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AN OUTLINE OF ENGLISH HISTORY

Prehistoric Britain The British Isles were cut off from the Continent by melting ice around 6000 BC. Most famous prehistoric monuments: stone circles in Stonehenge and Avebury, and the Uffington White horse Stonehenge: built in several stages ~3000 BC - 1500 BC (much before Druidism spreads in Britain) Celtic invasions from Southern Europe (6th c. BC → 2nd c. AD tribes from Gaul migrate)

R o m a n B r i t a i n 1st c. - 4th c. Britain's written history begins with the Romans who occupied Britain for some 350 years. Legacy (What remained after the Roman colonization of Britain) : Roads (no hard roads in England again until the 18th c !! → better roads in Roman times than in Tudor or Stuart times!!) Christianity (many “Welsh” Celts became Christians) Fortresses, public buildings, villas and walls (Roman baths in Bath, York city walls, Hadrian’s Wall, etc.) City sites (Many towns and cities were established by the Romans: London, York, Chester, Bath)

A n g l o - S a x o n I n v a s i o n 5th c. - 6th c. Around the mid-5th century Angles and Saxons (Germanic people with a Germanic language) began to raid Britain. The legendary King Arthur led the British resistance to the Anglo-Saxon invasion in the early years of the 5th c. 7 Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were established in England: 7th c.: Northumbria dominates: pagan Anglo-Saxons convert to Christianity 8th c.: Mercia dominates (Saxon literature: Beowulf – written in Old English) 9th c.: Wessex - King Alfred the Great fights off Viking attacks 10th c.: England is united under the kings of Wessex

V i k i n g I n v a s i o n 9th c. Vikings from Norway, Denmark: 1st only raids → permanent immigration (for the Vikings England was south!) 842 Vikings raid London 878 Alfred the Great beats the Vikings: kingdom of Wessex remains independent Saxon-Viking power struggle: Danelaw: N-Eastern England ruled/colonized by the Danes (Vikings) for 130 years Viking kings ruled all England for 30 years in the 11th c. (An interesting fact: Europe was raided by 3 different peoples in the 9th century: the Vikings from the North, the Moors from the South and the Magyars from the East. The Vikings assimilated, the

. New aristocracy (“Change of regime”): 4000 Saxon landowners replaced by 200 Norman landlords!! → Feudalism introduced! William the Conqueror: owned all the lands of England but gave land to his vassals. animals.5 million was overran by an army of 5000. Normandy. Norman-French law was introduced French is spoken by the ruling class until the 13th century 1086 Doomsday Book: a record of all land + the owners + the number of servants.Moors were pushed out from the Iberian Penisula in the late 15th century. Brittany.. William the Conqueror The native Anglo-Saxons were forced into serfdom.) John 'the Lackland' . In fact. Aquitaine. compiled on the orders of William the Conqueror for taxing purposes (Gives us a faithful picture of early Norman England!) A page from Doomsday Book Plantagenets 12th c. income → 1st economic survey in Europe. all Henry II Europe is shocked…Canterbury soon becomes an important site of Christian pilgrimage depicted 2 centuries later in Chaucer's Canterbury tales in the 14th c. Anjou.) England’s first university: Oxford University is established (1167) (with the specific intention to keep the young men from going abroad to study on the Continent and become too "openminded".Henry II (William's great-grandson) Ruled the first British Empire → Angevin Empire: England. should they obey the pope or the king?) 1170 Thomas Becket is murdered in Canterbury Cathedral on the orders of Henry II. Anjou. Ireland was subdued by Henry in 1171.) A country of ~1.) Centralization of royal power → Struggle between church and state (Who has ultimate control over the country: the pope through the bishops or the king? Whose vassals are the bishops. Gascony. protecting them from arbitrary taxation by the king. William the Conqueror was the grandson of one of the Viking chieftains who occupied Normandy. crop. tools.) John “the Lackland”: Lost Normandy!! (Most of the barons had lands in Normandy!) + raised taxes Barons forced him to sign the Magna Carta (1215) ("Cornerstone of English liberties" .gave the nobles basic rights. Aquitaine and Gascony were the dowry of his wife. but the Magyars have kept their culture and language and are an independent country in the 21st century!) Norman England . Vikings who had established a colony in Northern France. Ireland.The Middle Ages An incredible fact: The Norman Conquest marks the last time that England was successfully invaded! (What a contrast with the history of the other European countries and nations!) Norman Conquest: 1066-70 (The Normans were Norsemen... (Brittany.

