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FOOD

N° 4

6 / 07

CONTENTS

MENU PLANNING

• Menu planning in quick service restaurants and full service restaurants • Menu planning in business and industry • Menu planning in schools • Menu planning in hospitals, nursing homes and retirement homes • Menu planning using various software tools

– 120 – 150g of salad. Below are some tips on ways to grant consumers their wish: • There are two ways to create a nutritious meal – with foodbased menu planning or with nutrient-based menu planning: – For food-based menu planning. hospitals. A menu has to be more than a “list of food”. A growing number of guests want to be able to choose tasty meals that are healthier and provide the vita­ mins. all foods and beverages are classified into 5 or 7 groups. Nutritional aspects are not only im­ portant for institutional foodservice operations (e. fruits and vegetables. fat and oil.g. for calories. por­ tion sizes have grown and so have our waistlines. fat. Over the past few years. minerals. Menu planning in quick service restaurants and full service restaurants even though some guests are still unconcerned about nutrition. meat. and fibers they need to be healthy. it should contain foods that are of high nutritional value.g. but also for full and quick service restaurants. cholesterol and salt. e. – 100 – 150g of meat or meat products or 150 – 200g of fish.g. • Calculated Sascha Türler­Inderbitzin NESTLÉ PROfESSIONAL Strategic Business Division NutriPro Food 6/07 . – 150 – 200g of potatoes/pasta or rice. for schools. an ever-growing number is demanding the opportunity to select nutritious food from menus. food items for lunch or dinner with food-based menu planning means: – around 150 – 200g of vegetables. One example of these guidelines is the “5 A Day” concept (see “Good-to-remember” box for explanations). which takes nu­ tritional aspects into account. vitamins. successful and tasty menu. – For nutrient-based menu planning. They are looking for dishes that are lower in calories. poultry and fish. It is therefore important to pay attention to portion sizes. The aim is to serve a prescribed amount or pieces at every meal. proteins. is an important step in planning a profit­ able business. Obesity has risen dra­ matically all over the world.2 Menu Planning e D i TO R i a l Dear Reader Developing a qualified. minerals) of a specific age group is the deciding factor in choosing which food to serve. The purpose of this publication is to supply basic infor­ mation and tips for all aspects of foodservice operations to help you achieve this goal. or retirement homes). the nutrient requirement (e.

NutriPro Food 6/07 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine . or flax seed oil. tuna. or as alternative to refined pasta. – Vegetable soups: immediately before serving. try whole-wheat pasta.3 One fresh component for every set menu Menu Planning • Create a new arrangement on the plate: put vegetables and potatoes. – Serve pasta with red sauce and vegetables. tuna or salmon). – If possible. spinach (in addition to salads) and other dark leafy greens. grilled chicken slices. trout and herring. lean beef. – Try to use whole-grain rice instead of white rice. e. – Grill or bake the meat instead of frying. serve the sauce on the side. canola or olive oil) to brown or sauté the meat. such as pinto beans. olive. vegetable stock with fresh herbs. – Serve salsa or low-fat yogurt (with herbs) instead of sour cream or butter. grape seed. cooked in a flavored liquid. and a small portion of fish (around 100g. – Serve avocado dips instead of mayonnaise.g. kidney beans and lentils (e. – Serve more dry beans and peas.e. and 100g of marinated chicken strips. such as salmon. such as in side dishes or salads. lamb).g.g. • Desserts – Build fresh fruits into your dessert menu. serve the dressings on the side or use more r educed fat yogurt dressings. seafood or shrimp cocktail. such as broccoli. – Substitute cream with yogurt or sour cream. add a freshly blanched julienne of vegetables. Tips for: • Appetizers – Serve steamed vegetables. walnut. • Salads – Serve them not only as side dishes. Examples for dishes: – Create a menu with wheat in combination with spelt (each 50 %). such as stock. – Serve more set menus with low-fat or lean meats (e. i. marinated grilled vegetables. – Serve fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids. prepare them with a highly polyunsaturated oil. or wine) or with other vegetables.g. rice or pasta in the center of the plate and only a small portion of meat or meat products on the side. • Entrees – Whenever possible. chicken or turkey. seeds or different nuts.g. but as a main menu course as well. • Side dishes – Serve more dark green vegetables. whenever possible. – If you serve antipasti. with different toppings or ingredients. – Use an unsaturated oil spray (e. serve it with a yogurt sauce (lowfat) with fresh herbs. e. together with a variety of vegetables such as carrots. grilled salmon. broccoli and peppers. lemon. rapeseed.

