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SYMBOLS
t = Thickness of plate b = Width of plate L = Length of plate or distancenof the load W from the cantilever end.

M = Maximum bending moment Z = Section modulus σ = Bend ing stress δ = Maximum deflection E = Young‟s modulus Search Search History: W = Total load on the spring Searching... Result 00 of 00 n = Number of leaves result for 00 results for p. n G = Number of graduated leaves

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1. INTRODUCTION TO LEAF SPRING

Originally Leaf spring called laminated or carriage spring, a leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the oldest forms of springing, dating back to Sometimes referred to as a semi arc- shaped length of suspension in wheeled vehicles. It is also one of the medieval times.

-elliptical spring or cart spring, it takes the form of a slender

spring steel of rectangular cross-section. The center of the arc provides

location for the axle, while tie holes are provided at either end for attaching to the vehicle body. For very heavy vehicles, a leaf spring can be made from several leaves stacked on top of each other in several layers, often with progressively shorter leaves. Leaf springs can serve locating and to some extent damping as well as springing functions. A leaf spring can either be attached directly to the frame at both ends or attached directly at one end, usually the front, with the other end attached through a shackle, a short swinging Search Search History: arm. The shackle takes up the tendency of the leaf spring to elongate when compressed and Searching... thus makesResult 00 of 00 for softer springiness. 00 results for result for p.

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2. History of Leaf Spring
There were a variety of leaf springs, usually employing the word "elliptical". "Elliptical" or "full elliptical" leaf springs referred to two circular arcs linked at their tips. This was joined to the frame at the top center of the upper arc, the bottom center was joined to the "live" suspension components, such as a solid front axle. Additional suspension components, such as trailing arms, would be needed for this design, but not for "semi-elliptical" leaf springs as used in the Hotchkiss drive. That employed the lower arc,

hence its name. "Quarter-elliptic" springs often had the thickest part of the stack of leaves stuck into the rear end of the side pieces of a short ladder frame, with the free end attached to the differential, as in the Austin Seven of the 1920s. As an example of non-elliptic leaf springs, the Ford Model T had multiple leaf springs over its differential that were curved in the shape of a yoke. As a substitute for dampers (shock absorbers), some manufacturers laid Search non-metallic sheets in between the metal leaves, such as wood. Search History: Searching... Leaf springs were very00 automobiles, right up to the 1970s, when the move to Result 00 of common on 00 results for more for front wheel drive, and result sophisticated suspension designs saw automobile manufacturers p. use coil springs instead. U.S. passenger cars used leaf springs until 1989 where the Chrysler

M platform was the final production vehicle marketed. However, leaf springs are still used in

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military catapults. Precision springs first became a necessity during the Renaissance with the advent of accurate timepieces. The fourteenth century saw the development of precise clocks which revolutionized celestial navigation. World exploration and conquest by the European colonial powers continued to provide an impetus to the clockmakers' science and art. Firearms were another area that pushed spring development. The eighteenth century dawn of the industrial revolution raised the need for large, accurate, and inexpensive springs. Whereas clockmakers' springs were often hand-made, now springs needed to be mass-produced from music wire and the like. Manufacturing methodologies were developed so that today springs are ubiquitous. Computer-controlled wire and sheet metal bending machines now allow custom springs to be tooled within weeks, although the throughput is not as high as that for dedicated machinery.

Search Search History: Searching... Result 00 of 00 00 results for result for p.

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DESIGN
Search Search History: Searching... Result 00 of 00 00 results for result for p.

OF

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3. DESIGN OF LEAF SPRING

3.1

Materials for leaf spring:

The material used for leaf springs is usually a plain carbon steel having 0.90 to 1.0% carbon. The leaves are heat treated after the forming process. The heat treatment of spring steel produces greater strength and therefore greater load capacity, greater range of deflection and better fatigue properties.

According to Indian standards, the recommended materials are :
1. For automobiles : 50 Cr 1, 50 Cr 1 V 23, and 55 Si 2 Mn 90 all used in hardened and

tempered state.
2. For rail road springs : C 55 (water-hardened), C 75 (oil-hardened), 40 Si 2 Mn 90

(waterhardened) and 55 Si 2 Mn 90 (oil-hardened).
3. The physical properties of some of these materials are given in the following table. All

values are for oil quenched condition and for single heat only. Search Search History: Searching... Result 00 of 00 Physical properties of materials commonly used for leaf springs : 00 results for result for p.

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3.1 Materials for leaf spring: for A Mini Project on Search Design,Manufacturing & Failure Analysis of Leaf Spring Search History:
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Sections
1. INTRODUCTION TO LEAF SPRING 2. History of Leaf Spring 3.1 Materials for leaf spring: 3.2.1 Introduction 3.2.3 Spring Steel 3.2.4 Role of Carbon in Steel 3.3 Types of leaf springs 3.4 Design of leaf spring 3.5 Length of Leaf Spring Leaves 3.6 Standard Sizes of Automobile Suspension Springs 3.8 Dimensions of clip, rivet and bolts 4.2 Shearing or cutting process 4.3 Drilling operation 4.4 Eye rolling of main blade 4.7 Hardness testing 4.8.2 Bolts and nuts 4.11 Inspection 4.12 Stock ready to supply 5.1 Failure analysis 5.3 Optical Metallurgical Microscope 5.4 Scanning Electron Microscope 5.5 Tensile Test of Leaf Spring 5.6 Fatigue Test of Leaf Spring 5.7 Increasing the fatigue strength of leaf spring: 5.9 When To Replace

Info and Rating
Category: Research Rating: Upload Date: 07/17/2011 Search Copyright: Attribution Non-commercial Search History: Design Searching... project Result 00 of 00 Tags: format 00 results for result for leaf springs mini project p.

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