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PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 17, 102108 2010

Dark-state polariton in magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency
Eiichirou Kawamori
Institute of Space, Astrophysical and Plasma Science, National Cheng Kung University, 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan

Received 8 June 2010; accepted 27 September 2010; published online 27 October 2010 This paper derives a wave equation in magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency EIT regime for probe electron cyclotron wave. The equation has a solution indicating a state analogous to “dark-state polaritons” M. Fleischhauer and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5094 2000 in quantum atomic system. The state analogous to dark-state polaritons is a propagating coupled state of the probe-wave electric field and longitudinal plasma oscillation. The propagation of the coupled state can be stopped as its waveform is maintained if injection of pump wave is properly controlled in time domain. The “stop-light” is achieved by adiabatic transition from a state in which the probe-wave field is dominant to a state in which the longitudinal plasma oscillation is dominant. This study also recaptures a phenomenon analogous to “coherent population trap” in conventional EIT of quantum atomic system. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3503613
I. INTRODUCTION

Electromagnetically induced transparency EIT in quantum-mechanical atomic systems is a well-understood and thoroughly studied subject.1 This conventional EIT is a phenomenon in which the optical properties of a material, such as absorption and emission, are drastically changed as a result of quantum interference between eigenstates of the matter when irradiated by two lights. Specifically, the susceptibility/permittivity of the medium can be manipulated by controlled laser light. EIT is basis of several applications, such as slow light,2 information transfer between matter and light,3 and so on. A theoretical idea by Harris4 is a beginning of research of a new EIT, assuming plasma as a medium, and subsequently, the possibility of EIT for electron cyclotron wave in magnetized plasma was shown by researchers including Shvets and Wurtele5 and Litvak and Tokman6 by theoretical/numerical analyses. Those theories predict that injection of pumping wave alters the susceptibility of plasma to right-hand circular polarized RHCP electron cyclotron wave when a matching condition probe pe + pump is satisfied, where probe, pe, and pump are the angular frequencies of the probe wave, the plasma wave, and the pump wave, respectively. As a result, the RHCP wave no longer resonates with electrons at the electron cyclotron frequency being transmitted. It is noted that the EIT in plasmas does not invoke quantum mechanics, while the conventional EIT requires quantum mechanics. Instead of quantum mechanics, the EIT in plasmas is achieved by collective excitation of a medium. It is thought that the magnetized plasma EIT will be applied to compression of electromagnetic microwave, ion acceleration by ponderomotive force,7 control of the spatial absorption profile of electron cyclotron heating wave in fusion plasma, and so on. In the field of the original conventional EIT research, the temporal manipulation of the EIT state of matter and light has been explored both in theory and in experiment. Formstable coupled excitations of light and matter were identified
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theoretically, which are called “dark-state polaritons.” The physics of the dark-state polaritons provides a technique of “stop-light” rather than “slow light.” The coupled excitation pulse can be trapped in matter in which its shape and quantum state are mapped onto metastable collective states of matter.8 On the other hand, in the plasma EIT field, large effort has been placed mainly on the investigation of static property of the EIT in plasma until now. Shevets and Wurtele5 and Litvak and Tokman6 elucidated that group velocity of the RHCP wave depends on the intensity of the pump wave and the possibility of extreme slow propagation of the RHCP wave packet slow light . This paper describes the dynamic manipulation of the EIT state in magnetized plasma. The existence of stop-light, a phenomenon that wave propagation is stopped while its spatial shape is kept, is analytically shown from a wave equation with an EIT susceptibility. It is also shown that the stop-light is achieved by a phenomenon analogous to adiabatic transition of dark-state polaritons in quantum atomic system.

II. THE WAVE EQUATION AND SOLUTION UNDER MAGNETIZED PLASMA EIT CONDITION

Under the EIT condition that two electromagnetic waves of probe and pump are injected into a uniform electron density and background magnetic field magnetized plasma, the probe-wave frequency component of induced current density J r , t perpendicular to background magnetic field by the wave field stems from three-wave coupling among the probe, pump, and plasma waves.5,6 Although the induced current J r , t is nonlinear with respect to the pump electric field E0, it can be expressed as a linear response to the probe wave electric field E1, including E0 as a parameter,

T J k, ;r,t = J EIT k, ;r,t,E0 · E1 k, ;r,t .