but also hidden fats.e. 30 % fat: this would be around 21g (i. G O O D T O K N OW Relating the portion size of a serving to everyday items is an easy way to visualize what a true portion size looks like. the best cooking methods for vegetables are: Steaming: Steam cooking at a temperature of about 100ºC (212ºF). alternatives and beans group (2 – 3 servings are recommended daily) ¼ pound hamburger 90g grilled/baked fish 1 cup of cooked beans 2 tablespoons of peanut butter Milk group (2 – 3 servings are recommended daily) 1 cup of yogurt 1 scoop of ice cream 1 ½ ounze cheese 8-ounce (230g) 8-ounce Milk 1 cup of milk NutriPro Food 6/07 .000 kcal diet): 55 % carbohydrates: this would be around 90g (i.: meat contains 7g of protein/ cooked ounce).: on average ¾ cup of cooked pasta contains 24g carbohydrates). This includes not only the fat you use for cooking.e. Pressure-cooking: Cooking in an irtight pressure a cooker at about 105º – 120ºC (221º – 248ºF). such as those in cheese or cream. examples for 1 serving: Grain products (6 – 11 servings are recommended daily) 1 slice of bread 1 cup of ready-to-eat cereal ½ cup of cooked pasta ½ cup of cooked rice Vegetables (3 – 5 servings are recommended daily) ½ cup of tomato juice 1 cup of salad greens 1 baked potato ½ cup of cooked vegetables Fruits (2 – 4 servings are recommended daily) ¾ cup of fruit juice 1 medium apple ½ cup of chopped or canned fruit ¼ cup of raisins Meat. a set menu (for lunch or dinner) should have the following distribution of nutrients on average (based on a 2. for minimal vitamin and mineral loss.e. Stewing/braising: Try to keep the cooking liquid for further use. Keep an eye on portion size Portions today are far bigger than in the past and most of them are bigger than recommended food servings. with the food and cooking liquid completely separate.: 2 tablespoons of regular clear I talian salad dressing contains 14g of fat). 15 % protein: this would be around 32g (i.4 G O O D TO R E M E M B E R Steaming & Co – wellness for vegetables To prevent vitamin loss.

– In spring: weeks to reduce weight. soups and vegetable meals cooked in a wok. For every main course. and use canola or rapeseed oil (not more than 10g/portion). but do serve seafood twice a week. Add seafood at least 1 – 2 times/week. aspects to consider: • One-third rule: – Lunch should provide one-third of daily nutrient requirements. • Miscellaneous: – Use at least a 8 – 12-week cycle for menu planning. high in complex carbohydrates and less filling – such as salads. mushrooms. salads or potatoes/rice/ p whole-grain pasta. e. – Offer at least one portion of fresh vegetables and salads every day (see “5 A Day”). salt-water fish at least once a week (150g). integrate them into your normal a menu planning). – Start planning the specialty week 6 – 8 weeks in advance. serve vegetables at least three times a week (200g). cafeterias in corporations.g. baked vegetables once a week (500g). vegetable-related weeks (with a lot of fresh vegetables – try new recipes. companies and factories) To ensure mental endurance. – In autumn: solid weeks devoted to seasonal foods and spices. venison. performance and satisfy hunger. salt and cholesterol). • The nature of the work (see PAL pg.g. – For nutrients such as vitamins and minerals: make sure you meet this rule. and salad three times a week (at least 100g). 100g).g.e. an dditional serving of milk and fruita based desserts. e. a stew once a week (500g). – For calories and some nutrients such as fat and protein: do not exceed this rule. – If you serve several main courses. do not serve meat more than 1 or 2 times. Portion size: not more than 600 – 720 kcal. – If employees are engaged in heavy physical labor. more calories for lunch are recommended.5 Watch portion sizes Menu Planning Menu planning in business and industry (e. . – Main courses should consist of red meat no more than 1 – 2 times/week. i. serve meat not more than two times a week (max. Here some suggestions: – Make a time schedule at the beginning of the year. one of them should be a vegetarian course and a healthy heart option (less fat. – A maximum of 6 theme-related weeks a year. • Hold theme-related specialty weeks or days from time to time to alleviate menu fatigue. 7): – If the employees have desk jobs: prefer foods that are lower in calories and fat. and if your guests ccept these meals. – In summer: country-related weeks or weeks linked with sports events. menu offerings in these foodservice operations should consist of a variety of light options. But still be careful with the amount of fat – a higher amount of calories can be achieved with a larger ortion of vegetables.

