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# Fourier Series A periodic function f ( x) is defined by

1

⎧ 2, 0 ≤ x < 2, f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩ x, 2 ≤ x < 4, f ( x) = f ( x + 4),
which it can be written as a Fourier series

f ( x) =

a0 ∞ ⎛ nπ nπ x + bn sin + ∑ ⎜ an cos 2 n =1 ⎝ L L

⎞ x ⎟. ⎠

(a) (b) (c)

Sketch the graph of f (x ) over −4 ≤ x ≤ 8. Calculate the Fourier coefficient, a0 . For n = 1, 2, 3, K , show that (i) (ii)

(cos 2nπ − cos nπ ). n π2 4 (cos nπ − cos 2nπ − 1). bn = nπ an =
2

2

(d)

By using answer in Q1 (b) and Q1 (c), obtain the Fourier series expansion for f (x ) .

2

A periodic function f (x ) is defined by ⎧3 + x − π ≤ x < 0, f ( x) = ⎨ 0 ≤ x < π, ⎩3 f ( x) = f ( x + 2π ). (a) (b) Sketch the graph of f (x ) over − 3π ≤ x ≤ 3π . Calculate the Fourier coefficient, a 0 .

⎩− 2 x f ( x) = f ( x + 6). which it can be written as a Fourier series f ( x) = a0 ∞ + ∑ (a n cos nx + bn sin nx ) 2 n =1 (a) Sketch the graph of f (x ) over − 3π ≤ x ≤ 3π . 3. Find the Fourier coefficients. ⎧2 x f ( x) = ⎨ 0 ≤ x < 3. − π ≤ x < 0. determine a Fourier series expansion for f(x). (c) (d) 4 A periodic function f ( x) is defined by ⎧− 4. K (d) Hence. a 0 . Obtain the Fourier series expansion of the periodic function f(x).(c) Show that (i) (ii) an = 1 (1 − cos nπ ). Give your reason. n for n = 1. . f ( x) = ⎨ 0 ≤ x < π. a n . f ( x) = f ( x + 2π ). even or neither function. Determine whether f(x) is an odd. and bn . and n 2π bn = − cos nπ . 3 Given − 3 ≤ x < 0. ⎩4. (a) (b) Sketch the graph of f(x) for − 10 ≤ x ≤ 10 . 2.

bn . Calculate the Fourier coefficient.(b) For n = 1. − 1 ≤ x < 0. 0 ≤ x < 1. K . n is odd and bn = ⎨ . π n=1 2n − 1 ∑ ∞ 5 A periodic function f ( x ) is defined by ⎧1 . n is even ⎪0 . an = ⎨ n π 2 ⎪ 1 . a0 = . (c) . (ii) an = 0. (a) (b) Sketch the graph of f ( x ) over −3 ≤ x ≤ 3 . Show that the Fourier series expansion for f (x ) is (c) (d) f ( x) = 16 sin(2n − 1) x . 3. 2. n is odd 3 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 . show that (i) a0 = 0. n is even ⎩ ⎪ nπ ⎩ Write the Fourier series of f ( x ) by giving your answers for the first three nonzero terms of an and bn . f ( x) = ⎨ ⎩1 − x. Show that the Fourier coefficients corresponding to f ( x ) are ⎧ 1 ⎧ 2 ⎪ − nπ . and f ( x ) = f ( x + 2).

. t ) = 0 .Partial Differential Equations 1 (a) A stretched string of length 3 cm is set oscillating. This heat problem is expressed by ∂u ∂ 2u =3 2 . it has an initial temperature x(π − x) o C . t ) = 0 and u (4. f ( x ) = x (3 − x ) . u(x. ∂t ∂t where u ( x. u xx = u tt . t ) = ∑ e n =1 ∞ ⎛ n cπ ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ 2 t nπ nπ ⎡ ⎢ An cos L x + Bn sin L ⎣ ⎤ x⎥ . The initial state is given by a function. ⎡ nπ 2 L 2 ⎢Hint : An = L ∫ 0 f ( x) sin L x dx. show that the solution for temperature distribution. L ⎦ (i) (ii) List the initial and boundary conditions. ⎦ If u (0. u(x. t) at any point in the rod at time t is u ( x. Calculate the value of An and Bn . Bn = n c π ⎣ (b) ∫ L 0 g ( x) sin ⎤ nπ x dx ⎥ L ⎦ The temperature distribution. (0 < x < 4. At t = 0. the subsequent displacement of the string is ∞ n cπ n cπ ⎡ u ( x. 4 2 A rod of length π m is fully insulated along its sides and its ends are dipped into ice and held at a temperature of 0 o C. t ) is the temperature of the rod at a distance x m from one end at time t seconds. t) in a 4 m long metal rod governed by ut = 16u xx . t ) = ∑ e − n π t Bn sin 2 2 ∞ n =1 nπ x. t > 0) where u ( x. By applying the wave equation. t ) = ∑ ⎢ An cos t + Bn sin L L n =1 ⎣ nπ ⎤ t ⎥ sin x. The string has been released with an initial velocity of 1 cm/sec.

