..

l!mm
MILITARY
MEN-AT-ARMS SERIES 268
THE BRITISH TROOPS IN
THE INDIAN MUTINY
1857-59
\- "- ....
. . \

,-
355.14 asp - 268
MICHAEL BARTHORP DOUGLAS N ANDERSON
EDITOR, LEE JOHNSON
MEN-AT-ARMS SERIES
~ 268
MlI.lTARY
THE BRITISH TROOPS IN
THE INDIAN MUTINY
1857-59
Text by
MICHAEL BARTHORP
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Author's note
Readers may find it helpful tOeonsuh this title in
par.lJlel with the folio'" ing Osprey publications:
l\ IAA 196 TIft Bnluh Army on Campai!" (2):

l\lAA 198 TIlt Bruuh Army on Campa/!n (J):
,8j6-()f
l\1AA 219 Qurrn VUlorw's EnemJts (J): India
-
THE INDIAN MUTINY
INTRODUCTION
In 1856 the British Army emerged from its first
conflict with a major power since 1815 -the Crimean
War. Though \'icwry m·er the Russians had been
won, the war revealed many defects in the British
military s) stcm which ideally would require a period
of peace to repair. Disputes \lith Pcrsi;l and China
were brewing; but should these come to force ofarms,
the force needed would not be large, nor shollid it
unduly delay or interrupt the refot'ming process. Yet
within I..j. months of the Peace of Paris being signcd
\\ith Russia, the Army was faced \\ith a crisis which,
before it was finally resolved, would require an cven
greater commitment of force than the Crimean War
had. From t\lay 1857 British rule in northern India
became seriously threatened b) or unrelia-
bility in the largest force maimained in the
sub-continem - an insurrC(:tion \\ hich sundry
princes and notables saw as their opportunity to
regain lost power and propcrt).
British India, which still embraced a diminishing
number of semi-indepcndem or 'protected' Stales,
was nominally ruled through its GO\'crnor-Gcncral-
from ,856, Lord Canning - by thc East India
(EIC), whose Court of DirC(:tors in Lon-
don \\as ans\\erable to the British Go\·crnment's
Boord of Control, whose President was a political
appointment and had a seat in the Cabinet.
The rule of the previous Go\'ernor-General,
Lord Dalhousie, had not only advanced the bound-
aries of British India to the Afghan border by its final
conquest of the Sikhs of the Punjab and that
territory's anncxation in 1849; but had been marked
by Dalhousie's determination to bring peace, pros-
perity and justice to ordinary Indians, tOgether with
the bcnefits of modern communications, irrigation,
education and trade. Though Dalhousie's reforms
were undoubtedly well-intentioned, their execution
was at times hurried and heavy-handed; and, unlike
some who knew India better, he did not apprC(:iate
what dangers might lie in what Sir George
has called trying 'to graft Wcstern progress on an
Eastern stalk'. Such a process bore hardest on local
rulers and landowners, whose methods were remOte
from Dalhousie's liberal ideals but were at least
familiar to their subjects and tenants. When, in
pursuit of eradicating misrule, he annexed the deeply
corrupt Kingdom of Oudh, a large and predomi-
TfY}()p$ adnwcing tOl4":Jrds
Delhi.
)
,
The ,heauTofopcrruions,
,857-59. The black flags
indie-.ut: 100000tions of
Queen s'roops in the
IJcllgal in I\la\'
,857· ..
L
L
....,
A
B
loan' to the EIC. These should havc totalled 26; but
fi\'c had been sen! to thc Crimea and only one
replaccd, and by 1857 three had gonc 10 Persia. On
thc C"C of the Mutiny the grand total ofNali\'c troops
stood at 311,000, of Europeans (EIC and Queen's)
40,000 - a proportion of eight to one.
Thc Bengal Army was not only the largest but
also the most susceptible to disaffcction. What
brought it to insurrection, thcreby gi,-ing other dis-
aRccted clements thc opportunity to rebel, has been
explained in l\lAi\ 219. For rcasons of space this will
not be repeated here; but it is imponant to cmphasisc
that the famous matter of the greased was
but the spark that ignited an already explosive
situation which ncvcrtheless caught most of the
British authorities unawarcs.
A factor which lalcr grcatly affectcd the balance
of forces must bc mentioned. Thc sudden, perilous
predicament facing the [IC might well have seemed
the opportunity for the recently conquercd but
still martial Sikhs to regain their indcpendence.
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nantly Hindu province ruled by a Moslem dynasty, in
1856, his action not only exacerbated the fears and
distrust ofother rulers, but caused resentment within
pans of the EIC armies, much of which were
recruited from the sons of high-caS1C Hindu land-
owner'S and agricultural yeomen of Oudh, and on
which British power ultimately depended.
The three separate EIC armies of Bcngal, Mad-
ras and Bombay, parr-European bUI mostly Native,
ha\'c been described in ,\'1AA 219. Quem Vi£toria's
Entm;n (3), With '35 major units· the Bengal Army
was larger than the other twO combined (120 major
units). Separatc from the Bcngal Army was thc
Punjab Irrcgular Forcc (16 units). In addition thcrc
wcre thc Oudh Irrcgulars (17 units), formed from thc
King of Oudh's disbandcd soldicry; and 'Contin-
gcnts' of all arms, with British officers, belonging to
the protected states, of which the two largest werc
those ofGwalior and Hyderabad. Finally there were a
number of cavalry regiments and infantry battalions
of the Royal, or Quecn's Army, stationed in India 'on
RAJPUTANA
ications up thc Ganges from Calcutta, through which
any relief force for Lucknow had to pass. Thc
massacrc of the Cawnpore garrison, with thcir wh'cs
and children, through the treachery of one of the
rcvolt's major leaders, the Nana Sahib, inspired the
advancing British troops to merciless revenge and
sUI>crhuman efforts to overcome great hardship and
dangers. Again the problems of concentrating suffi-
cient force, in this case from outsidc India, and the
need to supprcss outbreaks en route, delayed the
relief of Lucknow, Ha,'e1ock's first attempt only
managing to reinforce the garrison, Campbell's
second terminating with its evacuation. The latter
was followed by the banles at Cawnpore against the
mutinied Gwalior Contingent, which had joined the
Nana's general, Tanria Tope. With Cawnpore
5
Ilowever, the Bengal sepoys had not, on the whole,
performed well in the Sikh Wars, the hardcst work of
two \'ery hard campaigns falling to the Queen's
regimenlS; and during these operations considerable
mutual rcspect had developed heNcen British and
Sikhs. The Punjab's subsequent occupation by
Bengal regiments was unpopular with both sepoys
and Sikhs: the former because as high-caste Hindus
they regarded the Sikhs as unclean barbarians, the
laner because they considered themselves the bener
soldiers. Both felt cOlllempt for each other, but the
sepoys also felt fcar - and the Sikhs knew it. British
administration of the Punjab since 18-19 had been
sound and fair. To many Sikhs, t857 seemed the
chance not to lurn against their new masters, but to
win the return match against the Bengal sepo)"s.
OUTLINE OF
OPERATIONS
The operations to suppress the MlIliny fell into three
major campaigns. After the regiments at Meerut
mutinied, they marched to Delhi, only 40 miles
away. This had a large garrison of Bengal Native
Infantry (BNI) with no British regiments and, above
all, was the seal of the old King of Delhi, Bahadur
Shah, dcscendant of the great Mughal emperors. The
Meerut men, quickly joined by the Delhi regiments,
proclaimed him Emperor of India, providing a focus
ofrebcllion at the ancient Mughal capital, to which
mutineers and dissidents from all over the region
were drawn.
The retention of Delhi, as a symbol of success,
became as vital to the rebel cause as its tceapturc was
to the British. The lauer's concentration of sufficient
force was hampered by logistic unpreparedness and
the need to ensure the security of the IJunjab and the
Afghan frontier. Eventually it was recaptured,
against heavy odds; and this pro\'ed the turning point
of the rebellion, leading to the relief of Agra, the
EIC's headquarters in the North-Wcsi Provinccs.
The concurrent campaign in Oudh ill\'olved the
efforts ro relieve the small garrison bcsieged in
Lucknow, the province's former capital and scat of
the British Residenl, and, unsuccessfully, the smaller
garrison at C'lwnpore, the head of the vital commun-
Buglcr J ILlI
Ught
",,-inning the l'Cat the
ofthe
cr.ue, Delhi: painting by
l'erd"crHamilton. (Anne
S.K. Bro""'niUilitary
Collection)
-
oontmue.
CHRONOLOGY
the year, and inlO 1859, operations continued to
suppress guerrilla activity and, in particular, to
capture Tantia Tope, who was finally ta1':cn in April
18
59.
Enfield cartridges,
1\loslcms, at Dum
Rumours of greased
affccling Hindus and
Dum.
Ftb.-ltIuy MUlinies or disbandment orfour Bengal
reglmenls.
May 10-1 I Mutinies and murders at jvleerut and
Delhi.
12-29 Mutinies al t2 stations in Ganges Valley.
ONI regiments in Punjab disarmed by Brig.
Gen. Nicholson's moveable column (into
July).
Delhi Field Force (1"1") ad\·ances from
Ambala.
Outbreak at Lucknow; mUlineers dispersed
or disarmed.
Mutinies in Rohilkand.
Further mutinies throughout month in
Ganges Valley, Rajputana, Central India
(ell·
Alutiny at Cawnpore. Maj. Gen. Wheeler's
entrenchment besieged.
Delhi 1"1", plus Meerut garrison, defeat
mutineers al Badli-ke-Serai, reach Delhi
Ridge; siege begins 15 June.
Massacre at Jhansi (CI).
Malwa FF begins operations in CI.
Col. Neill's force from Calcuna for relief of
Cawnpore reaches Allahabad.
Nana Sahib offers Wheeler terms al Cawn-
pore. Garrison massacred, women and chil-
dren imprisoned.
Sir 1-1. Lawrence, commanding at Luck-
now, defeated at Chinhut by advancing
mutineers. Lucknow Residency besieged.
Mutinies in Punjab, Malwa, Ganges Valley,
Agra.
Siege of Delhi and Defence of Lucknow
"
IJ
8
30
3'
JII1Ie
30
Jllly
'5
secured, Campbell prepared for Lucknow's final
capture in ~ l a r c h 1858. lie railed to prc\'cnt
thousands of rebels escaping iolO Oudh and its
neighbouring aTeas of Rohilkand and Bihar, which
took the rest oCthe year to pacify.
The third campaign, ofCcntntl India, occurred
south of the Dclhi-Oudh operations, in the Malwa
area of protected native stales, including Gwalior,
and the recently annexed Jhansi, lying between
Rajputana and Bundelkhund. Mutinies and uprisings
began in June 1857. bUI owing 10 a dearth of
European troops and a particularly heavy monsoon
Sir Hugh Rose could not start major operations until
January 1858. These, which included the Bombay
Army and Hydcrabad Contingent as well as Brilish
forces, were direcled firsl to Ihe capture of Jhansi,
whose Rani was joined by Tantia Tope, then to the
pursuit of the rebel forces who, after their defeat at
Kalpi, occupied Gwalior lOwn and forl. Here they
were finally defeated in June 1858. Until the end of
QIIt.'C1J 's infillltr)' ill hll IId-
(0-111111(/ lighting Ilf rhe
jumma !\1l1sjid mosque,
Dc/hi.
6
JJombanHer Thomas,
fkn/('aJ Artillery, winning
the "e for rescuinlf B
lI"ounded Madr:JS Fusilier
during a !iOrtie by thut
regiment, HJlI j8th lind
7
/5
/6
'5
Aug.
,
5-/3
/4
/6
/7
Maj. Gen. Havelock and Neill leave Allah-
abad for uwnpore.
British women and children in uwnpore
murdered.
Ha,·clock defeats Nana Sahib, Fim Baltic
ofuwnpore.
Havelock resumes advance, defeating rebels
at Unao (29 July).
Further mutinies in el, Bihar.
Siege of Delhi and Defence of Lucknow
contmue.
l\llalwa FF relieves Mhow.
Havelock forced by casualties to re(Urn ro
Cawnporc.
Nicholson and moveable column arri'"e
Delhi Ridge.
Ha"elock defeats enemy at Bithur but un-
able to advance.
All Oudh now in rebellion.
Gen. Sir Colin Campbell arrives India as C-
in-C.
StPl.2
'5
Oct.
/0
Maj. Gen. Outram reaches Allahabad with
reinforcements.
Siege Train reaches Delhi.
Assault and capture of Delhi.
Outram joins Havelock.
Havclock and Outram advance on Luck-
now.
First Relief of Lucknow. Enlarged garrison
remains besieged, with outlying detach-
ment at Alambagh.
Defence of Lueknow continues. Campbell
prepares relief.
Unrest in North Bengal and Bihar.
Part of Delhi FF relieves Agra, marches to
join Campbell.
Revoh in Kotah (Rajpurana).
dismounted Probyn's
Horse from the Ludmow
Residenc}'. Zj Sept. ,857.
(Modern painringby Dawn
II'lIring for 55 (Residency)
Battcry. RAJ
7
-
. .
allOns contlnue.
Banle of Bareilly. Campbell defeats rebels
but they escape.
Rose defeats Tantia Tope al Kunch.
Rose attacks and captures Kalpi.
Rohilkand operations completed. Guerrilla
warfare begins.
Anti-guerrilla operations in Oudh, Bihar
and on Nepal frontier.
Tantia Tope and Rani of Jhansi seize
Gwalior.
Rose leaves Kalpi for Gwalior.
Rose attacks rebels at Morar.
Rose clears Country east of Saugor; ad-
vances on Jhansi.
1-10 Campbell rcaches Alambagh. Prelimi-
nary operations against Lucknow.
Assault and capture of Lucknow. Rebels
escape to west.
Rose reaches Jhansi, begins siege.
Rajpmana FF takes Korah.
Campbell begins pacification of Oudh;
expeditions into Bihar to relie\'e Azimgarh
and into Rohilkand.
Battle of the Bctwa. Rose defeats Tantia
Tope marching to Jhansi's aid.
Capture ofJhansi.
Rose advances towards Kalpi.
Rose continues advance. Rohilkand oper-
,Mar.
11-21
,
1
1C)-2J
22
3-5
25
May
21-31
29
April
,
J"ne
5
Farchgarh captured. Campbell prepares
capture of Lucknow.
Rose begins CI campaign with relief of
Saugor (3 Feb.).
Rajputana FF operates £0 west.
Campbell concent.rates on N bank of
Ganges for entry imo Oudh.
Feb.
Nov. g-/2 Campbell advances from Cawnporc to
Alambagh.
Tantia Tope with Gwalior Contingent ad-
vances on Cawnporc, held by Maj. Gen.
Windham.
Second Relief of Lucknow.
E,"acuation of Luclmow, lea"iog garrison at
Alambagh. Campbell marches for Ca\m-
pore.
Malwa FF completes opcr.uions south of
River Narbada.
26-28 Second Banlc of Cawnporc. Windham at-
tacks Tantia Tope but forced to relreat.
28-JO Campbell reaches Cawnporc to 10m
Windham.
Dec. 6 Third Battlc of Cawnporc. Campbell de-
feats Tamia Tope.
Operations 10 capture Fatchgarh, NW of
Cawnporc.
Maj. Gen. Sir Hugh Rose takes command
orCI FF.
7-jI
8
1. _
THE OPPOSING
ARMIES
17 Baule of Kotah-ke-Serni. Rajputana FF
defeat rebels. Rani ofjhansi killcd.
18-20 Rose captures Gwalior. Tantia Tope flces.
JuIJDu. Mopping-up operntions and hunt for
Tantia Tope in Rajput'ana and CI.
18
59
Jan.-Mar. Pursuit ofTantia Tope continues.
April; Tantia Tope captured; exccuted ,8 April.
Rebel Forces
These ha ve been cO\'ered at some length in MAA 2 '9,
but can be summarised as follows:
(a) The Bengal Army, of whose 123 Nativc Rcgular,
Irregular and Local units, 59 mutinied and 37
partially mutinied, or were disarmed or disban-
ded. In the Regular category, of 88 cavalry,
artillery and infantry units, 50 mutinied and 33
panially mutinied.
L('fr: "'feeting ofHH H:lock,
Ournllll ,wd Campbell.
Srt'Oncl relicfo(Luckno""
'7 NOI·. ,857: after the
painting b)' T.j. IJllrkcr.
(,vatiomii Arm)' Museum)
11 bon:; lI'imlh:ml's Iltt:u;k
on rhe G"",lior
Comillgem. st'COlJd IJ;/ule
ofGJ wlIpore, 26 No,'. t857:
Ihhogmph [Ift('r Captain
0.5. Grt'Cne. RA. (Anne
S.K. IJro...n Milit:lry
CoJJcr:rion)
. ~ .
(b) The Oudh Irregular Force (14 units).
(c) 'Comingcnts' of some protected states.
(d) Retainers ofOudh's and other notables.
(c) Bands of Moslem fanatics, including Arab and
Aflthan mercenaries.
(I) Criminal elements.
i\lAA 219 givcs no (Oml under arms, which is
impossible to assess, but some approximations of
rebel strengths at certain c\'ents em be given:
(a) Delhi when assaulted held some 40,000 with '50
guns.
(b) Lucknow before its final cpture held 120,000
(excluding civilians).
(c) At Bareilly, May 1858,36,000,40 guns.
(d) In jhansi, April 1858, 11,000 with Tantia Tope's
20,000 approaching.
Acomparison of these strengths with t hose of the
EIC forces opposing them on each occasion reveals a
rebel superiority, on average, of 6.25:1. A major
reason why such superiority so often failed to win
victory was the rebel weakness in leadership at
battalion level and above, and the lack of any proper
command structure to co-ordinate their operations.
East India Company (EIC) Forces
With the Bengal Anny mutinous, or at best unpre-
dictable, and with the intentions, at least early on, of
the Bombay and Madrns Armies uncertain, the only
forces that could be relied upon for immediate action
were the Company Europe:ans and the Queen's
regiments then in India.
,
CompallY Europeam
In Bengal rhese (olalled only three brigades of horse
artillcry ( 5 ~ guns); six battalions of foot artillery
finding t I field baucrics (66 guns) and 13 garrison
companies; and three battalions of infantry. Bombay
and Madras had the same infantry, bUI only one
brigade of horse artillery each, and three and four
b:malions respectively of foot artillery. All Ihrce had
European engineer officers and NCOs.
Queen's Regiments
In 1857 the British cavalry and infantry lOlalied 23
regiments and 1°7 battalions, exclusi\"c of thc House-
hold Cavalry and Foot Guards. Betwcen 1858 and
1859 two new regimcnts and 25 battalions were
raised I. When the Mutiny began four regiments and
18 battalions were based in India but, ofthesc, I-IM
14th Light Dragoons, I-IM 64th Foot and 78th
I-lighlanders were serving in Persia. Furthcrmore,
the 19 units in garrison wcrc not cvenly distributed.
Between Caleuna and Cawnpore (over 600 miles by
road) there were only I-lM 53rd FOOl al Ollcuna and
I-IM loth Foot at Dinapore. HM 32nd wcrc at
Lucknow, and I-I.M 6th Dragoon Guards and 60th
Rifles at Meerut. Except for four units in thc Madras
and Bombay Presidencies, all the rcst, plus most of
the Bengal Europeans, were in the Punjab, between
Ambala (130 miles from Nlcerut) and Peshawar (400
miles (0 the north-west).
This concentration of the most reliable troops,
under the most effective British officers and officials
then in India, certainly ensured the border and
pre"cntcd any rcpetition of MeerUl and Lucknow in
the Punjab, as well as having salutary effccts on Ihc
provincc's inhabitants; but it delayed action bcing
takcn further south, where the outbreaks created a
barrier between the Punjab and Bengal proper.
Nevertheless, it was from the Punjab and Meerut
Ihat the force which c\"cnruaUy captured Delhi came.
Delhi's fall released some of this force for operations
in Oudh, but it was still deemed necessary 10 keep a
proportion of Queen's regiments in the Punjab and
on the Frontier whcrc some, like HM 70th, remained
throughout the Muriny. Therefore, to find sufficient
strength to subdue thc rebcllion further south and in
Ccmrallndia, other Queen's units had 10 be brought
10
in: those from Persia, from Burma (3), Ceylon (I), the
divencd China cxpedition (4t), and uhimately from
more distan! garrisons and England - all of which
took lime.
Much of the Army in England had not long since
rcturned from thc Crimea and was rcgaining its
strcngth, both numerically and figurali\"cly. But so
scrious did the position in India appear that rein-
forcements had 10 go, e\·cn if many wcrc little more
than recruits. Between t857 and 1859, eight cavalry
regiments, -l7 infantry battalions, the newly fonned
Military Train
l
and, for the first timc since the 18th
ccntury, four troops RHA, 26 companics RA, and
four companics RE, wcrc despatched from Australia,
the C"lpC, Mediterranean and England. By thc end of
the Mutiny 64% of the entire 1857 strength of
Queen's Cavalry and Infanrry (excluding Household
troops) were serving in India, although at leasl a third
were only engaged on the periphery of the main
opeT3tions or were occupying garrisons vacated by
units in the field; J nc\"ertheless this was ,6
0
0
more
than had been employed in thc Crimea.
Notwithstanding Ihis considerable force, the
time it took to assemble, plus the size of the
ol>crational theatre. meant that the task could not
1 1"_dy I..nd T...n"l"""' e.".po., cm,*"cd .. " " . ~ 1 ' Y in rMilo
J 1"01" ''l'n><n'""I'Fd,''' MAA ''18. PI
ur,: Officers and men of
EIClJenpl Horse Aru'Uer)
the i\tutin.":
lithograph after H.
(Pri,"ate
collcction)
Right: EIC 1St Europc:m
Iknpl Fusiliers n'pulsing
mlJ/inccrs at Dc/hi:
lithograph after Caproin
G.F. Atkinson.
have been accomplished withom other forces - those
that remained loyal to the ETC or were prepared to
enlist in its cause.
Loyal Nafive Forcu
The Bombay Army, except for two regiments,
remained loyal and, as mentioned earlier, played a
major role, with the I-Iyderabad Conlingent, in
Central India. No mutinies occurred in the l\ladras
Army, which had a subsidiary role in Central India
and sent a few troops to the Dudh campaign. Of the
Bengal Army, three Irregular cavalry regiments, four
ofBNI, plus clements oft hrec mhers, relll:lined loyal,
as did the three Gurkha battalions, most of three Sikh
units, seven other Local or Irregul:lr infantry units,
and two Native artillery sub-units.
The most important accession to ETC strength,
both as regards the security of the north-west and
major operations, Clme from the Punjab Irregular
Force: the Corps of Guides, five cavalry regiments
and ten infantry battalions" Raised in 1846-49, it was
recruited entirely from what later became known as
'the martial races' - Sikhs, Punjabi l\lussulmen,
Gurkhas, Pathans, Afghans and Baluchis, who fell no
kinship or respect for the Hindu sepoys.
In addition, othcrs of their ilk, particularly Sikhs
for reasons already srated, came forward to form new
Irregular cavalry units, like Hodson's and Probyn's
Horse, and 14 battalions of Punjab infantry.
Although their loyalty was often given more to
individual British oflicers than to the company, they
provided valuable reinforcements, the cavalry parti-
cularly off-setting the ETC forces' shortage of that
arm. Such units also provided employment for
British officers of mutinied or disbanded regiments.
Tactics
The Crimean lessons of the rifle's greatly improved
range and accuracy over the smoothbore musket had
not yet begun to influence the Army's tactical
methods and formations, which remained essentially
those in force in [he Crimea, despite a new 'Tnfamry
Manual' issued in 1857. These, and the handling of
C'Jvalry and artillery, have been explained in outline
in MAA 196 (pp. <)-18), :lnd [hei.r application to the
Mutiny fighting in MAA 198 (pp. 7-8), and space
does not permit their repetition here. Though not all
of the EIC forces yet had the rifle, its advantages over
the sepoys' smoothbores soon became sufficiently
evidem to most commanders. This, added to the
opcn nature of much of the terrain, resulted in a
grC3ler usc of skirmishing lines rather than c1ose-
order formations. In the Clvalry too, particularly the
newly raised Irregulars, much looser formations
became the norm, partly due to their men's nature
"
and partly to their hasly training, many learning their
trade almost as the)' wenl along.
Ilo\\'c\'cr, old habits died hard. In one instance
the sight of Hi\1 53rd. armed wilh Enfields,
ad\"ancing in column of companies against infantry
and artillery at Lucknow, caused a wrathful explosion
from Sir Colin Campbclllo a staff officer: 'Go down
and [ell ,hal commanding officer to deploy at once
and advance in skirmishing order. How can men be
such fools!'
Since the rebels' sepoy regiments had been
trained in the same methods, the earlier fighting
became a conflict between those methods, at least
while the sepoys retained their regimcnlal organis-
ation. BUI, more often than nOl, the [IC forces'
better and more experienced command structure,
their superior rifle-fire, and not least the dogged
determination of the British soldier, pre\'ailed against
the massed ranks of sepoys and their allies, notwith-
standing their usually well-served artillery. When it
is remembered that tactical thinking com"enrional1y
demands an attacker to have a 3:1 superiority over a
defender to ensure success, the fact that the Delhi
Field Force took the city with an inferiority of 1:9
illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of both sides.
Furthermore, not only were the £1 C forces usually
outnumbered, they were also having to contend with
a suffocating climate, for which they were not inured
nor well-cquippcd.
. . . .
_ .!" t . -.9'(j
If. ... n .
I,-\\fln
.
12
DRESS,
EQUIPMENT AND
WEAPONS
This subject, as it affects the rebel forces, has been
covered in MAA 219, so will not be considered
further here. Some examples are, however, shown in
Plate A to provide a contrast with the Qyeen's and
loyal £IC troops that occupy the other plales.
The nature of campaigning in the Mutiny, and
particularly the fact that much of it occurred in the
honest time of the year, resulted in a \'ariety of
costumes being adopted, many of which, especially
among Queen's troops, bore little resemblance to the
dress required by regulations. In the Sikh Wars a
decade earlier the trOOps had largely fought in
regulation dress. The Mutiny was very different,
although even then some regiments had no alterna-
tive to their home service dress, as will be seen. To
understand what was actually worn in the field, the
regulation clothing must first be explained.
Queen's Troops
In 1857 the AmlY's dress had not long entered the
'tunic era'. The 1855 dress changes had abolished, for
all arms except the Royal Horse Artillery, the by then

