9 views

Uploaded by rupojs

save

- Total Order
- 5ET219
- 9781441912954-c1
- extra practice kuta
- Fuzzy Automata Based on Lattice-Ordered Monoid With Algebraic and Topological Aspects
- Denotational Semantics
- Day 2
- Compiled Undergrad Notes
- Errata for Elementary Classical Analysis, Second Edition Marsden Hoffman_ECA_errata_10!16!00
- Logical
- SCMS Optimization Exercises Using Solver (1)
- asdfasdf
- Tutorial_12&13_MA1012_2009
- contents.pdf
- Untitled
- calculs
- TEST for Scribd.
- mark lewis.txt
- Simultanous Equation 2012
- Matlab_3
- Module 4 Solutions
- Lowbk&Tang_3ICSSE(1).pdf
- Reliability of Embankments on Soft Ground Using Constrained Optimization.
- 16-17 a1 m6
- Algortimos
- Sep 17 Striptheory Pitch
- math paragraphs
- pg_0123_0000_BS20
- 0 Introduction
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Yes Please
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- John Adams
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- Steve Jobs
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- The Master
- Bel Canto
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- The Wallcreeper
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- My Sister's Keeper: A Novel
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- The Cider House Rules
- Tutorial 2
- aritmetica1
- Aula 01
- Teoremas de Incompletitud de Gödel
- resolution
- Lab2diggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
- Capitulo 9 Grupos Y Maquinas de Estado Finito
- Conjuntos Exercícios Resolvidos
- 1.2.7
- Summary of Sentential Logic/Propositional Logic
- 27372229correction-ds1-2010-pdf
- CE2-mathematiques
- Actividad 1 - Oswaldo Vallejo
- Amor Montaño Jose Alfredo - Teoria de Conjuntos Para Estudiantes de Ciencias
- Filosofia 1º Teste
- Raciocínio Lógico
- Logica Proposicional
- 3 Notations
- (Mathematical Concepts and Methods in Science and Engineering 12) Francis J. Murray (auth.)-Applied Mathematics_ An Intellectual Orientation-Springer US (1978).pdf
- Examen de Matematicas 6 ITARCOL
- Matematica Basica 1
- CS107 01 Fundamentals
- Funciones
- Circuitos Combinacionais
- IRJET-Enumeration of size of a T- graphs
- aula01.pdf
- Ejercicios de conversión
- Conteúdo Da Prova Para o Teste Anpad
- Rúbrica de Lecciones de Conjuntos
- Logica de Primeira Ordem Sintaxe Semantica des Sintaticas

You are on page 1of 37

**Jean Mark Gawron
**

Linguistics San Diego State University gawron@mail.sdsu.edu http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/∼gawron

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 1/3

Preliminaries

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 2/3

Order

We deﬁne an order as a transitive relation R that can be either 1. reﬂexive and antisymmetric (a weak partial order), written

≤, ⊆, ⊑, . . .

**2. irreﬂexive and asymmetric (a strong partial order), written
**

<, ⊂, ⊏, , . . .

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 3/3

Posets

Deﬁnition 1. A poset (partially-ordered set) is a set together with a weak order.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 4/3

Examples: Weak Orders

Examples of weak orders are ⊆ on sets and ≤ on number. The case of ⊆: Transitive A⊆B B⊆C A⊆C A⊆A A⊆B B⊆A A=B

Reﬂexive Antisymmetric

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 5/3

Examples: Strong Orders

An English example of a strong order is ancestor-of. Transitive A is the ancestor of B B is the ancestor of C A is the ancestor of C A is not an ancestor of A A is the ancestor of B B is not the ancestor of A

Irreﬂexive Asymmetric

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 6/3

More beautiful than

Transitive

Irreﬂexive Asymmetric

Lassie is more beautiful than Rin Tin Tin Rin Tin Tin is more beautiful than Asta Lassie is more beautiful than Asta Lassie is more beautiful than Lassie Lassie is more beautiful than Fido Fido is not more beautiful than Lassie

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 7/3

More Examples

**1. is taller than 2. is 2 inches taller than? 3. The dominates relation in trees
**

M N D E F H O I J

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 8/3

A very simple poset

⊤

a

b

⊥

The diagram of a poset A = {⊥, a, b, ⊤}, ≤

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 9/3

A poset of sets

The diagram of the poset ℘(A) for

{a,b,c}

A = {a, b, c}

A line connecting a lower node to an upp

{a,b}

{a,c}

{b,c}

node means the lower node is ⊆ the upper.

