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_____________________________________ Any student who does not do their oral presentation in class will be deducted 5 points from their

final grademark. ______________________________________ FOR WRITTEN PROJECTS, ONLY UP-CLOSEAND-PERSONAL(Questions 3-6) is SINGLESPACED. WHY and HOW I care can be on one page. Questions 7-8 form a half page, entitled LONG-TERM VISION ______________________________________________ ___ QUIZ 2 RESULTS ARE POSTED IN BUILDING 21 _______________________________________






There are four kinds of questions on the Moral Studies final exam. One is statistical. You have to be familiar with key social statistics. So for any given chart of statistics,

make sure you learn at least TWO numbers from that chart. You don’t have to memorize the entire list of numbers.

The other three kinds of questions are: Historical schools of thought and key philosophers Definitions of key terms

Problem-solving(like the homework of September)

Finally you can see PREVIOUS SEMESTER exams on UTPEDIA. I did not teach 2011 September or 2012 January. But almost all other semester I taught. Many final exam questions are recycled,

because they are vital topics. So make sure you can answer any of the previous semester’s questions.

Answer are not grade on length, but accuracy, and most answers are very short in essence. A short answer would be enough.



THE NEXT BEST THING TO A LEMMING Overview of Moral Studies
"An unconscious people, an indoctrinated people, a people fed only partisan information and opinion that confirm their own bias, a people made morbidly obese in mind and spirit by the junk food of propaganda, is less inclined to put up a fight, ask questions and be skeptical. That kind of orthodoxy can kill a democracy - or worse(can create a junk-civilization)." – Bill Moyers "The propagandist's purpose is to make one set of people forget that certain other sets of people are human(or have human dignity)." – Aldous Huxley Ethics…are nothing but reverence for life(life as a principle, not necessarily every living thing at every moment). This is what gives me the fundamental principle of morality, namely, that good consists in maintaining, promoting, and enhancing life, and that destroying, injuring, and limiting life are evil(things, in very essence).” – Albert Schweitzer Maslow estimated that less than 2% (less than 1 in 50 people) are truly growthoriented, meaning capable of not just making a change, but of making a healthy and sustained change. And that even fewer people are capable of carrying out that change and growth to the point where they “transcend” the confines of the self (“self-transcendence) and are actually able to be good to and for not just themselves but, but to and for the entire human race…. – Jon Kabat-Zinn ―Faced with the choice between changing one’s mind and proving that there is no need to do so, almost everyone gets busy on the proof.” – John Kenneth Galbraith

This book is based on the symbolic power of the lemming in our current context. ―Lemming‖ is a term used for mobile video-game icons that jump to their death or survive a difficult jump and win a contest. The icons in question hence serve as a symbol of a vicariousbut-shallow success plus the gullibility of those who fervently adopt such.
Lemmings became the subject of a popular misconception that they commit mass suicide when they migrate. It is not a mass suicide, but the result of their migratory behavior. Driven by strong biological urges, some species of lemmings may migrate in large groups when population density becomes too great. Lemmings can swim and may choose to cross a body of water in search of a new habitat. In such cases, many may drown if the body of water is so wide as to stretch their physical capability to the limit. This fact, combined with the unexplained fluctuations in the population of Norwegian lemmings, gave rise to the misconception. Dec. 11, 2012,

The misconception above shows the power of distorted history and science to mould the popular imagination, often unwittingly. Despite the abiding distortion involved here, its partial truth endures as a powerful symbol, just as the race to the moon, whether real or imaginary, whether historical or ahistorical, whether scientific or pseudo-scientific, carries powerful and enduring symbolism for the masses, and becomes a direction-finder or trend-setter whether we like it or not - and even more importantly, until we decide to take control of our fate and genuine responsibility for our choices and actions, with an objective basis, a basis in truth and reality. ―The Next Best Thing to a Lemming‖ refers to the fact that we can rise above robotic attitudes and need to do so – nay, we should aspire to do so, whatever the cost in time, effort and resources. Human beings should be one step higher than even the most brilliant robots, if not many degrees higher.

PRIORITIES FOR THE FINAL EXAM You should know the basic list(&meaning) of virtues and vices we studied.

You should know when to use a given conflict-resolution technique (see hmwk). You should be able to apply/relate the above to any given problem or crisis. You should be able to describe mental processes involved in moral analysis. You should be able to answer in complete sentences, not by diagram or list providing appropriate definitions and showing your reasoning when needed. The difference between objective, subjective, collective and individual truth. The difference between innate, instrumental, public and private good. SPECIAL TOPICS LIKELY TO BE COVERED ON ANY MORAL STUDIES FINAL: Leading and popular approaches to morality. Why people study morality. The 4 major schools of morality and some of their key representatives. You are responsible for the PPT presentations on elearning(Moral Studies). Outward signs of moral consciousness(in language), per Richard Brandt Strengths and weaknesses of Kant’s approach to moral consciousness. To what extent you agree with the authors reflective morality vs. customary. Objective and subjective morality, meaning moral sense and dynamism. A definition of a morally-mature person plus good citizenship The United Nations human rights principles + the UNs successes & failures Pillars of Professionalism in Malaysian Society(Service Ethics, Values, Norms) You should know social/historical statistics of tragedies cited in the course, including major crises & large-scale tragedies in contemporary civilization,

from environmental degradation and exhaustion of resources, to racism, to cheating & corruption(public and private), to crime, to drug abuse, to AIDS, to family disintegration, to poverty, to war, to terrorism, to slavery - with your own systematic moral response to each(using course terminology).

KEY IDEAS – PIVOTAL VIRTUES – IN MORAL STUDIES Moral Studies combines insights and analysis from four areas. _______________________________________________

To be or not to be – that is the question. Shakespeare [This means ―be focused on what kind of life you want to live.‖] This quote illustrates Dignity vs. Recklessness _______________________________________________ To toy or not to toy – that is the question. - The Professor [Too many people believe life‘s goal is to die with a maximum of toys. We must protect ourselves from this temptation to live meaningfully.] This quote illustrates Decency vs. Silliness _______________________________________________ Carry on up the rugged path toward prosperity and freedom. - Barack Obama This quote illustrates Objectivity vs. Self-Indulgence _______________________________________________ All deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness. Too many are forced into terribly serious (very negative) situations. - Barack Obama This quote illustrates Magnanimity vs. Lazy-Mindedness _______________________________________________

Dignity means preserving an irreducible, positive value for a given life. Decency means protecting someone‘s rights to good-life opportunities. Magnanimity means systematic enhancement of a social environment for development. Objectivity means a holistic view of things, trying to see where things belong. Silliness means putting all values into question and doubt, just playing with ideas. Lazy-mindedness means ignoring functional needs & natural contributions. Self-indulgence means being selfish, self-centered or self-serving[comfort-oriented]. Recklessness means ignoring the scope of negative consequences.

SPECIFICALLY MORAL TERMINOLOGY AND METHODOLOGY Morality is associated with stable life, growth, development and participation in society at large. It is intimately connected with law, education, spirituality and civility, while each of these

terms has a complex semantic field in its own right. To practice morality is to promote one or more of these factors, positively. For the purposes of this course, positively will mean normatively. We will have a normative ethics approach to moral questions. This implies an assumption that morality has to do with what is fitting, institutionally speaking, across the institutions of our society and even in the world at large. ―Fitting‖ is an English word that indicates customary usage or application. In more scientific language, we will use the term ―value judgments‖ to indicate one measure or another of how fitting or appropriate a given course of action – or type of behavior – is, a ―higher value‖ being nominally better, and a ―lower value‖ being worse. The entire field of moral studies is subject to widely differing opinions and controversial approaches. Certain analytical tools and some ideological assumptions will simplify an otherwise highly complex task. We assume a predominantly religious human culture, and hence all behaviors will be gauged vis-à-vis one or more religions as positive norms. In many cases, there is a degree of consensus among religions, which further simplifies our basic investigative course. On the other hand, for the purposes of a broad and open discourse, no religion will dominate or place restrictive mandates on the others, except by the force of logical, clear and open argumentation. In fact, the ideological assumption of religion here is generic and nondenominational, in the sense that we assume a created order of existence (and insist upon offering proofs of that assumption), as a hypothetical position, without enforcing credence. In effect, we set as the norm: belief in a Higher (or Subtle Root) Order of Being, which is to say, a metaphysical existence, above and beyond our own, yet intimately related to our own, through various channels. Our chief analytical tools consist of a subset of mainstream academic terminology with its pervasive and largely-accepted semantic fields. Thus we embrace the concepts of objective and subjective truth, collective and individual truth, intrinsic(absolute) and instrumental goods(relative or extrinsic), public and private life. Moral judgments emphasize some or all of these labels

Morality comes into focus as a gel between the major disciplines of life and society, namely

Religion & Spirituality (issues of Objectivity) Law & Civics (issues of Magnanimity)

Psychology & Education (issues of Decency) Family & Professional Ethics (issues of Dignity)