3 heaped tablespoons of fresh fruit salad. • Add vegetables such as bell peppers. shredded cabbage. heart disease. strawberries or raisins with waffles. or canned) of fruits and vegetables every day for better health. chicken or tuna salads. lettuce. A serving of fruit or vegetable could be: – ruit: one small apple. – Fruit juice makes low-fat salad dressings flavorful. and raisins perk up coleslaw. • Offer only 100 % vegetable or fruit juice. half a large F grapefruit. c ucumber or grated carrots. 1 medium V p otato. cancer). also offer grilled zucchini G O O D TO R E M E M B E R 5 A Day! The message of the “5 A Day” program (in some countries it is 5 to 10 a day): encourages the people to eat at least 5 (or more) servings (fresh. broccoli. plain yogurt and then add sliced strawberries and a peach.6 Menu Planning an apple a day keeps the doctor away Tips to implement “5 A Day” into your menu planning For breakfast/brunch • Serve sliced banana. muesli/cereal or toast. 1 cup of cooked greens. • If you serve grilled beef or chicken. oatmeal. – Oranges. • For the salads: – Green or red pepper strips. For lunch/dinner • Offer fresh vegetable wraps. • Serve tomato salsa as a topping for potatoes. or nectarine slices add extra flavor to any salad. The reason: increasing one’s consumption of fruits and vegetables can significantly reduce the risk of many chronic diseases (i. – ¼ cup of dried fruits. carrot slices.e. and may also play a preventative role i. grapefruits. 2 large stalks of celery. 7 spears of canned asparagus. mushrooms or tomatoes to eggs/omelets. But it is necessary to eat/serve different types (colors) of fruits and vegetables every day.e. and green peppers. • Add some crunch to sandwiches with lettuce. – egetable: 2 carrots. broccoli florets. or ucumbers add crunch to pasta or potato salads. 3 whole a pricots. a slice of melon. or spinach leaves bring color to a green salad. cereals. diced carrots. spinach. tomatoes. pancakes. frozen.e. for diabetes and obesity. i. • Serve a vegetable cream cheese to baked potatoes. • Offer a smoothie with low-fat milk. 2 clementine oranges. • Serve chopped tomatoes. fish or chicken. pineapples. – ¾ cup of juice. NutriPro Food 6/07 . dried. • Liven up soups and sauces with a handful of vegetables. peas or corn. c – Baby carrots. onions and peppers to burritos and nachos. 1 large ear of corn. As snacks • Serve vegetable or fruit sticks with different kinds of dips for take-out snacks. blueberries. – Apple chunks.

