level switch to ON position on G30A.

6 .6 Observation: S/No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Set-point value (Volts) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Level in mm 1.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 1 Department of Electrical Engineering 1.7 Result: The Automatic Close Loop System of Level Control is studied and the effect of variations are observed.

11. IU9/EV. The transfer function of the block bellow which carries out the integrative action is equal to: W(s) = KI/s = 1/(τI. 2. INTEGRETIVE and DERIVATIVE Components of PID Controller on Closed Loop Automatic Control of level. Module holder. is a perfect copy of the input. Power Supply module PS1-PSU/EV.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 2 Department of Electrical Engineering Exercise 2 The effects of PID parameters on control system performance 2. 15. The output. 10.s) 7 .1 Object: The effect of PROPORTIONAL. Measurement Unit mod.3 Theory: Proportional Action (P): It is the action introduced by the amplifier attenuator. 12. 16. Integrative Action (I): This action is introduced by a pure integrator. DIN cable. Connecting wires. Level.2 Equipment: 9. 13. Attachment unit TY30A/EV. 14. The figure shows an amplifier attenuator which transfer function is equal to KP. Pressure and Flow rate transducer kit G30A. apart from the multiplicative coefficient. Level and Flow Control kit G30B. 2.

e. the output reaches the value of the input. has a value equal to the one the input will take after a time equal to the constant of the derivative action. i. 8 . Refer to fig. Regulation with (P) Controller: With this kind of regulator the output signal of the controller is proportional to its input signal: the variable which can be varied in this case is the constant of proportionality. related to a step input.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 2 Department of Electrical Engineering Where “τI” is called “Time constant of the Integrative Action". The output. Derivative Action (D): It is the action introduced by a pure derivator. the ratio between output and input.KD = s. relative to a linear ramp input. this value is determined by the constant of proportionality. There is a value of the output signal for each value of the input signal. if the constant of proportionality is too big or if the constant of proportionality is too high. The transfer function is equal to: W(s) = s. with a real controller. bellow. The value of the output. has a delay of linear kind. is kept until the input changes slope. Once the input value is reached. It is obvious that the behavior is linear only for a limited band of input values (proportional band). The output.Τd Where τD is called "Time Constant of the Derivative Action" and which physical meaning is shown in fig. After a time equal to the constant of the Integrative action. there is saturation and consequently a nonlinear behavior. the output keeps on rising with the same slope. to see this fact better. equal to the value the input will take after a time τD. until the input is null. The above said is true only if the controller is ideal.

while inside it the power is modulated. the system gets toward unstable condition.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 2 Department of Electrical Engineering The error signal.e the actuator is applied all the power available or nothing. when the KP increases. this signal. depends on the power supplied by the load and by the efficiency of the same actuator. According to the proportional band set there are different behaviors of the controlled variable (in this case level) as function of time. is amplified by the constant of proportionality (KP). if the error diminishes. We can also say that the error different from zero is necessary to obtain an output voltage different from zero. Once the transistors are modulated. obtained by the comparison between the reference signal (wished value for the output) and the signal supplied by the signal conditioner of the transducer (value effectively obtained across the output). 9 . we can affirm that the error is proportional to the gain of the regulator and depends on the coefficient KP and by the value of the proportional band. The main characteristic of this controller is to have an error always different from zero. Outside the proportional band (where the behavior is linear) the controller determines a production of ON/OFF power. i. the power supplied by the amplifier of the actuator. on passing across the proportional controller. normally constitutes the input signal of the controller. You must also note that.

together with the proportional integrative one: the effectiveness of the derivative action depends largely on the controlled variable. 10 . If the oscillations remain. The main disadvantage of the controller with proportional action is that it always needs an input voltage different from zero (and consequently an error different from zero in closed-loop control systems) to have an output voltage different from zero. The integrative action is high. in order to exploit the advantages of both regulations and reduce the introduced problems. if the inertia of the system is high or if the time constant of. that in case of level and position regulation.place to reduce the regulations error to zero in respect to the steady state value. In the derivative controller the output is the derivate of the input function and so it has a high influence on the signals which rapidly vary. the Influence of the derivative action is very poor due to the fact that the variables under test vary very slowly. we can put together the proportional and the integrative actions. With the integrative action. the output voltage is the integral of the input voltage. To solve these problems. it may happen that the system is taken to unstable conditions (oscillations). Anyway. Then. there can be an output different from zero with null output and then the error with at steady state can be reduced to zero. the great advantage of the integrative controller is to reach a steady state with null error.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 2 Department of Electrical Engineering Fig. We will see. While the process evolves. shows different behaviours of automatic control of level with: a) Too large Bp b) Correct Bp c) Too narrow Bp Regulation with (P I) and (P I D) Controller: In the integrative controller. As limit case with constant input voltage. its output is null. the derivative action decades and the integrative one takes its . you can add the derivative action.

3. 11 .5A of G30A. 6. Connection between G30A and TY30A: • Connect “+” and “-” present on G30A to corresponding terminals of TY30A.30A: connect power supplies ± 12 VDC/2A and 5VDC/1. 7. Give your observation stating why system is not stable at high P values. Power supply for module G.5A 4. 16. Note how the Integrative action tends to zero the Error. Insert only PROPROTIONAL action of controller by connecting only the P knob and setting it to minimum value. From Set-point and Error Block of G30B apply a voltage of 0V at terminal 2 and note the voltage level at terminal 4 of Set-point Block which is the Error signal. Open valve V1 of Unit TY30A to half position and turn valve V2 ON. 14. 5. 18. • Connect jack 3 of G30B to jack 6 of G30A.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 2 Department of Electrical Engineering Parameter Kp Ki Kd Effects of increasing a parameter independently Settling Steady-state Rise time Overshoot time error Small Decrease Decrease Increase change Decrease Decrease Increase Increase significantly Minor decrease Minor decrease Minor decrease Stability Degrade Degrade No effect in theory Improve if Kd small 2. Power supply for module G. Draw the two graphs on single graph paper taking Set-point values on x-axis and Error output on y-axis and also give your conclusion on the space provided. 15. 9. 19. 13. Now change the value of KP by P knob to maximum and repeat the same. 17.30B: connect ± 12 VDC/2A & +12VDC/2A. Make connections as per figure given bellow. Put level switch to ON position on G30A. Turn switch I1 to position LEVEL. 2. Measure for all values indicated in the observation column. Now insert Integrative and Derivative control on PID and put them on half way positions and measure the Error signal. 11. • With DIN cable connect G30A to TY30A. connect terminals 6 to 7. Fill the observation table taking corresponding readings. 12. 8. Turn I & P knobs to minimum and check the error again.8 to 14 this will enable display to show level of liquid.4 Procedure: 1. Inside module G30A. Connections between G30A and G30B: • Connect jack 15 of G30B to input +12V DC/1. 10.

12 .4 Observations: 2.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 2 Department of Electrical Engineering 2.5 Result: The effects of different components of PID on Automatic Close Loop System of Level Control are studied and the effects of variations in Proportional Band are observed.

1 Equipment of the Cycle • • • • • • • AISI 304 stainless steel structure Feeding tank of stainless steel AISI 304 L. in stainless steel AISI 316 13 .4 to 4 m3 /h 2 valves of ½ “. with body and impeller of stainless steel. accuracy of • 0. control of flow rate.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering Exercise 3 PID Control of Flow rate 3. CV = 0. in stainless steel AISI 316 7 valves 1”. height of 1000mm Pneumatic control valve of stainless steel AISI 316. 2 centrifugal pumps for feeding. control of pressure.1%. accuracy of 0.2 Apparatus The process control system consists of a structure including the equipment required for exercises. with capacity of 1001. scale of 0 to 10000 mm of H2 O. control of level. CV = 7 Pneumatic control valve. scale of 0 to 3 bars. DN 40. output signal of 4 to 20 mA. DN 20. accuracy of 0.2. 3. d = 26.1 % • Electronic pressure transmitter with body of stainless steel AISI316. output signal of 4 to 20 mA. Integrative and Derivative Components on the Automatic Flow rate Control System 3. discharge head of 14 m of H2O column Column of borosilicate glass.1 Object To Study the effects of Proportional.1% Microprocessor controller with four PID control loops: first loop.2 to 1 bar Calibrated diaphragm of stainless steel AISI 316 for measuring the flow rate. with scale of 0 to 10m3 /h. third loop. DN 15. flow rate of 10 m3 /h.32 Electronic transmitter of differential pressure with body of stainless steel AISI 316.6mm 2Bourdon pressure gauges. with scale of 0 to 6 bars Flowmeter with scale of 0. • • • • • • 2 electropneumatic converters of 4 to 20 mA/0. DN 100. second loop.