In the simplest terms, this indicates that the average person feels the need for a higher sense of belonging or deeper meaning, that certain eternal laws of the universe and society are to be respected for the benefit of all, that education proceeds with such assumptions, and that family life is a cradle of civilization, if not simply the spirit of human brotherhood. Accordingly, the textbook depicts a moral person as someone who

demonstrates self-control and critical judgment has a clear sense of civility and a degree of compassion

believes in and promotes or engages in healthy competition cooperates smoothly & works efficiently with others

Likewise, a conscientious citizen must monitor the state of his/her civilization via Environmental Credentials Economic Credentials Public Health Credentials Governmental Credentials

The Malaysian government promotes, at least officially, the professional values of Self-Development, Moderation and Thrift Creativity & Diligence Kindness, Service and Patience Prudence & Accountability

In summary, our paradigm for success of the human race includes clear and deep moral reasoning moral feeling w care and concern for humanity moral reflection w autonomous decision-making a modicum of constructive habits

… with sober, loving and compassionate conscience

Adrian Bishop defines morality as spiritual objectivity, rights, laws, and ethics:

I will put the truth first I will accept a duty (or attitude) of care toward all people I will accept responsibility for my actions and for the consequences of my actions I will conduct my relationships with integrity – and not hide from responsibility I will honour my agreements I will affirm human rights (generally) and (all) men and women as equals Albert Schweitzer puts it this way(another definition of morality): Reverence for [human] life affords me my fundamental principle of morality, namely that good consists in maintaining, assisting, and enhancing [human] life, and that to destroy, to harm, or to hinder [human] life is evil. This can be analyzed by examining its constituent parts and assessing their relevance: Moral Feeling=====scrutinizes addiction because of its hindering self-control, temperance & dignity, and because it involves a degree of silliness or wastefulness and the corruption of healthy habits Moral Reflection=== scrutinizes chattel slavery because of its not enhancing, rather its being opposite self-restraint, decency & justice and because it involves a negative kind of self-indulgence and the corruption of autonomous reason Moral Reasoning===== scrutinizes magic because of its not assisting rather its being opposite objectivity, detachment & courage and because it involves lazy-mindedness and the corruption of data or lack of attention to hard facts. Moral Performance==== scrutinizes war because of its not maintaining rather its opposing magnanimity, nobility & collective discipline and because it involves a degree of recklessness and the corruption of laws (In all wars, at least one side is breaking the law.)

Dignity as a moral virtue means assigning an irreducible value to human life.

(It also refers to the right to have one‘s life preserved, by all reasonable means.) Its opposite is silliness which puts the value of everything into question. On the other hand, the perfection of dignity is temperance, self-control & self-discipline, because these characteristics are opposite self-destructiveness. Decency is a moral virtue pertaining to preserving the good opportunities in life. Its opposite is self-indulgence, selfishness, self-centeredness or exclusive self-service. Self-indulgence means a failure to comprehend the potential contribution of others to the world, plus their right to free and active participation in the human race. Decency‘s perfection is courage, because courage involves the rudiments of self-sacrifice or a deep commitment to care and to share for others, despite losses or the threat of loss to oneself. Magnanimity is a broad effort to standardize constructive policies and habits for the betterment of everyone. Its perfection is the spiritual virtue of nobility, which involves far-reaching contribution or intervention into the affairs of others. Its opposite is recklessness which is a failure to see or comprehend scope of injury. Objectivity is valuing truth, which means a proper place assigned to everything, plus rescuing things out of place. Its opposite is lazy-mindedness, which takes things for granted. It perfection is in the spiritual virtues of justice and integrity. Objectivity is associated with teleology or teleological ethics, which focuses on the result of an action in order to evaluate it. Dignity is associated with the deontological ethics of duty because it involves a belief in the innate goodness of human beings and their right to life. Decency is associated with personality virtue, because it involves carving out a place or a path for any given person we come in contact with – or preserving a place for them in society. Personality Virtue as an approach to morality focuses on maturity, competence and effectiveness, and these are best achieved together, by combining talents, experience and resources in social institutions. The creation, promotion and preservation of social institutions which enhance human life is magnanimity, which is associated with Social Morality, inasmuch as it demonstrates trust in one‘s collectivity, and Social Morality is about loyalty, obedience and collective solidarity. In this course, we tend to support all these approaches equally, and conflict-resolution as an institution illustrates the unique usefulness of each, even though historically and socially people support one approach to morality over another, depending on the needs of a given set of circumstances or on the state of a given civilization.

The major schools of morality presented in the textbook can be diagrammed thus:  Stratified Social Morality (Confucianism)

        

Unstratified Social Morality (Socialism and Taoism) Ideal Deontology (Western Religions) Real Deontology (Buddhism and Hinduism) Individual Deontology (Existentialism) Collective Deontology (Immanuel Kant) Collective Teleology (John Stuart Mill, Communism) Individual Teleology (Jeremy Bentham, Capitalism) Classical Personality Virtues (Aristotle) Vocational PersonalityVirtues (Dewey)

―Stratified‖ means a belief in strict or steep social hierarchy. ―Ideal‖ refers to a focus on the realm of thought as a starting point. ―Real‖ refers to a focus on the world of the senses as a starting point. Similarly, the difference between Dewey and Aristotle is a difference of practical vs. theoretical, of immediate vs. mediated. Aristotle valued civilization as the primary basis for defining effectiveness, whereas Dewey valued the self first, and civilization secondarily, as the zone of action or unfolding. Yet both believed strongly in personal effectiveness as a key value. Existentialism goes to an even greater extreme in asserting the uniqueness and freedom of the individual. It asserts that we must define what we want to be, and what our life will be is entirely a result of that definition-process. Immanuel Kant had a less fluid view of human nature, and instead looked for the essence of human life in the annals of history, in philosophy and religion, minus dogmatism, except in the broadest terms. The deontology of religions differs from that of Kant because it – each religion – believes in a complex set of givens, in terms of custom, law and devotion, whereas Kant believed in very few fixed principles and practices(except for those implemented by consent and consensus). The Western Religions are called ―Ideal‖ because they focus on transcendent truths, fixed ideas. The Eastern Religions tend to focus on physical experience, even if transcendence is the goal. There is not an absolute contradiction between the two, but only a difference of emphasis. It cannot be denied that Western Religions emphasize transcendent Faith, while Buddhism and Hinduism emphasize a karma that is lived more than conceptualized. The Social Morality of Confucianism and Taoism emphasizes the good of the world of Mankind and the World of Nature, respectively. Respect for the ―Sovereign Good‖ in each case is the basis for progress and salvation of the human spirit. J.S. Mill and Bentham believed in the power of mankind to shape its own destiny, not so much as a fixed good, but as a fluid good, meaning that people need to define the process and the outcome, in their view. For both, the world of experience, the physical world, is what we measure and where we measure. Bentham emphasizes individual power and well-being and J.S. Mill collective power and well-being. They differ from existentialism in that they are focused on the world around us and enjoying it, whereas existentialists focus on the self and its continual re-definition as the theatre of happiness or tragedy. The existentialists have dominated Western academia and philosophy for the last 80 years or so, leading to the so-called postmodern age, in which intellectuals aim to de-construct and re-construct reality perpetually, without presumptions, except those of reason and selfhood.

(Also see the PowerPoint Presentation online for this topic.)

20th Century Principles of Moral Studies
[T]he RIGHTNESS of an action is connected in some way with the goodness of its consequences, [yet] we should have to ask whether it depends (a) on the actual goodness of the actual consequences, or (b) on the actual goodness of the probable consequences, or (c) on the

probable goodness of the actual consequences, or (d) on the probable goodness of the probable consequences. - C.D. Broad This statement of C.D. Broad, one of the most successful moral philosophers of the 20th century delineates the basic categories which we have just described in detail: ―the actual goodness of the actual consequences‖ is teleology, because it involves, and only involves, direct measurement of consequences ―the actual goodness of the probable consequences‖ is deontology; because it operates on the basis of proven laws and habits, applied generally ―the probable goodness of the actual consequences‖ is social morality, because it involves confidence in existing institutions, whatever they happen to be ―the probable goodness of the probable consequences‖ is personality virtue, because it involves calculating profits on a case-by-case, institution-by-institution, basis, and focuses on the knowledge of experience and common sense


Objective Truth Private Good & Learning the Laws/Dimensions/Characteristics of Nature Agreed upon physical measurements Demonstrated scientific expertise + discipline The Need for Adequate Habitat Respect for Higher Assimilation __________________________________________________________________________ SOCIAL MORALITY CONSERVATIVE VS. LIBERAL Collective Truth Public Good & Human Nature Consensus + convergence of public opinion Natural cooperation + compromise between young + old Respect for Quality Sustenance Education as a Right, a Duty, and an Adaptive Need __________________________________________________________________________ STRICT VS. TOLERANT RESOLVE PERSONALITY VIRTUES Instrumental Good & the Nature of Creatures Intrinsic Good & Life-Cycle Issues Bringing out the best in everyone + demanding it Nurturing abilities + gradually building upon them Differentiating between Ingestion and Excretion Respecting Reproductive/Nurturing Cycles __________________________________________________________________________ COMPETENT VS. INCOMPETENT DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS Individual Truth Assessing + reviewing assumed roles given our natural gifts and culture of birth The universality of shielding mechanisms Subjective Truth Matching efforts to current extent of knowledge+power - the state of our formal and informal education Gauging the Degree of Physical/Emotional Homeostasis