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© 2010 American Institute of Physics

t . t where k r . the following equation is obtained: t a + =− c 2k z z 1 2 t a + a 2 t + c 2a 2 − 1 2 0 z kz +i a . . 9 a a1x − ia1y .e. The first order equation J· a1 = 0 gives the dispersion relation. onedimensionally propagating plane wave along the background field line.t − t .t − t 2 2 T k J EIT: T a1 r. 4 where T J EIT k. The eikonal r .r − r . the current density J r . / z are assumed. by adding x component and −i y component of Eq. tpump makes Moreover. · E1 r .t = a1 r.t .t = − dt dr J EIT r − r . finally. Then. / ta 1/ / t . a1. a small expansion parameter. Qxy = −Qyx. Qij and ij T J are the i . 5 1 1 r . Eq. 2 J QEIT T i J EIT 0 . . a1 r . 2 The probe-wave electric field represented as follows is introduced: E1 r. 9 simple. respectively. t is slowly varying over the scale length of the plasma inhomogeneity. t+t 2 2 2 1 2 0 T T JEIT · a1 − i JEIT · a1 .t .r − r . t is represented in terms of conductivity tensor J EIT which is not Laplace.t . respectively.t − t 2 2 −i T J EIT = 0 dt dr ei t −k·r t J EIT . The second order equation is 0 = ic2 k −i a1 + t a1 + k a1 − i T JEIT · a1 . Eq. This equation describes temporal evolution of right-hand circular RHC component a1x − ia1y of amplitude of the probe wave. T k J EIT: a1 r. . and Qyz = Qxz = 0.t − t 2 2 t and JEIT · a1 r.t = J EIT · k: t Qxx + iQxy a xx +i xy a t . 1 1 r .r − r .t r. and / t are first order.r r−r ..t ei r.t Here. 10 a1 r. Here. i.r. On the more general case. tpump and tprobe are the pulse width of the pump and .102108-2 Eiichirou Kawamori Phys.t ei r..t i − 2 −i · T k J EIT Qxx + iQxy a xx xy t − t . j components of QEIT and JEIT. 102108 2010 T J EIT is a Laplace.t = 0 dt dr ei t −k·r J EIT . 9 for uniform magnetized plasma medium . in slowly varying in space and time medium.and Fourier-transformed conductivity tensor in uniform plasma EIT medium e.t − T J EIT a1 r. t and r . t is rapidly varying over the scale length of a wave and period of the wave. 6 1 1 r .t t i T k J EIT = 0 dt dr ei t −k·r r J EIT . 8 . − T J EIT t · a1 r.and Fouriertransformed . t Substituting Eqs. Plasmas 17. 9 becomes t a + c 2k z z a =− − 1 2 i 2 0 . a1 J + QEIT · a1 t t 8 If k = kzz and = 0 .t .t 7 J J QEIT c kk − k2J + J + I I . 3 r.t .t . t can be expressed in the following form:10 T T J r. 3 and 4 into a wave equation E + 2E / t2 + 0 J / t = 0 leads to J · a1 = c2 2 a1 + i k 1 2 2 a1 + a1 + k J QEIT · a1 a1 + + a1 −i t2 t a1 + t t t J r.t . k r.g.t − r. if Qxx = Qyy. J r . the condition tprobe xx + i xy a in the right-hand side RHS of Eq. t are wave number and angular frequency of the probe wave. 0 . 16 of Ref. Here. 1/a Approximation 1 / a / za 1 / kz / z kz is reasonable if the time scale of the frequency change of the probe wave is slower than that of wave amplitude envelope change and if the spatial variation of the wavelength of the probe wave is smaller than the envelope change in space. 1 1 r+r . I assume that k and − / t are zero order quantities.t = J EIT + JEIT · a1 r.