That can be selected with the key Ind 4th line: indication of the current loop 1000mmH2O 10m3 /h Description of frontal panel • • • Key Loop Key Key : it enables to select the desired loop Ind : it enables to vary the parameter appearing in the third line of the display. %. error. range 0 3 bar Display indication • • • • 1st line: text line where the indications of menu and submenus appear 2nd line: process variable 3rd line: display of set-point (SP) value. is used: To control the pressure. is used To control the flow rate. or to set the parameters as it will be explained in the next page Esc /Menu : it enables to enter the menu or to exit from the menu and submenus without storing the variations carried out 14 . initials FICI. bar. programmed as follow: • First loop.7 bars Pressure reducer including pressure gauge 3. including synoptic of the plant Emergency button Safety valve calibrated at 2. multiloop PID type.2 Brief description of the microprocessor controller DIGITRIC 500 This plant is equipped with a controller Digitric 500. range 0 • Third loop. out. is used: To control the level. in stainless steel AISI 316 Connecting pipes of stainless steel AISI 304 Switchboard IP 55. range 0 • Second loop.2.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering • • • • • • Vales of 1”. initials PICI. initials LIC1.

integral and derivative action • • • • • Press the key Esc/Menu Run the list of submenus with the keys ▼ Press the key Enter Position on the digit to be varied pressing the key Ind Increase or reduce the value with the key ▼ ▲ 15 ▲ up to Parameter . the value of the parameter selected in the programming or to run the menu and submenus • Key SP-w : it enables to display the set-point value in the third line Setting the parameters The parameters are set in the submenu parameter that can be entered according to the following procedure: • Enter the main menu pressing the key Esc /Menu enter the submenu pressing the key Enter • • Choose the parameter to be modified running the list with the keys ▼ ▲ and press the key Enter to select Modify the value of the parameter pressing key Enter and then the keys ▼ ▲ . position on the submenu parameter running the list of submenus with the keys ▼ ▲ . then Example: modify the value of GAIN (proportional band). M/A/C : it enables to switch from the automatic mode to the manual • Keys ▼ ▲ : they enable to increase or to reduce the set-point value. pressing the key Ind for 3 s shifts the decimal point • • Exit without confirming by pressing the key Esc /Menu Confirm the variation pressing the key Enter . press the key Ind and shift to the digits of the number to be modified.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering • • Key Key mode Enter : it enables to enter the menu and submenus and to confirm the variations carried out.

With the ▼ Press the pushbutton Enter Press again the push button push button ▲ ▼ Enter Select the action (for example P control. if possible Close the valves V2. V7.PARAM. with the pushbutton Esc/Menu . V8. 3. V12. 50Hz 16 . V5. V4. V6. return to the main window For further information on the instrument DIGITRIC refer to the function modification manual and to the service instructions manual. V10 and V13 Connect the switchboard with the single-phase power supply of 230V. V14 and V15 Open the valves V3. only proportional) with the To confirm press the pushbutton Enter and the.3 Procedure for control of flow rate • • • • • Close the draining valve V1 of the tank D1 Fill the tank D1 with demineralized water. V11.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering • • • Confirm the variation pressing the key Enter Vary the integral action (RESET TIME Tn) operating as in the case of GAIN Vary the derivative action (RATE TIME Tv) operating as in the case of GAIN Example: setting the action of controller (P. I e D) • • • • • Press the pushbutton Esc/Menu Select the list of submenu ‘Configuration’ pushbutton ▲ Press the pushbutton Enter Select the loop you want with the pushbutton ▲ pushbutton ▲ • • • • ▼ ▼ Press the pushbutton Enter and select CONTR. V9.

4 bar Press the starting button Turn the switch of Flow rate/Level to “Flow rate” Select the first loop (FIC1) with the pushbutton Loop Set the first loop (control of flow rate) to manual mode with the pushbutton M/A/C (red led on) Open the control valve FV1 partially: select the out with the pushbutton Ind and set the out (proportional to the opening of the valve FV1) for example at 50% with the push button ▼ ▲ • • • • • • • • • • • Start the pump G1. drain the plant completely.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering • • • • • • Connect the system with the network of compressed air and set the pressure reducer at 1. if necessary.  17 . the value of gain and integral time of controller Varying the set point of the controller will increase or reduce the values of flow rate Operate the valve V3 to provoke some noise to the control. turn the switch of the pump G1 to 0  In case of long period of inactivity (4-7 weeks). switch in position 1 Fix the value of flow rate. operating the pneumatic valve FV1 with the pushbutton ▼ ▲ Select the set point with the push button SP-W Set the value of set point with the pushbutton ▼ ▲ Set the controller FIC1 to the automatic mode with the pushbutton M/A/C (green led on) Adjust. In any emergency press the emergency button For normal stops.

record the steady state response of the plant.Effect due to the change in proportionality gain and the steady state error in the system response 18 . 3. No.The time delay associated with the change in system response 4.4 Observations 1. S.For each of the following set point values of flow rate. operating in Automatic Mode. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Set Point (m /h) 3 Write your observations against each of the following: Kp □ KI □ TI □ KD □ TD Steady state response (m3/h) 2.Effect of variation in the set point on the system response.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering 3.

19 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 3 Department of Electrical Engineering 5. Integrative and Derivative Components on the Automatic Flow rate Control System have been studied.5 Result: The effects of Proportional.Effect due to the change in integrator and derivative control gain and the steady state error in the system response 3.

Principal System Interconnect ions 20 . Fig 4. The 33-002 consists of 2 units: • Mechanical Unit 33-100 • Analogue Unit 33-110 which are connected as in fig. and by extension to those of closed-loop systems more generally.1.4. where dotted boxes represent essential additional items.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering B – Analogue Servo Trainer Exercise 4 Familiarization with Analog Servo Trainer  OBJECT: Familiarization with Analog Servo-Trainer. INTRODUCTION The 33-002 Servo Fundamentals Trainer is intended to provide students with a sound introduction to the principles of analogue servomechanisms.1 .

2 to be configured and contains facilities to introduce compensation to investigate improvement in overall system performance.2 Analogue Control System 21 . The motor drives the output shaft through a 32:1 belt reduction.5A +5V. The output shaft carries analogue (potentiometer) and digital (64 location Gray code) angle transducers. The motor shaft also carries a magnetic brake disc and an analogue speed transducer (tachogenerator). 0. 0.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Unit 33-1 00 Contains a power amplifier to drive the motor from an analogue or switched input. square and triangular waves.5A The Feedback PS446 or 01-100 are suitable. sine. The unit enables a basic system as in fig 4. —15V at 1. at 0. A two-phase pulse train for digital speed and direction sensing is also derived from tracks on the brake disc. Fig 4. The unit contains a simple signal generator to provide low frequency test signals. and requires an external power supply providing: +15V. Analogue Unit 33-110 Connects to the Mechanical Unit through a 34-way ribbon cable wlich aries c power supplies and signals enabling the normal circuit interconnections to be made on the Analogue Unit using the 2mm patching leads provided.

These are represented diagrammatically in the centre of the panel. These sockets give the voltage signals from the input and output shaft potentiometers.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering Analogue Unit (33-110) Fig 4. 22 .3 shows the general arrangement of the panel.The Analogue Unit Fig 4.3 . interconnections are made by 2mm plug leads and there are a few 4mm sockets for conversion or oscilloscope connections. the potentiometers themselves being in the Mechanical Unit.

For full details refer to Appendix B.5A are required. including supplies. for both units are available from the 34-way socket.4 .4 shows the general arrangement of the panels.Mechanical Unit 23 . Power Supplies External supplies of +1 5V and —1 5V at 1 .5A and of +5V at O.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Unit (33-100) Fig 4 . though misconnection may blow a fuse. The input sockets (4mm) are protected against accidental misconnection of supplies. Fig 4. the unit can be operated from any source of suitable signals connected to the 34-way socket. The unit is common to both Analogue and Digital systems. Since all signals.

The closed-loop control system: The difference or error signal may be thought of as producing effects which move forward. and to set up reference or input signals to represent these values. a signal representing ten inches per volt.5 The Closed Control Loop. say the width and thickness of strip being rolled in a steel mill. In setting up the system we need to know what the required width and thickness are. if there is a difference or error. in this case the motor and gearing controlling the roller setting. by means of transducers. the state will normally be represented by signals expressed in volts. Such a system is therefore called a closed-loop system. but the meanings of words in any one of the columns below are much the same: Where the system is electrical. Fig 4. The system must be able. Various names are given to the signals in different industrial or other contexts. to generate similar signals to represent the actual values at the output of the process. The comparison itself depends on a signal which is fed back from the output of the process to be compared with the reference or input signal. from the point of comparison to the resulting action. 24 . In this manual. The forward flow and feedback of signals form a loop around which information flows. the difference in the comparison will be called the error signal and the part of the system that carries out the comparison is the error channel. for the width. We can then compare the actual width and thickness of the strip produced with those required. in our example it might be. fig 4.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering THEORY What is an automatic control system? This is a system in which we are controlling the state of a Process. We are able. to send modifying signals to an Actuator.5.