elect 2 representatives. Ireland.) → (movie: Anne of the Thousand Days) .1/3 of the society is killed) → not enough peasants → situation of peasants improves • new taxes → Peasant’s Revolt • End of the war: English Crown lost all its possessions in France (except for the port city of Calais) John Wycliffe translates the Bible into English in 1390! (Severe censorship laws issued against it.) Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) (A series of wars between England and France fought in France with intervals of relative peace during 116 years) (French-Scottish Alliance against the English-Burgundian alliance) England fighting to get her old French territories back. (Henry had 6 wives all together. House of York ) End of the Medieval Period in England – Modern England Tudor England (1585-1603) End of serfdom. These commoners would have stayed away if they could have: they did not want to pay taxes. etc) Henry VIII (1509-47) Henry is desperate for a son to ensure the throne! (The memory of the Wars of the Roses was all too recent…) He wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon (she is the aunt of the Spanish Emperor) and to marry a new wife to bear him a son.from Wales) is the final victor (defeated and killed Richard III of the Henry VII.) Chaucer writes the Canterbury Tales (1390s) Wars of the Roses (1455-85) War between the royal Houses of York and Lancaster for the throne for 30 years (Shakespeare: Henry VI) Only about ten per cent of the population was involved in the fights Entire noble families die out → their lands are inherited by the king then sold to the new merchant class → creation of a new nobility of lesser gentry and merchants (powerbase of the Tudor House!) Henry VII (Henry Tudor .Edward I (1272-1307) Continued the conquest of Ireland. movie: Jean D’Arc) • 1348 Black Death (pestis . or in Arany János: Walesi bárdok) 1295 convened the 1st (Model) parliament (to impose new taxes…Each shire and town had to Edward I. at first English successes: Crécy (1346) + Poitiers (1356) (Shakespeare’s Agincourt. Spain. The nobility + the merchants (the commoners) formed the 1st House of Commons. The pope refuses to allow the divorce. Wales. feudalism (men were no longer tied to the land) Growth of the middle classes (power of towns increased through trade) Printing press! (ends the Church's monopoly on learning) Higher classes start speaking English (instead of French) Strengthening national identity Military successes (against Scotland. attacked Scotland: (portrayed in the movie: Braveheart.

Ireland and Wales. literate classes! James I . Textile industry a very profitable business → to increase pasture lands: enclosures of common lands begin → peasants are helpless (many become landless. Personal union with Scotland (Common king but separate Scottish parliament. becoming the joint ruler of Scotland. with Japan) England soon dominates the world's trade routes (Pirate ships: Sir Francis Drake. Music: Thomas Ravenscroft. (Main differences from the Roman Catholic Church: Does not acknowledge the pope.1714) James I (1603 .g. spices. Sir Francis Bacon) Elizabeth I Spain is the big rival → 1588 Spanish Armada (130 ships with 30. the king of Scotland. Sir John Hawkins. a positive development is that an English translation of the Bible replaces the Latin Bibles in every church. etc. Thomas Morley. consumer society…) → factories Renaissance in arts: (Literature: William Shakespeare (the Globe Theatre is built). Philosophy: Sir Thomas More. no longer self-sufficient. cotton. emigration. ministers are allowed to marry. (The monasteries used to be the centres of religous life. 187 friaries = 825…) Affected every village in England! Referred to as the “greatest act of official destruction in English history". and only 2 sacraments: Holy Communion. Christopher Marlowe.) Foreign policy: • Defeats the Scottish (but cannot conquer Scotland) • Direct rule of Ireland begins (first English king to become king of all Ireland) • Union with Wales (1536) • Foundation of the Royal Navy Elizabeth I . England.) Independence from the pope → church tax stayed in England! (The pope was “controlled” by the Spanish Emperor: Charles V English church tax had been going straight into his pockets…It made sense to stop that. etc.Political break with the pope → Establishes the Anglican Church → appoints himself as the head of the Church (Act of Supremacy approved by Parliament in 1534) (→ Becoming the enemy of the Pope entails a change in political alliances and enemies!) Not real reformation! → Henry continues to burn Protestants (However. Closing them down was a mojor set back in the lives of millions.) Henry closed and sold the monasteries and church lands → incredible wealth for the king (e.g. Gunpowder Plot. He inherited the English throne.) Strong Puritan Revival in England among Members of Parliament and wealthy. was a nephew of Elizabeth I.25) James Stuart. Staged by Catholics who wanted to bring back Catholicism and do away with the Anglican Church. education. 1605.000 soldiers) is defeated by the English → Balance of power changes → England becomes a world power! Great trading companies are established (East India Company: tea. financed his foreign policy)! (502 monasteries. Sir Philip Sidney.Golden Age (1558-1603) (movie: Elizabeth) Henry VIII A mild form of protestantism (little different from Catholicism) spreads under Elizabeth. images were banned from churches. Baptism) Huge sheep farms + textile industry → factories. 136 cloisters. John Milton. Levant Co. with the Turks. judiciary and church) Wants to rule by “Divine Right” (without Parliament) Survived several assasination attempts (e. Failure of the attempt is celebrated every November 5th as Guy Fawkes Night or Bonfire Night. etc. Eastland Co.) Stuart England (1603. Africa Co: slave trade. Edmund Spenser. and poor relief.