which can 1/ EITa EIT / const / t EITa be represented in this case as / a / t. As discussed in Refs. respectively. Rabi frequency. The second term of the RHS is the RHC component of current that stems from the frequency response of susceptibility of the medium. vg = c / 1 + / 2 / . and c a0 = 5 10−3.. z a z. When a0 is strong enough. where the susceptibility for EIT regime 9 EIT is given by Hur et al. and m are the plasma angular frequency. Color online Susceptibility of the magnetized plasma for parallel propagating probe wave along background magnetic field line in cases that the normalized pump-wave electric field a a0 = 0. even if a0 decreases to some extent but 0 . R. / t a / t . 1 c .004 ω/ωce FIG. EIT can be calculated numerically from Eq. 11 . retaining its temporal shape at any z.998 1 1.t = g t − 0 c k z/ 2 dz vg z . wave number. when vg is a function of z but not t.996 0. a0 p eE0 eA0 = . Figure 1 is the susceptibility EIT for various intensities of the pump wave a0. + vg z t vg = χimag χreal 0. 1. The replacement of −i xx + i xy / 0 = − Qxx + iQxy / = EIT can be done in these terms. which means a steady intensity of pump-wave. Moreover. p. + /2 When EIT = real + i imag 0 such as in case of large a0. 12 has a form of d’Alembert’s solution f t − z / vg . In the case where the intensity of the pump-wave is constant in time. The envelope propagates in the medium with group velocity of vg. as shown in Fig. The first term of the RHS is the RHC component of the current induced by RHCP component of probe-wave electric field. imag → 0. 9 and 11. the solution of Eq. 2 EIT = p 3000 2000 1000 χ 0 χreal (a) a0=0. 10 vanishes. k0. Here. 102108 2010 the probe waves. 0. 1 b and 1 c . Generally. electron cyclotron angular frequency.0 χimag + 2 R 0 kz 2 − and a 1 ea / mc -1000 . the group velocity is estimated at 1 1+ 2 probe probe 12 If vg is constant in time and space. the deceleration of the group velocity is realized by the compression of the profile of the wave packet in space. -2000 2000 1000 χ 0 -1000 -2000 2000 1000 χ 0 -1000 -2000 (c) a0=5×10-3 × EIT window where − ce. Plasmas 17. 12 is written as . In the case of a0 = 3 10−4 and / ce = 5. as shown in Figs. normalized amplitude. a0. indicating disappearance of resonant absorption of the probe wave at = ce. ce.002 1. imag can be small is large. respectively. and electron mass. k0 2 ce ce 11 X −2 0 2 0 0 0 − − − . The EIT window emerges and expands as a0 increases. the first term of the RHS of Eq. The group velocity is controllable by the pump intensity through EIT / probe because it is a function of pump intensity. b a0 = 5 10−4. the solution of Eq. indicating slow light propagaenough and real / tion without resonant absorption. respectively. mc mc 0 χimag χreal 0 kz 2 2 0 p R ce kz X −1− .0 10−8 where is the collision frequency . 13 probe EIT .102108-3 Dark-state polariton in magnetized plasma… Phys. (b) a0=5×10-4 × EIT window R ck0 a0 ce 4 . That is. angular frequency of the pump-wave electric field denoted by subscript 0 . EIT The wave equation of the envelop of probe wave can be written in the form a a = 0.