{a}

{b}

{c}

∅

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 10/3

Partial means partial

{a,b,c}

Note that not all sets are ordered by ⊆. Thus no line connects {a, b} and {b, c} because neither is a subset of the other. We say these two sets are incomparable in that ordering.

{a,b}

{a,c}

{b,c}

{a}

{b}

{c}

∅

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 11/3

Linear Orders

If an ordering has no incomparable elements, then it is linear. For example, the ≤ relation on numbers gives a linear ordering. Deﬁnition 2. A weak order is linear iff for every pair of elements a and b either a ≤ b or b ≤ a:

3

2

∀a, b[a ≤ b ∨ b ≤ a]

1

0

N under <: A poset with a linear order

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 12/3

Higgenbotham Dominance

x ≤ y means x dominates y

M N D E F H O I

M≤N N≤D O≤H M≤D M≤0 N≤E O≤I M≤E M≤I N≤I O≤E N≤F O≤J M≤F M≤J N≤J O≤F

J M≤H

N≤H O≤D

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 13/3

Higgenbotham

1. Reﬂexivity: x ≤ x 2. Transitivity: If x ≤ y and y ≤ z then x ≤ z 3. Antisymmetry: If x ≤ y ≤ x then x = y 4. Single Mother: If x ≤ z and y ≤ z then either x ≤ y or y ≤ x (or both if x = y ).

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 14/3

Reﬂexivity

M N D E F H O I J

M≤M D≤D H≤H

N≤N E≤E I≤I

O≤O F≤F J≤J

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 15/3

Transitivity

M N D E ... F H O I ... J

M≤N N≤D O≤H E ≤ ... M≤D M≤H M ≤ ... M≤E M≤I ... M≤0 N≤E O≤I N≤F O≤J I ≤ ... M≤F M≤J

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 16/3

Single Mother

M1 O D E

M2

M1 ≤ O M2 ≤ O M1 ≤ M2 No! M2 ≤ M1 No!

F

The single mother condition fails!

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 17/3

Lower bounds

{a,b,c}

{a,b}

{a,c}

{b,c}

{a, b} ≤ {a, b, c}

{a}

{b}

{c}

We say {a, b} is a lower bound for {a, b, c}.

∅

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 18/3

Lower bounds for sets of things

{a,b,c}

{a, b} ≤ {a, b, c}

{a,b} {a,c} {b,c}

{a, b} ≤ {a, b}

{a}

{b}

{c}

Note that two sets may share a common lower bound. We generalize the notion lower bound to sets of elements of ℘(A).

∅

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 19/3

**Deﬁnition of lower bound for a set
**

Deﬁnition 3. An element of ℘(A), x, is a lower bound of a subset of ℘(A), S, if and only if, for every y ∈ S,

x⊆y

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 20/3

Example

{b} is a lower bound for {{a, b}, {b, c}} because

1. {b} ⊆ {a, b}; and 2. {b} ⊆ {b, c}.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 21/3

Multiple lower bounds

A set of elements of ℘(A) may have multiple lower bounds. 1. The lower bounds of S = {{a, b, c}, {b, c}} are {b}, {c}, {b, c} and ∅. There are no others. 2. Of the lower bounds of S, {b, c} is the greatest lower bound.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 22/3