no king. and the navy.→ Change in thinking in all fields of life (about political rights. Parliamentarians (‘Roundheads’) controlled the southeast with the capital. It is estimated that only about 10% of the population became involved in the fightings... etc. 1645 Royalist army is defeated.60 Cromwell: (1649 . inform and manipulate the people was through an authoritarian church hierarchy subject to the king. king convenes parliament to raise money for the Scots) Ireland explodes in rebellion against the Protestant English and Scottish settlers: King quarrels with Parliament over who should control the army (the king or parliament? Many MPs feared the king would turn the army against them first and invade Ireland only afterwards. Royalists (Cavaliers) controlled the northwest. 1620) → First English colonies in America. King is captured 1649.58) (the head of the Parliamentarian Army) Dissolves the House of Lords Got rid of the Anglican Church → Extreme Puritan rule (closed theatres.49) Ruled without convening the Parliament (taxed the Irish + borrowed money from English bankers and wealthy aristocrats) Charles I Tries to force the Scots to submit to the Anglican Church → war → beaten by the Scots → needs money from Parliament to pay the Scots in return for peace (11 years of absolute rule ends. The Puritans wanted to do away with that very system.” (The only effective way to control.) Puritans flee to America to have freedom of religion! (Mayflower ship. New translation of the Bible into English: King James Version (1611) ( Károli Gáspár translation: 1590) New colonies / territories: Virginia Bermuda Ulster New England – James town Protestant settlements in Northern Ireland Charles I (1625 . etc) through a military government Invades Ireland (massacres the entire population of 2 towns for rebelling against the . Parliamentarians → The king fled North to gather an army to defeat the rebellious MPs. how church services should be changed – purified….) → Conflict with the establishment! → they ask for Anglican bishops to be removed to reform the church → the king refused saying: “No bishop.) → 1642 Civil War: Royalists v. Charles is executed → England is a Republic (for the 1st and last time) 1649 .

) Charles II (1660-85) (son of Charles I. Charles II king . (William came with a force of 15.g. tolerant towards the new Protestant religious groups. It prevented any Catholic from holding public positions.. grew up in Catholic France) Acts of Cromwell's government cancelled Black Plague (70. This understandibly led to trouble. James II (1685-88) A Catholic king! → Annulled the Test Act → Put Catholics in the government Tried to bring back Catholicism (beside the Anglican Church) → fierce opposition in Parliament → Basis of the 2 party system: Tories: supported the Crown (and James II) + the Anglican Church (ancestor of the modern Conservative Party.. 1665) 1666 London on fire: most of the city is destroyed → rebuilding the capital starts (Cristopher Wren rebuilds 50 churches: e. but not towards Catholics → also support the Test Act) Parliament decides to depose James II and invites his Protestant daughter: Mary + her husband William of Orange from Holland to (invade England and) take the throne! This is referred to as the Glorious Revolution. St Paul’s Cathedral) King wants to allow freedom of religion to Catholics + Puritans → (reaction of the Parliament: Test Act 1673 .Protestants. pays his soldiers with the best Irish lands) Invades Scotland (to punish them for declaring the son of Charles.most of Edinburgh Castle is destroyed) New colonies / territories: expansion in America Jamaica Oliver Cromwell Restoration → Struggle over Catholicism (The 2 sons of Charles I: Charles II and James II were both Catholic and wanted to put Catholics in government. And it was definitely not a revolution.) Charles II James II William III and Mary II (joint monarchs) (1689-1702) Glorious Revolution 1688: glorious because it was a bloodless coup d'état in England. (By this act of Parliament its power was greatly increased leading to the Bill of Rights. the Glorious Revolution was not glorious since it was not bloodless: the two armies fought bloody battles in Ireland! It was only bloodless in England! But it was the English and Dutch armies fighting against the Irish and James.) (In fact. often used as a synonym for the Conservatives today) Whigs: afraid of an absolute monarchy + for religious freedom (supported the deposition of James II and the invitation of Mary and William of Orange in 1688. and revolutionary because Parliament decided to make Mary and William rulers in the place of Queen Mary James II (who fled to Ireland to raise a Catholic army against his daughter and son-in-law).000 soldiers landing in SW England on 5 November 1688.1829) Test Act (1673) passed by Parliament: great discrimination against Catholics. at best "revolutionary".000 dead in London alone.) William of Orange .