-
I
old-fashioned coatees and jackets which ended at the
waist in front bur with long or short tails behind (sec
MAA 196). In their place had come the full-skirted
tunic, double-breasted for lancers and infantry,
single-breasted for the remainder, though the infan-
try changed to the latter from 1856. The tunic colour
remained as before: scarlet (red for rank and file) for
General and Staff Officers, 1-IC3\'y Ca\'alry, Royal
Engineers, and infantry, except for the 60th Rifles
and Rifle Brigade in rifle-green; blue for other
cavalry, Royal Artillery, and the newly formed
Services (Military Train, Medical, Ordnance). In-
fanrry bandsmen's tunics were white, but drummers
and Light Infantry buglers wore red and Highland
pipers green. I-lighland regiments, kilted and non-
kihed, received the doublet with Inverness skirrs,
also at first double-breasted. Rifles officers' tunics
followed the Light Dragoon paHern. Trousers re-
mained as before, except the infantry's summer
pattern changed to dark blue, white being retained
for hot climates.
Except in rhe Heavy Cavalry, headdress changed
to generally smaller and lighrer patlcrns, the Light
DT1Igoons and infamry reraining shakos bur tilted
forward in the French style, rhe infamr} 's still ha\'ing
front and rear peaks. In Ihe three non-kilted
Highland regiments, the 7ISt'S and 74th'S shakos
followed the French trcnd, bUI the 7znd kcpt to the
feather bonner of other Ilighianders. The lower
busbies and caps for hussars and lancers were not
authorised until 1857 and 1856 rcspecti\'ely. The
RO):l1 Artillery and RoyaJ Engineers both adopted
busbies in place ofshakos, but the t\lilitary Train had
shakos similar to Light Dragoons.
Examples of these uniforms for C3 valry, artillery
and infantry can be seen in the accompanying G.H.
Thomas prints (for Engineersand Train, see
J\tAA 198, p.Zl). Of particular nOte is the unique
dress of the 6th Dragoon Guards, a regiment,
which \\ore a Heavy Ca\'alry helmet and a Light
Dragoon tunic.
Undress uniforms underwent less alteration
from the 1855 changes, although the infantry's
Kilmarnock caps reduced slightly in height and their
officers' caps received flat peaks. Highland regimems'
undress headgear was now officially the Glengarry
though some, like the 4znd, 7lst, 72nd and 78th -all
in the 1\hlliny - retained their old Kilmarnocks,
known as 'hummle bonnets'. Mounted arms' 'pill-
box' caps remained unch:mged. The undress upper
garment continued to be the shell or stable jacket, in
the tunic colour with regimental facings, terminating
at the waist ,,-ith no tails. In Highland regiments
officers and senior NCOs had scarlet shells, but those
of sergeants and below were white. Officers on parade
\\ ith troops wore shell or srable jackets, but for other
undress occasions dark blue frock coats, also much
used by General and Staff officers.
Left: A Queen's inf."Inlry
boHtillion lit full strength:
f1M J5th in column of
oomp."Inics in Jndi/in cold-
"·e.llther drt"SS. The Blind,
Orums lind Pioneers lire ,jt
Idt. (C1lllrlcsStilddcn
Collcction)
Right: Omccrs andmen of
11M Rifle Brigade in forage
C".lPS lind tunics. The :znd
and Jrd JJllrf1llions IT1lchtxl
India in time for the
uwnporc battles in
I Xow.'mber find December
,857. (Rifle Brigade
Museum Trust)
IJ
Loyal EIe Troops
In principle the dress of the Ele Armies followed the
Royal Army's, both for dress and undress, cold and
hm weather, except where there was no equivalent, as
in the Irregular corps and the Punjab Irregular Force
In India the home service clothing sufficed
during the so-called 'cold weather', (Oclober to
March) when temperatures were roughl) equi\'alent
10 a good English summer. (It was, incidentally, Ihe
season 10 \\ hich most of the Sikh Wars had been
confined.) For the hot weather, when temperatures
soared into the 90s and 100S (Fahrenheit), troops
were issued with white e:\p co\'ers and a number of
white drill shell jackets and trousers. Another item
peculiar LO Indi:l were trousers of Nanking (Ouon or
dungaree material, which were issued to soldiers
primarily as a \\orking dress but which had been used
for field scniee in the campaigns of the 18.*OS,
In Ihose da}s Queen's regiments cuslOmarily
spent a dozen years or more in India (the 9th Lancers,
for example, were there from 18.p until 1859), so
their men bec-Jme acclimatised; but even so few
parades occurred during the heat oCthe day in the hot
weather in peacetime. Yet it was during that \'ery
season that much of the hardest fighting and march-
ing in the Mutiny took place. Before seeing how the
regulation cold- and hot-weather dress was adapted
10 cope with such conditions, the dress ofloyal Ele
troops, and the accoutrements and weapons of both
clements, must next be considered.
-
This dress and undress clothing pertained
where,·cr British troops wcre stationed, bOlh home
and abroad, for peace and war. There CQuld, ho\\-
c,'cr, be lengthy delays between the authorisation of
new items and their actual issue, due in part to
distance from the home base, in part (0 the require-
ment for using up and wcaring out of old kit, each
garment having a prescribed length of life between
issues. For example, the order changing the
infantry's tunics from double-to single-breasted was
dated 28 March 1856 bur was not to take effect until I
April 1857. A tunic was renewed e,·cTy )C3r at home,
bUI only ever) two years in India, as il was "oro less
there. Thus a soldier in India who Tccei\ed a new
double-brC3stcd tunic on I April 1856 (after the
change had been published) would nOI recei\'c his
new, single-breasted garment until I April 1858, twO
years after authorisation,
Another 1856 order, of 1 September, stated that
in future regiments in India would receive, instead of
a shell jacket, a red serge or kerscy frock, cut like a
loose tunic but with fe\\er buttons and embellish-
ments, However, as shells also had a t w ~ y e a r life, the
earliest an infantryman could have received a new
frock would have been 1April 1858, by which time he
would be in hot-weather clothing, Thus, despite
frocks being authorised well before the Mutiny
began, it is unlikely that they were worn during it-
except possibly by officers who, being responsible for
the provision of their own uniforms, were sometimes
in possession of new p:merns before Iheir men.
l
14
-------------------
Left: Hodson's HOT# in
tlction apinst mounted
rebels at RholUck, neJjr
Delhi: lithograph aftcr
Captain G.F. Atkinson.
(National Army lHuscum)
Right: ThcMilitary Troin
acting lIS CtlWI.lry engaging
sepo-"s at Ludrnow:
,nintinKby CCP.
Wnt-son. (AnnS.K.lJrown
Military Collection)
(PIF). Dress changes, however, tended to be promul-
gatcd latcr. For example, the 'Alben' shako, worn by
Queen's Infantry and the Royal Artillery until 1855,
was approved at home on 4 December 1843, but not
until 29 June 1846 for EIC European Infantry and
Foot Artillery, who still had it as their dress headgear
in 1857. Shakos had been abolished in favour of
Kilmarnock forage caps for Indian ranks in the
Bengal and Bombay Native Infantry in 184; and
1854 respecti ....ely, Madras NI continuing to wear
their bulbous-shaped black turbans. Thc major
change, to the tunic, was not approvcd by the EIC
until three days beforc the broke out at
and then only for infantry and artillery.
Thus, in 1857, the Regular EIC regiments, European
and Native, still had, when parading in dress, a pre-
1855 appearance compared with Queen's troops.
One unique item, uninflucnced by Royal Army
fashions, was the headdress worn by Europeans of the
three Presidencies' Horse i\rtilleries who, instead of
the RHA's busby, had a glazed 'Roman' helmet with
brass crcst and horsehair mane, the colour of which,
and the embellishments, varied between the three
regiments.
Thc dress of the PIF cavalry and infantry
followed a completely diffcrcnt line from thc
European-style drcss of the Regular regiments and
adopted a marc indigenous costume, with 'Iungis' or
'pagris' (turbans) round their heads, smock-like
'alkalaks' or 'kurtas', and the loose trousers called
'pyjamas', although there is evidence of shell jackcts
and simplc frocks bcing worn. Among thc PIF
cavalry, and the new regiments raised in the Punjab
during the Mutiny, there were many \'ariations of cut
and colour. The PIF infantry generally followed the
precedent set by the Corps of Guides, the first
regiment in India, Queen's or EIC, to adopt loose
clothing of khaki colour, or drab as it was officially
called. The only exception was the 1st Punjab
Infantry, who worc loose drill frocks and trousers
dycd a dark indigo. Thc keynotc of all such uniforms
was. practicality.
The three Gurkha battalions existing in 185;,
though nOt then officially designated as 'Rifles', had
worn dark green uniforms for some years, the cut of
which, by the Mutiny, approximated to that worn
pre-18sS by HM Rifle Brigade, though with Kilmar-
nock forage caps (see Osprey Elite 49, Curlthas).
The Madras and Bombay Light u\'alry's
European-slyle uniforms werc, like those of Bengal,
'Frcnch grcy'. The Bombay Irregular cnalry, like
the Scindc Horse, followed the trend of the PIF
cavalry. Among the Bombay Infantry in its forage
caps and rcd coatees, the Baluch Battalion struck an
unusual note with green turbans, green, red-laced
frocks, and red trousers.
Since Indian troops were born to the climate and
since, at least in the PIF and Irregular corps, their
IS
-
clothing was ocHer suited to it, their dress required
less adaptation and departure from rcgul:llions than
that of the Queen's regiments.
Accoutrements
Personal accoutrements for all arms remained as they
had been at the end of the Crimean War (MAA 196),
although some minor modifications were authorised
in 1856-57. The materials were buff leather, norm-
ally pipcclaycd, for all belts and slings, and black
leather for pouches, except for Rifles who had all in
black.
The cavalryman received a waistbclt with slings
for his sword and, for hussars only, his sabrcrachc,
and a shoulder belt with pouch for his C1rbinc or
(officers and all lancers) pistol ammunition. Carbinc-
armed cavalrymen had an extension to the pouch belt
suspending a clip for attachment to the carbine's
side-bar. Following the adoption of the tunic, the
waistbch was worn under it by the 6th Dragoon
Guards, Light Dragoons and hussars. Officers' dress
belts were gold-laced blll in undress plain white; their
pouches, morc ornatc than thc men's, varied accord-
ing to their branch and were the same in dress and
undress.
The infamrrman had his waist belt to suspend his
bayonet from a straight-hanging frog at the left hip,
and a 4o-round pouch suspended rrom a shoulder
belt, the pouch hanging about rour fingers' width
below the right elbow. The waistbeh was put on
ovcr the shoulder belt. The main pouch was supple-
mented by a 2o-round expense pouch carried on the
waistbeh w the right or the clasp; in this position it
afforded easier access to the soldier and was topped
up rrom the main pouch. Some regiments may still
ha\'e had the old 6o-round pouch, ror which no
ACtnUTREJ4EHTS.
" oJ" ..'
.. .. .. .. ..=,====l:lID
•. " , .•• , . '1'--;:j'"jr " "r_C"O' _
«.....;f ..", ..'C,"..-e.$... f-t",.", .."..",.;'; ..'C,-----1[:>

