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Subjects Introduction, Definition, Benefits of Material Knowledge, Standards Micro Structure of Materials: Atom, Interatomic Bonds, Atomic Arrangement, Crystal Structure, Amorphous Structure Crystallographic Directions, Interatomic Spacing, Relations between bonds and properties Physical Properties of Materials : Bulk Density, Specific Weight, Compactness, Porosity, Water Absorption, Saturation Degree



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John, V.B., “Introduction to engineering materials”, second edition, ELBS, Macmillan, 1983. Mamlouk, M.S., Zaniewski, J.P., “Materials for civil and construction engineers”, second edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006. Onaran, K., “Malzeme Bilimi”, Bilim teknik yayınevi, 8. Baskı, 2000, in Turkish. Postacıoğlu, B., “Cisimlerin Yapısı ve Özellikleri”, ITU Y., 1981. Material Science Lecture notes, KTU. Material Science Lecture notes, YTU.

is anything made of matter, constituted of one or more substances. Wood, cement, hydrogen, air and water are all examples of materials.  Materials are the parts required to make something else, from buildings and art to stars and computers.


This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. then processed to produce semifinished materials. and consumption. ready for distribution.11/5/2012 8 9 Raw materials and processing Material Science  Materials A science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. construction.  These can be input into a new cycle of production and finishing processes to create finished materials. 10 11 Some Examples of Materials Common civil engineering materials: Concrete Wood Steel aggregates masonry asphalt glass polymers Examples for some common civil engineering materials 2 .  Raw materials are first extracted or harvested from the earth and divided into a form that can be easily transported and stored. material can be anything: a finished product or an unprocessed raw material.

etc.e. paint. wood. As of 2006. etc. (i. stone. wood. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron. Wood Wood is a hard. 14 15 Steel Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0. fibrous tissue found in many plants.1% by weight. Gypsum. Concrete.5 billion cubic meters of concrete are made each year—more than one cubic meter for every person on Earth. brick. water. paint. depending on the grade.e. etc. moisture. It is an organic material composed of cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension) embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression.11/5/2012 12 13 Cement Sand Aggregates Water Concrete Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world. steel. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. i.) 3 . etc. heat and water insulation materials.  Protective materials: Materials that protect the structure from any deterious effects such as heat.  Decorative materials: Materials used for decoration purposes. i. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS A) According to their use and purposes:  Structural materials: Materials with high mechanical properties used for load bearing purposes.2% and 2. stone. about 7.e. solutions. bitumen. stone.

gold.11/5/2012 16 17 B) According to their deformations:  must have an instantaneous response (deformation) to load. concrete.)  Polymers: Polymers are organic or synthetic materials composed of long molecules of covalent bonded nonmetallic elements such as C. Most metals exhibit elastic behavior.e.  Composites: The need for materials with proporties not found in conventional materials. Rubber is also an elastic material. They conduct heat and electricity well (by free electrons). steel) Elastic materials: If a material exhibits true elastic behavior. Ceramic materials do not conduct heat and electricity well since they have no free electrons.bricks. Ceramic materials tend to fracture in a brittle manner rather than to have plastic deformation. They can be used as abrasive materials in industry (Al2O3). identical in all directions (i.e. Examples: polystrene. (i. and the material must return to its original shape when the load is removed. that are Isotropic materials: Materials whose properties are Anisotropic materials: Properties of anisotropic materials depend on the directions (axis).  Elastoplastic Materials: For some materials. porcelain. one. including glass. Ceramics encompass a broad range of materials. N. Plastic behavior indicates permenant deformation of the specimen so that it does not return to its original shape when the load is removed. When the load is removed from the specimen. These materials usually combine the best properties of their constituents and frequently exhibit qualities that do not even exist in their constituents. Due to the nature of metallic bonds. metals have a very regular and well-defined structure. They are also durable to high temperatures (refractory materials). the strain will proportionally increase up to a point. at least at low stress levels. These materials have high strength and stiffness but their lack of fracture toughness (1/50 of metals) limits their use in engineering applications.  Plastic materials: Clay and fresh concrete are examples for plastic materials. In this case. some of the deformation will be recovered and some of the deformation will remain. the material exhibits linear elastic behavior followed by plastic response. or three valance electrons. rubber. wood). steel). PVC.e. Examples: concrete. O. have resulted in combining two or more materials to form what are called composite materials. copper. iron. etc. rocks. Heterogeneous materials: Materials composed of dissimilar parts (i. it C) According to their physical structure     Homogeneous materials: Materials that have a uniform composition throughout its structure (i. etc. elastomers or rubbers (elastic materials) and natural materials (wood). Metals generally have the capability to make plastic deformations.e. two. The stress level at which the behavior changes from elastic to plastic is the elastic limit. wood. Polymers can be classified as thermoplastics (polystyrene. Wood is an example for anisotropic materials. reinforced concrete. PVC). Metals: The chemical definition of a metal is an element with 4 . These elements bond into a mass with metallic bonds. combined with advances in technology. fired clay products . etc. 18 19  C) According to their chemical structure  Ceramics: Ceramic materials are formed by a combination of ionic and covalent bonds. H. after this point the strain will increase with little additional stress. Cl. thermosets (epoxy). steel). (i. as the stress applied on the specimen is increased. etc.e.