Thus the danger of the unification of France and Spain was averted and the balance of power preserved. causing great tensions on the 12th of July. First Jacobite Uprising: wanted to put Queen Anne's brother.) Queen Anne (1702-14) 1707 Act of Union with Scotland is passed after the English Parliament successfully cornered Scotland into this "arranged marriage" by passing several measures which restricted Anglo-Scottish trade and crippled the Scottish economy. (The parliament in Edinburgh was suspended and Scottish Members of Parliament subsequently set in Westminster. and the Spanish Empire to the duc d'Anjou under the condition that he could not inherit the French throne. largely for a lack of strategy and .) → Great Britain is created New colonies / territories: Minorca Gibraltar Nova Scotia Hudson Bay H o u s e o f H a n n o v e r (1714 . The Treaty of Utrecht 1713 gave the Austrians the Spanish dominions in Italy and the Netherlands. Scotland.failed. however he was excluded for being a Catholic. however.today) (under a different name: House of Windsor) George I (1714-27) The Act of Settlement (1701) made sure that only Protestants could inherit the English throne.supported by the Scottish Highlanders and many Englishmen who disliked George I . James (Jacob in Latin) on the throne. kept her distinct Queen Anne Presbyterian Church. education and her legal system. The rising .Parliament becomes the overall power in the state: Bill of Rights (1689): made Britain a constitutional monarchy: Real power belongs to the Parliament and not to the king! • The king cannot raise taxes or an army without the consent of Parliament • Catholics cannot vote • No Catholic can be king in England 1690 (Battle of the Boyne) King William defeats James's army in Ireland (The Irish were awfully punished by William of Orange for siding with James II: Penal laws introduced) The victory of William of Orange (King Billy) is commemorated every year as The Twelfth in Northern Ireland with Orangemen marching often through Catholic neighbourhoods. Bill of Rights War of Spanish Succession (1701-14) King William entered the war with his English-Dutch armies against the French King Louis XIV (and his grandson) to make sure that they would not inherit the entire Spanish Empire (as the dying Spanish king had bequeathed it to the duc d'Anjou). The European Balance of Power was at stake! (King William sided with the Hapsburg Emperor and Hungarian King Leopold I who was also fighting to protect his dynastic claims to the Spanish throne. England was given Gibraltar and Minorca. George I (the Duke of Hanover) was the closest Protestant relative of Queen Anne → 1715.

Bonnie Prince Charlie. The British also fought the French with success in the Caribbean. Great Britain came out of the war as the most powerful colonial power in the world. iron plough.) → mass production needed and made possible by new inventions (steam engine. household goods. Enclosures of common lands which villagers used to hold in common (and split the produce) were "privatised" or enclosed by rich people who could afford the machines to work large tracts of land or wanted to George III extend their highly profitable sheepfarms. Britain bacame the no 1.. Villagers often had no alternative but to emigrate or move to a town where menial jobs were plentiful. etc but need to buy it. George I George II (1727-60) War of the Austrian Succession (1740-8): George II sent his English troops against France to support Maria Theresa's claim for the Austrian and Hungarian throne.organisation. Africa and India and won Florida from the Spanish!) New colonies / territories: Quebec 1759 Montreal the Ohio Valley Florida Grenada St Vincent and the Greanadines Tobago Dominica George III (1760-1820) Agricultural Revolution: Increasing mechanization (sowing machine. spinning machine..) → the peasants crowd into the industrial centres to work in the factories. Industrial Revolution: Masses of landless workers (Former villagers are no longer selfsufficient → can’t make their own clothes. (In Europe British troops supported Prussia against Austria. the Philippines. their livelyhood is threatened) → moved to towns offering employment in the new factories or to poorhouses/workhouses. (There was no considerable change of territory at the end of the war. the Stuart pretender to the English and Scottish throne was almost successful in ousting George II Prince Charlie invaded North England and was nearing London when his troops ran out of supplies and had to turn back to Scotland where they were beaten in the last battle ever fought on British soil (Culloden 1746)! French and Indian War (also: Seven Years War 1756-63): fought between France and Britain over the posession of the fertile Ohio Valley in North America. threshing machine) of the farms → increased efficiency: more food with the work of fewer peasants → many became unemployed (could not sustain their families. To improve transport canals were dug all over Britain making the transport of produce and goods faster and cheaper. only Silesia was ceded to Prussia. France and Russia. in iron producer in the world. but his real concern was to keep the enemies out of Hanover and to safeguard the European balance of power. George I did not speak English and was hardly ever in England (spent most of his time in Hannover) → Left governing to his ministers → Britain's 1st prime minister controlled the country (the Whig Robert Walpole). The Prime Minister's power grew so much that English monarchs basically lost the influence over the composition of the Cabinet under George I and George II. As a result of the Industrial Revolution Britain was transformed from an agrarian society to the world's first . Ended with France loosing virtually all her posessions in North America (Canada) to the British..) Jacobite Uprising (1745-6) called "The Forty-Five": led by the son of James Stuart.