20th Century Principles of Moral Studies
[T]he RIGHTNESS of an action is connected in some way with the goodness of its consequences, [yet] we should have to ask whether it depends (a) on the actual goodness of the actual consequences, or (b) on the actual goodness of the probable consequences, or (c) on the probable goodness of the actual consequences, or (d) on the probable goodness of the probable consequences. C.D. Broad
This statement of C.D. Broad, one of the most successful moral philosophers of the 20th century delineates the basic categories which we have just described in detail: ―the actual goodness of the actual consequences‖ is teleology(think data collection or recording) because it involves, and only involves, direct measurement of consequences ―the actual goodness of the probable consequences‖ is deontology(think clear or corrupted reason) because it operates on the basis of proven laws and habits, applied generally ―the probable goodness of the actual consequences‖ is social morality(think adherence to laws or lack thereof) because it involves confidence in existing institutions, whatever they happen to be ―the probable goodness of the probable consequences‖ is personality virtue(think of useful habits or less useful) because it involves calculating profits on a case-by-case, institution-by-institution, basis, and focuses on the knowledge of experience and common sense

VALUING LIFE AS THE BASIS OF MORALITY Reverence for life affords me my fundamental principle of morality, namely that good consists in maintaining, assisting, and enhancing life, and that to destroy, to harm, or to hinder life is evil‖…Albert Schweitzer,

Preserving Life…....... is connected to Habitat Identification and Proper Mating…... Assisting Life……….. is connected Locating Food and the Capture of Food……. Enhancing Life.…… connected to Processing & Assimilating Sustenance Defending Life……….is Defensive Measures and Homeostasis………

These aspects of Life-Maintenance are each supported by a different moral venue: SOCIAL MORALITY Collective Truth with Life as Habitat being the key example COMPETENT VS. INCOMPETENT RESOLVE Individual Truth with Life as Homeostasis being the key example

PERSONALITY VIRTUES Intrinsic Good with Life as Reproductive Good being the key example TELEOLOGICAL ETHICS Objective Truth

STRICT VS. TOLERANT RESOLVE Instrumental Good with Life as Defensive Measures being the key example

EGALITARIAN VS. HIERARCHICAL RESOLVE Diverse Private Good with Life as Capturing Food being the key example

with Life as Food-Identification being the key example DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS Subjective Truth

CONSERVATIVE VS. LIBERAL RESOLVE Diverse Public Good with Life as Higher-Assimilation being the key example

with Life as Successful Digestion being the key example

Objective Truth exists because there is a steady-state design to life in the universe which religions call ―the created order.‖ The presence of viable foodstuff is a case in point. In this context, moral discourse addresses Public Good. Then, each individual creature (or living thing) has a history of interaction with the environment or Creation, and the cumulative lessons+attitudes emerging from these interactions are a SUBJECTIVE TRUTH, valued as a Private Good. The growth and progress of a given creature or living being, in its natural cycle of life, is an INDIVIDUAL TRUTH and a matter of Intrinsic Good. This refers to the stage of natural unfolding of given abilities (and the limits of a given creature‘s potential). Alll this is a matter of Intrinsic Good & Life-Cycle Issues Then there is a COLLECTIVE TRUTH which refers to the sense of belonging and respect between creatures within a given species, i.e. human beings valuing the presence and participation of one another in a given time and place, the sense of a viable collectivity or its absence. In this context, moral discourse addresses Instrumental Good

THE MANIFESTATION OF MORAL MOTIVATIONS Dignity is preserving an irreducible value for individuals in a collectivity or in reality.
Dignity is opposite silliness and wastefulness, basic vices or immoral disposition.

Objectivity is appreciating the relationship of each piece to (or factors in) a given whole.
Objectivity is opposite the immoral attitudes of lazy-mindedness or indifference.

Magnanimity is full, active accommodation of all individuals‘ potential in a collectivity,

usually through policy. This is opposite the immoral attitudes of recklessness and ―creative destruction‖

Decency is protection of given individuals, accommodating their functional survival
Decency is opposite the immoral attitudes of selfishness, self-centeredness and self-indulgence In normal situations, we combine two or more of these approaches at any given time, as illustrated here

on pages 102-104(old), where our textbook gives a summary of what essential moral expression is, for any given individual, meaning the key elements of moral conscience in terms of their manifestation. According to Richard Brandt, they include: 1. Intrinsic motivation…………………is comprised of dignity and decency because these concern survival and viability of the individual 2. Feeling of guilt and/or disapproval……is comprised of objectivity and decency because these concern fitting in and being respected 3. Believed importance[in terms of impact]…is comprised of dignity and magnanimity because these concern the functional worth of many individuals 4. Admiration or esteem…………………..…is comprised of dignity and objectivity because we witness our own potential excellence in great individuals, in heroes 5. Specialized terminology………………is comprised of objectivity and magnanimity because we need simple, clear, universally applicable, programmatic values which define the parameters of co-existence and cooperation 6. Believed justifications……………..……are comprised of magnanimity and decency because we want to contribute broadly & have our contribution understood: it‘s about saving the world from unnecessary suffering or disaster

EXEMPLIFYING MORAL CONSCIENCE As an example of moral conscience in action, how could we solve the problem of terrorism? * Looking at the MOTIVATION of terrorists could lead to an avenue of compromise for the less radical terrorists(at least) to give up terrorism.

In this approach, one must separate out the reasonable from the unreasonable demands of terrorists, and be willing to negotiate with them. *Sense of GUILT could lead authorities to RE-DOUBLE and RE-DEFINE their efforts to combat terrorism with greater sophistication in surveilling and blocking terrorist activities. The essence of this approach is law-enforcement and enlisting public support. *The IMPORTANCE of the alleged just wars could be highlighted and defended better, by defining "JUST WAR" or "FREE AND OPEN SOCIETY" and then limiting the prosecution of wars to that definition, so as to avoid enraging potential & existing terrorists. *Getting ADMIRABLE international war-crimes tribunals to work, with HEROIC efforts to capture the biggest terrorists and prosecute them quickly. An international basis is key, in order to avoid the appearance of partiality or prejudice in identifying the worst terrorists and in order to distance governments from the same accusation. *The TERMINOLOGY of terrorism goes back to the definition itself. What IS terrorism exactly? This question may be the key to the whole problem. *The right to free speech and protest might be the most important key to combatting terrorism, if we believe and understand the biggest terrorists to be governments or government-sponsored actions. In other words, the key to any struggle against terrorism may be admitting that governments are often the biggest terrorists, and this is the greatest danger we face, historically. So public consensus as to guilt plus visible trials of terrorist suspects provide, together, the greatest JUSTIFICATION for any successful approach. Win universal support by condemning ALL forms of terrorism.

________________________________________________________________________ UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: SUMMARY Equality of opportunity…......decency and magnanimity Freedom of conscience….....…dignity & objectivity

Equality before the law…...... …decency & dignity Speedy trial……………..........… decency & objectivity . No torture or slavery…….........… .decency & dignity No arbitrary arrest or exile…......... . ..dignity & decency Right to privacy and travel……....... .….magnanimity & dignity Right to nationality and asylum………… ….magnanimity & objectivity Right of property…………………………………decency & objectivity Free consent to marriage……………………………..magnanimity & dignity Right of assembly, information and education………….dignity & objectivity Representative government………………………………..dignity & objectivity Right to employment and dignified compensation……….…..dignity & decency BASIC RIGHTS, UNIVERSALLY ACKNOWLEDGED.. US Constitution

• • • • • • •

due process1………………………… non-aggressive free speech…. weapons & postures of self-defense no torture/no gratuitous battering...…peaceable assembly privacy & freedom of conscience.. habeas corpus/free movement

These are key elements of open government: Consent Transparency Accountability Power-Sharing and Limited Powers

Speedy and free public trials plus equality before the law plus freedom from double jeopardy.

Consent implies and entails the possibility and allowability of complaint, petitions and public debate. It is opposite the manufacturing of consent or dictatorship. Transparency implies and entails accessibility to leaders and visibility of their key actions. It is opposite concealment. It is opposite black budgets. Accountability implies and entails the rule of law and the practical possibility of prosecuting leaders for breaking the law It implies too that gross irregularities or inconsistencies in performance Power-Sharing and Limited Powers implies and entails checks and balances, in the sense that any portion of a government can reject, suspend or veto the actions of another part, to some degree. There is also, there must also be, a period review of the tenure for any given officer.