,
...,.,..... ,.,,'
'.". ,,, .. ,.. ,,

>iii?
u
u· u
-:;]
\
....
••••• ." ,
M' 0<' ...
{
1
,
, , ., ..... ,
..
.." '" '"'' .
S••I. lla.Io.... 1r•••
[,. 07:::I__="
I " .
" ,
.. ,.., f
...........' ..

ft·· ......
--=« I
. " .
j'\C========IJ1!
Infantry frogs, waisrbdcs,
polich tx:llS, pouches ami
slings.
"
)
expense pouch was issued, Attached 10 the front of
Ihe pouch belt was a bufrleather cap pouch, although
regiments with the old equipment had brown leather
cap pouches attached to the waist belt. Cap pouches
were also issued to carbine-armed C2 \·alry.
A new pattern knapsack had been approved in
1854, but in India these were always transpoTled for
the men. An infantryman's belts and pouches, when
full, together with his rifle and bayonet, gave him a
weight of 21 Ibs to carry, exclusive of his rations and
whatever else he may have fitted into his ha\'ersack,
This container, made of coarse linen, had formerly
only been issued when required as an ilem of 'camp
equipage', but from 1856 had been a regular issue to
eaeh man; it was carried slung over Ihe right shoulder
outside the waistbch, The soldier's issue water boule
was still the antiqualed wooden container of the
Napoleonic War, but these seem not to have been
provided in India, where water carriage and supply
was the duty of the regimental 'bhisties' with their
water-skins. However, during the Mutiny individual
water containers were acquired by some regiments,
made of local soda-water bottles covered in leather
and suspended from a leather strap o\"Cr the left
shoulder.
Since the tunic's introduction the only accoutre-
ments required by regulations for infantry officers
were the waist belt, of enamelled white leather, with
slings for the sword, which served for both dress and
undress, thereby dispensing with the old shoulder
belt, as worn by company officers in dress, and the
black lealher undress waist belt. Rifles' officers wore
their black sword belts under the tunic and addition-
ally had a pouch belt bearing Iheir regimental crest.
Highland officers retained their shoulder belt.s with
slings for the broadsword and had a waistbeh for t.he
dirk. When on service an officer might add a revolver
holster, field glasses, a ha versack and whalcver else he
might think necessary, but such additions were a
matter for him and his purse.
Accoutrements of gunners and sappers were
essentially lhose of either cavalry or infantry, with
minor differences, depending on whether the wearer
was normally mounted, as in the RHA or RA dri\'ers,
or dismoullled.
The accoutrements of Ele Regular units fol-
---!====::::I=:ll1
-" ... ,.... " .




Infantry offict:rs' sv,ord
Ixlrs. From top: Line
waist belt, Highlanders'
shoulder Ixlt, Rifles'
""'aistbelt.
,.... .,., ...
• •
... , ,..."."
17
lowed those of Queen's regimems but, as with
uniform, were taken into usc later. For example, the
Bengal Fusiliers in 1857 still had (he old pouches and
their officers the black undress waistbchs. A variety
of sword and pouch belts was used by the Irrcgui:lr
cavalry. particularly those raised in ,857. who initi-
ally had (0 make do with whatever was available. In
the PI F infamry, and comparable trOOpS like the
Baluch Banalian, brown leather was morc commonly
used for belts and pouches, though black was
provided for Gurkhas.
Weapons
In the Crimean War the Millie rifle had proved a
battle-winning weapon in the British infantry's
hands until it was superseded, in !.he later stages of
the war, by the 1853 pattern Enfield Tiflc (see MAA
198, P.23). The Enfield, single-shot and mUlzle-
loading, had a 39-in. barrel, or 33-in. for the short
version issued to sergeants and Rifles; weighed 8 Ibs
I4t ozs (the short, 8 Ibs 4t ozs); was of .577-in.
calibre, and was sighted to 1,200 yards. The long
version had a q-in. socket bayonet, the short a 221-
in, sword bayonet, Its a\"er<1ge r<1te of fire was two
rounds per minute.
The British battalions sent to India as reinforce-
ments were equipped with the Enfield, For those
already in India the situation varied, some having it,
others not, or having a limited number. I-lM 75th
Regiment, for example, received 100 Enfields in mid-
May 1857 while on the march to Delhi, but were not
fully equipped with it until February 1858, when its
share of oper<1tions was o\'cr, Since the Minie rifle
was never issued in India, most Queen's banalions
who had been there for some years still had the 1842
smoothbore, percussion musket. With the same
barrel and bayonet length as the Enfield, it was of
.753-in. calibre, weighed 10 lbs 3 OZS, bUI was only
accurate up to 200 yards - less than a quarter of the
Enfield's r<1nge (see MAA 193, P.Z4).
This musket was also the EIe infantry's arm,
although other weapons were used by the PI F and
Gurkhas (see commentaries to Plates B3, Cz). It had
been intended to re-arm the EIC battalions with the
Enfield in 1857 and partial issues had been made.
Howe\'cr, its three-grooved barrel necessilatcd the
greasing of its cartridges to assist loading. Since the
loading drill requircd the end of the cartridge to be
18
bitten off, and since the grease was belie\'ed by both
Hindus and Moslems to be compounded of animal
fals of deep significance to both religions, this pro\"ed
to be the spark which converted the underlying fears
and resentments of the Bengal sowars and sepoys into
open mutiny. In rejecting the Enfield, they embarked
upon insurrection with an inferior weapon,
Several cavalry carbines had been under trial
since 1855 [0 find a replacement for the smoothbore,
muzzle-loading, 1842 percussion Victoria, as used in
the Crimean War and still in general use, This had a
26-in. barrel, was of .733-in. calibre, and weighed 7
lbs 9 OlS. The only two carbine-armed Queen's
regiments in India, the 6th Dragoon Guards and 14th
Light Dr<1goons, had this weapon, the 91h and I2lh
Lancers having the 1842 Lancer pistol. One of the
carbines on trial, Ihe American breech-loading
Sharps, was issued to the 2nd Dragoon Guards, the
7th and 8th Hussars before leaving for India in 1857.
It had an t8-in. barrel and was of.577-in. calibre.
The outbreak at Meerut began with the refusal
by sowars of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry to handle
cartridges at a parade to learn the new loading drill.
This might suggest that they, and other Ele cavalry,
were being armed with some new, rifled carbine. In
fact their carbines were smoothbore and Ihe cart-
ridges of the old pattern, but the sowars' fears were
too deep-seated for them to take the cartridges-
-
though this did not prevent them using the same
ammunition after they had mutinied. There was no
carbine version of the Enfield in India at that time.
There was much variety among the firearms of
Irregular cavalry, particularly those raised in t8ji,
owing 1'0 the 'silladar' system under which they were
recruited and equipped (see MAA 219, p.22). The
matchlock was a fairly common type; and the Scinde
Horse uniquely had double-barrelled carbines. The
same applied to their swords, which were usually of
the indigenous type known as 'tulwars'. Often these
were supplemented by lances.
Swords of Queen's Cavalry and Royal Horse
Artillery were officially of the uni\'ersal 1853 pattern
with three-bar guard. Their officers retained their
18z1 Hea\'y or Light Cavalry patterns. The 1853 type
may not h3\"e rcached all regiments stationed in
India, who would ha\'e had the earlier Light Ca\'alry
pattern, as did the EIC Regular regiments.
Officers of Infantry, Royal and [IC Foot Artil-
lery had the 1822 Infantry officers' sword with
'Gothic' hilt in brass, steel for Rifles. Ilighland
officers of course had broadswords.
The regulation lance was the 9-ft. ash pole with
steel point and shoe, fitted with a buff leather arm
sling and red-and-\\ hite pennon. Some l:mcerofficers
equipped themsel\'es with hog-spears.
Turning from personal weapons to the artillery's
crew-served armament, the weapons remained the
same muzzle-loading smoothbores, with the same
ammunition, as used in the Crimean War (sec MAA
196, pp.lj-18). The calibres of all guns, howitzers
and mortars were standardised between the Royal
,md EIC artilleries, but there were diftcrences of
design. Whereas the [IC 9-pdr. gun and
howitzer were shOTler and lighter than the RA
equivalents, the [I C carriages were hea vier and more
cumbersome. They also had two axle-tree scats,
\\hieh would not be a fcature of RA guns for another
decade and a half.
Both Royal and [IC horse troops had 6-pdr.
guns and I z-pdr. howitzers, the field batteries 9-pdr.
guns and howitzers, but the proportion of
guns 10 howitzers per troop/battery varied - .fz
(Royal) and 5:1 (EIC). Of position guns, the siege
train sent to Delhi included eight 18-pdrs., six 24-
Righr: IJlr..,ntry ofliccrs'
s'fOrds, scabbards and
knots. From rop:
Highlanders, Line. Rifles.
.,
...•••ii,••ii ... •.• .• l ... , __
!
... " ..
--'
;