1815): Victory at Trafalgar (1805): The British under Admiral Nelson defeat Napoleon's combined French and Spanish fleet in a famous victory . then started colonizing the island with Protestant settlers in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Historians say that the evangelical revival spread by the Methodists among the new working classes. or the large scale enclosures forcing the poor people off their lands could spark a revolution in Britain. 1788. (England had controlled parts of Ireland since the 1170s. Colonization of India (after defeating the French in India in the Seven Years War) → England becomes the richest country in the world Slave trade from West Africa to the West Indies (African slave workforce on the lucrative sugar plantations) American War of Independence 1775-83 (Britain had raised taxes without the consent of the American colonies → July 4th. deep 'God' experience. and Holy Communion • Leading a moral life through a methodical approach (meditation on the Bible and discipline) • Helping fellow Christians and the sick and needy of the society: (visiting prisons.1803 .000!).) the Irish Parliament was suspended in 1800 in the Act of Union.). 1776 American Declaration of Independence) Lost colonies: 13 US colonies First British convict ships are sent to Australia (January 26th. Ireland saw its darkest period under Cromwell's invasion and in the decades following the Penal Laws introduced under William of Orange. children under 9 were forbidden to work in factories.a dangerous stance at the time!) • Church services: at first in the open air (you can't reach the crowds from a church pulpit!) with hundreds. often thousands attending. studying the Bible. enthusiastic and powerful sermons and singing (for which they were often called fanatics) Humanitarian legislation (limiting child labour to 12 hours a day. as a result of which we decide to give up our sinful habits) • Allowing God to change us through prayer. the colonization of Australia begins New colonies / territories: India Burma Australia 1788 (New South Wales) Act of Union with Ireland 1800. Methodist Revival (emphasis on): • A personal experience of conversion (a life-changing. taking part in charities. He never left the Anglican Church. John Wesley The evangelical revival was led by John Wesley (an Anglican priest and profesor at Oxford) the founder of the Methodism (tens of thousands were converted as a result of his preachings: ~130.. After repeated attempts failed (the last being the 1798 uprising) to rid themselves of English rule. It is fascinating that neither the loss of the American colonies (1783) nor the French Revolution. supporting abolition of slavery .. as well as the wealth pouring in from India were responsible for diverting people's attention from their miserable living conditions and safeguarding England from a revolution. Celebrated as a national holiday in Australia. 1807 Slave-trade was abolished) French and Napoleonic Wars: (1793 .industrial nation.

) (The mass demonstration organized in August 1819 in Manchester aimed to demand representation for all males. New Imperialism: new colonies founded especially in Africa in order to supply cheap raw Queen Victoria materials for Britain and also to become the markets of the goods made in England Chartist movement: millions of workers signed charters demanding further reform of the electoral process (vote for all adults .(averting the threat of Napoleon's planned invasion of Britain) In 1815 Napoleon's forces are beaten at Waterloo (a few kms from Brussels) by the Coaliton forces led by the Duke of Wellington. giving way to the Chartist movement of the following decades. secret vote. economic. making it much quicker and cheaper . 400 women. 1st Duke of Wellington Malta Sierra Leone Cape Colony (S. The demonstrators were attacked by soldiers on orders of the local magistrates who feared the outbreak of a rebellion. Africa) Ceylon Singapore Mauritius George IV (1811-20: Prince Regent.. children and men were badly injured and 11 died. equal and fair electoral districts. Instead of supressing the reform movement. (22 years of war between France and Britain were finally over.. etc) → mass demonstrations."Made in China" on every second product) the British could produce goods so cheaply and effectively that they would even undersell locally made products in foreign countries. Britain came out as one of the most powerful nations in the world thanks to its industrial economy and Navy.. chartist leaders are arrested (The vote was not given to urban working-class men until 1867) Railway boom → Trains revolutionized transport of goods and of people.) Britain's empire is becoming political rather than commercial 1825 1st train Stockton – Darlington (1830 Manchester ..) New colonies/ territories: Arthur Wellesley. the massacre had the opposite effect. salary for poor MPs. 1820-30: king) Manchester Massacre (1819): considered as one of the main events that led to the great reforms of the British electoral system some ten years later.greatly impacting society from opening new horizons in the economy to how leasure time was spent as well as helping political reform to spread.not just middle class males... (Numerous industrial centres grew from tiny towns into crowded cities yet were still without any parliamentary representation. and technological change Britain is the workshop of the world: (like China is today. .Liverpool) Catholic Emancipation Act: reverses the Test Act: (1829) Catholics can take public positions (first since 1673) William IV (1830-7) Reform Act (1832): Middle class males receive the vote (+ 41 towns got representation for the first time) Slavery (slave ownership) is abolished (1833) (slave trade was abolished in 1807) Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Empress of India (1877-1901) Great industrial + colonial expansion: a period of imprtant social. Urban working-class men were only given the vote in 1867. The outcome: France was no longer a dominant power in Europe.