Problem-Solving Tech.……...Best Venue…………Objective of Civilization Nurtured
Formal Logic Confusion or Distorted Views Accomodating the Will of Heaven of a Problem being Prevalent or the Possibility of Transcendent Excellence

Boolean Logic

When proving guilt or incompetence is one step

Avoiding Extremes of Hierarchy & Equality

Due Process

When key people have forgotten Enumerating Human Rights the details of formal agreements, or when liars & cheaters are involved When leaders or leading-parties are at odds or very disrespected When all members love an organization but future is cloudy or present is very complex When there is great unity but a general sense of incompetence Collective Health


Conservative vs. Liberal

Define Terms of Peace, Property Rights, Public Routes

Tolerant vs. Strict

Matching Punishment to Crime, plus Diversification of Labor

Competent vs. Incompetent

When goals are clear Basic Physical & Mental Training but available talents vary widely When tragedies mount and those responsible are uncertain - or when progress is at a standstill Establishing Courts, Preserving Family Life

Egalitarian vs. Hierarchical

Tabling All Possibilities

When all parties agree Economic Enterprise that potentials aren‘t being utilized, whether physical or mental or professional When there is abiding love but bitter anger or big egos and disintegrating relationships Where the argument has strayed from major to minor issues Where both sides agree on many fundamental points, though bitter disagreements persist Enshrining the Sacredness of Life, Higher Education

Softening Polemical Rhetoric

Reality Check

Intellectual Discourse, Respecting Intelligence

Bridge Building

Peace is better than war

Formal Logic is like Frankl‘s VALUE ANALYSIS STRATEGY in the textbook Boolean Logic is like Coomb‘s VALUE ANALYSIS STRATEGY in the textbook Strict vs. Tolerant is similar to COGNITIVE MORAL DEVELOPMENT in the textbook Conservative vs. Liberal is similar to HIERARCHY BUILDING Tabling All Possibilities is similar to THE STRATEGY OF DISSOLUTION Softening Polemical Rhetoric is similar to THE STRATEGY OF COMPROMISE




____‖Nationalism‖ depends first on…. defining objectivity & magnanimity ____‖Humanism‖ depends on ……….dignity and decency ____Democracy depends on ……….magnanimity and decency ____Sanity / Insanity depends on ……dignity and objectivity ____Torture depends on ………………no dignity OR decency ____Emergency depends on ………objectivity and decency ____Slavery depends on …………NO dignity and decency ____Addiction depends on ……….NO dignity and objectivity ____Magic depends on …………NO objectivity and decency ____Terrorism depends on ………..NO objectivity and decency ____Racism depends on ………..NO dignity and objectivity ____Heroism depends on ………objectivity and magnanimity ____Miracle depends on ………………objectivity and decency

Crisis and Hope…Theirs and ours…By Noam Chomsky
There is also a problem with the term ―crisis.‖ Which one? There are numerous very severe crises, interwoven in ways that preclude any clear separation. But again I will pretend otherwise, for simplicity.

One way to enter this morass is offered by the June 11 issue of the New York Review of Books. The front-cover headline reads ―How to Deal With the Crisis‖; the issue features a symposium of specialists on how to do so. It is very much worth reading, but with attention to the definite article. For the West the phrase ―the crisis‖ has a clear enough meaning: the financial crisis that hit the rich countries with great impact, and is therefore of supreme importance. But even for the rich and privileged that is by no means the only crisis, nor even the most severe. And others see the world quite differently. For example, in the October 26, 2008 edition of the Bangladeshi newspaper The New Nation, we read: It‘s very telling that trillions have already been spent to patch up leading world financial institutions, while out of the comparatively small sum of $12.3 billion pledged in Rome earlier this year, to offset the food crisis, only $1 billion has been delivered. The hope that at least extreme poverty can be eradicated by the end of 2015, as stipulated in the UN‘s Millennium Development Goals, seems as unrealistic as ever, not due to lack of resources but a lack of true concern for the world‘s poor. The article goes on to predict that World Food Day in October 2009 ―will bring . . . devastating news about the plight of the world‘s poor . . . which is likely to remain that: mere ‗news‘ that requires little action, if any at all.‖ Western leaders seem determined to fulfill these grim predictions. On June 11 the Financial Times reported, ―the United Nations‘ World Food Programme is cutting food aid rations and shutting down some operations as donor countries that face a fiscal crunch at home slash contributions to its funding.‖ Victims include Ethiopia, Rwanda, Uganda, and others. The sharp budget cut comes as the toll of hunger passes a billion—with over one hundred million added in the past six months—while food prices rise, and remittances decline as a result of the economic crisis in the West. As The New Nation anticipated, the ―devastating news‖ released by the World Food Programme barely even reached the level of ―mere ‗news.‘‖ In The New York Times, the WFP report of the reduction in the meager Western efforts to deal with this growing ―human catastrophe‖ merited 150 words on page ten under ―World Briefing.‖ That is not in the least unusual. The United Nations also released an estimate that desertification is endangering the lives of up to a billion people, while announcing World Desertification Day. Its goal, according to the Nigerian newspaper THISDAY, is ―to combat desertification and drought worldwide by promoting public awareness and the implementation of conventions dealing with desertification in member countries.‖ The effort to raise public awareness passed without mention in the national U.S. press. Such neglect is all too common. It may be instructive to recall that when they landed in what today is Bangladesh, the British invaders were stunned by its wealth and splendor. It was soon on its way to becoming the very symbol of misery, and not by an act of God. As the fate of Bangladesh illustrates, the terrible food crisis is not just a result of “lack of true concern” in the centers of wealth and power. In large part it results from very definite concerns of global managers: for their own welfare. It is always well to keep in mind Adam Smith‘s astute observation about policy formation in England. He recognized that the ―principal architects‖ of policy—in his day the ―merchants and manufacturers‖—made sure that their own interests had ―been most peculiarly attended to‖ however ―grievous‖ the effect on others, including the people of England and, far more so, those who were subjected to ―the savage injustice of the Europeans,‖ particularly in conquered India, Smith‘s own prime concern in the domains of European conquest.

… For working people, small farmers, and the poor, at home and abroad, all of this spells regular disaster. One of the reasons for the radical difference in development between Latin America and East Asia in the last half century is that Latin America did not control capital flight, which often approached the level of its crushing debt and has regularly been wielded as a weapon against the threat of democracy and social reform. In contrast, during South Korea‘s remarkable growth period, capital flight was not only banned, but could bring the death penalty. Where neoliberal rules have been observed since the ‘70s, economic performance has generally deteriorated and social democratic programs have substantially weakened. In the United States, which partially accepted these rules, real wages for the majority have largely stagnated for 30 years, instead of tracking productivity growth as before,

while work hours have increased, now well beyond those of Europe. Benefits, which always lagged, have declined further. Social indicators—general measures of the health of the society—also tracked growth until the mid-‘70s, when they began to decline, falling to the 1960 level by the end of the millennium. Economic growth found its way into few pockets, increasingly in the financial industries. Finance constituted a few percentage points of GDP in 1970, and has since risen to well over one-third, while productive industry has declined, and with it, living standards for much of the workforce. The economy has been punctuated by bubbles, financial crises, and public bailouts, currently reaching new highs. A few outstanding international economists explained and predicted these results from the start. But mythology about ―efficient markets‖ and ―rational choice‖ prevailed. This is no surprise: it was highly beneficial to the narrow sectors of privilege and power that provide the ―principal architects of policy.‖ … The food crisis erupted first and most dramatically in Haiti in early 2008. Like Bangladesh, Haiti today is a symbol of misery and despair. And, like Bangladesh, when European explorers arrived, the island was remarkably rich in resources, with a large and flourishing population. It later became the source of much of France‘s wealth. I will not run through the sordid history, but the current food crisis can be traced directly to 1915, Woodrow Wilson‘s invasion: murderous, brutal, and destructive. Among Wilson‘s many crimes was dissolving the Haitian Parliament at gunpoint because it refused to pass ―progressive legislation‖ that would have allowed U.S. businesses to take over Haitian lands. Wilson‘s Marines then ran a free election, in which the legislation was passed by 99.9 percent of the 5 percent of the public permitted to vote. All of this comes down through history as ―Wilsonian idealism.‖ Returning home, it is worth noting that the more sophisticated are aware of the deceit that is employed as a device to control the public, and regard it as praiseworthy. The distinguished liberal statesman Dean Acheson advised that leaders must speak in a way that is ―clearer than truth.‖ Harvard Professor of the Science of Government Samuel Huntington, who quite frankly explained the need to delude the public about the Soviet threat 30 years ago, urged more generally that power must remain invisible: ―The architects of power in the United States must create a force that can be felt but not seen. Power remains strong when it remains in the dark; exposed to the sunlight it begins to evaporate.‖ An important lesson for those who want power to devolve to the public, a critical battle that is fought daily.

The world hunger problem: Facts, figures and statistics
     In the Asian, African and Latin American countries, well over 500 million people are living in what the World Bank has called "absolute poverty" It is estimated that, yearly, some 800 million people in the world suffer from hunger and malnutrition, about 50 times as many as those who actually die. Every year 15 million children die of hunger For the price of one missile, a school full of hungry children could eat lunch every day for 5 years Throughout the 1990's more than 100 million children will die from illness and starvation. Those 100 million deaths could be prevented for the price of ten Stealth bombers, or what the world spends on its military in two days!