9 * Here. dt 17 from the numerical calculation of EIT. vg c 2k z/ ce ce EIT/w c 2k z EIT 2 ce 2 c 2k z R EIT 2 a0 . the spectral width of the envelope must satisfy the following condition: 1 tprobe w 2 R a0 t ˜ . transform the equation to me d˜ 1+ d˜ k0 v = e a0 t − 2ea1 t − ie dt dt 0 k0 p 0 The spectrum of the probe-pulse envelop must be contained within the electromagnetically induced transparency window w. I used 1 ce eB0 / me and 1 − 0 p. whose width is w. ce 14 where a0 .t = h z − 0 vg t dt . and = 2 ˜ ei 1− 0 +˜ e−i 1− 0 . which is 60 m/s. I also used 1 − 0 p.1 . The substitution of v+ = ˜ 0+ t ei 0 + ˜ 1+ t ei 1 v v ˜ 0.1+ are slow variation in time and space and v− vx + ivy v 1 = ˜ 0− t e−i 0 + ˜ 1− t e−i 1 and = 2 ˜ ei 1− 0 +˜ e−i 1− 0 . and averaging over a few period 2 / p and wavelength of the wave after division by ei 1− 0 : d2˜ − 2i dt2 p a z. and c3. In a similar fashion. where EIT is the .1t. if vg is a function of time. respectively. On the other hand.21 10 7 me dv+ eB0v+ +i = − 2ea0 t ei 0 − 2ea1 t ei me dt + = k0. Subscripts 0 and 1 represent the quantities of the pump and the probe waves. c2. a0 t and a1 t are regarded as constants. Here. 18 a0 . This method prevents the deceleration of light from being restricted by the effective band width of the medium indicated by Eqs. Slow propagation down to 10−7 of the speed of light in vacuum can be achieved. Note that the variation of EIT in the window ce R Rabi frequency R is proportional to the pump intensity a0. 15 Here. to replace three components of the velocity of electrons as follows: −e ˜ 1+dt → c3c2 .1 d .1 =a 0 . 16 vg = c 2k z/ 1 1+ 2 probe d˜ 2e k1 k0 * =− a1 t · ˜ 0− + a0 t · ˜ 1+ . c1. Namely. indicating the envelope of the probe wave propagates in the z-direction and spatial profile of the wave packet is maintained at any t during the propagation stop-light . the equation of longitudinal motion of electrons d2 + dt2 2 p That is. v v dt me 1 0 20 probe EIT probe . the background axial magnetic field. proximation of i p d˜ / dt − e˜ 1+ = v e k1 a1 t me 1 − 2 1 e k1 dt pe e k0 a0 t − i me 0 ˜ dt . B0. I introduced three quantities. and v v averaging over a few period 2 / 1 and wavelength of the wave after division by ei 1. the solution has a form of t = − ev ˜ B 19 can be converted into the following form by substitution of 1 v = v+e+ + v−e−. The integral constants are ignored. 14 and 15 because the initial band width of the probe-wave pulse is kept constant even during the wave packet is slowed down. e = ex ey. Plasmas 17. 102108 2010 vg c 2k z/ 1 2 2 EIT probe ce c 1 2 probe= ce 1.. v . 22 III.g. 21 −i p e k1 − e˜ = − a1 t · − e me 1 − e k0 * a t · −e me 0 0 ˜ 0−dt v ˜ 1+dt v . The deceleration of the wave propagation in this scheme is realized by compression in time in contrast to that by the preceding scheme due to compression in space.21 1. ANALOGY TO COHERENT POPULATION TRAPPING The right-hand velocity component v+ vx − ivy of the simplified equation of motion for electron in the EIT regime. 6 of Ref. respectively. the lowest achievable group velocity is limited by the pulse width of the envelope tprobe when vg is a function of z and constant in time t. For EIT media. The slope of EIT is estimated as EIT / probe EIT / w EIT / R. Eq. in which two waves of probe and pump are injected. 18 and 20 be integrated in time on the apd2˜ / dt2 . and are the right-hand component of pump probe wave electric field. Here.102108-4 Eiichirou Kawamori Phys. and the longitudinal displacement from initial location of electrons. Let Eqs. 1 probe k0 0 2a0 t ei 0 10−7c 0. EIT changes sharply within the EIT window.1z − 0. is e.