.) Suez Canal (1875): PM Disraeli buys half of the Suez shares to secure Britain's waterway to India → British occupation of Egypt in 1882. unhealthy conditions: children age 5 and 6 were already made to work 12 to 16 hour a day in mines and factories (PM Peel: “Britain wouldn’t survive on a 10 hour workday.. The profit went to found the Victoria and Albert Museum and endowed several colleges.000 British soldiers died .) Great Exhibition 1st underground in the world (London 1863) → 2nd: Budapest (1896)! Liberalism and humanitarian legislation: Working class lived and worked in awful. instead of being governed by the East India Company) Crimean War fought against Russia (1853-56) to keep Russia from making advances in Asia (threatening British interests if occupying parts of Afghanistan and India) The British-FrenchTurkish forces won. especially from the British Empire (6 million visitors thanks to the railways and cheep enterance fees. farmers can vote (1884) Free compulsory education (1870) (up to age 11) Secret voting introduced (1872) Imperial ambitions (shameful wars): Opium wars with China: very profitable for Britain Invading Afghanistan (British fought 3 bloody battles there. Crystal Palace (1851): (1st world expo) “Britain is the workshop of the world!”. (but more than 25. losing each one against RussoAfghan forces) India comes under direct rule (after a mutiny in 1857.Great Exhibition in Hyde Park. Boer Wars (1899-1902) → enormously extended Britain's influence in Africa (but half a million soldiers were needed to beat the Boers. Dutch settlers north of Cape Colony.”) → reports made public → parliamentary committees → Abolition of child and woman labour in mines Sanitation reforms Working class gets the vote (male householders in towns. S.mainly of starvation and cold. Myanmar. Bangladesh. 1867). exhibitions from every country. 1857) Ghana Cyprus (1878) Egypt (1882-36-56) Sudan Uganda Zimbabwe South Africa (1885) Kenya. Botswana Malawi Kuwait Burma Afghanistan Became a Dominion: Canada (1867) . Africa) New colonies / territories: New Zealand Gambia Hong Kong India (incl. Pakistan.

conduct their own foreign affairs. Wilson. France.36) The House of Lords is deprived of its veto power in financial decisions: only power to delay legislation for 3 parliamentary sessions! (1911) Trade Unions grow in number and membership: many strikes (miners. Palestine and Iraq from the Turks The British Empire is the largest empire ever in world history The Empire is bigger than ever in 1920: 25% of the world's surface and 1/3 of the world's population .Edward VII (1901-10) decline of the Empire Canada. insurance against sickness and unemployment (but no free health care until 1948) World War I → Allied Powers (Britain. defence and international trade . but only the white settler colonies!) They could draw up their own constitutions. South Africa and New Zealand become dominions (almost complete autonomy. railwaymen) → First Minimum Wage Act.however only Britain could declare war (and the dominions would have to send their troops to help British troops.000 soldiers in 1914 and 5 million in 1918!) British casulties were almost 3 million. Ottoman Empire) (the British army had 250. referred to as "the lost generation"! Britain was one of the Big Four – Lloyd George. Austro-Hungary. as in World War I). USA) defeated the Central Powers (Germany. Clemenceau. and Orlando – to redraw the map of Europe at the Paris Peace Treaty: Britain incorporates the former German colonies in Africa.) George V (1910 . Australia. Russia. Became Dominions: Australia (1901) New Zealand (1907) South Africa (1910) Balance of power begins to collapse: Germany and the USA built stronger industries and armies than Britain! Triple Antant (1907) Britain + France + Japan + Russia (The House of Hanover was changed to House of Windsor in 1917 because in World War I when Britain and Germany were enemies it did not sound too well for the royal house to have a German name. dockers.