             

The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world is well-fed, one-third is under-fed one-third is starving- Since you've entered this site at least 200 people have died of starvation. Over 4 million will die this year. The Indian subcontinent has nearly half the world's hungry people. Africa and the rest of Asia together have approximately 40%, and the remaining hungry people are found in Latin America and other parts of the world. Hunger in Global Economy Nearly one in four people, 1.3 billion - a majority of humanity - live on less than $1 per day, while the world's 358 billionaires have assets exceeding the combined annual incomes of countries with 45 percent of the world's people. UNICEF 3 billion people in the world today struggle to survive on US$2/day. In 1994 the Urban Institute in Washington DC estimated that one out of 6 elderly people in the U.S. has an inadequate diet. In the U.S. hunger and race are related. In 1991 46% of African-American children were chronically hungry, and 40% of Latino children were chronically hungry compared to 16% of white children. The infant mortality rate is closely linked to inadequate nutrition among pregnant women. The U.S. ranks 23rd among industrial nations in infant mortality. African-American infants die at nearly twice the rate of white infants. One out of every eight children under the age of twelve in the U.S. goes to bed hungry every night. Half of all children under five years of age in South Asia and one third of those in sub-Saharan Africa are malnourished. In 1997 alone, the lives of at least 300,000 young children were saved by vitamin A supplementation programmes in developing countries. Malnutrition is implicated in more than half of all child deaths worldwide - a proportion unmatched by any infectious disease since the Black Death To satisfy the world's sanitation and food requirements would cost only US$13 billion- what the people of the United States and the European Union spend on perfume each year. The assets of the world's three richest men are more than the combined GNP of all the least developed countries on the planet. Every 3.6 seconds someone dies of hunger

FOR THE FOLLOWING DOCUMENTS, REMEMBER KEY QUOTES AND STATISTICS ONLY. NO NEED TO MEMORIZE EVERY DETAIL. ALCOHOLISM LIKE ANY DRUG ADDICTION IS A REAL MENACE. Over a lifetime, 27% of the population will suffer from a substance abuse disorder (Kessler, McGonagle Zhao, Nelson, Hughes, Eshleman, et al., 1994). Twenty five percent of Americans will die of some form of substance abuse. Ninety five percent of alcoholics die of their disease, approximately 26 years earlier than their normal life expectancy. Heavy drinking contributes to illnesses in each of the top three causes of death: heart disease, cancer and stroke. Approximately two-thirds of American adults drink an alcoholic beverage during the course of a year, and at least 13.8 million Americans develop problems associated with drinking.

Fifty percent of cases involving major trauma are alcohol related. Fifty percent of homicides are alcohol related. Forty percent of assaults are alcohol related. One hundred thousand Americans die of alcohol problems each year. More than 40% of those who start drinking at age 14 or younger become alcoholic. In 1998, the cost of alcohol abuse was over 185 billion dollars. Over many years of following alcohol and drug use, studies find that 80% of high school seniors have tried alcohol, 32% have gotten drunk in the last thirty days, 49% have smoked marijuana and 63% have smoked cigarettes. The average 18-year-old has seen 100,000 television commercials encouraging him or her to drink. The patients who are most vulnerable to excessive alcohol and drug abuse are young adults between the ages of 18-25. They have the highest incidence of alcohol and drug use, but no age group is omitted from falling victim to the problem. More alcoholism is being found in the elderly now that more baby boomers are retiring. Classical alcoholism takes about 15 years to develop, but it can happen much quicker in adolescents and young adults. With all of this bad news, we have strong evidence that treatment works. For every dollar spent on recovery, the economy saves seven dollars in health care and cost to society. Most patients who work the program of recovery stay clean and sober (Gordis, 2003; Stein, 2001; Monitoring the Future Study, 2000; NIAAA, 1997)… Alcohol problems cluster in and destroy families. More than half of current drinkers have a family history of alcoholism. Three out of ten adults report that drinking has been a cause of trouble in their family. Alcohol abuse can destroy families in many ways. More than 40% of separated or divorced women were married to or lived with a problem drinker. More than three fourths of female victims of nonfatal, domestic violence reported that their assailant had been drinking or using drugs. More than 18 million alcohol abusers need treatment but few get it (Stein, 2001). Children of alcoholics demonstrate a three- to four-time increased risk of developing the disorder. Twin studies strongly suggest a powerful genetic link. Generally, it seems that alcoholism is caused by 40% genetic factors and the remaining 60% by factors we don‘t understand (Heath, Bucholz, Madden, et al., 1997; Schuckit, 1987; Anthenelle & Schuckit, 1998). Genetic researchers are engaged in identifying the genes that cause vulnerability to addiction, but the task is difficult because alcoholism is considered to be a polygenetic disorder that is related to many different genes, each of which contributes only a portion of the vulnerability (Gordis, 2003)… Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects (see Appendix 19) are the leading causes of mental retardation in the country. At least 762,000 children are born each year exposed to alcohol during pregnancy. Once ingested and absorbed into the maternal bloodstream, alcohol readily crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. It is found in the amniotic fluid, even after ingestion of a moderate dose. Alcohol is eliminated from the amniotic fluid at a rate that is one half the rate at which it is eliminated from the maternal blood; therefore, it remains in the fetal circulation after it is no longer in the mother‘s bloodstream. It is estimated that approximately one of every three to four mothers exposes her fetus to the potentially harmful effects of alcohol. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation and neurobehavioral defects in North America (Pagliaro & Pagliaro, 2002)…. If you don‘t think alcohol is a poison, take an egg and drop it into Everclear, which is 95% pure alcohol. The egg will instantly turn white as it cooks. This is a good demonstration for

your patients. It allows them to see the poisonous effect of their drug of choice. People with fetal alcohol effects may have normal intelligence, but they have defects in their brain and behavior. They can do some things some days but are unable to do the same thing the next day. They have difficulty generalizing. A rule they learn in one situation may not transfer to other situations. They have difficulty learning from past experiences and they have difficulty learning how the past affects the future. They tend to be very nice, peopleoriented patients, but they keep relapsing. Does this sound like anyone you know? There are probably patients that you are seeing now that have this disorder and many will be incapable of working a self-directed program of recovery. These patients will need a mentor or a structured facility for the rest of their lives. The mentor is usually someone in the family or community who can act as an advocate for the patient in recovery. These patients are very frustrating to work with until you figure out what the problem is and change the treatment plan to incorporate this condition (Streissguth, 1998).


sexual revolution encompasses the changes in social thought and codes of behaviour related to sexuality throughout

the Western world. In general use, the term "sexual liberation" is used to describe a socio-political movement, witnessed from the 1960s into the 1970s.[1] During the 1960s, shifts in regards to how society viewed sexuality began to take place, heralding a period of de-conditioning in some circles away from old world antecedents, and developing new codes of sexual behaviour, many of which are now integrated into the mainstream.[2] The 1960s heralded a new culture of "free love” with millions of young people embracing the hippie ethos and preaching the power of love and the beauty of sex as a natural part of ordinary life. Hippies believed that sex was a natural biological phenomenon which should not be denied or repressed. Sexual liberalisation heralded a new ethos in experimenting with open sex in and outside of marriage, [3] contraception and the pill, public nudity, and liberalisation of abortion.[4][5]

…The term [sexual revolution] has been used at least since the late 1920s[6] and is often attributed as being influenced by Freud's writing on sexual liberation and psychosexual issues.… The publication of renowned anthropologist and student of Franz Boas, Margaret Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa brought the sexual revolution to the public scene, as her thoughts concerning sexual freedom pervaded academia. Published in 1928, Mead's ethnography focused on the psychosexual development of adolescent children on the island of Samoa. She recorded that their adolescence was not in fact a time of "storm and stress" as Erikson's stages of development suggest, but that the sexual freedom experienced by the adolescents actually permitted them an easy transition from childhood to adulthood. Her findings were later challenged by anthropologist Derek Freeman who later investigated her claims of promiscuity and conducted his own ethnography of Samoan society. Mead called for a change in suppression of sexuality in America and her work directly resulted in the advancement of the sexual revolution in the 1930s… .. It [the sexual revolution] was a development in the modern world which saw the significant loss of power by the values of a morality rooted in the Christian tradition and the rise of permissive societies, of attitudes that were accepting of greater sexual freedom and experimentation that spread all over the world and were captured in the phrase free love… Due to the invention of TV and the increasingly wide use of it in the 50s, by the 1960s a vast majority of Americans had television. This mass communication device, along with other media outlets such as radio and magazines, could broadcast information in a matter of seconds to millions of people, while only a few wealthy people would control what millions of people would watch. Some have now theorised that perhaps these media outlets helped spread new ideas among the masses. A prime example of this occurred in 1964 when the Beatles came to America and were introduced on the Ed Sullivan Show. Once the show was over, they were an instant hit. Forty million Americans had watched it that night and thus morals in one perspective changed instantly; although obviously it would take longer for this to occur. (Sexual Revolution continued on the next page) The Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century and the growth of science and technology, medicine and health care, resulted in better contraceptives being manufactured. Advances in the manufacture and production of rubber made possible the design and production of condoms that could be used by hundreds of millions of men and women to prevent pregnancy at little cost. Advances in steel production and immunology made abortion readily available and less dangerous. Advances in chemistry, pharmacology, and knowledge of biology, and human physiology led to the discovery and perfection of the first oral contraceptives also known as "The Pill". Purchasing anaphrodisiac and various sex toys became "normal". Sado-masochism ("S&M") gained popularity, and "no-fault" unilateral divorce became legal and easier to obtain in many countries during the 1960s and 1970s….All these developments took place alongside and combined with an increase in world literacy and decline in religious observances. Old values such as the biblical notion of "be fruitful and multiply" (thought to be applicable in modern times despite the opinion even of 1st millennium Church Fathers that it's already fulfilled[citation

) were cast aside as people continued to feel alienated from the past and adopted the life-styles of modernizing westernized cultures.