u (π . t > 0). (ii) Also. πn 3 where l is the length of the rod. Show that the solution to the heat problem is u ( x. t ) = ⎨ + + + K⎬ 3 3 3 π⎪ 1 3 5 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 2 2 2 . t ) = ______. 2 ∞ n =1 (c) After applying the initial condition to u ( x. Initial Condition: (0 < x < π ). Boundary Conditions: (t > 0). ∂t ∂t u (0. show that its general solution is u ( x. Show that Dn = (d) Hence. Dn can be evaluated by using Dn = 2 l ⎛ nπx ⎞ ∫0 x(π − x) sin ⎜ l ⎟dx. t ) = ∑ Dn (sin nx )e −3n t . (b) (i) u ( x.(a) Complete the formulation of the heat problem by filling in the blanks below. t ) = Dn (sin nx)e −3n t 2 where Dn and n are arbitrary constants.0) = _________. t ) = _______. show that ⎫ 8 ⎧ (sin x)e −3(1) t (sin 3 x)e −3( 3) t (sin 5 x)e −3( 5) t ⎪ ⎪ u ( x. Heat Equation: (0 < x < π . ∂u ∂ 2u =3 2 . t ). l ⎝ ⎠ 4(1 − cos nπ ) .

. t > 0). L (b) A stretched string of length 3 cm is set oscillating. t) at any point in the rod at time t if u ( x. u(x. t ) = ∑ ⎢ An cos t + Bn sin L L n =1 ⎣ nπ ⎤ t ⎥ sin x.3 (a) The temperature distribution. u (0. By applying the wave equation. (0 < x < 5. 0) = 20 sin π x Determine the solution for temperature distribution. utt = 4u xx . By applying the wave equation. u(x. 0 ≤ x ≤ π . The initial state is given by a function. Calculate the value of An and Bn . t ) = ∑ e n =1 ∞ ⎛ n cπ ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ 2 t An sin nπ x. The string has been released with zero initial velocity. The string is set oscillating with initial velocity given as g ( x ) = x. n =1 ∞ (a) Write down (i) the initial conditions and (ii) the boundary conditions of the given problem. the subsequent displacement of the string is u ( x. f ( x ) = x (3 − x ) . t ) = u (5. L ⎦ (i) (ii) List the initial and boundary conditions. t ) = 0 u ( x. t) in a 5 m long metal rod governed by u t = 25u xx . 0 ≤ x ≤ π and initial state of the string is defined by f ( x ) = x (2 − x ). u xx = u tt . t ) = ∑ [ An cos 2nt + Bn sin 2nt ] sin nx . Bn = n c π ⎣ ∫ L 0 g ( x) sin ⎤ nπ x dx ⎥ L ⎦ 4 A uniform string of length π is fastened at both of its ends x = 0 and x = π . ⎡ nπ 2 L 2 ⎢Hint : An = L ∫ 0 f ( x) sin L x dx. the subsequent displacement of the string is ∞ n cπ n cπ ⎡ u ( x.

First Order ODE 1 (a) Solve these first order differential equations by using the appropriate method. ∫ π 0 g ( x) sin nx dx . By using Newton’s law of cooling formula dt (i) how long it will take the body to reach a temperature 85o F . 2 (a) Given the first order ordinary differential (t − 4) y 4 dt − t 3 ( y 2 − 3)dy = 0 . x y′ = (b) A body at a temperature of 40o F is placed outdoors where the temperature is 100o F . Show that the differential equation x dy + y = e2x dx (b) (i) is exact. find 70o F . (i) (ii) Show that the differential equation is separable. Hence. (ii) the temperature of the body after 30 minutes.(b) Using the fact that 2 π 1 An = ∫ f ( x) sin nx dx and Bn = 0 nπ π find An and Bn . y (1) = 0. . 5 y 4 + 4e 4 y 2 y′ + y = e x . solve the equation. (i) (ii) 2x + 1 . After 6 minutes the temperature of the body is dT = − k (T − Tm ) .

⎩ s + 8s + 12 ⎭ (b) Consider the function ⎧e 3t f (t ) = ⎨ ⎩t −1 (i) (ii) 0 ≤ t < 1.(ii) Hence. Solve for f ( x) = x e−x 2 (c) by using the method of variation of parameters. show that its solution is 2 xy − e 2 x = A. dx 2 ⎝4⎠ Second Order ODE Given y ′′ + 4 y ′ + 3 y = f ( x ). Solve for f ( x) = ( x − 3) 2 by using the method of undetermined coefficients. . (a) (b) Solve for f ( x ) = 0 . Write the function f (x ) in the form of unit step functions. where A is an arbitrary constant. 0 ≤ x < . y ⎜ ⎟ = 3 2. find the Laplace transform of f (t ) . (cos x) dy π ⎛π ⎞ + (sin x) y = 2 cos 3 x sin( x − 1). t ≥ 1. (c) Solve the following initial value problem. Then. Laplace Transform 1 (a) ⎧ s+6 ⎫ Find L-1 ⎨ 2 ⎬.