Here there is a comparison by the error channel of the input and output. either by digitizing the input and output by an analogue-to-digital (A/D) converter or by direct digital measurement techniques. However it is common practice to use digital techniques to generate the error signal in digital form.6 it is assumed that the input and output are measured as voltages and lead to an error voltage which is amplified to operate the motor.to-analogue (D/A) converter or digitally by switching techniques. This system has an analogue error channel since input and output are measured as continuous voltages. Fig 4. Analogue & Digital Systems In the system of fig 4.6 is the geared motor). The error signal is then processed in a computer to generate a digital signal to drive the motor.6. The motor may then be driven from a digital. the error is then amplified to drive a motor and gearing in the forward path so that the speed or position of the output shaft can be modified. Block Diagram of an Analogue Closed-Loop System. 25 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering There is usually a power amplifying device to drive the Actuator (which in fig 4. The block diagram below describes the type of system we shall be using in the assignments. It is usual for control engineers to describe their systems in a block diagram form.

plus a Digital Board 33-1 20. or systems involving a range of digital techniques as fig 4.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 4 Department of Electrical Engineering Thus the system may take the general form of fig 4.6. Assignments to investigate the digital system are provided as interactive Discovery software supplied with the 33-003 system. 26 . The computer-generated motor command will be digital and may be converted to analogue form in the computer interface or within the system. The Assignments in this manual relate only to the analogue system.7. The Feedback Servo Fundamentals Trainer (33-002) provides facilities to investigate purely analogue systems as fig 4. Alternatively the command may be used to drive the motor by a switching technique. The digitizing of inputs may be within the system or in an internal computer interface. For the digital techniques it is necessary to use an IBM-compatible PC in which a Feedback interface unit has been installed.7 Fig 4.7. Block Diagram of a Digital Closed-Loop System.

(c) To Display the speed response of Motor. the Mechanical Unit and the Analogue Unit. Fig 5. When you have completed this assignment you will: • Realize that the 33-002 equipment comprises sub-systems which may be combined various ways to make control systems. Know how to use an oscilloscope PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE The Power Supply should be connected by 4mm-plug leads to the ÷15V.1 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 5 Department of Electrical Engineering Exercise 5 Preliminary Procedures for Operation  OBJECT: (a) Initial Mechanical and Analog Unit Check. • Be familiar with two of the sub-systems. Have some experience of handling electronic circuits. OV and —15V sockets at the back of the Mechanical Unit. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL • • • • Before you start this assignment you should: Have some experience of using an electric motor.The Analogue Unit 27 . +5V. (b) To Display the Waveforms.

Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 5 Department of Electrical Engineering Fig 5.2 .The Mechanical Unit. 5(a) Initial Mechanical and Analogue Unit check With the power supply switched OFF.c input. 5(b) To Display the Waveforms It is assumed that a suitable oscilloscope is available with: EITHER • A single Y channel or preferably two Y channels when used in conjunction with a time base. with • External sync input for the time base. Switch the power supply ON. connect its outputs to the Mechanical Unit. OR • A facility for X-Y operation with X and Y both able to operate with a d. 28 . The Analogue Unit should not be connected. Set the brake fully upwards. The motor should remain stationary — there may be a slight movement when the supply is actually switched.

3 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 5 Department of Electrical Engineering Test Waveforms Connect the oscilloscope to the test signals using either the 4mm sockets in the Mechanical Unit or the 2mm terminals in the Analogue Unit.Oscilloscope Connections and Display 29 . System Waveforms The system waveforms may be observed either from an externally triggered display against a timebase as shown in fig 5.1 and 1Hz or 1 and 10Hz. (a) (b) Fig 5.3(a) or from an X-Y display as shown in fig 5. Observe that the frequency may be varied between 0.3(b). Signal source sockets are provided on the Mechanical Unit (4mm) and the Analogue Unit (2mm).

00 This indicates that the 5V supply is operating. Overall the tests indicate that the system is working correctly. These tests indicate that Power Supply and Mechanical Unit are operating correctly. Set the test frequency to about 0. Hold the check switch to one side and gradually lower the brake to maximum. Hold the switch left and the motor should run anti-clockwise with approximately the same speed.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 5 Department of Electrical Engineering The output shaft speed display should show: 0. PRACTICAL ASPECTS The last practical shows that there is a delay in the motor response to an input. This test indicates that the ±15V supplies are operating. All motors exhibit this general characteristic. Connect the Analogue Unit to the Mechanical Unit by the 34-way cable.2Hz.1 and 1Hz. using an X-Y connection. which has very important consequences for control system design. Zero the amplifier to stop the motor.4 (b). Connect the oscilloscope to the system using the selected method of display. 5(c) To display the Speed Response of the Motor Set P3 to zero and make the connections on the panel shown in fig 5. Set P3 to about 30. Switch the power OFF. The motor should slow down. Rotating the power amplifier zero adjustment should enable the motor to be driven in both directions up to about the same speed as before. Raise the brake fully. Special armature design can reduce the inertia greatly for small motors. If the oscilloscope input has a 4mm plug use the transfer socket as shown dotted. which is due to the mechanical inertia of the armature.4(a). or against a time base as in (c). Note that the X-Y connection may give either of the two displays shown in fig 5. giving speed displays as in fig 5. The motor should rotate in both directions.4(b) depending on the oscilloscope in use. Switch the power ON. 30 . Hold the motor check switch to the right and the motor should run clockwise and the output speed display should indicate 15 to 25rpm. This arrangement enables the square wave test signal to be applied to the power amplifier when P3 is adjusted. SUMMARY This assignment has provided a general look at the basic features of the Analogue and Mechanical Units of the 33-002 equipment. Examine the effect of increasing or decreasing the test frequency between 0.

4 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 5 Department of Electrical Engineering Fig 5.Connections for Practical 5(c) 31 .

Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 5 Department of Electrical Engineering Notes: 32 .

Fig 6. (b) Investigate the Motor Time Constant.1 .Connections for Exercise # 6 33 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 6 Department of Electrical Engineering Exercise 6 Transient Response of the DC Motor  OBJECT : (a) Transient Response of motor.

This effect was shown in the familiarization assignment. Set the power amplifier zero adjustment to run the motor at maximum speed in one direction.2(b). Set P3 to zero and the test signal frequency to 0. limited only by the armature resistance. If Va is suddenly reduced to zero the back emf still exists. and has very important consequences for control system design.Transient Characteristics of Motor If Va for an ideal motor has a step form as in fig 6. Turn up P3 and the square-wave signal will speed up and slow down the motor. As the motor rotates and speeds up the back emf increases and the current is reduced to nearly zero in an ideal motor. it is convenient to use an X-Y display. initially a large current will flow. Adjust P3 until the motor is stationary for one half cycles. The 33-001 motor shows a speed characteristic approximating to fig 6.2(b). This corresponds with Va in fig 6. and drives a current in the reverse direction dissipating energy and slowing the motor.2(b). and allows the speed to be displayed on the Y axis of an oscilloscope.2(b).1 which enables the motor to be driven from the test squarewave. This is illustrated in the right-hand portion of (b). (a) (b) Fig 6. Connect the system as shown in fig 6.2. The oscilloscope will now display the speed corresponding with Va in 6. since the motor continues to rotate. but the power amplifier is arranged to limit the maximum armature current which does not show the ideal pulse characteristic. This is shown in the left portion of fig 6. 34 .2Hz.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 6 Department of Electrical Engineering 6(a) Transient Response of Motor: The motor cannot change speed instantly due to the inertia of the armature and any additional rotating load (the brake disc in the 33-002).2(a).

3 and square wave frequency of 0. Jsr. runs at a speed almost proportional to the applied voltage. the time across the trace is 2. assumes that the reverse current can be returned through the source of Va. The magnetic brake provides a torque proportional to speed and dependent also on the overlap between the magnet and the disc. causing a drop in speed. with no load.2(b). causing a volt drop in the armature resistance. This is the time that would be required for the motor speed to change between any steady values if the initial rate of speed change was maintained. PRACTICAL ASPECTS The slowing up process associated with reverse current. the motor does not respond instantly.3 (b) It can be shown that the speed changes by 0. 35 . This effectively reduces the applied voltage. The time constant can be measured from a display of the speed against time.3. This is the dotted line in fig 4. If this is not so the motor takes a much longer time to slow down. The armature current increases with increasing load torque. as for a normal motor.5s.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 6 Department of Electrical Engineering 6(b) Motor Time Constant The delay in response of a motor is of great importance in control system design and is expressed as the time-constant.2Hz. Estimate the time constant by considering the initial slope and maximum speed. Its time constant is defined as the time it would take to reach its final speed if the initial acceleration were maintained. This applies especially with large motors. the initial armature current may be very large (dangerously so). while the actual speed response is shown as a solid line.63 of the final change during the time constant. shown in fig 6. SUMMARY The motor.5s. (a) Fig 6. If the armature resistance is low.8(a). The value should be in the region of 0.g the sre1 distment of Practical 3. If the applied voltage is suddenly changed. Thus some starting equipment (a starter) is used to limit the current while the motor is being run up to speed.

Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 6 Department of Electrical Engineering Notes:           36 .

Modular Servo System 7. Its properties are not completely linear. Using the same motor will reduce experimental error. otherwise the Km and τm parameters will be inconsistent.2 SERVO MOTOR SYSTEM Motor Linearization The motor is a DC constant field. To improve the linearity.0. The connections are shown in Figure C-(i).Motor Linearization Connections 37 . Figure C-(i) . servo motor system modular components are: • Power Supply • Servo Amplifier • Motor • Tachometer/Generator (with Digital Volt Meter) • Position Indicator (1 Input/ 1 Output) • Pre-Amplifier • Operational Amplifier • Dual Attenuator • Function Generator Elements can be switched between lab stations except for the Motor Generator. and Tachometer are used and modeled as ONE UNIT.0 To become familiar with the system 7.0. as motor properties are similar but not identical. and must be assembled at the beginning of each lab session. Servo-Amp.1 System Description: The Feedback. Motor. The same Motor Generator should be used for all lab exercises. 7. This assembly forms the core of each subject system. Inc.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering C . Certain “umbilical” connections are made between the Power Supply and Servo Amplifier in the rear of the boxes and from the Servo Amplifier to the Motor. armature current controlled motor. the Pre-Amp.

the Balance Pre-Amp Output Procedure (refer to Appendix A. and therefore a higher voltage out of the voltage divider at the wiper terminal). The Tachometer unit requires +15V. which is set to defined τ. and ground connections from either the Servo-Amp or the Power Supply.C.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering The Pre-Amp has two controls on the faceplate: a three-position switch. The marks around the dials are only meant as a guide to the true setting. 7. Procedure 1) must be performed to balance the differential output signal of the Pre-Amp unit. ALWAYS connect the black plug to the lowest potential. Also.0. and a digital volt meter read-out.: turning the dial toward increasing numbers results in smaller resistance between the higher potential terminal and the wiper.) At the start of every lab session. power can be provided either from the Servo-Amp or the Power Supply. a twoposition switch selects which quantity is displayed.e.C.C. • For a digital read-out of a D. 38 . a 1/30 gear reduction. The negative potential (plug 1) is used as the velocity feedback to the system.0. slide the two-way selector switch to the right (toward plug 4) and connect the signal to be measured to plug 4. This D.C.3 TACHOMETER The Tachometer unit contains a tachometer/generator. power sources by means of the rear “umbilical” connection between them. -15V. and a Zero Set dial. The tachometer is a D. 7. −15V. • For a digital read-out (in RPM) of a frequency input on “tacho rpm” (plug 3). generator connected to the high RPM (motor) side of the gear. a digital readout of RPM. The Tachometer unit contains two digital read-outs that share a common display.4 DUAL ATTENUATOR The Dual Attenuator unit consists of two 10KΩ potentiometers. at the top of both the Pre-Amp and Tachometer units are three power connections for +15V. the positive potential (plug 2) should be connected to ground. It is best to determine the actual voltage ratio by implementing a voltage divider with the potentiometer using the +15V and -15V sources and wiper. For the dial marks to coordinate with the potentiometer wiper motion (i. Attaching plug 1 to plug 3 gives the motor speed in RPM. slide the two-way selector switch to the left (toward plug 3) and connect the signal to be measured to plug 3. and ground. ground or -15V. (Note that the Servo-Amp and the Power Supply share the D. depending on the application. Voltage (± 20V MAX) on “dc volts” (plug 4).

-15V.Output Position Indicator Faceplate and Front Dial The faceplate shows the connections to the 10KΩ potentiometer. which is faster than the human eye can detect. At the first appearance of this effect. At the top of the Op-Amp unit are three power connections for +15V. 7. As the angular velocity is increased. the strobe effect is seen since the 60Hz portion of the plate appears to be stationary even though the plate is actually rotating. The potentiometer wiper (plug 3) is the output signal for indication of angular position.6 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER The operational amplifier is well known in Circuits courses and will only be briefly described here. The faceplate connections are shown in Figure C-(iii).0. the shaft speed can be directly read from the Tachometer unit. and is also used as a position feedback signal to the system. The output Position Indicator is coupled directly to the Tachometer unit through a shaft. The faceplate will be used for determining the coefficients of the Position Indicator.5 POSITION INDICATOR The Position Indicator unit consists of a 10KΩ potentiometer and a visual angular indicator on the front plate. Figure C-(ii) . This D.0. the front plate is rotating at one revolution per second. by a gear reduction turns the output front plate. The top connection plate and the rotating front dial are shown in Figure C-(ii). The inner two are used to synchronize angular velocity to either 50Hz (Europe) or 60Hz (USA) lighting systems. and ground. As with the Pre-Amp. Room lighting provides an appropriate strobe effect. At the start of every lab session that uses the Op-Amp unit. The front plate has three sets of marks.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering 7. The 60Hz ring has marks as seen on phonograph turntables. power can be provided either from the Servo-Amp or the Power Supply. The outermost indicates angular rotation in 10° increments. which must separately adjusted from the PreAmp. The motor. and the non-dynamic coefficients of the motor and generator. Increasing the motor speed will bring a second strobe effect at two revolutions per second. The Tachometer unit has a built-in digital display on the high-speed shaft section. The ends of the potentiometer are typically connected to +15V (plug 1) and -15V (plug 2).C. the Zero Op-Amp Output Procedure 39 . the Op-Amp has a Zero set dial.

The bottom (counter-clockwise) switch selection has a 100KΩ resistor so that the Op-Amp unit. as shown in Figure 3.1 sec.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering (refer to Appendix A. is a signal summer with a unity gain. 40 .Operational Amplifier Faceplate The Feedback Network Selector is a three-position rotary switch to select the feedback circuit for the Op-Amp. Figure 3 . The top (clockwise) switch selection allows for the insertion of any desired feedback network. The middle switch selection turns the Op-Amp circuit into a first order lag with τ = RC = 100KΩ•1µF = 0. Procedure 4) must be performed to zero the output signal of the Op-Amp unit.

8 Error Analysis Accuracy.0.The amount that the peak value of an underdamped step response overshoots the final value. Rise-Time .7 Transient Response .In an under-damped step response. Precision is the measure of Repeatability of a measurement (without the measurement necessarily 41 . A 2% settling band has a range of ± 1% around the final value. the amount of time between the response first reaching 10% of the response final value and the response first reaching 90% of the final value.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering 7.Terminology Mp Percent Overshoot (also referred to as %OS) . Settling-Time . Peak-Time .In an under-damped step response. Accuracy is the measure of how True or Correct the scale of a measurement is. The settling range (“band”) is typically expressed as a percentage of the final value.0. the amount of time from the beginning of the step response until the response oscillation amplitude remains within a specified range of the response final value. Precision & Resolution Some values are exact: • 1000 meters in one kilometer • 60 seconds in one minute • 12 eggs in one dozen Other values (such as measurements or estimations) have some degree of uncertainty. tp tr ts 7.The amount of time from the beginning of an under-damped step response to the response peak value. expressed as a percentage of the final value.

Resolution is the level of Fineness of a measurement.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering being correct. Digital meters have a different number of digits after the decimal point (Resolution) based on the scale or range of the measurement (up to 1 Volt. and capacitance in wires and connectors • Resistance or “loading” from the measurement equipment • Errors in taking and/or reading the measurement (accuracy. The term “error analysis” is not applicable since no single measurement can really be considered as the “True” value. resolution) • “Round-Off” Error in the calculation of the theoretical value • Inaccuracies in the model used to derive the theoretical value (model simplifications. This may be due to many factors: • Tolerance in manufactured parts (5% resistors. if a theoretical value is 100V and the measured value is 90V.) • Unanticipated or un-accounted for resistance. For example. which would be a “better” measurement for 1 centimeter? • Using a meter-stick that is EXACTLY 1 meter long (Perfect Accuracy!) that has NO intermediate markings (Terrible Resolution!). etc. etc… To quantify how closely reality (“measured”) comes to expectation (“theoretical”). Deviation Analysis In cases where a parameter is measured more than once or by more than one method. or the ability to distinguish between two measurement points.) Precision could be evaluated for the same person taking the measurement several times.Author Unknown When measurements are taken in the lab. regular calibrations help to assure this. up to 10 Volts..) • etc. but it only deviates from the theoretical value by 10% while the 1V error deviates from its theoretical value by 20%. it is possible to analyze how closely the different measurements relate to one another. How repeatable (Precise) would this measurement be? • Using a ruler that was the prize from a box of cereal (Questionable Accuracy) that is marked off in centimeters (Perfect Resolution!). or for different people taking the same measurement. the “actual” or “measured” values observed almost never equal the “expected” or “theoretical” values predicted from the calculations. 42 . and in practice there usually is. inductance. if a theoretical value is 5V and the measured value is 4V. etc. Therefore. in theory. For example. How repeatable (Precise) would this measurement be? Digital meters are ASSUMED to be Accurate. there is no difference between theory and practice. the error is 1V.) Evaluation of Measurement Error and Deviation “The difference between theory and practice is that. a percent error analysis is performed: It is necessary to divide the difference between the “theoretical” and “measured” values (the error) by the “theoretical” value to normalize the error. the error is 10V. precision.” . Which error is “worse?” Certainly the 10V error has a larger magnitude. one could say that the 1V error is more severe than the 10V error. etc.