… Doctor Sigmund Freud of Vienna believed human behavior was motivated by unconscious drives, primarily by the libido or "Sexual Energy". Freud proposed to study how these unconscious drives were repressed and found expression through other cultural outlets. He called his therapy

Psychoanalysis…While Freud's ideas were ignored and embarrassing to Viennese society, his work provoked a serious challenge to Victorian prudishness by providing the groundwork for the ideas of sex drive and infant sexuality. Freud's theory of psychosexual development proposed a model for the development of sexual orientations and desires... This new philosophy was the new intellectual and cultural underpinning ideology of the new age of sexual frankness. Nonetheless, much of his research is widely discredited by professionals in the field… Anarchist Freud scholars Otto Gross and Wilhelm Reich (who famously coined the phrase "Sexual Revolution") developed a sociology of sex in the 1910s to 1930's. …In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Alfred C. Kinsey published two surveys of modern sexual behavior.. Kinsey's books contained studies about controversial topics such as the frequency of homosexuality, and the sexuality of minors ages two weeks to thirteen years. Scientists working for Kinsey reported data which led to the conclusion that people are capable of sexual stimulation from birth… The development of antibiotics in the 1940s made most of the severe venereal diseases of the time curable, namely gonorrhea and syphilis. In the early 1960s, The Pill became available; at first for married women only, but demand and changes in attitudes later led to it becoming available to unmarried women as well. With the threat of disease and pregnancy now reduced, much of the post-WW2 baby boom generation fearlessly experimented with sex without considering marriage…. As birth control become more available, men and women gained unprecedented control of their reproductive capabilities… Beginning in San Francisco in the mid 1960s, a new culture of "free love" emerged, with thousands of young people becoming "hippies" who preached the power of love and the beauty of sex as part of ordinary student life. This is part of a counterculture that exists to the present. By the 1970s it was acceptable for colleges to allow co-educational housing where male and female students mingled freely. Free love continued in different forms throughout the 1970s and into the early 1980s, but its more assertive manifestations ended abruptly (or disappeared from public view) in the mid 1980s when the public first became aware of AIDS, a deadly sexually transmitted disease.

Among 14 countries analyzed in the report by the National Center for Health Statistics, the percentage of all live unmarried births in the USA — 40% in 2007 — ranks somewhere in the middle. That's up from 18% in 1980. The sharpest rise was from 2002 to 2007…In 2007, the Netherlands had the same percentage as the USA, but it has increased ten-fold there from 4% in 1980. Other U.S. findings for 2007:

•60% of births to women ages 20-24 were non-marital, up from 52% in 2002. •Almost one-third (32.2%) of births to women 25-29 were non-marital, up from one-quarter (25.3%) in 2002. •Births to unmarried women totaled 1.7 million, 26% more than in 2002.
"The relationships of the parents are much less stable in the U.S. than a lot of other countries," she says. "In Europe, where there are high levels of childbearing outside of marriage, when childbearing is not happening in marriage, it's happening in cohabitation. Cohabitations are reasonably stable."

Statistics on Out-of-Wedlock Births Netherlands… jumped…440 % from 1980-2007 Ireland…………..…...….533 Spain………………..…..428% Italy………..…jumped…421 % from 1980-2007 Norway……………….....1554 France………..………….1150 UK…………….………..1244 Canada……………..……1330 Germany…………….….1230

Abortion statistics:
Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15–44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands…
Teenage birth and abortion rates by country

Teen birth and abortion rates, 1996[7]
per 1000 women 15-19


birth rate

abortion rate

Combined rate = total

Netherlands 7.7 Spain 7.5 Italy 6.6 Greece 12.2 Belgium 9.9 Germany 13.0 Finland 9.8 France 9.4 Denmark 8.2 Sweden 7.7 Norway 13.6

3.9 4.9 6.7 1.3 5.2 5.3 9.6 13.2 15.4 17.7 18.3

30% 50%


11.6 12.4 13.3 13.5 15.1 18.3 19.4 22.6 23.6 25.4 31.9

Note the heated and furious debate on the morality or immorality of abortion. Both sides claim dignity as their justification. Pro-aborionists or ―pro-choice‖ persons say it is the dignity of the prospective mother to decide whether she wants to carry a baby. Anti-abortion activists or ―prolife‖ persons say the baby has an undeniable dignity to live out life. They say abortion is reckless killing and a self-indulgent life-style. Pro-choice people say the foetus is not a human life. ―In any case, constitutions were not written for the unborn.‖ Pro-lifers will say human life is always human life, and our new technological ability to destroy it does not justify the murder which is taking place.
THERE is one abortion for every five pregnancies in the Malaysia, according to a random survey by several private clinics.

WHY THE NUCLEAR FAMILY? The nuclear family – consisting of a fixed unit of husband/wife/children – is one of the oldest and sturdiest institutions in human civilization. Its universality is parallel and even coincident to some degree with religion. It role in providing stability and prosperity to civilization is currently under intense debate. “Family values are political and social beliefs that hold the nuclear family to be the essential ethical and moral unit of society…Although the phrase is vague and has shifting meanings, it is most often associated with social and religious conservatives[in the USA]. In the late 20th and early 21st Centuries, the term has been frequently used in political debate, to claim that the world has seen a decline in family values since the end of the Second World War.‖ Such conservative views have been challenged by a ―survey[that]…noted that 93% of women thought that society should value all types of families.‖

―While family values remains a rather vague concept, social conservatives usually understand the term to include some combination of the following principles ―Promotion of "traditional marriage" and opposition to sex outside of conventional marriage, including pre-marital sex, adultery, polygamy, bestiality, and incest[6][7][8][9] ―…[and] Support for complementarianism “Complementarianism is a theological view held by many in Christianity and other world religions, such as Islam, as well as in Messianic and Orthodox Judaism. that men and women have different but complementary roles and responsibilities in marriage, family life, religious leadership, and elsewhere…Complementarianism holds that "God has created men and women equal in their essential dignity and human personhood, but different and complementary in function.‖ In this view, the nuclear family provides unique benefits….including Family as Continuity with Familiarity in Childcare Objectivity Dignity Decency Family as Healthy Sexuality Family as Diverse Nurturing Family as Integrated Role-Playing Magnanimity (via exposure to Male and Female team)

ANALYZING FAMILY VALUES – OVERT BENEFITS OF THE FAMILY Family as Continuity with Familiarity in Childcare Objectivity Dignity Decency Family as Healthy Sexuality Family as Diverse Nurturing Family as Integrated Role-Playing Magnanimity (via exposure to Male and Female team) As the interests an aptitudes of men and women tend to differ, exposure to a male and

Two people, like two eyes, watching a child grow will have a keener insight, in general, as to

It is proven that ―free sex‖ or highly transitory sexual relationships

A husband and wife together raising a child bring a wealth of diverse experience

the needs and potentials of a given child than will one person, and this holds true many times over for the child of a nuclear or extended family compared to an orphan.

tend to have outcomes that are less than desirable for the parties involved, including unwanted pregnancy and STDs.

to the task, in principle twice the amount of a single person.

a female parent mom and dad implies exposure to diverse initiatives and activities. The husband and wife team also exposes a child to subtle relationships between men and women, including lessons of cooperation and compromise

ARTICLE: BEWARE, MOST DIVORCE STATISTICS ARE UNRELIABLE "Pollster Louis Harris has written, "The idea that half of American marriages are doomed is one of the most specious pieces of statistical nonsense ever perpetuated in modern times." "It all began when the Census Bureau noted that during one year, there were 2.4 million marriages and 1.2 million divorces. Someone did the math without calculating the 54 million marriages already in existence, and presto, a ridiculous but quotable statistic was born. "Harris concludes, "Only one out of eight marriages will end in divorce. In any single year, only about 2 percent of existing marriages will break up." --J. Allan Petersen in Better Families, quoted on the Christianity.Net home page, "Preaching Resources," Copyright(c) 1996 by Christianity Today, Inc./LEADERSHIP journal -- Summer 1996 Vol.XVII, No.3, Page 69 What do all those different versions of the "divorce rate" mean? What is the real divorce rate…? Basically, it's very hard to say what the divorce rate is because there are several different ways to measure it, and because the constant question is, what do you use as the denominator of the fraction or ratio? Do you weigh people getting divorced per year against the number of people who are getting married that same year, or against people who got married when the divorcing people got married, or against everyone who is married, or who ever has been, or do you try to project how many people who are getting married _will_ divorce in the future, disregarding older people who are in more stable marriages?...Taking the number of marriages per year and comparing it with the number of divorces per year is very often done in the media…[Conclusion: The actual rate is 20-25 percent.]

