From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Rotordynamics is a specialized branch of applied mechanics concerned with the behavior and diagnosis of rotating structures. It is commonly used to analyze the behavior of structures ranging from jet engines and steam turbines to auto engines and computer disk storage. At its most basic level rotordynamics is concerned with one or more mechanical structures (rotors) supported by bearings and influenced by internal phenomena that rotate around a single axis. The supporting structure is called a stator. As the speed of rotation increases the amplitude of vibration often passes through a maximum that is called a critical speed. This amplitude is commonly excited by unbalance of the rotating structure; everyday examples include engine balance and tire balance. If the amplitude of vibration at these critical speeds is excessive then catastrophic failure occurs. In addition to this, turbomachinery often develop instabilities which are related to the internal makeup of turbomachinery, and which must be corrected. This is the chief concern of engineers who design large rotors. Basic principles The equation of motion, in generalized matrix form, for an axially symmetric rotor rotating at a constant spin speed Ω is

where: M is the symmetric Mass matrix C is the symmetric damping matrix G is the skew-symmetric gyroscopic matrix K is the symmetric bearing or seal stiffness matrix N is the gyroscopic matrix of deflection for inclusion of e.g., centrifugal elements.

The general solution to the above equation involves complex eigenvectors which are spin speed dependent. An interesting feature of the rotordynamic system of equations are the offdiagonal terms of stiffness. of a simple rotor system is shown on the right. When the BW frequency or the FW frequency equal the spin speed Ω. Engineering specialists in this field rely on the Campbell Diagram to explore these solutions. When there is a positive cross-coupled stiffness. When a rotor is unstable it will typically require immediate shutdown of the machine to avoid catastrophic failure. indicated by the intersections A and B with the synchronous spin speed which q is the generalized coordinates of the rotor in inertial coordinates and f is a forcing function. . also known as "Whirl Speed Map" or a "Frequency Interference Diagram". damping. If this force is large enough compared with the available direct damping and stiffness. the rotor will be unstable. cross-coupled damping. usually including the unbalance. Campbell diagram Campbell Diagram for a Simple Rotor The Campbell diagram. a deflection will cause a reaction force opposite the direction of deflection to react the load. This is called a critical speed. which diverge as the spin speed increases. The pink and blue curves show the backward whirl (BW) and forward whirl (FW) modes. and mass. and cross-coupled mass. respectively. These terms are called crosscoupled stiffness. The gyroscopic matrix G is proportional to spin speed Ω. the response of the rotor may show a peak. and also a reaction force in the direction of positive whirl.

but his model was not adequate and he predicted that supercritical speeds could not be attained. Superior algorithms or computer codes will not cure bad models or a lack of engineering judgment.Jeffcott rotor The Jeffcott rotor (named after Henry Homan Jeffcott). . M. Modern computer models have been commented on in a quote attributed to Dara Childs. He published a paper now considered classic in the Philosophical Magazine in 1919 in which he confirmed the existence of stable supercritical speeds. also known as the de Laval rotor in Europe. Gustaf de Laval. F. a Swedish engineer. The most prevalent method used today for rotordynamics analysis is the Finite Element Method. In 1895 Dunkerley published an experimental paper describing supercritical speeds. is a simplified lumped parameter model used to solve these equations.. ran a steam turbine to supercritical speeds in 1889." Prof.. and Kerr published a paper showing experimental evidence of a second critical speed in 1916. August Föppl published much the same conclusions in 1895. "the quality of predictions from a computer code has more to do with the soundness of the basic model and the physical insight of the analyst. Henry Jeffcott was commissioned by the Royal Society of London to resolve the conflict between theory and practice. W. but history largely ignored his work. J. Rankine first performed an analysis of a spinning shaft in 1869. Between the work of Jeffcott and the start of World War II there was much work in the area of instabilities and modeling techniques culminating in the work of Prohl and Myklestad which led to the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) for analyzing rotors. The Jeffcott rotor is a mathematical idealization that may not reflect actual rotor mechanics. . Nelson has written extensively on the history of rotordynamics and most of this section is based on his work. History The history of rotordynamics is replete with the interplay of theory and practice.

Combined finite element lateral.Commercial lateral. The non-rotordynamic specific codes are full featured FEA solvers. axial and coupled solver for multiple rotors. side loads.) . Inc.Commercial 1-D beam element solver XLRotor (Rotating Machinery Analysis.) .Commercial 2-D Axis-symmetric finite element solver FEMRDYN (DynaTech Engineering. various bearings (fluid film.) . stability and unbalance response extensively verified by industrial use Dynamics R4 (Alfa-Tranzit Co.Commercial software developed for design and analysis of spatial systems MESWIR (Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery.) . spring damper.Academic computer code package for analysis of rotorbearing systems whithin the linear and non-linear range RoDAP (D&M Technology) . axial solver for multiple rotors evaluating critical speeds. and have many years of development in their solving techniques. Inc. torsional.Commercial 1-D beam element solver RIMAP (RITEC) .Commercial combined finite element (3D Timoshenko beam) lateral. Ltd) . and many other items only a rotordynamicist would need. Rotordynamic specific codes are more versatile for design purposes. Inc. torsional. These codes make it easy to add bearing coefficients. axial and coupled solver for multiple rotors and gears.Commercial 1-D beam element solver ARMD (Rotor Bearing Technology & Software.Academic 1-D beam element solver ComboRotor (University of Virginia) .Commercial 1-D beam element solver XLTRC2 (Texas A&M) . The non-rotordynamic specific codes can also be used to calibrate a code designed for rotordynamics.Commercial 1-D Axissymmetric finite element solver Dyrobes (Eigen Technologies. magnetic) iSTRDYN (DynaTech Software LLC) . Rotordynamic specific codes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • MADYN 2000 (DELTA JS Inc. .) .Software There are many software packages that are capable of solving the rotordynamic system of equations. Inc. Polish Academy of Sciences) . gears and flexible disks(HDD) ROTORINSA (ROTORINSA) .Commercial finite element software developed by a French engineering school (INSA-Lyon) for analysis of steady-state dynamic behavior of rotors in bending. torsional.

Finite element based (3-D/2-D and beam element) .Finite element based (3-D/2-D and beam element) SAMCEF .Version 11 workbench and classic is capable of solving the rotordynamic equations (3-D/2-D and beam element) Nastran .Non-rotordynamic specific codes: • • • Ansys .

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