and an anion. Since these bonds are based on the transfer of electrons. The atoms that are covalently bonded will each contribute at least one electron to the bond and the shared electrons may be considered to belong to both atoms. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons and both of these particle types make up the mass of the atom (atomic weight -AW). Avogadro’s number (AN=0. One mole of any substance will always contain the same number of molecules. The metallic bond forms when atoms give up their valence electrons. (i. The positively charged atom cores are bonded by mutual (karşılıklı) attraction to the negatively charged electrons. In materials such as diamond (very hard. which form an electron sea. they have no directional nature. HCl) Metallic bond Metallic bond is found in metals and their alloys. high melting temperature).Metallic bonds are non directional. These bonds are highly directional.e. which is usually a nonmetal. HF. Na++ClNaCl 22 23 Covalent bond A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of valance electrons between atoms. the covalent bonds are very strong.11/5/2012 20 21 Atom The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. Bonding Between Atoms (Strong bonds-Weak bonds) Ionic Bond An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. which is usually a metal.602*1024). Ionic bonds are formed between a cation. 5 . and the number of molecules contained in a mole is given by the universal constant.

or of different elements. If the atoms or molecules in a material are randomly arranged with no regular crystal structure. mechanical properties. owing to the polarisation (kutuplaşma) of atoms or molecules. Some arrangements permit exceptional ductility. as with water (H2O). such materials are amorphous. are generally known as van der Waals’ forces.11/5/2012 24 25 Van der Waals bonds (Weak Bonds)  In Molecule A addition to the primary types of interatomic bonding. 6 . whereas others yield exceptional strength. molecule may consist of atoms of a single chemical element. 26 27 Atomic Arrangement/Amorphous and Crysttalline Structure Valance Electrons  The electrons that occupy the outermost orbit are known as valence electrons. The number of valence electrons can’t be greater than 8.  Atomic arrangement or order plays an important role in determining the microstructure and behavior of a solid material. based on electrostatic attraction. chemical properties. type of bonding. These electrons determine. optical. as with oxygen (O2). These weaker bonds. such materials are crysttalline. thermal properties. electrical. If the constituent atoms or molecules of a material are arranged in a definite symmetrical pattern. there also exist weaker bonds.

They are similar to but not quite the same as the seven crystal systems and the six crystal families 1.11/5/2012 28 29 Types of Crystal Systems Unit Cell  The         There are seven crystal systems.Ttriclinic simple base-centered 2. and a fourth axis. Sizes Angles unit cell is the basic structural unit or building block of the crystal structure. Monoclinic 7 . of length c. a1. Triclinic Monoclinic Rhombohedral Hexagonal* Orthorhombic Tetragonal Cubic a≠b≠c a≠b≠c a=b=c a=b≠c a≠b≠c a=b≠c a=b=c α≠β≠γ α=β=900≠γ α=β=γ≠900 α=β=900. a2. There are seven lattice systems. namely. γ=600 α=β=γ=900 α=β=γ=900 α=β=γ=900 * Another system is sometimes used to define hexagonal form. and a3. mutually perpendicular to the other three axes 30 31 Lattice systems The 7 lattice systems (From least to most symmetric) These lattice systems are a grouping of crystal structures according to the axial system used to describe their lattice. all of equal length and inclined at 1200 to each other. Each lattice system consists of a set of three axes in a particular geometrical arrangement. three coplanar axes. In this system reference is made to four axes.