In 2008, 46% of all marriages involve a remarriage for one or both spouses. It is estimated that 40% of all marriages have ended in divorce as of 2008.[2] The overall divorce rate is in decline in the US, but so is the marriage rate.[3] Among factors that are believed to be associated with a higher divorce rate were cohabitation prior to marriage,[5] and infrequent church attendance.[6]
[Alternate view: ________________________________________________________________ __________________HOW TO PREVENT DIVORCE___________________. Work On Yourself: Reflect on your past. Consider your childhood. Examine the relationships you witnessed as a child. These relationships teach you at a very young age how to deal with the opposite sex and handle conflict. Consider your earlier dating experiences. Reflect on your mistakes. Make peace with your past….Examine your parents’ relationship and learn from it, but always be aware that while we may share many of the same strengths and weaknesses with our parents, ultimately we alone have the power to make different decisions. …Look for positive role models. It is always a good idea to draw on the wisdom of others. Is there someone you know who has the kind of marriage that you admire? Maybe it's your in-laws, a friend or another relative? Observe how they communicate and deal with problems. Nearly every marriage faces financial problems, death, betrayal or dishonesty. But, not every single marriage ends in divorce. Find those couples that withstand such hardships. Listen and observe their strategies.

Work With Your Spouse: Avoid labeling your spouse’s actions or statements. Statements like "That doesn’t make any sense!" or "Do I have to hear this again?" do nothing to foster trust and communication. They get you no further to stopping divorce….Ask your spouse what he/she wants or needs. You cannot foster love in your relationship if you have no idea what your spouse truly desires. …When your spouse gives you feedback or makes a remark, do not act defensively. Even if the remark feels nasty or is not constructive, try to learn from it. Examine your actions and words with a critical eye. FEMINISM AND THE ATTEMPT TO DEFINE WOMEN’S RIGHTS
Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights and equal opportunities for women.[1][2][3] Its concepts overlap with those of women's rights. Feminism is mainly focused on women's issues, but because feminism seeks gender equality, some feminists argue that men's liberation is therefore a necessary part of feminism, and that men are also harmed by sexism and gender roles. Feminist theory exists in a variety of disciplines, it emerged from these feminist movements [5][6] and includes general theories[specify] and theories about the origins of inequality, and, in some cases, about the social construction of sex and gender. Feminist activists have campaigned for women's rights—such as in contract, property, and voting — while also promoting women's rights to bodily integrity and autonomy and reproductive rights. They have opposed domestic violence, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. In economics, they have advocated for workplace rights, including equal pay and opportunities for careers and to start businesses. Pro-feminism Pro-feminism is the support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement. The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism. The activities of profeminist men's groups include anti-violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counseling male perpetrators of violence.

Pro-feminist men also are involved in men's health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, men's studies, and the development of gender equity curricula in schools. This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and women's services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centers. Some activists of both genders will not refer to men as "feminists" at all and will refer to all men who support feminism as "profeminists".[181][182] Anti-feminism Anti-feminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms.[183] In the nineteenth century, anti-feminism was mainly focused on opposition to women's suffrage. Later, opponents of women's entry into institutions of higher learning argued that education was too great a physical burden on women. Other anti-feminists opposed women's entry into the labor force, or their right to join unions, to sit on juries, or to obtain birth control and control of their sexuality.[184] Some people have opposed feminism on the grounds that they believe it is contrary to traditional values or religious beliefs. These anti-feminists argue, for example, that social acceptance of divorce and non-married women is wrong and harmful, and that men and women are fundamentally different and thus their different traditional roles in society should be maintained.[185][186][187] Other anti-feminists oppose women's entry into the workforce, political office, and the voting process, as well as the lessening of male authority in families. [188][189] Many notable women scholars oppose some forms of feminism, though they identify as feminists. They argue, for example, that feminism often promotes misandry and the elevation of women's interests above men's, and criticize radical feminist positions as harmful to both men and women.

A sexually transmitted disease (STD), also known as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. While in the past, these illnesses have mostly been referred to as STDs or VD, in recent years the term sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been preferred, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without showing signs of disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via the use of IV drug needles after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years. Until the 1990s, STDs were commonly known as venereal diseases :Veneris is the Latin genitive form of the name Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Social disease was another euphemism… Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes. Sexual health clinics fight to promote the use of condoms and provide outreach for at-risk communities.

The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner… STD incidence rates remain high in most of the world, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances that can rapidly render patients with many STDs noninfectious and cure most. In many cultures, changing sexual morals and oral contraceptive use have eliminated traditional sexual restraints… In 1996, the World Health Organization estimated that more than 1 million people were being infected daily… Commonly reported prevalences of STIs among sexually active adolescent girls both with and without lower genital tract symptoms include chlamydia (10– 25%), gonorrhea (3–18%), syphilis (0–3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (8–16%), and herpes simplex virus (2–12%)… AIDS is the single largest cause of mortality in present-day Sub-Saharan Africa.[22] …AIDS remains the leading cause of death among African American women between ages 25 and 34. At least one in four U.S. teenage girls has a sexually transmitted disease,[19] a CDC study found.[20] Among girls who admitted ever having sex, the rate was 40%.

AIDS Statistics
Statistics from the year 2000 indicate the following: Most of HIV-AIDS victims(63 %) are in Sub-Saharan Africa. In India, 50% of commercial sex workers have AIDS. In the ASEAN countries(where 500 million live), about 4 million are affected. There are 350 new cases of HIV per month in Malaysia, totally .6 % of the adult population. About 2/5 are from heterosexual transmission; the rest are from drug abuse and homosexual transmission. Number of new cases worldwide being 2 ¼ million in 2000, it is now 2 million. There are now around 35 million cases of HIV-AIDS. Article Above Source: t=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1290808661&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000048 039&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1196560&md5=c6fbcf8974c04a357588fa48ed361ea 5
THE REAL HISTORY OF AIDS… The AIDS crisis, as exposed here, evidences a total absence (in our leaders) of dignity, integrity and religious principle(of saving others), as well as critical self-indulgence and recklessness.

In 1978 and 1979, in New York and New Jersey, government sponsored campaigns began to enlist those persons, only young males, from gay communities to donate their blood.They were told that their blood was needed so that a vaccine against Hepatitis-B could be developed. Only highly sexually active young males, those who admitted to having many sexual partners, were chosen to participate....which seems medically inappropriate at best given that those who have many sexual partners will tend to have had more sexually (and other) transmitted diseases (statistically inferred). From the very initial stages of those Hepatitis-B vaccine trials there were tainted and very poor medical parameters/ procedures/ guidelines. In 1978 & 1979, in New York and New Jersey, medical doctors began to tabulate many deaths so many deaths of such young men who otherwise would be in the prime years of physical health. Finally those doctors began to hear from one another, and they knew that they were witnessing the 'outbreak' of an unprecedented epidemic in young men. In fact some medical doctors were already then calling it `pandemic' in its apparent scope and immediacy. Several years later, as those Hepatitis-B vaccine trials moved on to other cities, on to San Francisco and Los Angeles, targeting those areas which had hard-won political inroads into the mainstream, so likewise moved the most curious and highly suspect epidemiology. Most contagious diseases, no matter the manner of transmission, do not move so neatly, jumping `cross country' and targeting young males aged 20 to 40. In San Francisco and Los Angeles there were even companies which would pay fairly substantial sums of money to those gay males to sell their blood (upwards to $50 per visit), but those advertised appeals were to be only seen in gay-oriented community papers, those ads were NEVER to be seen in mainstream newspapers soliciting heterosexually active donors. Even after medical doctors had tabulated and confirmed the deaths of young gay males in New York and New Jersey, notably after 1978, and early in 1979, which medically inferred that a horrendous "outbreak" of some sort had started, the NEW YORK TIMES did not deem that newsworthy for over TWO YEARS! Now, the revisionists constantly print that the CDC identified "AIDS" (resulting from some weird virus), in 1981-- which infers that "AIDS" began in 1981, but which totally avoids medical doctors diagnosing the epidemic in 1979 and 1979 from data available in New York and New Jersey. Time and time again you will read in the newspapers various articles which point to the CDC revelation of 1981(against all the available evidence, dating back to 1958 and Gerald Ford). This has been intentionally done to obscure the obvious medical relevance of the beginnings of those Hepatitis-B vaccine trials and the state of "AIDS" and various issues of diseases (here is the United States), which was 1978 and 1979. This information is not idle speculation, it can be confirmed from a host of varies sources, notably the magnum opus, the book aptly titled "AIDS AND THE DOCTORS OF DEATH" by Dr. Alan Cantwell, MD, who practices at Long Beach Memorial Hospital, underscores the

awesome relevancy of those Hepatitis-B vaccine trials, "AIDS" and various issues of diseases, starting in New York and New Jersey in 1978 and 1979. …Dr. Strecker finally convinced an incredulous and refuting Dr. Cantwell to investigate his findings....and…Cantwell, who had previously written about "AIDS" was convinced that yes, "AIDS" was terribly related to cover-ups dealing with bio-warfare research.