I
Lefr: Captain Bro""Jllo",.
with British officer and
scpo,!' ofhis nc", rcgimcnt
ofPunjabis raised in ,857:
artistllllknoll'n. (Aline S.K.
Brown :Hi/it:lrJ' CoJ/cctiQtl)
.........--
... . ...
"
.-
"
Ltfl: Inf:mrry and canll1ry
orthe Punjab Irrcgul:u
forct 'Wilh a mQuntain
barrery; watcrcolour, 'The
ArriIJcry Troin' by IV.
Carpenter. (Pri,'H(C
Scottish colleccion)
Right; HM C:n7lIry, full
dress. From Itft (M _ in
Mutiny); 6th Dragoons, 6th
Dragoon Guards (M), znd
Dragoon!;, t llh Huss:.rs,
'7th Lnncers(M), 8th
Hussars(M). (Aftcr G.H.
Thomas)
-
pdrs., six 8-in. howitzers, and of mortars, four Io-in"
four 8-in., and six 5t-in. The position guns for
Campbell's relief and capture of Lucknow were
supplemented by the Naval Brigade from HMS
Shannon manning six 64-pdrs., two 24-pdr. howit-
zers, and two 9-pdrs., plus two rockcllaunchcrs.
All Royal guns/howirJ;crs. and their accompany-
ing wagons, were drawn by three or more pairs of
horses, each pair having its own driver on the
nearside. The same applied in [IC horse troops, but
in some EIC field bancrics and position gun detach-
ments bullocks were used in lieu. In Royal, Madras
and Bombay horse troops the gunners were individu-
ally mounted, but in the Bengal l-lA they rode the
offside draught horses.
DRESS ON
SERVICE
The plates and commentaries thereto illustrate and
describe the dress worn by various ranks of ccnain
regiments in the operations at Delhi (Plates Band C),
in Oudh (D, E and F), and in Ccntrallndia (G and
H). To supplement these, some general remarks and
notes on other regimentS' dress follow.
Since the Mutiny broke out in May, well into the
hot season, the first troops to be engaged -those that
20
came to form the Delhi Field Force - were, with
some exceptions, in their white drill clothing. Some
commanding officers realised how impractical this
would be for hard campaigning before even reaching
Delhi. HM 5.md Light Infamry dyed their whites
khaki before leaving Sialkot on 25 May to join the
Punjab IO\'eable Column, and 1-1 I 75th (Plate C3)
did likewise at Ambala on the same date. Their
example, and the appearance of PI F regimentS like
the Guides and 4th Punjab Infantry (B3), inspired
most of the force to follow suit. The Hindustani word
'khak' meant 'dust' and, as used by the PIF, was
described as 'a son of grey drab, being nearly the
colour of the desen or the bare stony hills'. But the
rudimentary dyeing methods used resulted in 'so
many different shades - puce colour, slate, drab - not
only in the different corps, but in men belonging 10
the same company'. HM 61st's once-white shell
jackets were described by Lieutenant Sloman as
'blueish-brown', being worn with trousers of the
same hue or the blue dungaree type.
In some regiments the men's shirts were dyed as
well and the jackets discarded (sec CI). HM 52nd
wore their shirts outside their trousers in the Indian
fashion. In modern times 'shin-sleeve order' is a
common form of military dress, but in those days the
sight of British soldiers in shirt-sleeves, except when
off-duty, was so unusual as to be commented upon
often by eye-witnesses. Indeed the whole appearance
-
of the Delhi troops was so extraordinary that later on,
when HM 8th and 75th marched through Agra
where, though confined in its fort, the European
population had been little affected by the Mutiny, an
Englishwoman exclaimed, 'Those dreadful-looking
men must be Afghans!'
The most common form of headdress was the
Kilmarnock forage cap, with cover and curtain (CI).
In some regiments, like HM 61St, the men's caps had
peaks like the officers'; in others, like HM 52nd and
75th (C3), it was common practice to add a rolled
turban or 'pagri' to the cap. Sun helmets had first
made the odd appearance in the Sikh Wars, but at this
stage of the Mutiny they were still fairly rare, being
confined to commanders, staff and officers of EIC
regiments (see BI and MAA 198, Plate A2). One of
Capt2in Atkinson's Delhi lithographs shows gunners
and drivers of the Bengal HA apparently wearing
them, but a contemporary drawing of the Bengal HA
at Bareilly in 1858 has them in covered forage caps.
Since Atkinson's original drawings were litho-
graphed by another hand, it may be that the sun
helmets were a misinterpretation of the gunners'
Roman helmets with white covers, with which [he
lithographer was unfamiliar. Orders for large num-
bers of sun helmets to equip all ranks were not placed
with native contractors until 1858.
Captain Griffiths, HM 615l, deplored how, at
Delhi, <many corps had become quite reprdless of
appearance, entirely discarding all pretensions to
uniformity and adopting the most nondescript dress',
However, there were exceptions. HM 9th Lancers
abjured the use of khaki dyes and, throughout the
Mutiny, proved an exception to Griffiths' criticism
(sec commentaries to £2). The 1St Punjab Infantry
and Sirmoor Goorkhas (Cz) kept their dark uni-
forms, although the Kumaon Gurkhas adopted
khaki. Owing to a shortage of transport for baggage,
the troops from Meerut - HM 6th Dragoon Guards
(Carabiniers), 60th Rifles (Bz) and Tombs' troop of
Bengal Horse Artillery - marched to Delhi in cold-
weather clothing. Captain Anson, 9th Lancers, de-
scribed 'the poor Car2biniers' as looking 'dreadfully
heavy and oppressed' in their blue clothing, though
whether they were in tunies or stable jackets is
unclear. The story of Tombs ordering his men [Q
hack off the red collars of their dress jackets after
leaving Meerut is often quoted. Despite the heat,
21
-
Royal HQrse Artillery IltJd
RoyalltrriJJcry, full dress.
(After G.u. Thomas)
HM 60th's surgeon believed that the riflemen's
rel3li\'c immunil}' from cholera, which so afflicted
other regiments at Delhi, was due 10 their green
jackets whose serge gave bener protection from the
sun's rays than the linen and drill worn by others.
As for officers on the Staff, Captain Medlcy,
Bengal Engineers, summed up their appearance: 'no
two mcn were dressed alike, all kinds of boolS,
trousers, and breeches of every description, CoalS of
c\"ery variety of colour and cut, headdress including
the turban, the helmet, the solar-lopee, the widc-
awake' and half a dozen others', Seldom before in the
British Army's history can there have been an
assemblage of troops of such a variegated, rough-
and-ready appearance as the Delhi Field Force.
Perhaps the most notable aspect - considering that
the Crimea, and the Sikh Wars before it, had been
22
fought in regulation dress or undress uniform - was
that, as l\-ledley noted, 'British scarlet [was] a rare
sight indeed'.
This was not the case in the Oudh campaign
from June 1857 to May 1858, the operations in and
around Cawnpore and Ludnow, and later in Rohil-
kand and Bihar. One reason for this was that some
five months of it coincided with the cold season;
another was that, latterly, many regiments recently
arrived from England were involved; and a third that
some regiments, though based in the East, had for
one reason or another no alternative to 'British
scarlet',
When Lucknow and Cawnpore first became
besieged in mid-18S7, HM 3znd was the only
Queen's battalion in garrison at the former, with one
company at the latter, and was, like the Delhi
regiments, in its white drill (0I). The first relief force
that could be assembled, under Havelock, included:
HM 64th and 78th Highlanders, brought back from
the Persian War; the first arrivals of the di"erted
China expedition, HJ\'l 5th Fusiliers and part of the
each as soon as possible', perhaps the samc as issued
earlier to its Light Company. An advanced company
of the 8 ~ t h , which had been sent on in il.lay to
Lucknow before it was invcstcd, had had to march in
doth uniforms without even foragc cap covers,
despite having reached Calcutta from Burma in
March.
Before going to Persia the 78th Highlandcrs had
Icft their feather bonnets at Poona and, since their
rcturn voyage took them straight to Calcutta, they
went through the first relief of Lucmow in covered
forage caps, red doublets still of the double-breasted
cUI, kilts and hose (see MAA 198, Plate AI). After the
second relief and evacuation, Ihe 78th beome part of
the Alambagh garrison; by Fcbruary 1858 Iheir
Highland dress had become so worn out that they
presented 'the most motlcy appearance'. Lieutenant
Sankcy, Madras Engineers, sketched onc of them in a
makeshift hat, apparently made of two net curtains
o\'cr a cane frame, a loose white smock, and dungaree
trousers.
-
90th Light Infantry (seyen companies); from Bunna,
HM 8-!-th; and EIe Madras European Fusilicrs,
brought up to Calcutta from Madras. Plate 0
includes representatives orthe Madras Fusilicrs (03)
in the special c10lhing acquired before marching up
from Calcutta; and of HM 90th (D2) in the 'boot-
coat' supplied to UK-based clements of the China
force - frocks of brown holland material with red
facings, devised for the work expected on the Chinese
rivers.
The regiments from Persia had rcturned with
only their cold-weather uniforms. On leaving Allah-
abad on 3 July the 64th were ordered to march in
shin-sleeves, consigning the Tunics worn hitherto to
their kitbags. Five days later its Light Company was
issued with some 'light clothing', though of what
nature is unccrtain. After reaching Cawnpore most of
the battalion rcmained there in garrison, only two
companics going on to Lucknow, anachcd to I-IM
8 ~ t h . The ordcrs issucd by I-Ia\·clock on 15 Scptem-
ber for this advance requircd a tunic or shell jacket,
with doth trousers, to be packed in the men's
bedding, implying they marched in shirt-sleeves with
white or dungaree trousers. The 64th men remaining
at Cawnpore were to receivc 'two white tunics[sic]
fl.\llnfantry, full dress.
From left (M.., ;nMutiny):
4'$t (BandsmBn), lOch
(Drummer)(M), 55th, Rille
BrilfJlde(M),29th
(Pionttr) (AI), J2nd
(SoTeant) (M), j8th (Piper
and Corporal) (JU). (After
G.H. ThOnJBS)
2J
1-ll\1 5th Fusilicrs had been stationed in Mauri-
tius when ordered to China, so had not rccei'"ed the
ooal-coats issued 3t home. They went to LucL:now
wc:lring ship's smocks issued for the voyage, of the
trpe in Plate F2, o'er white trousers. Spare smocks
were cut up 10 make covers and curtains for their
forage caps, to which were added peaks rcmm'cd
from their shakos (sec J\<lAA 198, Plate A3). Two
companies, which did not accompany Havelock's
column, were in the second relief wearing red tunics
and white trousers. After the final capture of Luck-
now the 5th were issued with khaki cotton frocks and
trousers, and by May 1858 were fully equipped with
airpipe helmets.
The China boat-coots were also in c\'jclcncc
during the second relief, worn by and 93rd
I-lighlanders. The 93rd wore them o\'er their kilts,
with hose and spats below, together ,,-ith feather
bonnets to which a quilted white cotton sunshade was
attached. As only the NCOs and men were issued
with these coats thc 93rd'S officers had to havc theirs
made up of alpaca material which, as one wrote, was
'by no means so serviceable'. One officer wore his
shell jacket underneath, and another his doublet, to
give extra warmth during the cold weather of
1857-58. The 93rd wore this kit through the final
C3pture of Lucknow and during the subsequent
operations in Rohilkand. At Lucknow all ranks
C3rried their greatcoats rolled o\'er one shoulder -
right for the men, and left for the officers; this,
incidentally, saved several lives by serving as a kind of
brC3stplate. All had the lcather-covered water
bottles.
Fusiliers, also of the China fora: and in
Campbell's reliefcolumn, presumably had boat-coats
although no record has come to light, and at the final
capture in March they were observed in red.
Campbell's second relief column also included,
from the Calcutta garrison, HM 53rd (Plate E1) and,
from the Delhi Field Force, HM 8th and 75th (C3),
EIC 2nd and 4th Punjab Infantry (B3) plus, among
the mounted troops who were mainly Punjab
Cavalry, HJ\'1 9th Lancers who had now gone into
their cold-weather clothing (£2). The column's
artillery, both Royal and EIC, was supplemented by
the Na\'al Brigade from HMS Shannon (Plate E3).
Also in the force was the balana: of 1-11\'1 90th
which, having been shipwrecked on the voyage out
and lost all their kit, had been issued, on reaching
India, with white jackets and trousers to supplement
the varied clothing provided through public sub-
scription among the Europeans of Singapore, where
they had first landed with little more than a shirt to
their backs.
By the time of the second and third battles of
Cawnpore, more reinforcements from England had
come up and were to form the bulk of the troops that
fought these battles and the subsequent C3pture of
-
EtC 1St Punjab Infantry,
Native officers find sepoys.
(After Captuin W. Fane)

Mutineers:
I: So""ar, 2nd Bengal Lt. Cavalry
2: Subadar, 12th Bengal Nari\'c lot:
3: Sepoy, 54th Bengal Nau\'c lor.
I

..-
3
,
,
S40
A
-
Delhi:
I: Officcr, Bcnpl Anillery
2: Cpl., HM lsi Bn., 60th KRRC
3: Sepoy, 41h Punjab Infantry
3
..,

