1
Homework 2
1. The velocity components in a fluid flow are given by:
u = 2xy , v = a
2
+ x
2
÷ y
2
a is a constant ( )
Show that the continuity equation is satisfied. Is the flow irrotational?
Determine the stream and potential functions, and sketch the flow pattern.
If we assume that the flow is incompressible
cµ
ct
= 0

\

.
 the continuity equation
turns out to be: 0 2 2 0 = ÷ = + ¬ = y y
y
v
x
u
div
c
c
c
c
u
. OK
We also check if the flow is irrotational ( ) 0 = u
rot :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0 0 , 0 , 0 2 2 , 0 , 0
2
, 0 , 0
0 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
= = ÷ =


.

\

÷
÷ +
=
÷ +
= x x
y
xy
x
y x a
y x a xy
z y x rot
c
c
c
c
c c c
k j i
u
We will also find the stream function. As we are using Cartesian coordinates:
u =
c+
cy
= 2xy ¬ += 2xy dy
}
= xy
2
+ f x ( )
we also know that: v = ÷
c+
cx
= ÷y
2
÷ f ' x ( ) and v = a
2
+ x
2
÷ y
2
then ¬ f ' x ( ) = ÷ a
2
+ x
2
( )
¬ f x ( ) = ÷a
2
x ÷
x
3
3
+C
and we find that: += xy
2
÷ a
2
x ÷
x
3
3
+C
We know that the components of the velocity vector u
is the gradient of a scalar
velocity potential function:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
C
y
y a yx
C
y
y a y g y a y g then
y x a v and y g x
y
v
y g yx dx xy xy
x
u
z y x
+ ÷ + =
+ ÷ = ¬ ÷ = ' ¬
÷ + = ' + = =
+ = = + ¬ = =
+ + = V =
}
3
: that find we and
3
: that know also we
2 2
3
2 2
3
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
 k j i u
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
2
2. Derive the continuity and NavierStokes Equations in cylindrical polar
coordinates.
2.1) For the continuity equation:
Rate of Accumulation + Rate of Flow In = Rate of Flow Out.
The velocity field will be described as:
⃗⃗
the volume of the differential control volume is
while the mass of fluid in the control volume is
The rate of change of mass or accumulation in the control volume is then
For the net flow through the control volume, we deal with it one face at a time.
Starting with the r faces, the net inflow is:
̇
while the outflow in the r direction is:
̇
(
) ( )
So that the net flow in the r direction is:
̇
̇
Being (
), the last term in this equation can be dropped so that the net flow on
the r faces is:
̇
̇
(
)
The net flow in the theta direction is slightly easier to compute since the areas of
the inflow and outflow faces are the same. At the outset, the net flow in the theta
direction is
̇
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
3
In z direction: The face area is that of a sector of angle :
( )
(
)
then, the inflow at the lower z face is:
̇
while the outflow at the upper z face is:
̇
(
)
Finally, the net flow in the z direction is:
̇
̇
Now we can put things together to obtain the continuity equation:
dividing by and rearranging the r components of the velocity
()
2.1) For NavierStokes equation:
We have to do the following coordinates transformation:
then, can express the cylindrical coordinates as:
√
(
)
If we apply the chain rule, we obtain:
And from the definition of the coordinate system:
√
√
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
4
then:
then we now that the expression of the gradient, the divergence and the laplacian
in cylindrical coordinates is:
,
,
(
)
Then can write the NavierStokes equations in cylindrical coordinates as:
*
+
(
)
[
]
(
)
*
+
(
)
b) The HagenPoseuille flow is a steady, incompressible and laminar flow in a
horizontal circular tube. Assuming the tube has a constant crosssection with
a radius of R, and the flow is parallel to the noslip walls. Fin the exact
solution of pressure, velocity and volume flowrate of this flow.
The flow of fluid through a pipe of uniform (circular) crosssection is known as
Hagen–Poiseuille flow. The equations governing the Hagen–Poiseuille flow can be
derived directly from the Navier Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates by
making the following set of assumptions:
1. The flow is steady
( )

.

\

= 0
...
t c
c
.
2. The radial and swirl components of the fluid velocity are zero
u
r
= u
u
= 0 ( ).
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
5
3. The flow is axisymmetric
c ... ( )
cu
= 0

\

.
 and fully developed
cu
z
cz
= 0

\

.
 .
Then the second of the NavierStokes momentum equations and the continuity
equation are identically satisfied. The first momentum equation reduces to
cp
cr
= 0

\

.