suspended during WWII) Rise of the Labour party (1924. Members have special links with Britain and each other: • Trade: Special trade agreements and privileges (kept Britain from joining the EEC) • Sports: Commonwealth Games every 4 years (~Olympics on a smaller scale) • Politics: Commonwealth Forces in World War II. today heads of government meat every 2 years . 1st Labour government!) New colonies/ territories (some former German colonies): Palestine (1920-48) Tanganyika Namibia New Guinea Cameroon Togo Tanzania Iraq (1922-32) Became a Dominion: Irish Free State (1922) 1931 (Statute of Westminster) The British Commonwealth of Nations is set up for ex-British colonies and dominions: an association of equal. independent nations (and of British dependencies: Bermuda.Paris Peace Conference: US disapproves of colonialism → Britain had to agree to help her colonies towards self-government (but in fact. very high unemployment. Falklands. the Empire becomes bigger than ever. affordable council housing (blocks of flats) for the poor • Women over 30 get the vote (1919) • Poor school children are given free meals and medical examination Depression: economic crisis. regular TV service from 1936. and the British will not start decolonisation until 1947 when India gains independence) Positive developments: a strong sense of the country's obligation and responsibility to its citizens: social reforms • PM Lloyd George promises to build "a land fit for heroes to live in": Housing Act (1919) inner-city slums are taken down (not fully!) → towns planned. falling wages → unsuccessful General Strike (1926) BBC is founded (1922. British Broadcasting Corporation. Gibraltar).

George VI (1936-52) Appeasement of Germany (German expansion tolerated in order to avoid war . Stalin – to redraw the map of Europe World War II undermined Britain's already weakened commercial and financial leadership → it is too expensive to keep up the Empire UN Charter (1945) calls for progress toward self-government for the colonies – The British Empire can't last very long → Dismantling of the British Empire begins in 1945 (Decolonization) Labour Government: (1945 .until September 1939) World War II: Britain fighting to save the balance of power in Europe British Empire was left alone fighting Germany after France is occupied by Hitler (May 1940 until 1941) Germans bomb British cities in preparation for an invasion (the Blitz/Battle of Britain: Aug 194041 May): millions of homeless. and 10 years later applies for membership.) 1956 Suez crisis: turning point! (Britain. Roosevelt. builds the 1st nuclear power station in the world Lost colonies / territories: Iraq (1945) India (1947) Pakistan Myanmar Bangladesh Palestine (1948) Sri Lanka Elizabeth II (1952 . only to be rejected by the French.51) Rebuilding the economy and infrastructure from Marshall Aid from the USA (Out of the 15 countries that received the $12 billion Marshall Aid Britain received the most: $ 3300 million.but Britain refuses to join! (Not wanting to surrender any control over her own affairs such as giving up preferential trade with the Commonwealth or Britain's overseas military bases .Britain later regrets not having joined. but British war casualties are much fewer than in WWI Britain was one of the Big Three – Churchill. Transportation) Free secondary education for all NATO (1949): Britain leads space research. nuclear weapons design.. Britain is Queen Elizabeth II humiliated → Britain is no longer viewed as superpower.. Steel.) Immigrants were welcome from the Empire to help in the rebuilding Welfare state established: National Health Service (free medical and hospital care for everyone regardless of their income) Nationalization (Coal.) . an equal with the USA and the USSR !! → Many countries begin to challenge Britain's authority → Political debate in Britain on its new international role 1957 European Economic Community (EEC) is created . France and Israel attack Egypt for nationalizing the Suez Canal = oil + route to India) USA forces Britain to back out from Egypt.

Trinidad. Tanzania. 1960 . British Leyland. major strikes → Winter of Discontent (1978) Elections 1979: won by the Conservative Margaret Thatcher Lost colony: Margaret Thatcher Bahamas (1973) The Thatcher Years (1979 . which legalised abortion under certain conditions. Kuwait. and pensions. These include the 1967 Sexual Offences Act which decriminalised homosexual practices above the age of 18. Cyprus. Falklands + Gibraltar (~1. crime. All the old colonies were invited to join as free and equal members to the Commonwealth: 54 independent nations + Bermuda. British Airways. Equal pay for women (1975) 1973 Britain joins the European Community (Britain is still unenthusiastic! Trade with Europe greatly increased!!) Already in 1975 a referendum (actually the 1st referendum in British history!) was held by the new Labour Government whether to stay in the EC Spiraling inflation + growing unemployment.1960 PM Macmillan after his visit to Africa begins to speed up plans to hand over power Lost colonies / territories: Egypt (1954) Suez Canal (1956) Ghana Malaysia 1960-66: Uganda. and the 1969 Divorce Reform Act. The Pill is introduced. broadly reflecting the changing social climate at home. Kenya. Zambia. Many of the new independent countries chose to remain on friendly terms with Britain.) Reduced the power of trade unions by laws (Called the Iron Lady owing to her handling of the Miners' Strike in 1984) Encouraged people not to rely on the welfare state (but pay for their own health care. British Rail. Jamaica 1945-66: 500 million people became self-governing → British pull-out from her colonies happened peacefully (except for Kenya and Cyprus).000 black immigrants invited (!) from former colonies in the West Indies → Race riots (Nottingham and Notting Hill) (→ 1962 a quota scheme was introduced) The Wilson Governments instituted a series of permissive measures. and British Telecom. alcoholism and suicide.70s severe economic problems Liberal social legislation: (1967) Homosexuality and abortion are legalised (not in Northern Ireland). Singapore. deep cuts in public spending. Malawi. Guyana. Sudan. the 1967 Abortion Act. Deindustrialization (closing down of factories and mines) was a major source of growing unemployment especially in Northern England and Southern Wales (that in turnn led to an increase in poverty.7 billion people) 1967 Britain trys to join the EEC – de Gaulle vetoes it 1950s 250. British Petroleum. British Steel. British Shipbuilders. Malta. British Gas.1990) Conservative Government New enterprise economy: (state should not interfere in business) privatised many national industries: British Coal. Zimbabwe. Botswana. and buy the council flat they were living in) Cut taxes (helping those already wealthy) . which relaxed the conditions surrounding the termination of marriage. education.