B
Delhi:
1: Pte., 2nd Bengal Fusiliers
2: Sepoy, Sirmoor Bn.
3: Officer, HM 75th Rgt.
c
o
I '
1
Lucknow, SepL 18S7:
I: Pte., HM 3Znd Rgt.
2: Sgt., HM 90th LLln(
3: Officer, Madras Fusilicrs
I .r ..
-

3
-
NO'"" 1857·March 1858:-
I: Pte., HM. 53rd Rgt.
Z; Pte., HM 9th Lancen
3: Officcr, Royal N.vy
( 11 I


-
2

E
F
.,
• •\-
~

\
.., ,
,-
J
4
,.
• ,
3
Oudh & Rohilkllnd, March-Aug. 1858:
I: Dri\-er, RHA
2: Cpl., HM 79th Highlanders
3: Rissaldar, Hodson's Horse
I 2
Central India,Jan.-Jum: 1858:
I: .• HM 14th LL Dragoons
2: HM 86th Rgt.
3: Bombay Hone
G

Central India, March-Sept. 1858:
I: Pte., HM 72nd Highlanders
2: Pte., HM Rine Bde. (Camel Corps)
3: Pte., HM 95th Rgt.
H
Lucknow, at which they were assisted by Outram's
division of the banal ions engaged in the earlier
operations, An officer of the latter, the future Ficld-
Marshal Garnet Wolscley, then a captain in the 90th,
noticed how the recently arrivcd British regiments'
'smart clothing contrasted forcibly with the many-
coloured "rags" in Outram's di\'ision of vetcrans',
Further contrast with the home service uniforms was
provided by the Sikh and Punjabi regiments of horse
and foot as, for example, )'Iatcs 1"3 and B3
respectively.
Unlikely though it may seem, considering that
[hey were nOI acclimatised and that the ,\Iarch day-
time temperature al Lucknow of O\'er <)0 Fahrenheit
was higher than normal, the 2nd Dragoon Guards
(Queen's Bays) were obscf\'ed by sevcral cye-
witnesses to be wearing their scarlct tunics and brass
helmets, 'as if', one wrote, 'for thc cxpress purpose of
catching the rays of the sun'.
Supporting the cavalry at Lucknow werc two
troops of Royaillorsc Artillery in home servicc dress
but without busbies, which had been Icft at Calcutta
(Plate 1"1). In COntraSt, and exemplifying Wolsclcy's
abovc-quoted observation, was the Bengal artillery-
man, Captain Olpherts, whom he saw clad 'in a fez
cap and a Turkish "grcgo" (coarse hoodcd jacket)
tied round his waist with a length of rope, followed by
his in a sort of shooting coat
made from the green baize of a billiard tablc',
In uniforms as thick as the Bays' and RHA's, but
of a more sombre hue, were the 2nd and 3rd
Battalions ofl-L\t Rifle Brigade, which had marched
up to Cawnpore in their 'European cloth dress and
shakos', In accounts of the Ca\\npore battles and
Captain Dighton Probyn,
ErCznd Punjab ea"lllry,
winning the VClll Agrn, If)
Oct. t857: painting by
11', Des,llngO>.
)J
Lucknow's capture arc many references to the 'dark
green of the Rifles', though it is unclear if they wore
tunics or shell jackers and if shakos ga\e way 10 forage
caps. After Ihe fall of Luclmow the Rifles adopted
hOI-weather clothing of 'slate-coloured conon' with
regimental black facings (Plate 1-12).
An officer of 11M 97th Slated that his regiment,
like the Rifles, marched up in lunics and covered
shakos (see MAA 198, Plate BI), but exchanged the
latter· for covered forage caps once operations al
Lucknow began. Instead of tunics as worn by their
men the 971h'S officers had a scarlet frock, fastening
with four bunons, with collar and pointed cuffs in Ihe
pale blue regimental facing colour. Wilh Ihis garment
they wore their sashes over the lefl shoulder and the
sword belt under Ihe frock. A phOlograph of these
officers, taken after Ihe hOI weal her had SCt in. sho\\s
them in loose white frocks and trousers, with turbans
wrapped round their forage caps.
A sergeant of 1-11\1 88th reC'.llled fighting at
Cawnpore in his red tunic. The correspondent W.II.
Russell obsen·ed !-1M 38th covering a rivcr crossing
at Lucknow in 'red coats :lnd whitc cap co\'ers'. It
seems likely that other new arri\·als like I If<.lzoth and
34th were dressed similarly. It is rcmarkable ho\\
these regiments from England functioned in the
Lucknow fighting becausc, as Russell said, 'the heat
was s\\ehering. I pitied our men as lhey stood under
£/CBombay Lighr
Ca l-alry 14·ith the
Rajpurana Field fQrce:
warercolourb.\ Licurcnam
J.l\'. CrcaJod:,I-J.H 95rh.
(Nariofllli ArmylHuscunl)
irs rays, many of them unpro\'ided with proper
protection against the sun, and retaining their old
European outfit'.
Two more Highland regiments had no\\ joined
the 93rd: 111\1 .pnd and 79th. Both retained their
feather bonnCls and at Ludmow were in red with
lilts, hose and spats. \Y. Desanges' painting of
Lieutenant Farquharson winning the VC on 9 March
shows the 42nd in doublets, but the records of the
79fh mention 'loose red serge jackets with green
facings'. For the subsequent Rohilkand campaign the
79th adopted ship's smocks (Plate F2).
After the fall ofDc1hi and subsequent operations
in its vicinity, EIC lSI European Bengal Fusiliers
joined Campbell's anny. Having been unable to
obtain red tunics for the cold weather, the regiment
\\as furnished wilh a supply of blue cloth from which
lunics, or more likely frocks, were made up rcgiment-
ally. These were worn at the capture of LucK.nm\.
Afterwards, for the hot weather, officers received
loose, slate-coloured frocks made of jean, piped blue
round the collar and cuAs, with trousers of the same
material. A photograph showing this costume also
includes NCOs and men of the regiment wearing
smocks and dark trousers.
After Lucknow's capture, the follow-up oper-
alions into Oudh, Rohilkand and Bihar coincided
with the onset of the hot weather, with a consequent
relinquishing of regulation clolhing, as has already
been nOled above for some regiments. Lieutenant-
Colonel 1-1.1-1. Crealock, on Campbell's staff in
I
H
EICBomblll' Horse
Artillery fmd lJombll)'
Nalil'C Inflllltrl' wi,h ti,e
RlIJi)Utallil Fieid FON-'c:
wrltercolQur b)' LicUlCIJII1lt
j.N. Crcalock, HM 95th.
(NafJ'onal Ann)' A'uscum)
Rohilkand, sketched I l ~ l 7th Hussars with turbans
round their forage C"J.ps, loose, 'dust-coloured' frocks,
and home sen-icc trousers, Another Crealock draw-
ing, of the Bengal Ilorse Artillery at Bareilly, has
been mentioned earlier in respect of their co,"ered
forage caps, which were "om with dyed white stable
jackets and o'"c.... J.lls (for an officer, sec ]\lAA 198,
Plate B2). ~ lost of the Staff officers drawn bv
Crealock, including Campbell himself, have airpipe
helmets with subslantial pagris, loose frocks probably
drab and fastened by loops and oli\ets, and trousers
either strapped down over Wellington boots or
tucked into long Napoleon boots.
Included in the f\zimgarh Field Force were 11M
loth Foot, formerly of the Dinapore garrison and
present at Lucknow in March, and I-lM 13th Light
Infalllry, which had arrived in India from the Cape
the previous October. The loth's surgeon, Gordon,
recorded that the I'egimelll marched in khaki trousers
and woollen shirts with sleeves rolled up. A portrait
of a loth officer, William FeO\\ ick, shows him in a
helmet with a pagri around it, a four-huaon drab
frock with open, step collar and matching trousers,
his sword belt worn o\'er the frock. Lord Mark Kerr,
commanding thc J 3th, \\ ho had the eccentric habit of
carrying his headdress in his hand, was obsen"ed thus
by \\7.11. Russell in February and wcaring a red,
quilted calico jacket, 'his old Crimean blue stuff
-
-
trousers and long, untanned leather boots' - a some-
what bizarre appearance which caused a soldier of
another regiment to incur his wr.uh for failing to
recognise him as an officer. The same boots appear in
a ponrait of him at Azimgarh, but worn with a pale
buff frock fastcned \\ ith loops and olivets, and dark
grey trousers; in his hand hc carries his shako within a
light grey cover and curtain, its green light infantry
falling plume emerging through the top of the cover.
His men wear the same headdress, pale grey frocks
and dungaree trousers (sec MAA 198, p.II).
Despitc the April sun bcing, as Russell said, 'so
fierce that it thrcatened W Slrike down any European
in daytime', and with temperatures in tents at 100
Fahrenheit, some regiments were without light cloth-
ing. Ensign Parsons ofl-lM 35th recalled marching in
April from Dinapore against rebels in Bihar, the men
in red tunics, the officers in shell jackets or kersey
frocks, blue serge trousers, and forage caps with
white cotton covers and surrounded 'save in front,
\\ ith a stiff, starched white screen not unlike a
lampshade'. Owing to the heat thc march began at 3
a.m., but even so it "as 'hot and stuffy'. Russell
recalled 'the indescribable fatigue and monowny' of
such night marches with nOlhing at the end but the
sun 'which burns you likc fire'.
Crealock skctched thc Carabiniers in Rohilkand,
still as they had been at Delhi, in their light dragoon
3S
Royal Artiller.' t;-pdr./{un
tean) crossin/{ a nuJJah ('n
rout" (or GKnpOrc. Dec.
,85i. (A ftr:r GJpwi"
O. jom.'s, RN)
T
,
-
tunics. their only concession to the sun being covered
forage caps instead of their brass helmets (sec MAA
198, Plate 83). According 10 an Orlando NOTic
watcrcolour they fought in their doth uniforms at
Bareilly, a day which a 93rd officer described as 'the
hottcst upon which British soldiers were ever called
upon to fight a general action'.
The Queen's troops engaged in the Central
India campaign were, with the exception of I 1M 12th
Lancers, 14th Light Dragoons (Plottc GI) lind 86th
Foot (Gz), reinforcements from England. One par-
ticipant recorded that 1858 was the honest year in
India since 1812, yet some ofthesc regiments had to
march - o,·er great distances - and fight in theiT c101h
uniforms until ~ 1 a y . and some later still.
1-11\-1 8th Hussars, though reaching India in
December 1857, were not fully operational until
February due to lack of horses. 13csides the issue of
Sharps carbines mentioned earlier, the regiment had
received white cotlon covers with peaks for their
forage caps, but no olher hot-weather clothing. With
this headdress they had to wear their home service
stable jackets and trousers, and were skelched so
dressed by Lieulenant j.N. Crealock of 111\11. 95th
when with the Rajputana Field Force in June, when it
had become really hOI (sec MAA 198, P'4)' Another
sketch, by Lieutenant FoTteath of EIC Bombay
Ann)', shows them still in the same kit in mid-August
when pursuing Tantia Tope.
HM 17th Lancers did not lake the field until the
l6
autumn of 1858 to join the same hunt. An officer of
the 8th commented on the 17th'S smartness when
they came up, and a watercolour shows them in caps
like the 8th's, home service tunics and trousers.
The shortage of cavalry for wide-ranging oper-
ations led to the usc of units of camel-mounted
infantry. One had been formed at Lucknow in April
from men of H,\l 88th - who had now exchanged
their red tunics for suits described by Surgeon
Sylvcster of the 14th Light Dragoons as 'of lavender
hue' - and of the Rifle Brigade (plate Hz). This camel
corps, plus a Sikh 'dri"er' for each camel, had been
sent SOUlh 10 join the Central India Ficld Force, and
rendered dceisi,'c service at the Battle of Kalpi.
According 10 a J.N. Crealock sketch, thcse men had
benefilCd from the mass production at Ca\lnpore in
Ihe winter of 1857-58 of sun helmets, which hitherto
had been a rarity in Central India and non-existent
among the troops from England.
Among the latter were two non-kihed Ilighiand
regiments.lll\ 171 St and 7znd (sec Plate 1-11). n ~ 1859
some of Ihe latter had also become camel-mounted,
\,caring the ship's smocks adopted during the t858
hot weather, their tartan trews or brown trousers, and
long turbans rolled round their caps with the ends
h'lIlging loose behind. The 71st abandoned their
doublers and tre\\s soon after arriving at Bombay in
Februar) and, according 10 (heir regimental history,
marched to join the Central India Field Force in
'loose, pyjama-like suitS dyed in curry pOWder', the
,
Bombay SCPO) regimems and the 'cavalry grey'
undress uniforms oCthe Bombay Light Ca\·alry.
Summary
The Indian i\ lutiny operations wcre the first in which
British soldiers in large numbers fought and marched
in clothing of lighter matcrials and of vcr) differem,
more practical colouring than those traditionally
worn on activc scn'ice before 1857. Though influ-
enced [0 some slight extent by the drab c101hing worn
hither[O on the North-West Fromier by such as the
Punjab Irregular Force, its adoption was mainly due
10 the oppressivc heat in which much of the fighting
took place and in which, in peacetime, the British
soldicr had scarcely moved. Even so, some had [0
fight in their cloth uniforms, having been provided
with no alternative. These uniforms were considered
quite suitable for the so-called cold season, itself
often hOlier than an English summer.
Although the lightweight clothing became gener-
ally known as 'khaki', its many shadcs and hues borc
resulting colour being described by Syh'cster as
'lavender'. The regimental hislory says their head-
dress was forage caps with peaks, covcrs and curtains,
but 5) h'ester callcd it 'shako-shapcd', suggesting the
rcgimcm's dress caps were undcr the covcrs. The
only English regimcnt from home, for which thcre is
ampic cvidcnce from J.N. Crcalock's skctches and
journal, was his own 95th (plalc 113).
A sizeable c1emcm of thc forces engaged in
Ccmrallndia came from EIC Bomba) Army, Euro-
pean and Native, and [0 a lesser extcm from i\ladras.
Thc Bombay Artillery, Horse and Foot, providcd
much of the gunncr suppon. A gunncr of a horsc
troop is shown as Plate G3, based on J.N. Crealock,
who also skctched a field battcry dressed similarly but
with covcred forage caps. Sylvester rccorded the jrd
Bombay Europeans as being dressed much like HM
71St, but specifically mentioned their forage caps
with pagris round them, making a distinction with
what he described as the 7lst'S hcadgcar. A more
marked contrast appeared in Crealock's drawings
betwccn, on thc one hand, thc ship's smocks of (-11\ \
72nd and 95th and, on the othcr, the rcgulation dress
of white-covcrcd forage caps and red coatecs of the
1\"1 nl1lJrigudc 24-pdr. gun
in action during the
ud.'urn:c to P.rHchgarh.
Janu,lrJ J858. (After
Cupl"in 0. Jones. RN)
J7
little resemblance to the colour known later by that
name and \loom b} many armies, and derived solei}
from the rudimentary and different methods of
dyeing white material, which otherwise became so
quickly soiled. I t was not adopted from any consider-
ations of conccalment for its \\ carer - then an Ull-
known concept. despite the increased runge and