M1 & M2: ○ Difference: • For a set of measurements .{M1 … Mn}: ○ Deviation from the Mean for one of the measurements. Mi: ○ Range Deviation: 43 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Modular Servo System Department of Electrical Engineering Several different methods may be used to evaluate the deviation of the different measurements from one another: • For two measurements .

2 “Core” System Plant Wiring Diagram After completing this exercise. Motor. Since the various components will be tested separately.1 Objective: In this lab exercise.C. and Tachometer • Perform the Balance Pre-Amp Output Procedure • Measure RPM and D. Operational Amplifier Performance Figure 7. voltages using the digital read-out on the Tachometer unit • Measure the Phase Delay Angle between two sinusoidal wave-forms • Measure the Time Constant of a first-order system step response 44 . the student will become familiar with the laboratory equipment and will also determine the various servo system parameters that will be used for the remainder of the lab exercises. Servo-Amp. Motor Dynamics 2. Motor Linearity b.1 "Core" System Plant Block Diagram Figure 7. 1.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering Exercise 7 Parameter Determination for the Modular Servo System 7. Position Indicator 3. Motor Generator Assembly: a. the suggested order of investigation is not critical. you will be able to: • Setup the “core” subject system plant: Pre-Amp.

• On the Tachometer unit.1. constant field.5.Perform the Balance Pre-Amp Output Procedure (refer to Appendix A. Servo-Amp. Motor.2 Apparatus: The following pieces of lab equipment will be required to complete this exercise: • Pre-Amp. The Servo-Amp and the Pre Amp are used to linearize the motor performance.C. 7. allow several seconds between changing VMotor and observing the corresponding motor speed. Step 1 . and Tachometer “core” • Position Indicator • Dual Attenuator • Operational Amplifier • Signal Generator • Oscilloscope • Printer • Three coaxial cables with BNC to clip (alligator or microprobe) • Various interconnect wires 7.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering Also. Servo-Amp. to control motor speed. The motor speed should be zero near dial setting 5.4 Pre-Lab: There is no pre-lab for this exercise.2.3 Theory: The “plant” (object of control system) to be used in the lab exercises is a D.2: • The Dual-Attenuator provides a variable D. and its wiring diagram is shown in Figure 7. Procedure 1)   7. the motor can be modeled simply as a first order differential equation.Connect the Pre-Amp. 7.. Motor. The generator is physically much smaller than the motor and its dynamics do not influence the motor operation. The Motor Generator Assembly is represented by the block diagram in Figure 7. The speed should increase in one direction as the dial is turned toward 10. Therefore.1 Maximum VMotor Input: VMAX Note that the change in motor speed due to changes in VMotor is not instantaneous. The other dynamic system is due to the mechanical effects of the armature and load inertia and the bearing friction. and in the other direction as the dial is turned toward 0. VMotor. The electrical dynamics are much faster than mechanical dynamics. A second order differential equation describes the motor dynamics relating applied voltage to angular velocity. the following system parameters will be measured: • Maximum VMotor input for linear motor operation: VMAX • Motor Gain Constant: Km (RPM/Volt) • Motor Time Constant: τm (seconds) • Tachometer Gain Constant: Kt (Volt/RPM) • Position Indicator Gain Constant: Kp (Volt/degree) • Op-Amp Lag Feedback Time Constant: τ1 (seconds) 7. Thus. and Tachometer as shown in Figure 7. connect the negative output from the Tachometer (plug 1) to the “tacho 45 . One system dynamic is due to the electrical effects of the armature coil inductance and resistance.C.5 Procedure: Preliminary Preparation: Step 1 . voltage. armaturecurrent controlled motor.

motor is ignoring. VMotor.) • Increase the VMotor input by turning the dial from 5 toward 10 until the motor speed no longer increases (i.With the Dual Attenuator providing the D. VTach: • Use the volt meter read-out on the Tachometer unit to measure both VMotor and VTach. (Note: saturation is one of the non-linear behaviors that our model for the D.]). VMAX: • Compute VMAX: round 90% of VSAT to the nearest 1/10 volt.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering rpm” input (plug 3).: the motor speed “saturates”).the point at which increasing VMotor input no longer results in increasing motor speed. adjust VMotor to fill in the following data table-1 VMotor vs. • Note that ±VMAX should be the limits of VMotor inputs in this lab exercise to avoid the nonlinear effects of motor speed saturation. 7. ωHS. Method 1 . Step 3 . • Slowly reduce VMotor until the motor speed begins to decrease. set the value as close as reasonably possible to the desired value (Input. VTach Step 2 .C.e.Find the saturation VMotor input .C. the following ratios should be identical for all four table entries: Note: The upper-case variable for motor speed. • Record this value in the table below. Table 1 . and set the selector switch to read-out RPM. • Measure the voltage at the wiper of the Dual-Attenuator. and then record the actual value (Set. [Actual]) rather than trying to get the adjustable value to be exact. VMotor input as shown in Figure 7.Compute the maximum VMotor input for linear motor operation. ΩHS. • Use the RPM read-out on the Tachometer unit to measure the motor speed.2 (setup in the previous procedure).Compute Km and Kt: Since the motor-tachometer assembly is assumed to be linear. using the volt meter read-out on the Tachometer unit. Note: when setting inputs or other adjustable parameters to specified values.5. • Record this value in the table below.VMotor vs. Step 2 .2 Motor Linearity: Km and Kt The coefficients Km and Kt will be determined by two methods. [Approx. this is the threshold VMotor input for unsaturated motor operation .VSAT. in the equations above indicates that the 46 .Steady-State Operation: Step 1 .

The trace on the scope will appear as a comet with an increasing tail. X-axis) scale to 5V/division and Invert CH2. 0. Set CH2 (horizontal displacement. • Connect the oscilloscope CH1 input to VMotor. Step 4 . Eventually.01 Hz. • Indicate these measured ranges of VMotor and VTach on the hard copy/print-out of the trace. • Center the beam dot vertically with the CH1 offset adjustment. Table 2 . the speed will slowly increase. (s). Refer to CH1 setting for V/division scale. Refer to CH2 setting for V/division scale.2 (setup in the previous procedure): • For the VMotor input to the Pre-Amp. • Connect the oscilloscope CH2 input to VTach. This cycle will repeat due to the periodic Triangle-wave input. • Set the function generator for Triangle-wave. the trace will look like a diagonal line on the screen.Ramp Input Step 1 . this is VMotor.Configure the system as shown in Figure 7. The motor will turn. ωHS.5V/division.Measure VMotor and VTach: • Use the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope to capture the trace. Set CH1 (vertical displacement. and center it horizontally with either the CH2 offset adjustment or the time base offset adjustment (depending on the oscilloscope).Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering equations are Transfer Functions in the Laplace domain.Km and Kt Method 2 . • Activate the Store feature of the oscilloscope and/or adjust the display persistence. replace the Dual Attenuator output with the function generator output. Y-axis) scale to 0. • Set horizontal sweep to 10 seconds/div. and reverse direction. Step 3 . indicates a time-domain representation. • Measure the horizontal extent of the diagonal line. • Ground both Channel 1 (CH1) and Channel 2 (CH2) inputs. this is VTach. • Use the Hard Copy feature on the oscilloscope to obtain a print-out of the trace. • Measure the vertical extent of the diagonal line.Compare VMotor and VTach with Km and Kt: • The following ratio should hold: 47 . then slow. The lower-case variable. • Record the values of VMotor and VTach in the table below. and 3Vpp (limit to ±VMAX Vpp) Step 2 .Oscilloscope setup: • Set the display mode to X-Y. This is further indicated by the Laplace variable.

