You are on page 1of 5

Rotordynamics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotordynamics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Rotordynamics is a specialized branch of applied mechanics concerned with the behavior and diagnosis of rotating structures. It is commonly used to analyze the behavior of structures ranging from jet engines and steam turbines to auto engines and computer disk storage. At its most basic level rotordynamics is concerned with one or more mechanical structures (rotors) supported by bearings and influenced by internal phenomena that rotate around a single axis. The supporting structure is called a stator. As the speed of rotation increases the amplitude of vibration often passes through a maximum that is called a critical speed. This amplitude is commonly excited by unbalance of the rotating structure; everyday examples include engine balance and tire balance. If the amplitude of vibration at these critical speeds is excessive then catastrophic failure occurs. In addition to this, turbomachinery often develop instabilities which are related to the internal makeup of turbomachinery, and which must be corrected. This is the chief concern of engineers who design large rotors. Basic principles The equation of motion, in generalized matrix form, for an axially symmetric rotor rotating at a constant spin speed Ω is

where: M is the symmetric Mass matrix C is the symmetric damping matrix G is the skew-symmetric gyroscopic matrix K is the symmetric bearing or seal stiffness matrix N is the gyroscopic matrix of deflection for inclusion of e.g., centrifugal elements.

When there is a positive cross-coupled stiffness. indicated by the intersections A and B with the synchronous spin speed line. and cross-coupled mass. Engineering specialists in this field rely on the Campbell Diagram to explore these solutions. of a simple rotor system is shown on the right. which diverge as the spin speed increases. and also a reaction force in the direction of positive whirl. The gyroscopic matrix G is proportional to spin speed Ω. Campbell diagram Campbell Diagram for a Simple Rotor The Campbell diagram.in which q is the generalized coordinates of the rotor in inertial coordinates and f is a forcing function. This is called a critical speed. The pink and blue curves show the backward whirl (BW) and forward whirl (FW) modes. When a rotor is unstable it will typically require immediate shutdown of the machine to avoid catastrophic failure. cross-coupled damping. damping. These terms are called crosscoupled stiffness. respectively. When the BW frequency or the FW frequency equal the spin speed Ω. the rotor will be unstable. a deflection will cause a reaction force opposite the direction of deflection to react the load. also known as "Whirl Speed Map" or a "Frequency Interference Diagram". An interesting feature of the rotordynamic system of equations are the offdiagonal terms of stiffness. The general solution to the above equation involves complex eigenvectors which are spin speed dependent. . usually including the unbalance. the response of the rotor may show a peak. If this force is large enough compared with the available direct damping and stiffness. and mass.

" Prof. but history largely ignored his work. also known as the de Laval rotor in Europe. ran a steam turbine to supercritical speeds in 1889. History The history of rotordynamics is replete with the interplay of theory and practice. a Swedish engineer. M.Jeffcott rotor The Jeffcott rotor (named after Henry Homan Jeffcott). . . Between the work of Jeffcott and the start of World War II there was much work in the area of instabilities and modeling techniques culminating in the work of Prohl and Myklestad which led to the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) for analyzing rotors. Superior algorithms or computer codes will not cure bad models or a lack of engineering judgment. He published a paper now considered classic in the Philosophical Magazine in 1919 in which he confirmed the existence of stable supercritical speeds. The Jeffcott rotor is a mathematical idealization that may not reflect actual rotor mechanics. J. but his model was not adequate and he predicted that supercritical speeds could not be attained. The most prevalent method used today for rotordynamics analysis is the Finite Element Method. Nelson has written extensively on the history of rotordynamics and most of this section is based on his work. In 1895 Dunkerley published an experimental paper describing supercritical speeds. and Kerr published a paper showing experimental evidence of a second critical speed in 1916. Henry Jeffcott was commissioned by the Royal Society of London to resolve the conflict between theory and practice. F. Gustaf de Laval. Modern computer models have been commented on in a quote attributed to Dara Childs. is a simplified lumped parameter model used to solve these equations... "the quality of predictions from a computer code has more to do with the soundness of the basic model and the physical insight of the analyst. W. Rankine first performed an analysis of a spinning shaft in 1869. August Föppl published much the same conclusions in 1895.

Ltd) . axial solver for multiple rotors evaluating critical speeds.Commercial software developed for design and analysis of spatial systems MESWIR (Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery. Inc. stability and unbalance response extensively verified by industrial use Dynamics R4 (Alfa-Tranzit Co.Commercial 1-D Axissymmetric finite element solver Dyrobes (Eigen Technologies. .) . The non-rotordynamic specific codes are full featured FEA solvers.) . and have many years of development in their solving techniques.Commercial 1-D beam element solver XLTRC2 (Texas A&M) .Commercial combined finite element (3D Timoshenko beam) lateral. magnetic) iSTRDYN (DynaTech Software LLC) .) . Inc. spring damper. torsional. Rotordynamic specific codes are more versatile for design purposes.Commercial 2-D Axis-symmetric finite element solver FEMRDYN (DynaTech Engineering. gears and flexible disks(HDD) ROTORINSA (ROTORINSA) . various bearings (fluid film. These codes make it easy to add bearing coefficients.Software There are many software packages that are capable of solving the rotordynamic system of equations.Academic computer code package for analysis of rotorbearing systems whithin the linear and non-linear range RoDAP (D&M Technology) .) .Combined finite element lateral. axial and coupled solver for multiple rotors and gears. axial and coupled solver for multiple rotors. and many other items only a rotordynamicist would need.Academic 1-D beam element solver ComboRotor (University of Virginia) . side loads.Commercial lateral.Commercial 1-D beam element solver XLRotor (Rotating Machinery Analysis. Rotordynamic specific codes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • MADYN 2000 (DELTA JS Inc.Commercial 1-D beam element solver ARMD (Rotor Bearing Technology & Software. torsional. torsional.) . Inc.Commercial finite element software developed by a French engineering school (INSA-Lyon) for analysis of steady-state dynamic behavior of rotors in bending. Inc. The non-rotordynamic specific codes can also be used to calibrate a code designed for rotordynamics. Polish Academy of Sciences) .Commercial 1-D beam element solver RIMAP (RITEC) .

Finite element based (3-D/2-D and beam element) .Finite element based (3-D/2-D and beam element) SAMCEF .Version 11 workbench and classic is capable of solving the rotordynamic equations (3-D/2-D and beam element) Nastran .Non-rotordynamic specific codes: • • • Ansys .