accurac) of rifled \\ capons - though its ad\-antages in
that regard OI'er red or white were occasionally
perceived as being instrumental in sa\"ing life and
achie\-ing surprise. That there was no express intent
to give the soldier a specific 'service dress', as an
alternative to his parade and working dress, can be
seen by the fuct that, after the Mutiny, all such dress
disappeared from British regiments and was not scen
:l.gain on acti\-e sen'ice for another 20 years.
CONCLUSION
The historian of the Royal and EI C Artilleries in the
lvtutiny cau.'gorised its military operations into
battles, sieges, defences, captures, actions, skirmishes
and 'affairs'. He listed by name a total of 180 between
I I l\lay 1857 and 9 October 1859 in \\hich gunners
had taken part. Since gunners always acted in concert
with cavalry or infantry, and usually both. this IOtal
can be taken as represenring the fighting experienced
by all arms; but this docs not reflect the thousands of
miles marched, in exhausting conditions. to engage
the enemy.
Under the circumstances the battle casualties of
Ele forces were not unduly high, though of course
many more succumbed to heat or sickness. The siege
of Delhi was by far the most COSily, its totals of killed
and wounded, 3,&]7, exceeding those incurred at
Lucknow (its defence, two reliefs and capture -
2,962) and in Centrul India (6H)1 combined_ Of
these totals, 36°o were sustained by loral Nati,-e
troops; at Delhi, where they provided just over half
the force, the figure was 43°0_ The highest regimental
c:lsualties were the 389 killed and wounded suffered
by 1-1..1\1 60lh Rifles and 3I 9 by the Sirmoor Goorkhas
at Delhi, and the 377 lost by Hl\t 32nd Foot while
defending the Lucknow Residency: figures repre-
senting 50°o or more of each battalion's strength,
excluding casualties sustained elsewhere or from
other causes.
Nowadays the Indian Mutiny tends to be re-
garded by the unthinking, as merely one of the very
numerous 19th-century 'colonial' campaigns, of no
more significance than, 53y, the Gordon Relief
Expedition or the Pathan Re,-olt of tlkn, and
considerably less than the Zulu War. This is to forgel
\vhat was at stake for Britain and her Army: no less
than lhe saving of her position and prestige in
,
J8
Types ofl.he Delhi Field
Forcc. From /t·ft: EtC
K UtIJ110n HAl
601h Rifles, EtC Bcnpl
HQrse Artillery, '-1M75th
FOOl, liM9lh Lancers. EtC
:md Benpl Europem
Pusi/iI.. 'rS- (Afrer Caprain
G_P_ Arkinson)
India -on which much of her reputation in the world
depended - and, indeed, what was at stake for those
who rebelled. h is also to undervalue the sheer scale
of the tWO-yC:J.r effort required to suppress it, whether
in :J.cti, e operations or the maintenance of security in
less :J.ffected arC:J.s: over half the entire British Army.
togelher \\ ilh IhouS:J.nds of loyal EI C soldiers, Euro-
pean and Nati"e - the largesl deployment of troops
bcl\\een the Napoleonic W:J.r :J.nd Ihe SOUlh African
War of 1899. When 10 all this is added the astonishing
fortitude :J.nd braver) (epitomised by thc awards of
182 Victori:J. Crosses) that was displayed, much of it
in Ihe honesl season of the year, by men nOI born to
the climate and often unsuitably clad - then it must
surely be acknowledged that, for the British soldier,
the Indian Mutiny was rather more than JUSt another
'colonial campaign'.
Its successful conclusion ended the East India
Company's rule, but led to the foundation of our
Indian Empire which would last for ne:J.dy another
100 ye:J.rs; and to a reformed, reorganised Indian
Army, which was to give such distinguished service
for the reSt of the century :J.nd in two World Wars.
Yel for all thaI, the regiments that fought the
Mutiny were only awarded the Ihree Bailie Honours
of'Delhi', 'Lucfmow' or 'Central India'; and the men
who did the work, one campaign medal with, at most,
five bars.
Abore: /-1M 6,st Foot at
Delhi; Surgeon Reade
tcnding the 'wounded
under fire just before he
M'on thc VC for leading an
ass:wl" (lI'lltcrcolour by
A.e. Lm'cu)
ILU5 ~ n d Light Infantry
srornling t.hc Kashmir
Gate, Dc/hi, J4 Sepl. J857.
39
THE PLATES
A: .Murineers:
1: SQwar, EJC2nd Beng:JI Light C'lwJ/ry
2: Subadar, EJC 12th Henglll N.Hive Infantry
3: Scpoy, EIC.Hch Bengt'I Ntlrive Infalltry
This plarccomplemcms those (E--G) in 1\lIA1\ 219- II
depicts three examples of the Regular regiments of
the Bengal Army, which provided the backbone of
the insurgents. In the background is part of the
Lucknow skyline.
All len regiments of Bengal Light u\'alry were
uniformed in 'French grey' with orange facings,
except the 5th with black facings. AI, whose regi-
mem mutinied at Cawnporc, is in mixed uniform and
native dress, being based on a pencil drawing
anribuled to Captain Atkinson, Bengal Engineers,
and his lithographs aCLhc Delhi campaign.
A2, based on a British officer's dra\\-ing, shows a
Native officcr of the 12th BNI, which mutinied at
Nowgong and Jhansi, in regulation dress as befitted
one of those who, ha\'ing given their loyah) to their
sepoys rathcr than thcir British officers, found
themselves commanding the companies and bat-
talions which had mutinied.
AJ, whose regimcnt mutinied at Delhi, is based
on a description by Captain Richard Barter, I-I!\ I i 5th
Foot, and wcars his regulation hot-weather undrcss
but \\ ith a dhoti inslead of trousers, as mOSt sepoys
preferred. Ilis firearm is the 18.p percussion musket.
8: J)eJhi:
I: Oflicer, EIC8cng:Jlllrti/lery
2: Corpor:J/. IIIH 'St 8n, 60th King's ROylJ! Rifle
Corps
.1: Scpo)', E1C4th PunjlJb In/:mtry
This and Plate C inelude representati\'es of Queen's
and loyal EIC regimcnts in lhe Delhi Field Force. In
the background is Flagstafr Tower, a prominent
landmark on Delhi Ridge.
IJi is based on a photogrnph of Lieutenam E.T.
Ilume, who servcd al the siege with I st Company,
Battalion, Bengal Artillery. Ilis wadded coat was a
popular garment among officers in India in the mid-
19th ccntury. Ilis helmet is one ofscvcral types, more
prevalent at Ihis stage of the M.utiny among EIC
officers than Queen's officers.
8z, whose battalion had been in India since
is based on an Atkinson skelch. The crumpled nature
of his cap co\er suggests he has bound a turban round
his foragc cap insidc it as added protection from sun
and sword cuts. Despite the hcat before Delhi, thcre
is cvidcnce that 1/60th adhcred to its riAc-grecn, at
lcasr whcn on dm}', hcnce his cold-wcather shell
jackct. 1/60th had the long pattcrn Enfield rifle at
Delhi, nOl receiving the short \'ersion stipulated for
riAe regiments (see I-h) until the following year.
Gnp'ain Charles Gough.
£ICGuides Camlr,Y. lI-ith
his brothcr,
J-Jugh Gough (right), and
C.,pwin J-Jooson (back
"iew), both £ICIlodson's
/-Iorse, dearing a house at
Khl/rko...dah, 15 Aug. 18Si.
IJoth GOllghs 11"011 the VC,
e/wrles for Ihis occ;lsioll
Imd {our others, Hugh •.,t
Lucknow. Painting by
11'. Dcsangcs. (iVlltional
Army IHuscUln)
its rifle-green uniform, as in C2. Like Queen's Rifle
rcgiments (D2, 1-12), its accoutrements were of black
leather. It is difficult to tell from the drawing on
which this figure is based with what firearm the
battalion was armed, other than its having a socket
bayonet; bUI a photograph of the Nussuree Banalion
at the time shows a weapon that resembles the rifled
musket with 2-ft. 9-in. barrel ordered in for
Foot Guards' sergeams (see MAA '93, P.24).
C3 is based on descriptions by Captain Barter,
75th. This regiment, stationed in India since 1849,
had Ierr ilS peacetime quarters for Delhi with only irs
white drill undress jackets and trousers, whieh were
dycd cn route, the result being 'slate-coloured'.
Barter mentions the 75rh officers' shell jackets ha \'ing
turncd-down collars. For the assauh on Delhi, Baner
tied twO turbans round his covered forage eap 'for
protection going up the ladders', and all the 75th
officers discarded their sword scabbards, hence this
figure's sword slings being buckled together. His
sword is the 1822 infantry panern and his revolver
the 1855 Adams. After the fall of Delhi the iSth,
"
B3, a Pathan from onc of the Punjab Irregular
Force battalions, is based on a lithograph after
C'lptain Fanc and a drawing by W. C1Tpcntcr. This
battalion larcr served in the Lucknow opcrations. He
wears thc all-khaki clothing and brown leather
equipment of most PIF regimems. His rifle is the
Brunswick with sword bayonet, for which a hammer,
attached by a cord to the pouch beh, was issued to
assist the loading process.
C: Dc/hi:
I: Private, EIC2nd (Bengr,/ European) FusiJiers
2: Sepoy, EICSirrnoor BMW/ion
J: Officer, NiH 75th Rcgimefll
Both regiments of Bengal Fusilicrs (Europeans) were
at Delhi, the 2nd having their white shirts and
trousers dyed a brownish khaki as in C/, thc 1St's
clothing being of a greyish huc (sec J\1AA 198, Platc
A2). Thc fusilicrs appear to ha\·c rctaincd thcir
shoulder belt plates, which had been abolishcd in
Queen's regiments. His firearm is the 18.p per-
cussion musket with socket bayonet, its caps being
carried in the small brown pouch on the waistbelt.
Of the two Gurkha local battalions at Delhi,
Captain Medley, Bengal Engineers, recorded that the
Sirmoor Battalion (later 2nd Goorkha Rifles) kept to
Renny. EIC
IJcllf{flll/orsc Ilr/illcr.,'.
\I inning tilt,' I'CtIt th('
Oc1hi J\l:lgllzinc. 16 Sept.
1857. i1ssistee/ /ly f:/C
IJtl/uch Baualion and 1/.\1
6,sl. (Modern pt/iminK by
Dtll'id Row/lmel... (or
T(Shah Shuj"h:.. Troop)
BM/'ery, RAJ
together with !-1M 8th, who were similarly dressed,
subsequently took part in the second relief of
Lucknow, both regiments still in their slate-eoloured
clothing, by then in a tattered condition.
In the background is Delhi's Lahore Gate.
D: Oudh: Fjrst RclicfofLucknow(Sept. 1857):
I: Private, NM32nd(Cornwall) Rcgimcnt
2: Serge.'mt, flM 90th (Perthshire Volunteers)
Light Infantry
3: Officer, EICMadras European Fusiliers
Dl's regiment, in India since l8.t6, was the mainsti1y
of the defence of the Lucknow Residencr from June
1857 until reinforced by Havelock's column in
September. This was the honest time of the year,
hence 01 is in his fornge C2p ,,-ith a turban around it,
as Pri\'ate Metcalfe of the regiment recorded, his
once-white shell jackel and dungaree working
trousers. References by Metcalfe to 'muskels' suggest
thai the 32nd had not yet receil'ed the Enfield rifle, so
01 has the 18.p pattern.
D2, based on a watercolour by Lieutenant
Sankey, Madrns Engineers, and 03, from photo-
graphs, were both in Havelock's column. D2's
regiment had left England as part of the China
expedition, having been issued with fornge cap covers
and the brown 'boar-coats' before departure. With
this 02 wears regulation home service summer
trousers. He is armed with the short Enfield with
sword bayonet ordered for his rank, and has a whistle
altached by chains to his pOlich belt as worn by light
infanrry sergeants. Part of the 90th were shipwrecked
during the l'oyage out and lost all their kit, reaching
India later (see main text).
For the advance from Calcutta up 10 Oudh, the
formidable Colonel Neill equipped his Madras
Fusiliers (D3) with white frocks and blue forage cap
cowrs, thereby earning the Regiment'S nickname of
'Neill's Blue Caps'. At some stage the frocks musl
hal'e been dyed. as they appear in markedly conlTast-
iog shades in some photographs. During the cold
season of 1857-58 the regiment received 'red quilted
tunics', according to the Regimental History. 03
wears his sword belt under his frock, a common
practice when nOI in full dress. All his fusilieTS were
armed wilh Enfields.
In the background is the Lucknow Residency.
E: Oudh: Second ReliefofLucknow(.I\'ov.),
Cawnpore(Dcc.), Fin:JI Capture ofLucknow
(l1:Jrch 1858):
I: Privatc, flM 53rd (Shropshire) Rcgiment
2: Pri,r:Jlc, NM 9th (Quecn's Royal) Lancers
3: Officer, Royal Navy
Sir Colin Campbell's force, which relieyed and then
evacuated the enlarged garrison of Lucknow, in-
cluded, ;nteralia, I-IM 53rd (EI), in India since 1844,
some regiments from Delhi like E2, B3 and C3, and a
NM 51h FlIsiJiersat the
AJ:lmbagh, Lucknow, z ~
Sept. ,S57; Corporal Grant
winning the lIC for
noseuing PriwHc Dcvency.
whose lcg h"d been shot off
dllring a n'COnnaissanc:c.
(Modcrn paiming by
D:II'id Rowland!>' for the
RO.1'I11 Reginlt::nr of
Fusiliers)
F: Oudh Imd Rohilkand(A larch-it ug. 1858):
J: Driver, Royal Horse Artillery
2: Corporal, HM79lh (Cameron) Hig1Jlanders
3: Nil.saldar, EICHodson's Horse
Among the reinforcements from England that
formed much of Campbell's army were horse troops
and field batteries of the Royal Regiment of Artillery,
discarded after Delhi. The 9th wore this dress in
both the and ,\Iarch Lucknow operations.
£] is based on a self-portrait by Captain O. Jones
RN, who sened as a \·oluntecr in Campbell's force,
mainly with the 53rd and Naval Brigade, at
Lucknow's final capture. Being usually mounted he
wears riding boots, but illustrations of Peel and his
other officers show them in loose white trousers.
Most wore covered forage caps but Peel fa\·ourcd an
airpipe helmet. Ratings wore their Sennet stra\\ hats
\\ ith white covers, blue blouses and white trousers.
IIJI 91rd l-/ighhmdcrs
swrming
Sibndarbagh. Luclmo'K'.
I
i'\aval Brigade under Captain Peel ve, RN. A
portrait of thc laner at the third baule of Cawnporc
includes thc figure of Private Hannaford of thc 53rd
"hieh, together with a drawing by Captain O. Joncs
RN, forms thc basis of £J - in cO\'crcd forage cap, rcd
lunic and white trousers. The 53rd, one of only three
Foot regiments with red f.'lcings, was at all three
actions covered in this pl:llc.
I-1M 9th Lancers (£2) had fought through the
siege of Delhi in their white undress which, unlike
other Delhi regiments, was not dyed. From October
the)' changed to their home service tunics, as here,
officers wearing their cloth stable jackets. The forage
cap covers had been dyed in September and to these
were added whitc turbans. The 9th, which won 12
VCs during the MOliny, was always noted by
eyewitnesses for the 'perfection' of their 'well-
dressed and clean appearance', achieved by a 'proper
strictness abom uniform', which marked them as 'a
gallant, dashing, ah\ays-to-thc-front' regiment. E2 is
armed with the 1853 uni\'crsal paltern sword and
l}-ft. ash lance ,,-ithout lange-nag, which has been
--."..