• Deactivate the Store feature and/or reduce the display. indicate the location of the four data points (VMotor.Measure Input/ Output Waveform Phase Delay Angle: • Measure the Phase Delay Angle. and with the function generator supplying the VMotor input to the Pre-Amp (setup in the previous procedure). Note: the value of Θ should be negative since the motor transfer function has only Poles and no Zeroes (i. and the second method is a step-input response. Method 1 . 2 Vpp (limit to ±VMAX Vpp) Step 2 .Compute τm: Discussion: In general. • Set the display mode back to time-base (turn off X-Y display mode). The first method is a sinusoidal steady-state analysis.Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis Step 1 . Procedure 2). • On the hard copy/print-out of the traces. VTach) from Table 1. t2. • Use the Hard Copy feature on the oscilloscope to obtain a print-out of the traces. • Set the function generator for Sine-wave.Perform the Measure Sine-Waveform Phase Delay Angle Procedure (refer to Appendix A. Step 3 . a faster time varying signal will be used as the input.5. indicate t1 and t2. Two methods will be used.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering • On the hard copy/print-out of the trace. 7. 1 Hz. • Record the values of t1.: complex values only in the denominator) . the phase delay (phase shift) angle of a complex function is: For complex functions with numerators and denominators. t1 t2 Θ seconds seconds degrees Step 4 .and since the Output waveform (VTach) “Lags” the Input waveform (VMotor). the overall phase delay is computed as: Phase Delay = (Phase Delay of Numerator) − (Phase Delay of Denominator) degrees 48 . τm. Θ .3 Motor Dynamics: τm To determine the motor time constant.Oscilloscope setup: Change from previous procedure setup: • Release the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope. and Θ in the table below.Configure the system as shown in Figure 7.e.2.

indicate τm. and 3Vpp (limit to ±VMAX Vpp).Measure the Time Constant of the Motor.System Step-Input Response Step 1 . Step 3 . the only unknown in the equation above is τm. • Record the measured value of τm below: τm seconds • On the hard copy/print-out of step response.Configure the system as shown in Figure 7. motor under investigation. Step 2 . τm: • Perform the Measure Time Constant of a Step Response Procedure (refer to Appendix A. Step 4 .Analyze/Compare the two values of τm from Method 1 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering For the D.2.: each edge of the Square-wave) to achieve a steady-state angular velocity before the next step-input occurs. and the relationship given above: Noting that ω = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ f = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ 1 1 = 2 ⋅ π ⋅ . and with the function generator supplying the VMotor input to the Pre-Amp (setup in the previous procedure): • Set the function generator for Square-wave. which can be T t1 solved for using algebraic manipulation. • Record the value of τm below: τm seconds Method 2 .2 Hz. Procedure 3). 0.C. The input waveform period must be slow enough to allow the system response from each step-input (i.Oscilloscope setup: Change from previous procedure setup: • Release the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope. the overall phase delay is computed as: • Compute the value of τm using the Phase Delay Angle.System Step-Input Response: 49 . measured in Step 3.Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis .and from Method 2 .e. Θ. • Use the Hard Copy feature on the oscilloscope to obtain a print-out of the step response.

that relates angular displacement to voltage. Step 1 . • Connect the potentiometer wiper (plug 3). the overall change in voltage per change in angle is being measured.e. compute the change in voltage with respect to angular position.Disconnect the motor by removing the pair of connections between the Pre-Amp and the ServoAmp (refer to Figure 7.) • For each pair of angle and voltage measurements.2).Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering 7.Position Indicator Angular Position and Voltage 7. to the digital volt meter read-out on the Tachometer unit. Its transfer function is described by a constant. and ground) on the Op-Amp. at various angular positions: • Manually rotate the motor high-speed shaft (ωHS in Figure 7. Table 3 .5.Measure and record voltages.4 Position Indicator: Kp The Position Indicator is the potentiometer assembly that is connected to the motor via the gearbox.5 Operational Amplifier Performance: Gain Verification and τ1 The Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) unit will be used in later lab exercises as a summing junction. Step 2 .Setup for the Op-Amp: • Connect the three power connections (+15V. Step 1 .and measure and record the values in Table 3. (Consider only the absolute value. Step 3 . consider Clockwise angles as positive and Counter-Clockwise angles as negative. 50 . disregard any sign.: poles) to the overall system.do NOT rotate the potentiometer face-plate . ∆Volts/∆degrees.2) . This will allow for free motion of the motor by hand.Setup for the Position Indicator: • Connect +15V and −15V sources to the Position Indicator as shown in Figure 2.) • Compute the mean value of ∆Volts/∆degrees. (The actual sign is not important. −15V. VPosition. Kp. with +15V on plug 1 and −15V on plug 2. and to add dynamics (i. Vposition.5. For a sign convention.

Step 3 . τ1. • Set the three-position Feedback Network Selector rotary switch to the 100KΩ resistor. Procedure 3). • Use the Hard Copy feature on the oscilloscope to obtain a print-out of the step response.1 seconds. • Use the volt meter read-out on the Tachometer unit to measure the output voltage of the Op-Amp. and set the other to provide -5V at the wiper terminal.) • Connect the +3V source to one input of the Op-Amp (plug 1. • Perform the Measure Time Constant of a Step Response Procedure (refer to Appendix A. 2.2 Hz. and verify that the expected characteristic behavior is indeed a first-order exponential with a time constant of 0. • The Op-Amp configuration is an inverting summer. • Connect the output of the function generator to one of the Op-Amp inputs. Measure and record the time constant. • Set the three-position Feedback Network Selector rotary switch to the 1 µF capacitor in parallel with the 100KΩ resistor.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering • Connect one of the three Op-Amp input plugs (1. Step 2 . • Connect the Op-Amp output to one of the oscilloscope input channels. 2. or 3). 51 . • Adjust the Zero Set dial on the Op-Amp unit until the output voltage (plug 6) shows 0 Volts. (Get the values as close as reasonably possible and then record the actual values. derive the transfer function of the Op-Amp with the R-C feedback network. • Remove the ground input to the Op-Amp.Measure the Op-Amp Resistor/Capacitor Feedback Network Time Constant. Therefore. • On the hard copy/print-out of step response. and the -5V source to one of the other inputs. • Set the function generator for Square-wave. • In the Lab Report. Set one of them to provide +3V at the wiper terminal. τ1: • Remove the +3V and -5V inputs to the Op-Amp. 0. and 5Vpp.Check the Op-Amp Gain and Summing function: • Use both potentiometers on the Dual-Attenuator unit as voltage dividers. or 3) to ground. indicate τ1. the output voltage should be: − (V1 + V2 ) = − (3V+ (−5V)) = 2V Measure the actual Op-Amp output voltage and compare it with the expected value (using your measured input voltages to determine the expected value).

Kp. Km.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 7 Department of Electrical Engineering 7.).The Lab Report should contain the following supporting documentation: All collected data and hardcopies of scope traces Parameter values (to be used in the remainder of lab exercises).Km: 1800-2600 RPM/Volt • Motor Time Constant . and from measuring τ1 Lab Report Checklist .07-0.12 Volt/Degree • Op-Amp Lag Feedback Time Constant .6 Summary: Lab Exercise Checklist . They should NOT be considered as “correct” or “theoretical” values for error analysis. Kt.Kp: 0.τ1: 0.to be used in the remainder of the lab exercises: The following should be considered as reference values of the system parameters for “sanity check” purposes only.Be sure that the following have been obtained in the Lab to complete the lab exercise: Collected data supporting the measurements of VMAX.Answers must be included in the lab report: • Is it justifiable to model the motor as a first-order system. from both methods of measuring τm.11 seconds Review Questions . use the mean value. and armature resistance changes with temperature)? Why or why not? (Consider your deviation and difference analyses of the motor parameters Km and τm. and τ1 Annotated hardcopies of traces from Motor Linearity.0023-0.0027 Volt/RPM • Position Indicator Gain Constant .20-0. τm. 52 .Kt: 0. [Where the value was measured by more than one method.09-0.26 seconds • Tachometer Gain Constant . • Motor Gain Constant .τm: 0.] Error or appropriate deviation analysis of the measured data Derivation of Op-Amp transfer function with R-C feedback network Summary of Measured Parameter Values . or was taken more than one time. considering only the mechanical pole and ignoring the electrical pole from the inductance of the armature (as well as ignoring nonlinear effects of motor saturation and gear backlash.

and Tachometer “core” 53 .2 .1 . Servo-Amp. predict its behavior.1 Purpose: The purpose of this lab exercise is to design and evaluate a closed-loop position control system. Figure 8. The component parameters measured in Lab Exercise #1 will be used to model the system components.Position Control Loop Wiring Diagram 8.2 Objectives: After completing this exercise. Motor. and control its behavior.3 Equipment List: The following pieces of lab equipment will be required to complete this exercise: • Pre-Amp.Position Control Loop Block Diagram Figure 8. and Settling-Time of an under damped second-order step response 8.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 8 Department of Electrical Engineering Exercise 8 Closed-Loop Position Control System Design 8. you will be able to: • Perform the Zero Op-Amp Output Procedure • Predict second-order system response to a step-input • Design basic second-order system step response by adjusting gain • Measure the Percent Overshoot. Peak-Time.