7 Menu Planning G O O D T O K N OW Physical activity level (PAL) PAL is a factor of the basal metabolic rate. Lifestyle and level of activity Seated work with no option of moving around and little or no strenuous leisure activity Seated work with discretion and requirement to move around but little or no strenuous leisure activity Standing work (e.0 – 2. For example: A shop assistant: men have an average basal metabolic rate of about 1. housework.3 (increment) 2. four to five times per week) Strenuous work or highly active leisure activity + 0.6 – 1. shop assistant) PAL 1.650 kcal/day (women have a rate of about 1.4 NutriPro Food 6/07 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine .7 1.8 – 1.5 1. so they need 2.300 kcal/day).650 kcal x 1.. For lunch a man may “eat” 990 kcal.8) per day.9 Significant amounts of sports or strenuous leisure activity (30 – 60 min.g.4 – 1. which determines the individual need for physical activity of each person.970 kcal (1.

P p ressure-cooking and roasting/sautéing. Use unsweetened canned fruits. one of them should I be vegetarian. vegetables: at least one seasonal and/or regionF al fruit and one egetable (one must be fresh) for every v lunch. Lunch should include the following four food components: – ereals. primary seafood. M Beverages: – erve water/mineral water (with a high level of calciS um).8 Menu Planning Menu planning in schools The most important factor for menu planning in schools is that the offerings must be nutritionally balanced. e. – ruits. no more than two times a week. fruit tea and/or herbal tea and fruit juice diluted (one part juice and one part water) for every meal. or sunflower oil. potato/rice/pasta. At least fish. – f there are several main courses. Often there are government restrictions (e. national School Meals Program) for foodservice operators in schools. steaming.g. legumes: try to use C 50 % whole-grain products. bread. once a week.g. Some tips for menu planning in schools: general: – Use at least a 4-week cycle for menu planning. – eat or meat alternatives: meat or meat products with M a maximum of 30 % fat. – refer oil/fat with a high amount of unsaturated fatty P acid such as canola. olive. – refer cooking methods such as poaching. pasta. breads. which prevent vitamin loss. – ilk and milk products: use low-fat products. rice • Low-fat milk/milk products • Fat/oil: native oils Occasionally • Meat and meat products • Eggs • Fish • Frozen fruits and vegetables Rarely • Canned fruits and vegetables • White bread/wheat products • Sweet desserts • Fried products NutriPro Food 6/07 . G O O D T O K N OW Food items for schools Frequently • Raw and fresh fruits and vegetables • Fresh herbs instead of salt • Potatoes/potato products (but not fried) • Legumes • Whole-grain products.

– erve soups and foods with a high amount of water (e. green vegetables) • Legumes • Potatoes • Low-fat milk and milk products • Whole-grain products • Low-fat fish NutriPro Food 6/07 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine . S cucumbers.g. steaming. – refer cooking methods such as poaching. – Serve 1. pressureP cooking. any kind of fruits) every day to increase the fluid intake of the patients. nursing homes and retirement homes Hospitals and nursing homes Most important principle: to assist the patient in making a faster recovery or to assist the resident in maintaining a better standard of well-being. e. roasting/sautéing. salads. such as vitamins and minerals. U – sk the patients about their food habits and preferences and A follow these as often as possible.g.9 Vegis or fruits with each meal: 5 a Day Menu planning in hospitals. fruit/herb tea. baking and broiling to prevent v itamin loss. the menu planner must strictly follow dietary regulations that have been set by the dietician. – Serve fresh fruits and vegetables/salads three times a day. water. – Prefer serving milk products for dinner. while foods high in calories and low in nutrients are nutrient-poor (also called energydense or “empty calorie” foods). – Seafood and fish at least twice a week. every day.g. – At least one cup of milk and one milk product a day. tomatoes.5 – 2 liter beverages. Nutrient-dense foods are: • Fruits (e. strawberries. G O O D TO R E M E M B E R Nutrient density Nutrient density is defined as the ratio of nutrient content to the total energy content: Nutrient content (g/mg/μg per 100g) Energy content (per 100g) Foods low in calories and high in nutrients. bananas) • Vegetables (especially leafy. are nutrient-dense. Tips: – se at least a 3-week cycle for menu planning.