, i.e., the pressure
p is a function of the axial coordinate
z only. The
third momentum equation reduces to:
1
r
c
cr
r
cu
z
cr

\

.
 =
1
µ
cp
cz
where
µ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid.
The solution is
Since
needs to be finite at ,
. The no slip boundary condition at the
pipe wall requires that
at (radius of the pipe), so:
Thus we have finally the following parabolic velocity profile:
(
)
The maximum velocity occurs at the pipe centerline ( ):
(
)
The average velocity can be obtained by integrating over the pipe cross section:
∫
The Hagen–Poiseuille equation relates the pressure drop across a circular pipe
of length L to the average flow velocity in the pipe
and other parameters. If
that the pressure decreases linearly across the length of the pipe, we have
(constant). Substituting this and the expression for
into the
expression for
, and as that the pipe diameter , we get:
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
6
Rearrangement of this gives the Hagen–Poiseuille equation:
3. A viscous, incompressible fluid flows along a passage between two parallel
plates. Assuming that the flow is steady, laminar and there is noslip wall
condition: find the exact solution of the pressure, velocity and volume
flowrate of this flow.
Consider steady, incompressible, laminar flow between two infinite parallel
horizontal plates as shown in the figure. The flow is in the x direction, hence there
is no velocity component in either the y or z direction (i.e., v = 0 and w = 0). The
steadystate continuity equation becomes:
cu
dx
=0 1 ( )
From Eq. 1, it can be concluded that the velocity u is a function of both y and z only.
Since the plates are infinitely wide, it can be said that the velocity u should not be a
function of z, i.e., it must be a function of y only, u = u(y).
Applying the NavierStokes equations, along with the assumptions that v = 0, w = 0
and u = u(y), yields
cp
dx
=
d
2
u
dy
2
2 ( )
cp
dy
= ÷µg 3 ( )
cp
dz
= 0 4 ( )
Eqn. 4 indicates that the pressure is a function of x and y. Integrate Eq. 3 to obtain:
p = ÷µgy + g
1
x ( )
Hence it can be concluded that
cp
dx
is a function of x only.
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
7
Now, integrate Eqn. 2 twice with respect to y, and treat
cp
dx
as a constant (with
respect to y) to give:
u =
1
2µ
cp
cx
y
2
+c
1
y +c
2
Applying the noslip conditions (i.e., the fluid is "stuck" to the plates, or u = 0 at y =
±h) to determine the coefficients as follows:
c
1
= 0 and c
2
= ÷
h
2
2µ
cp
cx
The velocity profile becomes a parabola:
u =
1
2µ
cp
cx
y
2
+c
1
y +c
2
. The total volumetric flow per linear depth can be obtained integrating the velocity
to give:
u =
1
2µ
cp
cx
y
2
÷ h
2
( )
Note, q is per linear depth, which is different than Q which is the total volumetric
flow rate.
q = u dy
÷h
h
}
= ÷
2h
3
3µ
cp
cx

\

.

Also note that the flow is negative, i.e. to the left, for a positive pressure gradient,
dp/dx. This is due to the gradient definition where decreasing pressure to the right
is negative.
If one wall moves with velocity Uo in the direction of flow, determine the
velocity distribution across the flow passage and discuss the results with the
fixed walls.
A more general Couette flow situation arises when a pressure gradient is imposed
in a direction parallel to the plates. The NavierStokes equations, in this case,
simplify to
Computational Hydraulics Carlos Serrano Moreno
8
2
2
1
dy
u d
dx
dp
=
µ
where ⁄ is the pressure gradient parallel to the plates and is fluid viscosity.
Integrating the above equation twice and applying the boundary conditions (same
as in the case of Couette flow without pressure gradient) to obtain the following
exact solution:
()
(
) (
)
The shape of the above velocity profile depends on the dimensionless parameter
(
)
The pressure gradient can be positive (adverse pressure gradient) or negative
(favorable pressure gradient).
It may be noted that in the limiting case of stationary plates, the flow is referred to
as plane Poiseuille flow with a symmetric (with reference to the horizontal mid
plane) parabolic velocity profile.