The new components that are introduced in the block diagram are the summing junction. the variable gain. to derive transfer functions for the gear-train that relate other input-output relationships such as input torque vs. Ka. (Note that the reversal of direction from the gear coupling provides the negative sign on the summing junction’s feedback input.1. The objectives of this lab exercise include predicting the characteristics of the under-damped step response with a given value of Ka.4 Theory: Lab Exercise #1 examined the open-loop motor. and the integrator. and its wiring diagram is shown in Figure 8. a conversion factor is necessary for consistency of units: 54 . 6. gear backlash. if desired. the attainable gain is limited to values between zero and one. The summing junction is implemented with the Op-Amp using the resistor feedback network for a unity gain (gain factor of 1). appears in the block diagram but is not a physical element in the system. 6. It would also be possible. the gear reduction factor. Since the digital read-out on the Tachometer unit displays motor angular speed as RPM (Revolutions-per-minute). the closed-loop system poles move from their open-loop positions. the unit conversion factor. which results in an over-damped second-order system. The unit conversion factor. The gear reduction factor is just the transfer function of the gear-train: Note that this transfer function ignores friction. output torque. The new system transfer function introduces a 1/s term (discussed later).2. the motor’s changes in speed due to a square-wave input exhibited the characteristic exponential step response of a first-order system. and is under-damped for Ka greater than that value. and specifying the value of Ka to achieve the specified under-damped step response characteristics. as the system gain.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 8 Department of Electrical Engineering • Position Indicator • Dual Attenuator • Operational Amplifier • Signal Generator • Oscilloscope • Printer • Three coaxial cables with BNC to clip (alligator or microprobe) 8. The transfer function for the motor that relates applied voltage to motor speed is a first-order function. However. is adjusted. etc. is implemented with one of the attenuators (potentiometers) configured as a voltage divider. Since the gain is implemented with an attenuator. The Closed-Loop Position Control system is represented by the block diagram in Figure 8.) The variable gain. Ka. 1/s. and the position indicator produces a voltage relative to degrees (rather than revolutions). the system becomes critically-damped at some value of Ka. the mass of the gears. 1/30. Ka.

Feedback Control Systems
NED University of Engineering and Technology

Exercise 8
Department of Electrical Engineering

The Integrator (1/s), like the unit conversion factor, is not a physical element in the system. Some transfer function derivations for the D.C. motor include the 1/s term, and relate applied voltage to angular position (recall that the motor transfer function used here relates applied voltage to angular velocity). By definition of the motor transfer function, the quantities on the High-Speed and Low-Speed shafts are velocities, ωHS and ωLS. Since the output of the Position Indicator is a voltage related to position, VPosition, then conceptually integration (1/s) is occurring based only on our definitions of the quantities, and not though a physical element performing an integration function. 8.5 Pre-Lab: Step 1 - Derive the Closed-Loop Transfer Function: • Derive the closed-loop transfer function, T(s) = VP(s)/VIn(s), for the system shown in Figure 8.1. The transfer function should be derived with the symbols in the block diagram (Ka, Km, τm, Kp), and then the values measured in Lab Exercise #1 should be substituted in. Note that the gain, Ka, is still a variable. Additionally, it may be convenient to algebraically manipulate the transfer function so that the coefficient of the s2 term in the denominator is 1. Step 2 - Predict Transient Response for Ka = 1: • Predict the percent overshoot, Mp, peak time, tp, and settling time, ts, for the system when Ka = 1. Set Ka = 1 in the transfer function derived in Step 1 of the pre-lab, and use the second-order system design equations (from class lecture, the lab instructor, or from a control systems textbook - see references) to determine the expected Mp, tp, and ts for the system step-response.

tp ts
Mp

Expected for Ka = 1:
seconds seconds %

Step 3 - Compute Ka for Specified Transient Response: • Determine the value of Ka that will yield a 25% overshoot to a step input for the transfer function derived in Step 1 of the pre-lab, and use the second-order system design equations as needed. • Also, predict the peak time, tp, and settling time, ts, at this value of Ka.

Expected for Mp = 25%: Ka

tp ts

seconds seconds

55

Feedback Control Systems
NED University of Engineering and Technology

Exercise 8
Department of Electrical Engineering

8.6

Procedure:

8.6.1 Preliminary Preparation
Step 1 - Perform the Balance Pre-Amp Output Procedure (refer to Appendix A, Procedure 1) Step 2 - Perform the Zero Op-Amp Output Procedure (refer to Appendix A, Procedure 4)

8.6.2 Step Response for Ka = 1
Step 1 - Connect the system components as shown in Figure 8.2: • Set the gain, Ka, to 1. The Dual-Attenuator provides the variable gain, Ka. With the black plug of the attenuator connected to ground, the gain will increase as the dial is turned toward 10 (voltage increases at the wiper terminal), and decrease as the dial is turned toward 0 (voltage decreases at the wiper terminal). Therefore, a gain of 1 should be observed with the dial turned all the way to 10. (This can be verified with the Set Gain using an Attenuator Procedure - Appendix A, Procedure 5.) Step 2 - Function Generator setup: • Set the function generator for Square-wave output, frequency low enough so that the step response has sufficient settling time before the next edge of the square-wave (use the settling time, ts, as a guide), amplitude for 50° peak-to-peak. Use Kp to convert from the angular specification to voltage. Note that each edge of the square-wave represents half of the period of the overall waveform. • Connect the function generator output to the Op-Amp input, Vin, as shown in Figure 8.2. • Confirm that the VMotor input to the servo-amp is limited to ±VMAX Vpp; reduce Vin if necessary. Step 3 - Oscilloscope setup: • Connect the oscilloscope CH1 input to the Input Voltage, VIn. Adjust the vertical sensitivity (Volt/division) of CH1 so that the entire amplitude of the square-wave input fits on the screen. • Connect the oscilloscope CH2 input to VPosition, the output of the Position Indicator (refer to Figure 8.2). Adjust the vertical sensitivity of CH2 so that the entire amplitude of the step response fits on the screen. Invert CH2. • Adjust horizontal sweep (seconds/division) until a single step response (from the beginning of the step until the final value is reached) is displayed on the screen. Step 4 - Measure and Record the Step Response characteristics: • Perform the Measure Characteristics of an Under-Damped Step Response Procedure (refer to Appendix A, Procedure 6). • Use the Hard Copy feature on the oscilloscope to obtain a print-out of the step response. • Record the measured values of tp, ts and Mp below and compare the measured values with the expected values computed in the second part of the pre-lab:

56

Feedback Control Systems
NED University of Engineering and Technology

Exercise 8
Department of Electrical Engineering

• On the hard copy/print-out of step response, indicate tp, ts and Mp.

8.6.3 Step Response for Mp = 25%
Step 1 - With the same system component connections as shown in Figure 8.2: • Use the Set Gain using an Attenuator Procedure (refer to Procedure section, page 44) to set the gain, Ka, to the value computed in the third part of the pre-lab to achieve a 25% overshoot. Step 2 - Function Generator setup - setup in the previous procedure: • Set the function generator for Square-wave output, frequency low enough so that the step response has sufficient settling time before the next edge of the square-wave (use the settling time, ts, as a guide), amplitude for 50° peak-to-peak. Use Kp to convert from the angular specification to voltage. Note that each edge of the square-wave represents half of the period of the overall waveform. • Connect the function generator output to the Op-Amp input, Vin, as shown in Figure 8.2. • Confirm that the VMotor input to the servo-amp is limited to ±VMAX Vpp; reduce Vin if necessary. Step 3 - Oscilloscope setup - setup in the previous procedure: • Release the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope (from the previous procedure). • Connect the oscilloscope CH1 input to the Input Voltage, VIn. Adjust the vertical sensitivity (Volt/division) of CH1 so that the entire amplitude of the square-wave input fits on the screen. • Connect the oscilloscope CH2 input to VPosition., the output of the Position Indicator (refer to Figure 8.2), adjust the vertical sensitivity of CH2 so that the entire amplitude of the step response fits on the screen. Invert CH2. • Adjust horizontal sweep (seconds/division) until a single step response (from the beginning of the step until the final value is reached) is displayed on the screen. Step 4 - Measure and Record the Step Response characteristics: • Perform the Measure Characteristics of an Under-Damped Step Response Procedure (refer to Appendix A, Procedure 6). • Use the Hard Copy feature on the oscilloscope to obtain a print-out of the step response. • Record the measured values of tp, ts and Mp below and compare the measured values with the expected values computed in the third part of the pre-lab:

• On the hard copy/print-out of step response, indicate tp, ts and Mp.

