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AENG 1 – Fundamentals of Agricultural Engineering

Problem Set No. 3
Crop Water Requirements

1. Estimate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) at the UPLB-NAS (14°11'N, 121°15'E and 21.7 m
above mean sea level) for the day (assigned to you) using FAO Penman-Monteith method. Determine
the crop water requirement (CWR) of the maize crop planted in a 2-ha field assuming a kc value of
0.75. Also estimate the volume of water needed by the crop (in mm3) on this day.

Given:
Location: 14°11’N, 121°15’E; μ1=2.1kh-1; %PS=58.4; Tmax=30.8°C; Kcmiaze=0.75;
Elevation (Z): 21.7 m above RS = 450.5 cal cm- AField=2 ha; Tmin=23.3°C; RH = 90
sea level; 2
day-1;

ETo=0.408∆Rn-G+γ900T+273μ2es-ea∆+γ1+0.34μ2

Required:
Rn= 11.4897728121609 T= es = 2.89856344821425 Δ=
MJm-2day-1 27.05°C kPa 0.169667337054693
μ2= 0.687313123669988 G=0 ea = 2.60870710339282 γ = 0.0672106855
ms-1 kPa kPa℃-

ETo=0.408×0.16966733705469311.4897728121609 MJm-2day-1-0+γ900T+273μ2es-
ea0.169667337054693+0.0672106855 kPa℃-1+0.340.687313123669988 ms-1

ETo=0.0692242735183147 11.4897728121609 MJm-2day-1-0+γ900T+273μ2es-
ea0.169667337054693+0.0672106855 kPa℃-1.2336864620478 ms-1

ETo=0.795371175812322 MJm-2day-1+0.0672106855 kPa℃-90027.05°C+273μ2es-
ea0.169667337054693+0.0829169128063024 kPa℃-ms-1

ETo=0.795371175812322 MJm-2day-1+ 60.48961695kPa℃-300.05Kμ22.89856344821425
kPa-2.60870710339282 kPa0.252584249860995 kPa℃-ms-1

ETo=0.795371175812322 MJm-2day-1+0.201598456757207kPa℃-K-
μ20.28985634482143kPa0.252584249860995 kPa℃-ms-1

ETo=0.795371175812322 MJm-2day-1+0.201598456757207kPa℃-K- 0.687313123669988
ms-10.28985634482143kPa0.252584249860995 kPa℃-ms-1

ETo=0.795371175812322 MJm-2day-1+0.201598456757207kPa℃-K- 0.199222069774782
ms-1kPa0.252584249860995 kPa℃-ms-1

ETo=0.795371175812322 MJm-2day-1+0.0401628618185727 K-kPa0.252584249860995
ETo=0.8355340376308950.252584249860995

ETo=3.30794195635997 mm day-1
ETo≈3.3079mm day-1

Crop water requirement:
ETc=CWR=kcETo
Given:
Kc = 0.75
ETc=CWR=0.753.30794195635997 mm day-1

ETc=CWR=0.248095646726998 mm day-1
Total volume of water needed for the day:
Vwater=Afield×CWR
Given:
2-ha field
Vwater=10000m2×0.000248095646726998 m

Vwater=2.48095646726998m3
Vwater≈2.4810 m3

a. Slope of saturation vapor pressure curve (Δ)

∆=40980.610817.27TT+273.3T+237.32
Required:
Mean air temperature

Tmean=Tmin+Tmax2
Given:
Tmax=30.8°C Tmin=23.3°C

Tmean=23.3°C+30.8°C2
Tmean=54.1°C2 ∆=40980.61081.5553637423006527.05°
C+237.32
Tmean=27.05°C ∆=40982.89324305307478264.352
∆=11856.510031500469880.9225

∆=0.169667337054693

∆=40980.610817.27×27.05°C27.05°C+2
37.327.05°C+237.32

b. Mean saturation vapor pressure (es)

es=eTmax°+eTmin°2
Required:
Saturation vapor pressure at a given temperature, T
eT°=0.610817.27TT+273.3
Given:
Tmax=30.8°C Tmin=23.3°C

eTmax°=0.610817.27TmaxTmax+237.3 eTmin°=0.610817.27TminTmin+237.3
eTmax°=0.610817.27×30.8℃30.8℃+23 eTmin°=0.610817.27×23.3℃23.3℃+237
7.3 .3
eTmax°=0.6108531.916304.1 eTmin°=0.6108402.391296.6
eTmax°=0.61081.74914830647813 eTmin°=0.61081.35667902899528

eTmax°=3.46017162932978 kPa eTmin°=2.33695526709871 kPa

es=3.46017162932978 kPa+2.33695526709871 kPa2

es=2.89856344821425 kPa

c. Mean actual vapor pressure (ea)
Derived from the equation:
RH=eaes×100
ea=RH100×es
Given:
RH = 90 es=2.8985634482142
5 kPa

ea=90100×2.89856344821425 kPa
ea=.90×2.89856344821425 kPa
ea=2.60870710339282 kPa

d. Clear-sky solar radiation (Rso)
RSO=0.75+2×10-5ZRa
Given:
Z = 21.7m
Required:
Extra-terrestrial radiation