there is no common engineering materials have this crystal structure. Vatom is the volume of an atom. a is the edge length of cube (is known as lattice parameter) r is the atomic radius 8 . Orthorhombic base-centered body-centered face-centered 6. the APF of a crystal structure is determined by assuming that atoms are rigid spheres. Rhombohedral simple body-centered simple (SC) body-centered (bcc) face-centered (fcc) 7.11/5/2012 32 33 simple 3. For practical purposes. The radius of the spheres is taken to be the maximal value such that the atoms do not overlap. Cubic 5. The atoms are situated at each corner of this cube. The atomic packing factor (APF) or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal structure that is occupied by atoms. Tetragonal 34 35 The Simple Cubic Crystal Structure Atomic Packing Factor The crystal structure is imaginary for pure metals. and Vunit cell is the volume occupied by the unit cell. For one-component crystals (those that contain only one type of atom). Hexagonal 4. the APF is represented mathematically by where Natoms is the number of atoms in the unit cell. It is dimensionless and always less than unity.

38 39 Body-centered cubic crystal structure (BCC)   9 . each BCC cell contains two atoms. Because the volume of each corner atom is shared between adjacent cells.11/5/2012 36 37 Body-centered cubic crystal structure (BCC)  The primitive unit cell for the body-centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure contains nine atoms: one on each corner of the cube and one atom in the center.

Melting temperatures and thermal expansion coefficients of Al and Fe. (T. 3.“Vacancy” (boş köşe). Point Defects 10 . (b) The dependence of net potential energy as a function of interatomic separation for two isolated and adjacent atoms. The deeper the well (Emin ) the higher the melting and vaporization temperatures. (a) The dependence of attractive. Atoms are arranged at the corners and center of each cube face of the cell. Fig. 4. The exact shape of the energy well is important in determining several physical and mechanical properties. They fit into the open space between the bulk atoms of the lattice structure. Self interstitial atoms occur only in low concentrations in metals because they distort (bükmek) and highly stress the tightly packed lattice structure.“Self interstitial atom” is an extra atom that has crowded its way into an interstitial void in the crystal structure.: the carbon atoms that are added to iron to make steel. . Thermal expansion is inversely correlated with Emin.“Interstitial impurity atoms” (ara yer atomu) are much smaller than the atoms in the bulk matrix.“Substitutional impurity atom” (Yer alan atomu) replaces or substitutes for the host atoms. i. repulsive and net forces as a function of interatomic separation for two isolated and adjacent atoms.11/5/2012 40 41 Face Centered Cubic (FCC)  Bonding Forces and Energy Well ro (ao) is the equilibrium spacing. the higher the cohesive strength and the higher the E. 2. Point Defects: Point defects: 1. oC) 660 1538 Thermal Expansion 22x10-6 12x10-6 Imperfections In Crystal Structures 1.e.  Atoms are assumed to touch along face diagonals 42 43 Material Al Fe Melting Temp.

integers correspond to the projections along the x. Indices of directions are the shorthand notation used to describe these directions.0. are enclosed in square brackets [uvw]. not seperated by commas(. Surface Defects Surface defects are the boundaries that seperate a material into regions. The origin is 0. the far corner of the unit cell is 1. The u. Two types: edge and screw dislocation.1 regardless of the crystal system. The following steps are utilized in the determination of the three directional indices: A vector of convenient length is positioned such that it passes through the origin of the coordinate system. 46 47 Crystallographic Directions and Planes  Every Crystallographic Directions A Crystallographic direction is defined as a line between two points or a vector. Dislocations contribute metals plastic deformation capability. y and z axes respectively. These three numbers are multiplied or divided by a common factor to reduce them to the smallest values. v.      11 . The three indices.). Line Defects (Dislocations) The most common type of line defect within a crystal is a dislocation. which are represented by a bar over the appropriate index.11/5/2012 44 45 2. w . Among these imperfections external surfaces and grain boundaries are the most important ones. A grain boundary is the surface that seperates the individual grains and is a narrow zone in which the atoms are not properly spaced. The length of the vector projection on each of the three axes is determined. point within a unit cell can be identified in terms of the coefficient along the three coordinate axes.1. 3. Negative indices are also possible. A dislocation is a one-dimensional defect around which some of the atoms are misaligned.0. each region having the same crystal structure but different orientations.

