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1. Define Research. What are the features and types of Research? Answer: According to Mr.

(a) Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts, (b) Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and causal explanations, (c) Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural According to the intent, research may be classified as: Pure Research: It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. Applied Research: It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. Exploratory Research: It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables Descriptive Study: It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the

It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation.various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. sharing of diagnostic information. clear-cut definition of the given population. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance. Historical Research: . its thorough formulation. precise measurement of variables. It includes six major steps: diagnosis. statistical analysis and test of significance. Action Research: It is a type of evaluation study. and post experimental evaluation. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. planning. It is directed towards discovering what is happening. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. research may be classified as: Experimental Research: It is designed to asses the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. Diagnostic Study: It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. Hence it is also known as the Statistical Method. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. Evaluation Studies: It is a type of applied research. adequate methods for collecting accurate information. and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. why it is happening and what can be done about. initiation of organizational change. Analytical Study: It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. implementation of participation and communication process. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. According to the methods of study. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. It aims at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. developing change programme. It is concerned also with change over time. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it.

Its purpose is to provide information. If it is beyond his means. to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications 2. hence it should be properly utilized. Survey: It is a fact-finding study. i. Research is a time-consuming process. explain phenomena. Without interest and curiosity. outlook and sensitivity. relevant methodology and statistical procedures. How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Answer: The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria.e.. Interest in a problem depends upon th background. Therefore. in selecting problems .It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. 2) Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited. unless he gets some external financial support. experience. In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won. which may be grouped into: Internal Criteria : 1) The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. but available research efforts are very much limited. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. it must often depend upon inference and logical analysis or recorded data and indirect evidences rather than upon direct observation. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time. 3) External Criteria 1) Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable. 2) A mere interest in a problem will not do. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. Time resource is more important than finance. he may not develop sustained perseverance. he will not be able to complete the work. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. It is a difficult task. It is descriptive in nature. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int.

6) Usefulness and social relevance: Above all. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. etc.for research. 3. some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? . the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. There is no use of ady studied thoroughly by others. But in India and other developing countries. Frequently. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. 5) Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. Professional organizations. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. 3) Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty. it cannot be selected. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. 4) Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important. suitable and competent guidance. In some areas of the subject matter. but if research on it is not feasible. This does not mean that replication is always needless. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. research has not yet become a prospective profession. economic reviews. In social sciences in some cases. research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. their relative importance and significance should be considered. data analysis facility. 7) Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. It should be socially relevant. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration. Sociological journals. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. In addition to these general sources.

he comes to occupy one position within in. if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study. The identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the Advantages: The advantages of participant observation are: The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. Participant observation and Non-participant observation. it may be classified into Direct observation. Recording can interfere with participation. In terms of mode of observation. the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. and Uncontrolled observation 1. For example. Naturally. change the focus of the observation. and participation can interfere with observation. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording 2. He is also free to shift places. To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. For example. and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. Indirect observation With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. Direct observation This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. Observation is classified into Controlled observation. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone. the objectivity is lost.Answer: Observations may be classified in different ways. Non-participant observations In this method. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits. A limitation of this method is that the obser . and get a deeper insight of their experiences. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. The participant observer narrows his range of observation. Participant Observation In this observation. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. 3. Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behaviour and heard statements.

What is a Research Report? What are the contents of Research Report? . photographic or electronic devices. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what. 6. crowd behaviour. 5. and the recording is done by mechanical. managerial style. 4. group dynamics. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? 5. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one. and manner. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. e. Controlled observation This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. customs. It is primary used for descriptive research. residences etc.: life style. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. factories. 6.g. Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. animals etc. resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling.not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly. 4. Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. interpersonal relations. but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. Indirect observation This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. other behaviours and actions. how and when to observe. This method is less flexible than direct observations. It may be used for studying: (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. leadership styles.