The Falklands War helped Thatcher to win the 1983 General Elections. Margaret Thatcher. Sierra Leone (2000) • Number one ally of the USA in the War on Terror (2001) in Afghanistan then in Iraq Domestic policy: • Priority: education (Spending on education was increased: number of teachers has been increased. by the British Prime Minister. The treaty gave the Irish Government an advisory role in Northern Ireland's government while confirming that Northern Ireland would remain part of the UK unless a majority of its citizens agreed to join the Republic. upon moveing back to Britain he attended "the Eton of Scotland". primary school results have improved.) • Introduction of tuition fees for university (top-up fees up to £3.5 million people – much more was expected…) • Anti-terrorism legislation enacted in Britain • Independence for the Bank of England to set the interest rate (the Government had been regularly manipulating interest rates before elections to improve statistics .) By 1985: 5 million recent immigrants IRA bombing campaign demanding an end to British rule in Northern Ireland andthe reunification of Ireland Anglo-Irish Agreement: (1985) gave the Irish Republic an advisory role in Northern Ireland's government and set out the conditions under which Northern Ireland could have devolved power again (NI Assembly reopened in Belfast) The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. Garret FitzGerald. John's College in Oxford. Thatcher and John Major. but had repeatedly broke down).The agreement was signed on 15 November 1985 at Hillsborough Castle. 'New Labour': major reform of the Labour party! Instead of leftist economic policies of nationalisation New Labour supports the tenets of market economy. Foreign policy: • UK forces fighting in Kosovo (1999). He has a Catholic wife and their 4 children were also baptised and raised Catholics. and Argentina to become a democratic country.000. and the Irish Taoiseach. It also set out conditions for the establishment of a devolved consen-sus government in the region. then read law at St. Fettes College. Results of Thatcher's economic restructuring: Split between the rich Conservative south-east of England and Tony Blair the rest of the country: a greater gap between the rich and the poor: 'North-South divide' Decline of many British industries: a loss of Britain's traditional industries Very high unemployment Tony Blair (1997-) Labour Government (Tony Blair was born in Edinburgh Scotland to an English father and Irish Protestant mother.not good for the economy) • Good Friday Agreement (1998): Blair achieved a breakthrough in the negotiations with the Northern Irish parties (that had begun under M.Reduced inflation and government spending Falklands War in 1982 (successfully defended British interest in retaking the Falkland Islands having been unexpectedly invaded under orders of the Argentinian Dictator Galtieri. Northern Ireland had her parliament devolved (1st since 1972) . He spent his early childhood in Australia.) Blair became the leader of the Labour Party in July 1994. but grants promised to poorest students) (highly controversial!) • Increased spending on the National Health Service (NHS): (Hospital waiting lists are at their lowest since 1987 and the number of doctors and nurses has been increased) • Britain’s 1st National Minimum Wage Act (improved the living standards of 1. and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after winning the 1997 general election with a landslide (securing a majority of 179 MPs) ending 18 years of Conservative government.

with a coalition government heading the executive composed of both Protestants and Catholics. (First Minister: David Trimble. Thatcher had closed it down in 1986. representing the Protestant community and Deputy First-minister: Seamus Mallon for the Catholic Community) • 1997 : Referendum in Scotland and Wales (majority vote in favour of Devolution: selfgovernment! Transfer of power over domestic affairs from London back to Edinburgh and Cardiff! • 1999 Establishment of the Welsh Assembly and the Scottish Parliament Reform of the House of Lords: (1999) number of hereditary peers was drastically reduced Greater London Authority established (2000) (London was finally given her own local government again. after 14 years of no local authority in the capital! M.) Establishment of an independent New Supreme Court Lost colony: Hong Kong (1997) .