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AENG 1 – Fundamentals of Agricultural Engineering

EXERCISE 7 –CROPPING PATTERN

Crop Information:

The crop is direct seeded 180 days legume. The first 120 days of crop growth is the vegetative
stage, the next 40 days is the reproductive stage and the remaining for the mature stage.

The plant does not have a high water requirement and requires a well drained soil. Productivity is
greatly affected by temperature. The effect of temperature is felt throughout the reproductive stage of the
crop but is not critical for the other stages. Solar radiation, however, is needed throughout the growing
period (vegetative, reproductive and maturity). Another observation is that the crop is easily attacked by
air borne pest and diseases thus it will require spray application of fungicide and pesticide at every stage
of growth.

Farm site decision:

Farm A – The area has poor soil drainage but is generally sloping. Although the soil is manageable
in terms of cultivation, it has a pH of 4.5. The prevailing wind in the area has a moderate wind speed of 3
kph. There is also no nearby area raising the crop.

Justifications – Since the crop doesn’t necessarily have high water requirement, highly affected by
temperature during reproductive stage (must be 20 °C – 26 °C), and amount of solar radiation need for
maximum growth is approximately more than or equal to 300 cal cm-2 day-1, then Farm A is the appropriate
area to raise the crop. The low prevailing wind speed is one good factor to consider because it is directly
proportional to transpiration. Factors that could add to high transpiration of the crop should be avoided
since the crop will be planted on an area with low rainfall distribution. Also, since there are no areas
planting the same crop, then the probability of occurrence of an airborne disease is low.

Modifications/Recommendations – The crop could probably be planted on November to be able
to reach favorable conditions for reproduction on March to April. The problem with Farm A is that the area
has poor drainage, mean SR on months of reproduction is above 300 cal cm-2 day-1 and the soil is acidic
with the pH of 4.5. This could be improved through good soil preparation prior to planting. Also, drainage
canals or ditches could be constructed beforehand to be able to drain excess water in case high rainfall will
be observed. These ditches or drainage canals could prevent water erosion since the area is sloping. SR
may be reduced through planting of plants higher standing than the crop, like Gliricidia sepium along and
in the field. Gliricidia sepium can be grown earlier on rainy months, which can provide shade for the
legumes with low SR requirement. Although Gliricidia sepium is also a legume, transmission of disease
from the shade crop to main crop may not be possible if the shade crop to be planted is also disease free.
The area should be utilized once a year for legume and the other half for other crops suitable for the area
to avoid loss.

Cropping calendar

Mont Approx. RF Approx. Approx. SR Proposed Cropping schedule
h Temp
Jan >50 mm <20 °C <300 cal/cm2 Vegetative stage (60 d)
day
Feb <50 mm <20 °C <400 cal/cm2
day

Mar <50 mm ≥20 °C > ≥400 cal/cm2 Reproductive stage 30 d
day >
Apr <50 mm ≥25 °C > >400 cal/cm2 Harvest in late Apr - Rep (10 d)-Mature
day stage (20d)
May <50 mm >25 °C ≤400 cal/cm2
day <
Jun ≥50 mm >25 °C <400 cal/cm2
day
Jul ≥50 mm >25 °C <400 cal/cm2
day
Aug ≥50 mm ≤25 °C< <400 cal/cm2
day
Sep <50 mm <25 °C ≤300 cal/cm2
day <
Oct <50 mm <25 °C <300 cal/cm2 Land preparation/ establish shade crop
day
Nov >50 mm ≤20 °C< <300 cal/cm2 Plant Legume - Vegetative stage (60 d)
day
Dec >50 mm <20 °C <300 cal/cm2
day

Submitted by:
De Leon-de Roxas, Maureen Ceres N.
AENG 1-U2L