showing the corresponding counterparts in a three-level atomic system. dt 2 33 ˜ dt − e ˜ 1+dt v − e ˜ 1+dt v ie p .. Color online Conceptual diagram to compare EIT in magnetized plasma to that of a three-level atomic system. is shown in Fig. the noncoupled state dark state is c2 when the pump wave pump is dominant. dcC t i it = e c3 t . c1c3 can be related to velocity components −e ˜ 0−dt i pe ˜ dt / −e ˜ 1+dt and v v −e ˜ 0−dt in the magnetized plasma EIT.. 3. c1 2 and coherence e. population e. 26 − e ˜ 1+dt v and −e ˜ 0−dt in the magnetized plasma EIT. 28 cC t pumpc1 t + probec2 t . which is a necessary condition for EIT if we suppose pump = 1 − 0 − p and probe = 1 − ce. connect those levels. c2 2 = ˜ dt − e ˜ 0−dt v − e ˜ 1+dt v ie p . v 23 Magnetized plasma velocity components 3-level atomic system (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ)(−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) ( ieω ∫ ζ˜ dtʹ) p 1+ 0− −i p −e ˜ dt → c 1c 2 . c1c3 can be related to velocity components − e ˜ 0−dt v ie p ˜ dt c 3c 2 − c 1c 3 . 30 34 c3 = 2 − e ˜ 0−dt v . c 1c 2 i = t 2 i pumpe pumpt 25 −i probee probet coherence e. c1 2 and This set of equations means that the populations of energy levels of c3 and cC are coupled by the wave whose intensity is .g. 2. 31 and 32 . 32 pump e−i pumptc 1 t + −i probet c2 probee pump 2 + probe 2 .g. the squared quantities of c1. while . whose intensities are represented by pump and probe. 21 and 22 are rewritten as follows: c 3c 2 i = t 2 pumpe −i pumpt c 1c 2 + probee −i probet FIG. v Following a conventional way of quantum atomic system analysis. Then. the following quantities are introduced: cNC t probec1 This set of equations is resolved into three equations as follows: dc1 t i = dt 2 dc2 t i =− dt 2 dc3 t i = dt 2 i pumpt c3 pumpe t − pumpc2 t t . c2. dt dc3 t i −i t = e cC t . 31 pumpe −i probet c 3 t . 24 (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) ( i e ω ∫ ζ˜ dtʹ ) (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) 0− p 1+ ( i e ω ∫ ζ˜ dtʹ) p (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) ( ieω ∫ ζ˜ dtʹ) (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) 1+ p * 0− dt → c2 2 − c3 2 . For instance.g. For instance. According to Eqs. 27 . * (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) 1+ * 2ie k1 a1 t → − me 1 2 1 e k1 i probet probee . population e. 0− a0 Ωpump |c3|2 c1c3* |1> |c1|2 c1c2* |3> Ωprobe c3c2* |c2|2 |2> The following replacement is also introduced: − 2ie k0 a0 t → me 0 pumpe i pumpt (−e ∫ v˜ dt ʹ) a1 . under the condition of constant total intensity of the waves . dt 2 dcNC t = 0. Plasmas 17. 102108 2010 −e ˜ 0−dt → c1c3 . as depicted in Fig. ˜ dt 35 This set of equations completely corresponds with that describing a three-level atomic system in which two lights. v c2 2 − c3 2 .102108-5 Dark-state polariton in magnetized plasma… Phys. and c3 are c1 2 = − e ˜ 0−dt v ie p Equations 27 – 29 are converted to the final form shown below after substitution of Eqs. The corresponding counterparts in a three-level atomic system to the magnetized plasma system are shown. 27 – 29 and letting pump = probe = . Eqs. 31 and 32 into Eqs.. however. Its schematic diagram. t .g.. 29 From definition 23 . the energy level cNC is left uncoupled with these energy levels and the wave. 2.