Greatest Lower Bound and Least Upper Bound

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 23/3

**Greatest Lower Bound
**

Deﬁnition 4. An element a is the greatest lower bound of a set S (glb of S) if and only if: 1. a is a lower bound of S 2. For every lower bound b of S, b ≤ a. In this case we write:

a = glb S

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 24/3

Example: greatest lower bounds

1. The lower bounds of S = {{a, b, c}, {b, c}} are {b}, {b, c} and ∅. 2. Of the lower bounds of S, {b, c} is the greatest lower bound. 3. In general, when A, B are sets, glb {A, B} = A ∩ B

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 25/3

Least Upper Bound

Deﬁnition 5. An element a is the least upper bound of a set S (lub of S) if and only if: 1. a is an upper bound of S 2. For every upper bound bound b of S, a ≤ b. In this case we write:

a = lub S

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 26/3

Example: least upper bounds

1. Within the poset ℘{a, b, c}, the upper bounds of S = {{a}, {b}} are {a, b} and {a, b, c}. 2. Of the upper bounds of S, {a, b} is the least upper bound. 3. In general, when A, B are sets, lub = {A, B} = A ∪ B

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 27/3

Meet: A greatest lower bound operation

**Consider two elements p and q of a poset. We deﬁne
**

p ∧ q = glb {p, q} p ∧ q is read “p meet q ”.

∆

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 28/3

Algebra?

∧ is an operation. Can we use that operation to deﬁne

an algebra? 1. In an algebra, a two-place operation needs to be deﬁned for every pair of elements in the algebra. 2. In an arbitrary poset the greatest lower bound of a set of elements is not guaranteed to exist.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 29/3

Join: A least upper bound operation

**Consider two elements p and q of a poset. We deﬁne
**

p ∨ q = lub {p, q} p ∨ q is read “p join q ”.

∆

In an arbitrary poset the least upper bound of a set is not guaranteed to exist.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 30/3

LUB and GLB do not always exist

c

d

a

b

A poset in which least upper and greatest lower bounds do not always exist.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 31/3

Introducing lattice posets

Deﬁnition 6. A lattice is a poset A in which, for every p, q ∈ A, p∧q ∈A p∨q ∈A A lattice poset is an algebra A, ∧, ∨ because ∧ and ∨ are operations satisfying the closure and uniqueness requirements (by the above deﬁnition).

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 32/3

A very simple lattice poset

⊤

a

b

⊥

**The diagram of a simple lattice poset A =
**

{⊥, a, b, ⊤}, ≤

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 33/3

A less simple lattice

⊤

p∨q∨r

p∨q

p∨r

q∨r

p

q

r

p∧q

p∧r

q∧r

p∧q∧r

⊥

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 34/3

Summary: posets and bounds

1. A poset is a set A together with a weak order, written ≤. We write this A, ≤ , or sometimes just A. 2. For any element x, y ∈ A, we say x is a lower/upper bound of y iff x ≤ y/y ≤ x. 3. For any subset S of A, we say x is a lower/upper bound of the set S iff for every y ∈ S, x ≤ y/y ≤ x. 4. For any subset S of A, we say x is a greatest lower/least upper bound of the set S iff for every lower/upper bound y of S, y ≤ x/x ≤ y. We write x = glb S x = lub S greatest lower bound least upper bound

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 35/3

The lattice poset of sets

The poset ℘(A) for

{a,b,c}

A = {a, b, c} turns out to be a lattice poset.

{a,b}

{a,c}

{b,c}

{a}

{b}

{c}

∅

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 36/3

**Summary: Lattice posets
**

1. A lattice poset is a poset A in which for any two elements a and b, glb {a, b} ∈ A lub {a, b} ∈ A 2. We deﬁne two operations ∧ and ∨: a ∧ b = glb {a, b} a ∨ b = lub {a, b} 3. A, ∧, ∨ is an algebra. By deﬁnition, ∧ and ∨ satisfy closure and uniqueness.