Ra=13.6 mm day-1×1MJ m-2day-10.408 mm day-1
Ra=33.3333333333333 MJ m-2day-1

RSO=0.75+2×10-5×21.7 m 33.3333333333333 MJ m-2day-1
RSO=25.0144666666666 MJ m-2day-1

e. Net solar radiation (Rns)
RNS=1-αRS
Given:
RS = 18.85793 MJ m-2day-1
α = 0.23

RNS=1-0.2318.85793 MJm-2day-1
RNS=14.5206061 MJm-2day-1

f. Net long wave radiation (RNL)
RNL=σTmax4+Tmin420.34-0.14ea1.35RSRSO-0.35
Given:
σ = 4.903 x 10-9 MJ K-4 m-2 day-1
Tmax=30.8°C Tmin=23.3°C
K=
T+273.15

RNL=4.903 ×10-9MJ K-4m-2day-1303.95 K4+296.45 K420.34-0.14ea1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=4.903 ×10-9MJ K-4m-2day-18535099549.288+7723351822.1730120.34-
0.14ea1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=4.903 ×10-9MJ K-4m-2day-18129225685.7305K40.34-0.14ea1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=39.8575935371366MJ K-4m-2day-1K40.34-0.14ea1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=39.8575935371366 MJ K-4m-2day-1K40.34-0.142.60870710339282 kPa1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=39.8575935371366 MJ K-4m-2day-1K40.34-0.226120895156771kPa1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=39.8575935371366 MJ K-4m-2day-1K40.113879104843229 kPa1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=4.53894707321439 MJ K-4m-2day-1K4Kpa1.35RSRSO-0.35
RNL=4.53894707321439 MJ K-4m-2day-1℃4Kpa1.3518.85793 MJ m-2day-
125.0144666666666 MJ m-2day-1-0.35
RNL=4.53894707321439 MJ K-4m-2day-1℃4Kpa1.350.753880954221159-0.35
RNL=4.53894707321439 MJ K-4m-2day-1℃4Kpa0.667739288198565MJ m-2day-1

RNL=3.03083328783914 MJm-2day-1

g. Net Radiation (Rn)
Rn=RNS-RNL

Rn=14.5206061 MJm-2day-1-3.03083328783914 MJm-2day-1
Rn=11.4897728121609 MJm-2day-1

h. Atmospheric pressure (P)
P=101.3293-.0065Z2935.26
Given:
Z = 21.7 m

P=101.3293-.0065×21.7 2935.26
P=101.0687 kPa

i. Psychometric constant (γ)
γ=cpPελ=0.665×10-3P
γ=0.665×10-3×101.0687 kPa
γ=0.0672106855 kPa℃-

j. Wind speed (μ)
μ2=μz4.87ln67.8z-5.42
Given:
μ1 = 1 m μz = 2.1kh-1 = 0.583333333333333m-1

μ2=0.583333333333333 ms-14.87ln67.8×1-5.42
μ2=0.583333333333333ms-14.87ln62.38
μ2=0.583333333333333 ms-14.874.13324471117966
μ2=0.583333333333333 ms-11.17825106914855

μ2=0.687313123669988 ms-1
2. Using the Pan Evaporation method, calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) and crop
water requirement (CWR) for the same day (assigned to you) in item #1. Assume a pan coefficient,
kp=0.70. Also estimate the total volume of water needed by the cop (in m3) on this day.

ETo=Epan×kp
Given:
Epan = 2.8; kp = 0.70

ETo=2.8 mm×0.70
ETo=1.96 mm

Crop water requirement:
CWR=kcETo
Given:
Kc = 0.75
CWR=0.751.96 mm day-1

CWR=1.47 mm day-1

Total volume of water needed for the day:
Vwater=Afield×CWR
Given:
2-ha field
Vwater=10000m2×0.00147m

Vwater=14.7 m3

Submitted by:
De Leon-de Roxas, Maureen Ceres N.
AENG 1-U2L