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Definitions of COPAR

· A social development approach that aims to transform the apathetic, individualistic and voiceless poor into dynamic, participatory and politically responsive community. · A collective, participatory, transformative, liberative, sustained and systematic process of building people’s organizations by mobilizing and enhancing the capabilities and resources of the people for the resolution of their issues and concerns towards effecting change in their existing oppressive and exploitative conditions (1994 National Rural Conference) · A process by which a community identifies its needs and objectives, develops confidence to take action in respect to them and in doing so, extends and develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community (Ross 1967) · A continuous and sustained process of educating the people to understand and develop their critical awareness of their existing condition, working with the people collectively and efficiently on their immediate and long-term problems, and mobilizing the people to develop their capability and readiness to respond and take action on their immediate needs towards solving their long-term problems (CO: A manual of experience, PCPD) The process and structure through which members of a community are/or become organized for participation in health care and community development activities Importance of COPAR: 1. COPAR is an important tool for community development and people empowerment as this helps the community workers to generate community participation in development activities. 2. COPAR prepares people/clients to eventually take over the management of a development programs in the future. 3. COPAR maximizes community participation and involvement; community resources are mobilized for community services. 4. COPAR could be an alternative in situations wherein health interventions in Public Health Care do not require direct involvement of modern medical practitioners 5. COPAR gets people actively involved in selection and support of community health workers 6. Through COPAR, community resources are mobilized for selected health services 7. COPAR improves both projects effectiveness during implementation Emphasis of COPAR: 1. Community working to solve its own problem 2. Direction is established internally and externally 3. Development and implementation of a specific project less important than the development of the capacity of the community to establish the project

o Make long/short list of potential communities. exploited and deprived sectors are open to change. o Revise/enrich curriculum and immersion program. Consciousness raising involves perceiving health and medical care within the total structure of society Principles of COPAR: 1. activities and strategies and time spent for it. o Conduct preliminary special investigation. local and concrete issues identified by the people and the evaluation and the reflection of and on the action taken by them. · Consciousness through experimental learning central to the COPAR process because it places emphasis on learning that emerges from concrete action and which enriches succeeding action. . 2. · COPAR is participatory and mass-based because it is primarily directed towards and biased in favor of the poor. have the capacity to change and are able to bring about change. People.  Actual Selecting the site for community cares Preparation of the Institution o Train faculty and students in COPAR.  Designing a plan for community development including all its activities and strategies for care / development  Designing criteria for the selection for the site. COPAR should lead to a self-reliant community and society. · COPAR is group-centered and not leader-oriented. Phases of COPAR Pre-Entry Phase  The initial phase of the organizing process where the community / organizer looks for communities to serve / help.4. the powerless and oppressed. Site Selection o Initial networking with local government. COPAR Process: · A progressive cycle of action-reflection action which begins with small. Leaders are identified. emerge and are tested through action rather than appointed or selected by some external force or entity. especially the most oppressed. o Coordinate participants of other departments.  It is considered to be the simplest phase in terms of actual outputs. o Formulate plans for institutionalizing COPAR. COPAR should be based on the interest of the poorest sectors of society 3.

2.sometimes called the social preparation phase. o No strong resistance from the community. o No similar group or organization holding the same program. Criteria for Initial Site Selection o Must have a population of 100-200 families. o No serious peace and order problem.o Do ocular survey of listed communities. Choosing Final Barangay o Conduct informal interviews with community residents and key informants. Entry Phase . o Choose foster families based on guidelines. o Develop survey tools. o Coordinate with local government and NGOs for future activities. o No member of the host family should be moving out in the community. adopt a low-key profile.  living with the community  seek out to converse with people where they usually congregate  lend a hand in household chores . o Respected by both formal and informal leaders. o Should not belong to the rich segment. o Develop community profiles for secondary data. o Economically depressed. Guidelines for Entry o Recognize the role of local authorities by paying them visits to inform their presence and activities. Activities in the Entry Phase o Integration . speech. o Avoid raising the consciousness of the community residents. o Determine the need of the program in the community. o Pay courtesy call to community leaders. Success of the activities depend on how much the community organizers has integrated with the community.establishing rapport with the people in continuing effort to imbibe community life. Identifying Potential Municipalities o Make long/short list. o Take note of political development. behavior and lifestyle should be in keeping with those of the community residents without disregard of their being role model. o Neighbors are not hesitant to enter the house. Is crucial in determining which strategies for organizing would suit the chosen community. o Consult key informants and residents. Identifying Host Family o House is strategically located in the community. Identifying Potential Barangay o Do the same process as in selecting municipality. o Her appearance.

capability-building (includes development of data collection tools)  Planning for the actual gathering of data  Data-gathering  Training on data validation (includes tabulation and preliminary analysis of data)  Community validation  Presentation of the community study / diagnosis and recommendations  Prioritization of community needs / problems for action 4. Key Activities o Community Health Organization (CHO)  preparation of legal requirements  guidelines in the organization of the CHO by the core group  election of officers o Research Team Committee o Planning Committee o Health Committee Organization o Others o Formation of by-laws by the CHO 5. results relayed through community assembly Core Group Formation o Leader spotting through sociogram. Key persons . Organization-building Phase (Community Organization and Capability Building Phase) Entails the formation of more formal structure and the inclusion of more formal procedure of planning. Community Study/diagnosis Phase (Research Phase)  Selection on the research team  Training on Data Collection methods and techniques.approached by most people Opinion leader . avoid gambling and drinking Deepening social investigation/community study  verification and enrichment of data collected from initial survey  conduct baseline survey by students. OJT) to develop their style in managing their own concerns/programs. informal. and evaluating community-wise activities.approach by key persons Isolates . It is at this phase where the organized leaders or groups are being given training (formal.never or hardly consulted o 3. Community Action Phase  Organization and training of community health workers * development criteria for the selection of CHW * selection of CHW * training of CHW . implementing.

. o Linkaging and networking. o Implementation of livelihood projects. Sustenance and Strengthening Phase Occurs when the community organization has already been established and the community members are already actively participating in community-wide undertakings. o Conduct of mobilization on health and development concerns. At this point. Setting up of linkages/network referral systems  PIME of health services/intervention schemes and community development projects  Initial identification and implementation of resource mobilization schemes 6. with the overall guidance from the community-wide organization. o Identification of secondary leaders. Key Activities: o Training of CHO for monitoring and implementing of community health program. the different committees setup in the organization-building phase are already expected to be functioning by way of planning. implementing and evaluating their own programs.