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Balancing machine

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balancing_machine A balancing machine is a measuring tool used for balancing rotating machine parts such as rotors for electric motors, fans, turbines, disc brakes, disc drives, propellers and pumps. The machine usually consists of two rigid pedestals, with suspension and bearings on top supporting a mounting platform. The unit under test is bolted to the platform and is rotated either with a belt-, air-, or end-drive. As the part is rotated, the vibration in the suspension is detected with sensors and that information is used to determine the amount of unbalance in the part. Along with phase information, the machine can determine how much and where to add weights to balance the part. Hard-bearing vs. soft-bearing There are two main types of balancing machines, hard-bearing and softbearing. The difference between them, however, is in the suspension and not the bearings. In a hard-bearing machine, balancing is done at a frequency lower than the resonance frequency of the suspension. In a soft-bearing machine, balancing is done at a frequency higher than the resonance frequency of the suspension.

Hard.and middle-size volume production and in repair workshops. because hard-bearing machines are measuring centrifugal effects and require only a one-time calibration.Both types of machines have various advantages and disadvantages. it works very well for low. but hard-bearing machines are more robust and reliable. because it needs to be calibrated for different part types. It is very suitable for high-production volume and high-precision balancing tasks. A soft-bearing machine is not so versatile with respect to amount of rotor weight to be balanced. Therefore.and soft-bearing machines can be automated to remove weight automatically. requiring very little human control. Only five geometric dimensions need to be fed into the measuring unit and the machine is ready for use. such as by drilling or milling. Both machine principles can be integrated into a production line and loaded by a robot arm or gantry. How it works . A hard-bearing machine is generally more versatile and can handle pieces with greatly varying weights. The preparation of a soft-bearing machine for individual rotor types is more time consuming.

which measure acceleration of the vibration. so minimal correction is required later on. This sensor works by moving a magnet in relation to a fixed coil that generates voltage proportional to the velocity of the vibration. Also. A blade balancing machine attempts to balance a part in assembly. Accelerometers. . a velocity sensor is used. or encoder is used to determine the rotational speed. By using trial weights. each blade to be assembled is weighed and its weight entered into a balancing software package. and turbines. trial weights must be added in correction planes for each part. you are adding a known weight at a known angle and getting the unbalance vector caused by it. In most soft-bearing machines.and soft-bearing machines in that the part is not rotated to take a measurement. Calibration is performed by adding a known weight at a known angle. Blade balancers are used on parts such as fans. a vibration sensor is attached to the suspension. and therefore it is unknown how much a given amount of weight will affect the balance. so its accuracy is limited. This is because the location of the correction planes along the rotational axis is unknown. Rather than resting on its bearings. In a soft-bearing machine. Amount of unbalance and angle of unbalance give an unbalance vector. the time difference between the phase and the vibration peak gives the angle at which the unbalance exists. propellers. as well as the relative phase of the rotating part. A photocell (sometimes called a phaser). The advantages of using a static balancer are speed and price. or force. The software then sorts the blades and attempts to find the blade arrangement with the least amount of unbalance. Other balancing machine types Static balancing machines differ from hard. However a static balancer can only correct in one plane. On a blade balancer. This phase information is then used to filter the vibration information to determine the amount of movement.With the rotating part resting on the bearings. Static balancers are often used to balance parts with a diameter much larger than their length. can also be used. proximity sensor. the part rests vertically on its geometric center. any movement by the part away from its geometric center is detected by two perpendicular sensors beneath the table and returned as unbalance. such as fans. Once at rest. in one rotation of the part.

and a photocell. pumps. which are then mounted to the pedestals or enclosure of the running part. such as accelerometers. they calculate the part's unbalance. Based on the vibrations detected. Many times these devices contain a spectrum analyzer so the part condition can be monitored without the use of a photocell and nonrotational vibration can be analyzed.Portable balancing machines are used to balance parts that cannot be taken apart and put on a balancing machine. usually parts that are currently in operation such as turbines. Portable balancers come with displacement sensors. and motors. .