respectively Eq. Electrons in the plasma are transferred and trapped into the noncoupled state c1 or c2 depending on the ratio between probe and pump like “coherent population trapping” of electrons in matter. if a1 t da0/dt a0 t da1/dt then ˜ 1+ = − 2 v 0 2 =− e k0 * a t ˜ 1+ . 102108 2010 c3 Light Ω =Ω probe+Ω pump |Coupled state > cC 2 2 2 |3> 2 me 0 e k0 2 0 a0 2 pe 2 EIT probe probe v−1 . 4 . 1 and osc v0+ − e a1 t me 1 − e a0 t me 0 . 18 using the same approximation: k0 0 a0 t 2a1 t . It indicates coupled oscillations of the probewave electric field and longitudinal plasma wave and are considered as counterparts to “dark-state polaritons” in quantum atomic system. which is determined by the pump electric field a0 t . 38 . which propagate as one in matter. States c1 and c2 represent velocity components of the pump and the probe frequencies. 30 . 18 and the first term of RHS of Eq. 20 can be neglected because k0˜ 1. This is a phenomenon analogous to dark-state polaritons in quantum system. This paper also discusses a phenomenon analogous to “coherent population trap” in conventional EIT of quantum atomic system. the probe-wave envelope 2a1 t and the longitudinal plasma oscillation −i p˜ form a coupled state and these oscillations propagate together in the direction of z at vg. as shown by Eq. j1 = probe EITa1 A solution of a wave equation indicating analogous “dark-state polaritons” in magnetized plasma under EIT regime is shown. −i ˜ p 39 |Dark state> cNC FIG. The dominant component of the coupled and noncoupled states can be manipulated by controlling probe and pump properly. 37 By comparing each term of Eqs. The stop-light is achieved by adiabatic transition between a state in which the probe-wave field is dominant and a state in which the longitudinal plasma oscillation is dominant.102108-6 Eiichirou Kawamori Phys. The approach of 2a1 t / −i p˜ to zero means that the plasma oscillation dominates the coupled state. The coupled state of the probe field 2a1 t and the longitudinal oscillation −i p˜ in magnetized plasma is regarded as a counterpart of a coupled state of light and coherence in quantum field. IV. which gives the current induced by the probe-wave field j1 − ene0˜ 1+ v 2 me 0 e k0 2 0 a0 2 pe 2 t a1 t . As in the coupled state of probe wave field and longitudinal oscillation of plasma. CONCLUSION 1. the ratio of light and coherence of the dark-state polaritons is determined by the intensity of a pump-wave electric field. Plasmas 17. The propagation of the coupled oscillation can be at rest as its waveform is maintained under the properly controlled condition. k0 me/e a0 2 t a1 t . one can know that EIT = real + i imag 0 and The author is grateful to the members of the MPX group of Plasma and Space Science Center of National Cheng . Equation 20 becomes d 2 0 a1 t dt k0a0 t Moreover. the freeze of the wave propagation. That is. V. 3. the left-hand side of Eq. If the pump electric field a0 t is adiabatically decreased. Adiabatic control of the ratio between the probe field and the longitudinal oscillation through the pump-wave intensity realizes the manipulation of the group velocity of the probe wave and. the energy of the probe wave field that is stored into the plasma oscillation in the coupled state during the probe wave is stopped. which is controlled by a0 t as well. STRONGLY COUPLED STATE OF PROBE-WAVE ELECTRIC FIELD AND PLASMA OSCILLATION „ANALOGY TO DARK-STATE POLARITON… If 1 / tprobe osc v1+ p. g 38 Also. Color online Schematic diagram of the magnetized plasma EIT in analogy with dark-polariton in a three-level atomic system. 36 The induced current is generally expressed also by using susceptibility in linear medium simplified form of Eq. moreover. 36 and 37 . That is. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS t + EIT probe probe t a1 t . v me 0 0 Equation 39 indicates that the ratio between the probe field 2a1 t and the longitudinal oscillation −i p˜ is a constant value. the ratio between 2a1 t and −i p˜ adiabatically approaches zero as group velocity of the coupled state is decreased.8 The dark-state polaritons in quantum system are coupled excitations of light and coherence of atomic system. coupled state is c1. the following relation is derived from Eq.

Rev. D. Tokman. Harris. S. Phys. E. Harris. Imamoglu. 84. S. Wurtele.102108-7 Dark-state polariton in magnetized plasma… Phys. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the National Science Council of Taiwan Grant No. 73. Lett. 179. 2 L. S. Phys. Behroozi. 88. and S. Phys. A. Sugiyama. 2003 . 115003 2002 . Hau. Litvak and M. Am. Rev. Fleischhauer and M. Tokman. Phys. Shvets and J. Yelin. V. pp. G. Shvets. 66. D. Lett. Plasmas 10. 11 T. 4 Kung University for their contributions to this study. 7 M. S. 1 K. 2nd ed. 102108 2010 2000 . and M. 10 D. Rev. K. Z. Bristol and Philadelphia. J. Phys. 2593 1991 . Opt. S. 594 1999 . Boller. S. Rev. Lett. Nakanishi. Shvets. IEEE Trans. Harris. 8 M. Fleischhauer. Wurtele. Plasma Sci. 395 . Kitano. and G. Institute of Physics. E. Lett. Nature London 397. 77. 323 2005 . 9 M. and M. 3004 2003 . 33. A. Swanson. Lukin. 23 2005 . Plasmas 17. J. and C. 89. F. 3 M. Tushentsov. Hur. Lett. Phys. G. Plasma Waves. D. Dutton. Rev. and M. 97-2112-M-006-016MY3 . 095003 2002 . E. J. 6 A. 5357 1996 . D. 5 G. 5094 2000 . Kryachko. H. G. Y. Commun. 414–416. Lukin. Phys.