57

ts and Mp for both Ka = 1 and Mp = 25% Annotated hardcopies of step response traces for both Ka = 1 and Mp = 25% Lab Report Checklist . ts and Mp.Answers must be included in the lab report: • Are the second-order system design equations adequate to predict and design the response of the under-damped step response? Why or why not? (Consider your error analyses of the measured vs.) 58 .Be sure that the following have been obtained in the Lab to complete the lab exercise: Collected data supporting the measurements of tp.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Exercise 8 Department of Electrical Engineering 8.7 Summary: Lab Exercise Checklist . expected values Review Questions .The Lab Report should contain the following supporting documentation: All collected data and hardcopies of scope traces Derivation of closed-loop transfer function Pre-lab computations Error analysis of the measured vs. expected values of tp.

set the three-position switch to “defined τ.Ground the “V-Motor” input (plug 1) on the Pre-Amp unit. i . • Connect the three power connections (+15V. 15V.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Appendix A Procedure 1: Balance Pre-Amp Output Purpose: This procedure must be performed before each lab exercise to balance the differential output signal of the Pre-Amp unit. • On the Pre-Amp unit.Connect the Pre-Amp.1 . This provides a “command” input for Zero speed from the motor. and ground) on both the Pre-Amp and Tachometer units from either the Servo-Amp or the Power Supply.” Step 2 . Step 3 . Servo-Amp.1. and Tachometer as shown in Figure A. Figure A.Pre-Amplifier Differential Output Balancing Procedure: Step 1 . Motor.Adjust the Zero Set dial on the Pre-Amp unit until the motor does not turn.

(Refer to Figure A. • Adjust the CH1 and CH2 vertical sensitivities (Volt/division) so that both Sine-waves have about the same amplitude.Oscilloscope setup: • Connect the oscilloscope CH1 input to the system “input” signal (e. (Refer to Figure A.Measure Waveform Period and Phase Delay Time: • Use the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope to capture the trace. • Adjust horizontal sweep (seconds/division) until a complete Sine-wave (from Peak to Peak) is displayed on the screen from both CH1 and CH2. Θ = ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⋅ 360° ⎜t ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ • For complex functions with complex numerators and denominators.2 . • Connect the oscilloscope CH2 input to system “output” signal (e.CH1 and CH2 Period and Phase Delay Time Procedure: Step 1 . Figure A. this is t1.2) • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the Phase Delay Time between the CH1 and CH2 signals .the time between the peak of the leading waveform and the corresponding peak of the lagging waveform.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Procedure 2: Measure Sine-Waveform Phase Delay Angle Purpose: This procedure is used to measure the Phase Delay Angle (in degrees) between two sinusoidal wave-forms. This is computed as: ⎛t ⎞ Phase Delay (degrees).Compute the Waveform Phase Delay Angle: • In general. the overall phase delay computed as: ii . Step 2 . • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the Period of the CH1 signal .: VTach). the phase delay (phase shift) angle between two sinusoidal functions is the ratio of the time delay between the two functions (t2) and the period (t1) expressed as a fraction of one complete cycle (360°).2) Step 3 .g.: VMotor).the time between one peak and the next peak of the waveform. Invert CH2. this is t2.g.

Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Phase Delay (degrees). motor under investigation. Θ = (Phase Delay of Numerator) − (Phase Delay of Denominator) degrees • The two phase delay calculations should be equal.C. Example: for the D. the overall phase delay is computed as: iii .

2.: VTach).Refer to Figure A. Step 2 . however vertical cursor indicating the 63% vertical location will be lost when the cursor mode is switched from vertical to horizontal.Measure the Exponential Time Constant: • Use the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope to capture a positive going step response.) • Switch the cursor measurement mode from vertical to horizontal.3 . and measure the time from the beginning of the step response to the 63% point (the intersection of the trace of the step response with the solid vertical line on the oscilloscope display).3. iv .) Call this 100%. Figure A. • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the overall vertical displacement of the step response (from the beginning of the step to the final value . • Use the horizontal offset adjustment on the oscilloscope to align the intersection of the trace of the step response and the 63% cursor indication with one of the solid vertical lines on the oscilloscope display. • This time measurement is the time constant. • Adjust the vertical sensitivity (Volt/division) so that the entire amplitude of the step response fits on the screen.Oscilloscope setup: • Connect one oscilloscope input channel to the signal being evaluated (e. τ. • Adjust horizontal sweep (seconds/division) so that a single step response (from the beginning of the step until the final value is reached) is displayed on the screen. The horizontal cursor will be used to measure the time from the beginning of the step response to the 63% point. The Time Constant of an exponential decay curve is the time required to reach 37% (e-1) of the initial value. (Refer to the “Triple Intersection” in Figure A. • Compute 63% of the overall vertical displacement of the rising step response. The Time Constant of an exponential rise curve is the time required to reach 63% (1-e-1) of the final value.Measuring the Time Constant from a First-Order Exponential Step Response Procedure: Step 1 . of the exponential curve.g.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Procedure 3: Measure Time Constant of a Step Response Purpose: This procedure is used to measure the Time Constant from a first-order exponential system step response.

4 . and ground) on the Op-Amp. Note: This procedure must be performed AFTER performing the Balance Pre-Amp Output Procedure. and Tachometer units from either the Servo-Amp or the Power Supply.Ground the “V-In” input (plug 1) on the Op-Amp unit.Op-Amp Zero Output Adjust Procedure: Step 1 . v . This provides a “command” input for Zero speed from the motor. PreAmp. 15V.4 • Connect the three power connections (+15V. • On the Pre-Amp unit. Figure A. Pre-Amp.Adjust the Zero Set dial on the Op-Amp unit until the motor does not turn.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Procedure 4: Zero Op-Amp Output Purpose: This procedure must be performed before each lab exercise that uses the Op-Amp to zero the output signal of the Op-Amp unit. • On the Op-Amp unit.” Step 2 . and Tachometer as shown in Figure A. Servo-Amp. set the three-position switch to “defined τ. Motor. Step 3 .Connect the Op-Amp. set the three-position selector to the single resistor feedback.

• Compute Vout as the product of the measured value of Vin and the desired gain value.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Procedure 5: Set Gain using an Attenuator Purpose: This procedure describes how to set a specified gain value between the values of zero and one using an attenuator (potentiometer).Setting Gain using an Attenuator Procedure: Step 1 .Disconnect the Vout (wiper) terminal on the attenuator from other “downstream” connections. Step2 . as shown in Figure A. vi .5.5 . This will prevent the Vout voltage from driving the motor. Step 5 . Step 4 .Reconnect the attenuator Vin and Vout terminals to their original connections. • Connect the Vout (wiper) terminal on the attenuator to the digital volt meter input on the Tachometer unit (plug 4).Connect the +15V source voltage from either the Servo-Amp or the Power Supply as Vin. Vin is supposed to be +15V. within a few tenths of one volt) the computed Vout value from Step 3. Figure A.Compute Vout. this is just for confirmation.Set Vout. • Measure and record Vin using the digital volt meter read-out on the Tachometer unit. • Adjust the potentiometer dial until Vout equals (reasonably closely. Step 3 .

• Adjust the vertical sensitivity (Volt/division) so that the entire amplitude of the step response fits on the screen (including the peak overshoot). etc. system nonlinearities. Call this 100%.Refer to Figure A. vii . Figure A.g. and Percent Overshoot of an under-damped second-order step response. Note that due to disturbance inputs. Step 2 .Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering Procedure 6: Measure Characteristics of an Under-Damped Step Response Purpose: This procedure is used to measure the Rise-Time. Peak-Time.) If so. • Use the HOLD or RUN/STOP feature on the oscilloscope to capture a positive going step response.Measure the Final Value: • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the overall vertical displacement of the step response from the beginning of the step to the final value . the oscillations may never decay to within the 2% (±1%) settling band. Settling-Time.Measuring the Characteristics of an Under-Damped Second-Order Step Response Procedure: Step 1 .Oscilloscope setup: • Connect one oscilloscope input channel to the signal being evaluated (e.6 . • Adjust horizontal sweep (seconds/division) so that a single step response (from the beginning of the step until the final value is reached) is displayed on the screen..: VPosition).6. (This condition should be noted in your lab report.

tp: • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the time that it takes for the step response to transition from the beginning of the step response to the first peak of the oscillation.Measure the Settling-Time. Mp: • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the amount of overshoot of the first peak of the oscillation above the final value. (Refer to Figure A. (Refer to Figure A. (Refer to Figure A.6.) If required: Step 5 .Measure the Peak-Time.6. this condition should be noted in your lab report. ts: • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the time that it takes for the step response to transition from the beginning of the step response until the oscillation remains within 2% (±1%) of the final value (i.6. tr: • Use the Cursor or Measure feature on the oscilloscope to measure the time that it takes for the step response to transition from 10% to 90% or the final value.Measure the Percent Overshoot.6.Measure the Rise-Time. (Refer to Figure A. If required: Step 3 .) If required: Step 4 .) • Compute the percent overshoot as: viii . If required: Step 6 .e.) If the oscillations do not decay to within the 2% (±1%) settling band.Feedback Control Systems NED University of Engineering and Technology Appendix A Department of Electrical Engineering estimate and measure the value that the signal is oscillating around and use this as the final value.: the settling band).