there are some nutrients (vitamin D. – erve five or more small portions a day. lentils. bananas). Tips: – se foods rich in vitamin D: fish. folate. – The print on the menu should be large enough to read. milk products with sweet fruits (e. The benefits of these programs are. such as salmon or tuna. • To measure compliance with the required nutrient standards for all the menu options.10 Menu Planning Software can help make menu planning easier Retirement homes elderly people need less energy (around 20 %) than younger ones. such as energy. it is important to serve foods with a high nutrient density. so the menu planner must look for foods containing a high level of these nutrients. milk and milk products. liver. NutriPro Food 6/07 . so that the resident S doesn’t feel too full after meals. cow’s milk and soy beverages. They provide user-friendly features to manage recipes and merchandise. – t is important for the elderly to get some sweets every day: I serve fresh fruit salad with a sweetened yogurt dressing. soy bean. asparagus. – se foods with folate: vegetables (broccoli. oranges. fish. fat. – se foods rich in Vitamin B12: meat. for example: • To calculate the value of nutrients. fruit cake. U grains/whole-wheat products. or minerals.g. Therefore. U egg yolks. • To simplify the composition of a healthy main course. Furthermore. spinach). milk products. iodine) which are critical for the elderly. calcium. vitamins. fortified foods such as margarine or breakfast cereals. Menu planning us software tools Software tools supplied by professionals can help in menu planning. while the nutrient requirements of vitamins and minerals remain the same. B12. of a menu item or set menu. U eggs. • To manage extensive recipe data: Most software can group data by multiple user-defined categories. – Use foods with iodine: seafood. chicken.

If someone implements foodof the cook based menu planning. – 1.4 – 1. Which food items should be n tent occasionally served in 2. How often should you serve e 6 – 11 servings fresh fruits and vegetables in 3.11 Menu Planning QUIZ 1. If you are looking for a software program. content to the utrient con. U he ratio of the total nergy T e n 1.8. UK and metric measurements possible? • How complete is the food and n utrient database? • Can recipes be imported or e xported? • Is it possible to generate order lists? • Are there different calculation options. What is “nutrient density”? 7. total recipe yield. cost per serving. total serving yield? • Can critical control points be specified for each recipe? • Is it possible to add pictures to the recipes? • Is there hotline support? • Can it be combined with other 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Answer: MENU PLANNING p rograms? NutriPro Food 6/07 – NESTLÉ ProFESSioNaL Nutrition Magazine .The advantage of a software the one-third rule should program for menu planning is: a not exist M he program does all T S not fall short the work u not be exceeded n ou can calculate the nutriY 5. How many servings are schools? recommended daily for grain C Sweet desserts products? n Fish C 2 – 7 servings e Legumes D 5 – 10 servings 9. Which aspect is important for hospitals and nursing houses? menu planning? K Twice a day e he atmosphere in T n Three times a day the kitchen M Four times a day D he food preferences T 10. What does “5 A Day” mean? X at 5 slices of bread E every day l at at least 5 servings E of fruits and vegetables e very day W rink 5 cups of water D every day ent values of a set menu O There are no advantages 12. i.9.e.2. they n he food preferences T must calculate for lunch of the guests M 100 – 150g of vegetables 4.5. How many calories should lunch normally contain? P 600 – 720 kcal Q 650 – 800 kcal R 700 – 850 kcal 6. Please complete the following i 150 – 200g of vegetables sentence: For calories and n 200 – 250g of vegetables some nutrients (fat. Which PAL do you have if M he ratio of nutrient T you do seated work with c ontent to the total energy no option of moving around content and little leisure activity? T he ratio of protein content T a 1. protein) 11. to the total energy content M 1. here are some hints: • Which system requirements are necessary? • Which program features do you really need for your daily work? • Is support for US. it is necessary that this program: g e able to import/export b r ecipes H e able to take good b p ictures i be expensive ing various If you are looking for software.8.