4. In-class exercise: Prove uniqueness for ∧ and ∨.

Partially ordered sets and lattices – p. 37/3

- Total OrderUploaded byMaster Zen
- 5ET219Uploaded byMahendranath Ramakrishnan
- 9781441912954-c1Uploaded byAndi Yudi Wiguna
- extra practice kutaUploaded byapi-268582979
- Fuzzy Automata Based on Lattice-Ordered Monoid With Algebraic and Topological AspectsUploaded byShambhu Sharan
- Denotational SemanticsUploaded bya.kadmel5280
- Day 2Uploaded bybajwai
- Compiled Undergrad NotesUploaded bydavid burrell
- Errata for Elementary Classical Analysis, Second Edition Marsden Hoffman_ECA_errata_10!16!00Uploaded byhmvmet
- LogicalUploaded bydee
- SCMS Optimization Exercises Using Solver (1)Uploaded byp122333
- asdfasdfUploaded bybill0stoich
- Tutorial_12&13_MA1012_2009Uploaded byNuwan Bandara
- contents.pdfUploaded byGovind Gautam
- UntitledUploaded byapi-235013476
- calculsUploaded byUbi Bhatt
- TEST for Scribd.Uploaded byDaryll Maribao
- mark lewis.txtUploaded byAbhijeet Rawat
- Simultanous Equation 2012Uploaded byIwin Soossay Sathianathan
- Matlab_3Uploaded bysumitr93
- Module 4 SolutionsUploaded byCeline Cole
- Lowbk&Tang_3ICSSE(1).pdfUploaded byRonald Macazana
- Reliability of Embankments on Soft Ground Using Constrained Optimization.Uploaded byTony Chan
- 16-17 a1 m6Uploaded byapi-234130682
- AlgortimosUploaded bydavidvpe
- Sep 17 Striptheory PitchUploaded bysibanandarms
- math paragraphsUploaded byapi-194762241
- pg_0123_0000_BS20Uploaded byPtn Parthiban
- 0 IntroductionUploaded bymavimu_20

- Tutorial 2Uploaded byCalvin Diong Soon Kean
- aritmetica1Uploaded byJose Gonzales
- Aula 01Uploaded byJanielyson Pires
- Teoremas de Incompletitud de GödelUploaded byjosgau
- resolutionUploaded byRobert Keller
- Lab2diggggiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiUploaded byFreddhy Andres
- Capitulo 9 Grupos Y Maquinas de Estado FinitoUploaded by123joaozxc
- Conjuntos Exercícios ResolvidosUploaded byHeisenberg
- 1.2.7Uploaded byXiomara Escalante
- Summary of Sentential Logic/Propositional LogicUploaded byOceans123
- 27372229correction-ds1-2010-pdfUploaded byFarouk Zeani
- CE2-mathematiquesUploaded byalberto cabasso
- Actividad 1 - Oswaldo VallejoUploaded byOswaldoVallejoArzuaga
- Amor Montaño Jose Alfredo - Teoria de Conjuntos Para Estudiantes de CienciasUploaded byJosé Enoc Ramirez
- Filosofia 1º TesteUploaded bySara Moreira
- Raciocínio LógicoUploaded byJhonthanas Borges
- Logica ProposicionalUploaded byGonzalo Gonzalez Martinez
- 3 NotationsUploaded byDeep
- (Mathematical Concepts and Methods in Science and Engineering 12) Francis J. Murray (auth.)-Applied Mathematics_ An Intellectual Orientation-Springer US (1978).pdfUploaded bySrinivas Jangili
- Examen de Matematicas 6 ITARCOLUploaded byKrol Carrillo
- Matematica Basica 1Uploaded byAlessandro Garibay Diaz
- CS107 01 FundamentalsUploaded byChel Gonzalvo
- FuncionesUploaded byhuevozen
- Circuitos CombinacionaisUploaded byalinesimsilva
- IRJET-Enumeration of size of a T- graphsUploaded byIRJET Journal
- aula01.pdfUploaded byDiego Pinheiro Ferreira
- Ejercicios de conversiónUploaded byguadalag
- Conteúdo Da Prova Para o Teste AnpadUploaded byElaine Fernandes
- Rúbrica de Lecciones de ConjuntosUploaded byFrank Nieto
- Logica de Primeira Ordem Sintaxe Semantica des SintaticasUploaded byJoanna De Cássia Valadares