J
,6,\'01'. 18ji: 'IInIlCf'CQlour
by Orlando Sorie.
(,\'a(;on(ll Army

,
--
....,,- -
• •
-",
Oflicers and men olEfC
1St Europt.°an JJcnJ(ll'
FusiJiers with Tff.
KlIva.nagh VC(in helmcr)
"fter the CUl'wrc of
Lue/mowo (Pri,-.,te
colfl."f:t iOIl)
JJelow: fof,\( 9th Lallccrs
Iittackinll mutineers:
lI"litere%ur by Or1:lndo
NQrie. (AnllcS.K. Brown
Milit'jry CoJlI."f:cion)
,
I
worn; these arc \'isible in one Atkinson lithograph,
but nm in another, nor arc they e\"ident in the
photographs. F3 is armed with a native 'tulwar' and
'pepperbox' pistol.
G: Ccnlmllndi:l lj:m.-June 1858):
I: Pri\'atc, /-1M '4th (Thc King's) Light
Dr.'lgoons
2: Olliccr, HM86th (Royal County Down)
Regimenl
J." Gunner, EICIJom/my Horse Artillery
The 14th Light Dragoons had been in India since
IS.p and had recelllly relUrned from the Persian War
of 1856-57. f\ceording to regimcntal accounts they
had for years worn turbans with one cnd hanging
down to protect the neck, except on full dress
occasions, hence their nickname of 'Pagri-Wallahs'.
With these, in Cenrrallndia, they initially wore their
cloth tunics open at the neck, but with the onset of the
hot weather they marched in shirt-slecvcs, as here, or
blouses dyed with curry powder. GI is armed with
the .821 light cavalry sword and Victoria pallern
carbine. The 14th were constantly on operations in
Central India from June 1857 until late summer
1858. Notc the salute of the period.
The 86th (Cz) played a major part in the
"
which had nOt served in India for man) )cars. FI,
from a photograph, is in RI-IA home scn·icc dress
wilh a turban roBed round his forage (:,lp, his whip
and right leg guard denoling his rank of dri\"cr.
1-1.\1 79th Ilighiandcrs (F2) reached India in late
1857- The Regimental Records stale thaI, after
fighting at Lucknow in red, they changed to ship's
smocks dyed light blue, as here, before the Rohilkand
campaign. Quilted sunshades for (he fcather bonnets
were issued, as well as light blue muslin pagris for
their Glengarries. Despite I heir size the bonnets were
a practical headdress for India, affording some shade
from the rails and, iflhc inner skull was rcmo\"cd (as
practised by the 93rd Ilighlandcrs), permitting air to
blow through the feathers. The leather-covered soda-
water bottles were issucd on the regimcnt's arrival at
Calcuna. The riflc is the Enfield. The tartan was
Cameron ofErraeht, and the red and green hose were
peculiar to the 79th.
Hodson's Horse was an Irregular cavalry regi-
ment raised in the Punjab. largely from Sikhs, in J\lay
1857 by Lieutenant W.S.R. Ilodson, formerly of the
Bengal Fusiliers and the Guides. II was present at
Delhi, the second relief and capture of Lucknow, and
subsequcnl operations in Oudh. Although thc uni-
form was generally khaki, photographs, on which F3
is based, show considerable \'ariety of clothing and
weapons, the rcgimenl being ehicfly distinguishcd by
its red pagris and cummerbunds. Thc Regimenlal
History states that red shoulder sashes were also
Sir Colin CampMII and
SWff"7Hching 11.\1 51h
Fusilicrs (a11 r,JIIks 110" in
helmets) s.l.irmishing at
Dundcathera.:l4 .vOl',
1858: dra"'ing b.,' Colonel
lUI, erell/oct. (Sationa/
Arm) ,UuS('um)
1-1: Central India (March-Sept. (858):
t: Private, HA1 7znd (Duke ofAlb;my's Own)
Highlandcrs
:z: Priv.1tc, I-1M Rifle Brig:lCle (Cmncl Corps)
J: PrivMc,l-IM 95th (DcrbY!/j·hirc) Regiment
1-II's regiment reached India in January 1858. Regi-
mental records state that they marched initially in
feather bonnets, red doublets and dungaree trousers;
16
storming of Jhansi (in background) on 3 April 1858
and at Gwalior, 19--20 June. This officer is in his
regulation undress shell jacket and conon trousers
dyed dark blue, according to the recollections of a
regimental officer, J. G. Dartncll. I-lis helmet, made in
Bombay, was oflcathcr with a white cotlon co\'cr and
pagri. In the earlier, November ,857, Central India
operations the men of the 86th were seen wearing
their (Unics and shakos with white covers, but later
adopted forage caps with co\'crs and curtains, worn
.... ilh red shell jackcts by night or when cold, and grC)
\\oollel1 shirts wilh sleeves rolled up in the heat of the
day.
G3 is based on a drawing by Lieufenant J . ~ .
Crcalock, H.I\:1. 95th. and wears the Roman-type
helmet used with different embellishments by all
three EIC Horse Artillery regiments, within a white
cover, together with his cold-weather stable jacket
and leather-reinforced trouscrs. Three troops of this
regiment went through the Ccntrallndia campaign.
1-ft\1 7th l-Illss:,rs cJlllrgillg
rebels on the H:ll'te:c: r;w:r,
Oudh_;\lcplIJ lx;rcJcr, JJ