and are effected by water and vapor. color. •Regular or irregular •Connected or disconnected •Open or enclosed.D.11/5/2012 48 49 Crystallographic Planes     The orientations of planes for a crystal structure are represented in a similar manner: The length of the planar intercept for each axis is determined in terms of the lattice parameters a. and therefore a zero index. their size and characteristic (being enclosed or open). density. permeability.A.D. 12 . etc. The integer indices. Planar density is simply the fraction of total crystallographic plane area that is occupied by atoms. physical and mechanical. 2. 2. Physical Properties / Pore structure Pore properties include. basic physical properties in construction materials are weight.1. thus (hkl).1. A plane that parallels an axis may be considered to have an infinite intercept. ratio of pores. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Properties of materials will be examined in two topics. L. Pores in Porous Materials Distribution of pores in a solid medium can be. Linear and Planar Atomic Densities Linear density corresponds to the fraction of line length that passes through atom centers. If necessary these three numbers are changed to the set of smallest integers by multiplication or division using a common factor. c. Physical Properties As in all solid materials.A. specific gravity. b.=Number of atoms/Unit Area (atom/cm 2) 50 2. volume. All construction materials except glass and metals more or less contain voids.=Number of atoms/Unit Length (atom/cm) P. Teh reciprocals of these numbers are taken. not seperated by commas. are enclosed within parantheses.

water absorption by mass and by volume. Porosity (%p) defines total pores. w = 0 v0 %p  Vb 1 k Vt 13 .1.11/5/2012 52 53 2. Physical Properties / Density Physical parameters of porous materials are. g/cm3) = Wo Vt Density (β) is defined as the dry weight (Wo) of a given volume (Vt) of a material. interconnected and continuous pores. density (β). Physical Properties / Compactness ratio and porosity c) Compactness ratio (k) Specific gravity is the dry weight (Wo) of a given volume of the solid phase (Vd) of a material. • • • • Unit weight of the material.1.Capillary pores.1. . water absorption methods or statistical methods. The ratio of solid volume of a material (Vd) to its total volume (Vt) and can also be calculated by dividing density (β) by specific gravity (γ). density methods. g/cm3) 2. specific gravity (γ).1. . Porosity can be determined by several methods such as. Physical Properties 2. Unit weight of the solid part.Open pores. Physical Properties / Specific gravity b) Specific gravity (γ. 55 2. Density has a strong relation with strength and thermal conductivity. capillary water absorption (K) • Permeability a) Unit Weight (Density) (β. Compactness ratio. gas expansion method. mercury injection method. V   k%  d  Vt  d) Porosity (p) The ratio of the pore volume (Vb) to the total volume (Vt) of the material. compactness (k). Ratio of total pores. whereas effective porosity (%pe) defines open. porosity (p).

1.1. Physical Properties / Capillarity Permeability Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (symbolized as k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often.11/5/2012 56 57 2. 2. Effective porosity) The ratio of the increase in mass to the to the total volume. W0(g) t0 t1 t2 tn W0 W1 W2 Wn Q0 = 0 Q1=W1-W0 Q2=W2-W0 Qn=Wn-W0 W  W0 am  SSD W0 f) Absorption by volume (%av. K= Q2/ (A2 t) Capillary water absorption Coefficient (K) is determined experimentally as a function of time and surface area that contacts with water.t Rise time of water by capillarity: t 2 Qmax ( H .( ) s F 2 .%hs ) 2  K K 14 . a rock or unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it. A (cm2) Weight. W  W0 av  SSD V WSSD: The weight of the sample in the SSD state W0: The weight of the sample in oven dry state Fig: Capillary water absorption test 58 59 2. Sample: Cross Section Area. Physical Properties / Capillarity f) Capillary Water Absorption (K) Defined as the “absorbed water amount (Q) from unit surface area (A) of a material in unit time (t)”.1. which is measured by determining the rate of water flow through the material under pressure. t Capillarity Coefficient : K Q 2 cm 2 . K  Q F. Physical Properties / Absorption e) Absorption by mass (%am): The ratio of the increase in mass to the mass of the dry sample. Water Permeability Water permeability of a material is expressed by the coefficient of water permeability.