DCl', 1ti51J: dr:lll';lI1! by
Coloncl H.I-/. Cn.:://ock.
(-""l;on,,1 ArmylUI/scum)
but when encamped befoTe Kotah in March a sketch
by Lieutenant E.]. Upton shows the trousers to have
been replaced by all ranks with their regimental
tartan (Prince Charles Edward Stuart) tre\\s. For the
assault on KOlah on the 29th the feather bonnets
b>'3\e way to covered forage caps. as here. The latter
\\ere retained thereafter \\hen the doublets were
exchanged for ship's smocks (as in F2), dyed an
'earthy-brown' (sec MAA 198, P.33).
1-/2 is one of 200 riflemen who, with two
companies of 11M 88th, formed the Camcl Corps
organised in April 1858. He is in the conan clothing,
with regimental facings, adopted after their rifle-
green was discarded following Luckno\\ 's capture,
and one of the sun helmets mass-produced at
Cawnporc. lie is bascd on a ].N. Crealock sketch
showing one such rifleman mounted on his camel
behind irs Sikh driver, who has a black band round
his turban, and another soldier with white equipment
who must be 88th. whose Sikh has a p.ile band,
probably yellow to match Ihe 88th's facings.
The appearance of Crea!ock's own regiment
(J-I3), which reached India in early 1858, features in
his sketches and journal. AI Korah the) were in
covered forage caps, red shell jackers and dungaree
trousers, which were worn up 10 ~ I . a y , but by June
\\ hite ship's smocks had replaced the shells. Crealock
described them marching on Gwalior: '500 bearded,
sunburnt men, in once-white sea kit smocks, tanered
blue trousers, here and there bare feet, here and there
nati\'e slippers, while for headdress Ihe Kilmarnock
forage cap \\ith while cover did duty. somelimes
Ka}c, Sir j.\V., I-fisl/lry of/lie Sepoy War, 1857-58
(Jt
1
0ls) (1880)
Lauric, Lt.-Col. G.B., !lIstor)' of lite Royal Irish
Rifles (19'4)
Lt:asL, j.e., HistorICal Ruords of QO Cameron
IlIgh/andas (1909)
Lt.-Gen. Sir G., The Inti/an ,\I/I/my i"
Perspu/lrt" (19)1)
,\ ledlc}, j.G., A Year's CamplIIgn in hulUl (1858)
j\ tollo, B., The Illtliflll Arm)' (1981)
MUlcr, t\lrs, lily Recolleoiolls oj" the Sepoy Revoll
(19 11 )
Pcrkins, R., The Kashmir GMe (1983)
Raines, Gcn. Sir j., 'I'll/' 95/h i" Cet/lral ludia (1900)
Russcll, \V.H., M)' Diary III I"dia (2 <:ols) (1860)
Tuker, Lt.-Gen. Sir F., Chronicle of Pm:a/( fle"r)'
Aletcalfe. HAl ]2nd Foot (1953)
\\') II}, II.C, s Blur Caps (1925)
JO/mtal of Ilu for Army HlSlorual Research
(1921---t)))
assisted by a (Owel or roll of colourcd
description he supplemented with a skctch, which
forms the basis ofH). When the men adopted smocks
the officers retained their red shells for a while, but
then changed to loose grey-blue frocks. Al Gwalior
one officer wore a black velvet hunting cap with a blue
towel rolled round it.
The rifles of all three figures arc Enfields, the
riflcman having the shorl version also carried by all
sergcants. In the background is the fortress of
Gwalior, the capture of which largely ended thc
Centnl India campaign except for mopping-up
operations.
Bibliography
Annand, A. (cd.), Caralry Surgeon: Ruollu-
lIOns ofJ.H. Syh·t!Sler (1971)
Anson, O.J-I.S.G., Wllh HAl 9th Lonurs Duri"g
Ihe Intlian Alu/iny (1896)
Atkinson, CapL G.F., Tlu Campaign 111 India
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Barter, Lt.-Gen. Richard, A'/llli"y A'11'lItories: The
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Blomfield, David (ed.), LtI/lOre t/l Llle/mom: Indiall
IHu/in)' Journal ofA .M. Lang (1992)
Butlcr, Sir Lewis, AlIlIais of /Ilt KRRC, Vol. III
('9,6)
Cardew, J\laj. F. G., Hodso,,'s HorSt! (1928)
Cope, Sir William, Hislory oflhe Rifle Brigade (I 877)
Da\\ son, Capt. L., Squlus alld Sepo)'s (1960)
Duberly, Irs !-Icnry, ItI RaJPoOlantl a"d
Cenlral India (1859)
Edwardes, BlIllIe of til(: II/dll/II Alu/iny
( '9
6
3)
Edwardes, Michael, A SCflSOll ill /-/ell: Defence /If
LucknolV (1973)
Forbcs-Mitchell, W., Remillisallces of lite Creal
i\fII/iny (1894)
Griffiths, Cj., Nam/tlu ofthe Siege ofDel/II (1910)
Ilibbert, C, Tlte Gmll Mut",), (1978)
jocelyn, Col. j.R.]., filS/or)' ROJ'ai a1fd Indian
in /Iu Alllli"y (1915)
jones, Capt. 0., RuollutlfJlls ofa IV",/(r Campalgll111
I"dia. ,857-58(1859)
1-/'\1 7211d Ilighhl1lc/ers
Komh,
R1/;pllt:lfll'. JO \ ':1 rdl <11._8:
sketch b.\ Lit·lltellllll/ E.).
Upu.JII, 7Jnrl. (Ql/ccn's 01l'1I
J-Iighilltl/h-rs)
47
Xota sur Ics planchcs en coulcurs
\ Rq;",,",l> rtp',heT1 d.. fA•....., do llmp". d·.... ' ....Im, La nuio,,,. da.
mlltm..... \ 1 .o\dop" d·u.... ,'A'utt dr Ir>l rq....ttn. de .... nlrnr
.,.,.......", ' ....s "" ..nnorm<: ',"" frolM;3i>'. IIC'Ur d·.n'''' .u' "'re de:> p.lrm><n..
onngc Cr ooIdA' tk e..... l<nc .. rcmpl..ci ",n>tnJ .lemcn" <It ...... un,form<: par d;;,
"e'emen,s rq""'''''. ,\2 L nifn,n,. ..qlr"",n,..", "",,,,,,.,, par ks I>Ir.......
IOn" qui p..".,pi:ttn,. I. m.. "nrrie. A] 1)"1"" d....mOlgTUg"", I"{tl< l<n""
rqlrmrn,."e par c<m", dl:lud. m>t. 0\"" un "••" AL1 pl.", du p>tll.. l"" 1:..n,.
S1.ndo.d cui, I< moo",!"", non Ii.... :i. .t1'I<>K'n <It 1841.
lITrnupoodob R ptS!oj-alrsdrLa t.o>c IOOia Lonlpan) du..nlle_dr
Drlm II.,"t dr flh-ocnplu<s .. III I... , ..... moInonott n I<
rtiq _, pl... tq>t<$<'llu"ls oIrorn dr 10 c.npan!'"", dr C<'Il, do< b 11. ..,....
caoq """""""''' " ...-" rUft .... "PIIU'Jt_ n'
d,llttrft' ,Irs....tn· IU 11_'* ""....
.ll <lc 2IrcnI<Ille d·..n Iurb>n pour b p<OIra oon.-tt Ie .......1 ,tt In .
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mf.n.."", B] l.n,form<: dr 'rfT••n 1"""'1'" d'..,,", ·mOOc.nt·. pnu, l'<1e. p<H'1e
par un Path.n des 'roll""" 10)...... du P""Jut /'''1,,1., F.."
C L'nn", ,uPt>l<mcn.." .. qu, p",,,,ir<..nl .u' corn!»" :; Delhi CI Un"o
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chemlon .. pan,..1ons hlo""" cn 01''''''' <10" <I I< I<r Ibl. en gns clo". Cll...
G...ll>u ""..U, dr ..,lIc .. nllc (tk"lnrrn, IO.d "'" l. ruoil....... Gurll>u' 'eren'
leut ""if.,..,.... "mde tempo tn:>od n<c d .. """end... CUlt noo, ,_nc 1IIt:>
.......i Or r.......,. prtI,--e.tt un nil" Aborilln <O\I1t comone ttlw qui fu,
an ISMl «:'V"" de$ FOOl G C.l Crnc uru... '1'" ...." .... I......
dcpuio "-I:t l<tJftlt .. prllle ,...... · Irur .......... l.on oIIincn .,,"-Im,
Inu- "'ll n du",nl f_lJI ... deban1sA ' d.. fou•..,... de I'.,..., <k ISH. .so.
""-..I.........n -\.........
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""f'!.nnbr. 1857, I.co ,...!»n. c,",cn' ..... '.n' u,ill"", pnur leur ..,..fon .. pour
p.-o<q;a qudq... pcu 10 ,i... 11 pot'c une ,esc< d'"o ... ",,,,'C len"" qui fill bunche
.. un pan,..lon J""t."r, III D·.pr" unc .q"A..lk de I••nIonne <It ""',.,... do
H"'dod 'nec7 lo '!><;a, Cl\;I,' diS1rihue pour l·c.• ridi,i"" chin";,,, ."r bq\Jclk ""
p.d,,'. "Iu''''.... uni,;,,; pou..... cn""ler cn lnde n Ie d·c,. du "''''ICC
Jome...q"". I.- fu.,1 o<>un Enf..ld '" 10 boJ·""nc"c...,,,,,,,, d'un .."""' .,1\$1 que I<
.. flIr, d'un IoCfJ<'n, d·inf.n,a.. Iq:.", II] l.nllc .... ropttnnt Io<:alc qu, JItW1.i, dC'\
.f<TI...... 'CUl'CU , pb<r do", d,tl"(-..".'4 .....leun <I It pro<q;<'-a.1ot blcu
t: Opn-M pl nl".,. ....'....r <It LtICl_ .. dr c... n",,",. hntt 185;· 58
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..... de$ "lU'''' d'i"fAn,cnr pooum ...,. ,.. .......,. wr ''''''''I''''
':l UtI< "c conn"" """r _ ckp....,. leo I..ncir.... JItW1...n' du bb.n<
_ 'ein fte <I des ,un\'l""" <k "",itt domot"lu< ea h1\" ••"" des
coJoo ,.. n" ''''''''''''''i:s J'un ,...bon f-3D·.p<u ..n .u'o-JItW1'.,,; oI1icicn dr
.....int pot....n, <In. bo".. do o"',-al dunm 1<1 01''''''''. 01... d· 'res ..........
mon' ..nl un p.n"lon hlono urge. I ......""". PlIr,.;, un .... 1", <I qudqu...."n. lIne
"c",ion p,."m'n.... du "'>qUO p..e-oolcil
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b ...n.. ,n' l)a; bou..iII,a ,rOoU do Jodu _.m.. dr ""......ornl ' ...
..Iiliooon.-._ anUMS .. IIId< untlr de a,..1en< ......,......., ,
potU" "d<mcD'", loU. ""'.. 'I'" .. par or;
lurbus C'l .... tt.n,,,reo ..,..,."..
(il I... 1-4m><> lJong<ll>O Iq;cra. qu' """erenl en In.... p"..,bn' plu, d< ,·i"l' ..n•.
pot",..n, I< ,u,bon dopu,. lon,trmps. PAr ,.... '" OMud ils mon" ..n' • chc>"AI en
chemi... I."u.. "01« o....nl I'opi:< de ... ,.1<•.., 1<"'" de 1HZ I " b ..... hlOc
\ ie,,,,,i, Gl fA" "",m""n dee,",'en, Ics "nicie.. du 860m< en ,"'e hlin<.le<
rqkmcnlO"" <1 panulon do roton ,ein.. en hie" fonci:...cc un "''''Iu< <.I" cUlr
.....,..., cn bl.nc <l un 'urbon (i] Dei g.... u"'"" " leo f<1:lrmcnt> Indl'l""n' r"'''re
du "'"'I"" romon d.n. Icto unll.. d·..nill<"" monl<,r de 10 Compan'. por'e ".; 0\',""
une .otS(e d'«u"" pnur ,emp< fn:>od .. un n'.."'" .<IIfottt dc CUlT
It I \ ..... Im'or rn 1858. .... i3cn>a bolllrrn' d'lbonl ... """poI..I ea
...."caJon (" )...,..... .. ea t.o..n _.., d<Tno<T par un ..1ot
_ b _ II! L. do MO f I"'" drulheo • un ..,.... do ..
....ri! 111M II pot1C do , ...-.. 'rt pa.......,n "' ,. '1'"
......if..........n rontt.pru L..d. <I .... rtiq d·..n
" po fobnq en ..uanut< "eo.. n",,", IIJ Comone b IiigUtt prtttdcnt<. I"'" ..n,
d'u"" """Iu do Cnoolocl d'un uniforme dr com"'I"" d'"o: ''''''o<l d< .... no<· qUI
fu' blant. J"",.,m blru m.. l.n poIn,....1ot ..''"'' rou"K-CllIot <l "" 'u.h.in <l fu..1
.:nficld c. m01c•..,1
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ohe Kleidunr.. udc c""'" Allxln<,uniform. d;" cinh.. m,,,,h. Qffi'ICre. die
SICh den ,\lou"..'" .n""hl'>f>S<:n. hcihch"hen.
dic '",'hrin.m.6,,.: 'l"lrn""Ulllr",m' flir ""n"" WOller. hier 011' <lnom
drr I t"",n D.. S"ndo.d... f1c ,,'or <.l.. I 011' lUll....
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LB d ;.'Ao' cion- 'UT doc K.....poaoe-.Io ,ur tl-pudl. On
Troprtdo<lm 11 grndr t:innoI:. und roo..... ,endUed<nCB \ """_
....... '''IrKhalf, " drtI "l Ln.n dem IknrJKhnru: Turban ..mdo.
""I'P' ,c.. undom n Schull:.-or dcr Sonne.und lb d....lr. 1>OC
Mh..h.. d.. d..nlc!lrune. Inchl< Offi>.... iR drr .n.
»< ....n her"", Kll uher Kbn Jall",n ,n llId><n Ik, doo. \\.lfc bon<kll ....." um
do, Enftrld·G.,,'<hT 18 ,'ollr. Inf..n,.,..,..I ..n8c 11]' \Iodr,n' cnchelntn<lt. p",l.
"",he Frldhclk'dung ru, den s.""m... h,a.n p.. h.n <.I.. 10).len
/r",,,,.,. Fe'",
C \oJere E,nhe"cn. die In l1clh, ' ..mpr,.... CI \'0> On ..,l'Ull<T\e. europai",bc
[inhc" der lI: panic-lnfln'enr; dltKO o.",il"'" f..ble ,,'ci8< II.mden und II....n
hellbnun 1 II". hell.,...... Cl Die G...l .... dioatT !.onhrtl ( 'a d><
Rut." Ildud... i"'" "".... L' Ilifurm ,ur loll.,. "nter ..nd d "....,.,
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"unk CJ 0..... (,nhc:t, 1 10_ ,n Indlm und mon ..-..e. doll "'ri8<
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Il"ol.n e.n 'do.....
o \IlI""unl In I.ud...,. 0 I I)IaC [in""i, ..rille .'on Juni hi, SeptCmM' 18;; d..
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....n Ol Von cincm Aqu..dl de. ,·on Il.. ,·rlud
bcxbtc d.. d", fu. d.. Chm..·f. ,,,,,d,,,on .usgq;ehen .·u.<It. "on dr•
onehre", F.inhn,rn nKh 11Id......bcnrclh "... nlen. und die Sommer""""" drr
lIo"'tnl·cbr...... .... F.n6dd-Ge.. d.l' ..nd dos SohrlboJOn<l' ...... Snv>-n'ea
..lid die Tnl1<rptCife Srrsran,en drr I<ochtrn Inr.n,"" 1)]OnItdK.
...ropotliChc Eonhn,. d>< , On "".riMe·K..,d· I. ,rr>d>Kdr.lI Fo.rlJt.... t"".
..ndrin bb.... K..I'l".
.: S...lere .:._.. "01 I....l_ ulld ,m \\,n'a Ill'S; 58. E1Z"..
Gcmoldrn drr Zcn n.odKmpl'..ndrn. d.. ilrd oro, ISHin lnoJl<lI Wlion.." S'"
.... C1n< drr .....,.,. In...n'........t'n ea. d n drr J.dc ror. Kq::".........
["'f......nl.n ""I t:! Die 91'01 t..",,", "'n cllK Mmctlrn, ••n lUI ,cll<looe
.:inhC1' und ''''8en 1m So""m<l' ungcfifb,... II e;B und ,m \\ Inler Juken drr
Ilurg.....ch. mIl 8ef••bl<n ".ppi, und , .."'I,lichcm Tu,b.n .:J'I;""h c;nem
Sclb;,pnr,r.,,; \h,in",ffi.ic.o I.ugcn .uf drm M.. R",,";"fd. t:Ioch ",eh. m.n
.uf.nderen Abhildungen Iooir. "",lit II"",n I).. mci"cn "u",n M"'I"or K,pp;.,
""ife .""h e,," fru"" \.,..."", """ Tropcnhdm•.
.'1 Uei", G..ollwl dcr Ann« ...... U>bn Campbdlha""'hc .. <t<Io um \ .....
"'" .....: ...bnd. "",n bracl". d>< Ln,r_ dcr ButJ<"' ...... mll rus>lmc......
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rorea L ..formpclc LB ·\Io' l"'du· uboer. d '" hiorr IocIIbbu grforiM m;
dcr lI'1hlond-Kal'flC.unk "'" cppttt SonnrnKhuu hi.....rf"" 0;., Kopf.
brdo:clun, " •• ruht IrKh, und l ..hl...·<ltn In"""f.. na I.
lftd,,,, "unkn fur ,.:"olInl..h Snd .......-lb""hrn ..k F.klf1oKhrn
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."
Gl Oie H,. }.,t./ /)raf"".' ..rcn se" f", 16 Jah.." in lndlCn und ""gcn ..,i,
l.n8em .incn Tu.bon. hci "'..mem W,ller rillen .ie Hemd Iki d.n II ,lfen
hondch <$ lOCh um den ISlI" IrKh'<It K....Il<nc-Sobcl und tkn \'ic,,,,,""
..... lMnt. Glln ".moiren .. erdcn Offi>i<Te deo 86th in ,onJIrir"",.BiJcn
Irt<i\'ea L·nlformJOCl... ul>d Il.r.um..oIIhoortt. d.. dUIIldbbu ",fa"" .
bc:odlncbrn """ ,n 1..cdrrtKlrtI<II mrt "eiIlem JIa... ..nd Turban. G] l' u"JC'l'
ulld \..Ictea , ' uf drtI romo"""""" Ildm drr Pfcrdc--\ncllrror-t:,nhn,ea
drr I\. ....n drr h K.It"<ltujodcn ..ad Icdcn,en.un,..
.,",
Itl IJu Hnd .....118511 t1uu und lornpl'c< au""""" 1ft ro<nn \\ ...... b""nea
und bcfiedmen \Iu...... d.. betm G<:frch, du",b dinc:o ""PP'
........ll ....""'n II! [int. drt lOll Scbul..n d" '10 ApriI1858 .. """, K."",hropp
,ug<lc,h .u....n; <I' ' ...g' n.um"·ollll<ld,,ng mil 1lq;,mcn1S<lnf'<$ung, d.., n..eh
l.uo1"o" all die S,dle d.. dunl.clg.un.n L",f."", ,... ,. und "non Tropcnhclm
cin \loddls. d" In C..nl.....e In 1.000n Men,cn herg..,.II, ,,'urd<, III \1.., d..,
.orh ndc ·'''hltd..nl "'0101' """" dieoc ,'on Clorr ..ichnu"g d..
Sommcr1cldan....: chcnu." ",,8<T ·MI'rtlIt"l",d· hl""'nl. bl:auc 0""..
I.'H'. 1I:.Pf" mil 8czq:: urwl <><kr Tur""" ..1Id ru"d Koppel.
rmm
MILITARY
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MILITARY
An unrivalled SOUTce of information on the uniforms. insignia and appearance of the world's fighting
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Each 64-pagc book contains some 50 phOIOb'Taphs and diagrams, and 12 pages of full-colour artWork.
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Definith'c analysis of the annOUT, weapons, tactics and moti,ration of the fighting men of history.
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Comprehensive histories of the design, devclopment and opcrn.tionnl usc of the world's amlOured vehicles
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THE ANCIENT WORLD
III aw- ArmIes
lot Mod* Eist
1)1 The Scytt..-.s JOO.3OO 6.C
" Greel< & Wan. SOO-323 8.C
148 t:.rmr of !he Gre.lt
111

9) 2 KJdnan·Const3nbne
r19 " Enemoes;
(I): & lAcwos
I 51 (2): G* & Ilnulh Cdt5
175
110 (4):So-2188C-t96.C
14] (5): l'he Dt-t FrontJe<"
THE MEDIEVAL WORLD
247 Rornaoo-8rzantlrle NmIe5 4th-9th C
154 Arttv & Angk>-Saxon Wan.
155 AnToei of !he Muslm CClf'qJeSt
125 ArmIes of Imm. 7lh-l lito C
ISO
., Byunune Annes 886-1118
15 Suon.. 'Ib"c & NonnIn
U I Frend> /'1edoevaI Annes IOXl-I JOO
75 Annes of !he
17 t 5i<ladin & the
155 Kns!hts of Chon
100 EI Cod 8. Re<ooq...w'lUl 1050-1491
105
111 The Age Of Tarner1ane
151 a..es.e Atmoes
SO I'1edoeYllI Anroes
151 Scots & Wl"Iih WM'\.
94 The SWlloS I)()()..I 500
1]6 Ita/oin Atmoes t)()().. 1500
166 German Atmoes 1)()()..15OO
19S E. Europe
2S9 The MarroU:.i 12$0-1517
140 OttOl'l'l¥l TIrls 1300-1774
210 VenewnE....,..e 1200-1670
III Armoes of iII'd PorbeO
I.... 13M-lin
II] Atmoes of Agnccurt
14S
99 I'1edoeYllI Her...,.
16TH AND lITH CENTURIES
2S6 The Imh Wars 1485-1603
191 Henry VIII", Arrrry

2]9 Aztec AnToei
101 The <:orq.stadDre
163 rdill504·1761
US AdolphuJ (I): w-ry
162 GusuYus Ado/ptu; (2);
14 &Fh eM War Atmoes
110 New f'1odel Arrrry 1645-60
20] LOOI5 XIV, Arrrry
267 The 6rMh Army 1660-1701
97 Army
86 SamurilO ArmIe5 1550-1 61 5
A"ec: annotations en sur Ies
planchft en c;ouleu.....
Hit Aufuktlri.....,en lll.'f Deutsdt l)ber den
F<Il'btafeln,
I'" PoiI5h Armoes 1569-1696 (I)
III PoiIsh Armoes 1569-1696 (2)
11TH CENTURY
161 18th Cenuy·Hllt; ..... n... ""'.
160 Peter !he Great's Ivmy (I): Infantry
164 tIloo: Grut's Army (2): Cavalry
I 18 }acobte Rebeliom
2]6 fredendl.!he Great [')
240 Fredend<!he Great 2)
148 F. ede...." the 3)
48 Wolfe's Ivmy
121 Ameoc:3rl WoocIar>d Irdw5
]9 8nt. Ivmy n N. Arr>ena
1.... n fJvrwer War hi
ISBN 1-85532-412-1
IIlmll!
9 781855324121