The standard, mainstream history of AIDS however is that AIDS jumped from monkeys to people and was transported across the world by homosexual prostitutes, and one male airline steward in particular. When the epidemic began, it was blamed on the dirty habits of homosexuals.

Eugenics is as Old as the Earth: Appreciating a Perennial Habit

Eugenics refers to culling or directly reducing human population by virtual murder. Examples 1898, US Gov. discovers that mycoplasma can cause an epidemic. Objectivity? 1904, US Gov. starts an epidemic in horses….Silliness? 1910, Now it’s done to birds 1918, a flu virus altered with bird mycoplasma devastated the world. Reckless. 1921, Bertrand Russell says a man-made plague against Blacks is needed Self-indulgent. Reckless. No decency. No dignity. 1931, Blacks were secretly infected at Tuskeegee with venereal disease; Sheep received a kind of AIDS virus Reckless. No decency. 1943, USA supports Bio Warfare in earnest, officially……No dignity. Reckless. 1945, Operation Paperclip welcomed Nazi scientists into USA Biowarfare. Silly. 1948, USA endorses devising a scheme to curb the population of certain races. No dignity. 1949, Sigurdson isolates the VISNA virus, a precursor to today’s HIV virus 1951, Afro-Americans were attacked with a government virus in Pennsylvania. Self-indulgent and reckless.

1958, congressman(and later president) Gerald Ford gave Pentagon permission for Special Operation X, to create new biological weapons 1963, the Special Virus Program(de-classified in 1999) begins its work on AIDS 1972, the Soviet Union agreed to join the USA in depopulation of the black races 1974, Kissinger announces to the world that de-population is the #1 goal 1977, the Special Virus Program produces 15,000 gallons of AIDS, attached to smallpox vaccines for Africa, and Hepatitis vaccines for New York City [T]he largely forgotten Special Virus Cancer Program (SVCP)…[was] Originally designed to study leukemia and lymphoma forms of cancer, the program…soon enlarged to study all forms of cancer…"species jumping" was a common occurrence in these experiments…By 1971, experimenters had spread lymphoma-producing viruses into several species of monkeys, and had also isolated a monkey virus (Herpesvirus saimiri) that would have a close genetic relationship to a new Kaposi's sarcoma virus that produced the "gay cancer" of AIDS a few years later

Indonesia is experiencing one of the highest rates of tropical forest loss in the world. Indonesia was still densely forested as recently as 1950. Forty percent of the forests existing in 1950 were cleared in the following 50 years. In round numbers, forest cover fell from 162 million ha to 98 million ha. The rate of forest loss is accelerating. On average, about 1 million ha per year were cleared in the 1980s, rising to about 1.7 million ha per year in the first part of the 1990s. Since 1996, deforestation appears to have increased to an average of 2 million ha per year. Indonesia‘s lowland tropical forests, the richest in timber resources and biodiversity, are most at risk. They have been almost entirely cleared in Sulawesi and are predicted to disappear in Sumatra by 2005 and Kalimantan by 2010 if current trends continue… Illegal logging, by definition, is not accurately documented. But a former senior official of the Ministry of Forestry recently claimed that theft and illegal logging have destroyed an estimated 10 million ha of Indonesian forests. Massive expansion in the plywood, pulp, and paper production sectors over the past two decades means that demand for wood fiber now exceeds legal supplies by 35-40 million cubic meters per year. This gap between legal supplies of wood and demand is filled by illegal logging. Many wood processing industries openly acknowledge their dependence on illegally cut wood, which accounted for approximately 65 percent of total supply in 2000.

Legal logging is also conducted at an unsustainable level. Legal timber supplies from natural production forests declined from 17 million cubic meters in 1995 to under 8 million cubic meters in 2000, according to recent statistics from the Ministry of Forestry. The decline has been offset in part by timber obtained from forests cleared to make way for plantations. But this source appears to have peaked in 1997.

Industrial timber plantations have been widely promoted and subsidized as a means of supplying Indonesia‘s booming demand for pulp and taking pressure off natural forests. In practice, millions of hectares of natural forest have been cleared to make way for plantations that, in 75 percent of cases, are never actually planted.
More than 20 million hectares of forest have been cleared since 1985, but the majority of this land has not been put to productive alternative uses. .

In Nigeria
12.2% —or about 11,089,000 hectares—of Nigeria is forested. Of this, 2.9% —or roughly 326,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.38%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 31.2% to 3.12% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover, or around 6,145,000 hectares.

In Ecuador
39.2% —or about 10,853,000 hectares—of Ecuador is forested. Of this, 44.2% —or roughly 4,794,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Ecuador lost an average of 197,600 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.43%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 16.7% to 1.67% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Ecuador lost 21.5% of its forest cover, or around 2,964,000 hectares.

In Brazil
57.2% —or about 477,698,000 hectares—of Brazil is forested. Of this, 87.1% —or roughly 415,890,000 hectares—is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse form of forest. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Brazil lost an average of 2,681,400 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.52%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 22.0% to 0.63% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, Brazil lost 8.1% of its forest cover, or around 42,329,000 hectares.

In DR Congo

58.9% —or about 133,610,000 hectares—of DR Congo is forested. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, DR Congo lost an average of 532,400 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 0.38%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 37.7% to 0.24% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, DR Congo lost 4.9% of its forest cover,

In India, a case of moderate control
22.8% —or about 67,701,000 hectares—of India is forested. Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, India gained an average of 361,500 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual reforestation rate of 0.57%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change decreased by 92.3% to 0.04% per annum. In total, between 1990 and 2005, India gained 5.9% of its forest cover, or around 3,762,000 hectares. Measuring the total rate of habitat conversion (defined as change in forest area plus change in woodland area minus net plantation expansion) for the 1990-2005 interval, India gained 1.0% of its forest and woodland habitat .

Well over half of all people living in 10 of the United States‘ 11 most populous states—more than 158 million Americans—live in areas where the smog is so bad that pollution levels routinely exceed safety standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, according to a study by the Center for American Progress and the Center for Progressive Reform that examines state enforcement of clean air laws.The report, Paper Tigers and Killer Air: How Weak Enforcement Leaves Communities Vulnerable to Smog [pdf], released in November 2006, shows that in five of the 10 states that were studied, more than 75 percent of the population lives in counties that fail to attain EPA air quality standards. In one state, New Jersey, every single resident suffers from excessiveground-level ozone, or smog. California and New York were not far behind, with 94 percent and 85 percent respectively. These findings are consistent with those of the annual State of the Air report published by the American Lung Association early in 2006. The report also reveals that state environmental agencies in the 10 profiled states lack a sufficient number of inspectors to monitor industrial emissions and enforce the law—in large part due to declining federal grants to state and local air quality agencies, which are primarily responsible for enforcing federal clean air standards. Collectively, these 10 states (California, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Texas) have more than 158,000 sites with permits to emit ozone pollution. At the same time, they report having fewer than 1,100 inspectors…

On 25 July 2008 in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern CURIA, the European Court of Justice ruled that under this directive[32]citizens have the right to require national authorities to implement a short term action plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.[33] …In 2010, the European Commission (EC) threatened the UK with legal action against the successive breaching… In March 2011, the City of London remains the only UK region in breach of the EC’s limit values, and has been given 3 months to implement an emergency action plan aimed at meeting the EU Air Quality Directive… The City of London has dangerous levels of PM10 concentrations, estimated to cause 3000 deaths per year within the city nal_example_.28London.29 ______________________________________________________ Asthma and Air Pollution Asthma is a serious chronic
lung disease that appears to be on the rise in California, the United States and many other countries around the world. The prevalence of asthma in the U.S. has increased by more than 75% since 1980;

children and certain racial groups, especially African Americans, have experienced relatively greater increases in asthma prevalence. An estimated 11.9% of Californians - 3.9 million children and adults report that they have been diagnosed with asthma at some point in their lives, compared to the national average of 10.1%...Air pollution plays a well-documented role in asthma attacks, however, the role air pollution plays in initiating asthma is still under investigation and may involve a very complex set of interactions between indoor and outdoor environmental conditions
Based on the Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, the Air Pollutant Index (API) showed that air quality for Kuala Lumpur was between good (API 0-50) to moderate (API 51-100) most of the time, except for a few nhealthy days experienced during the drier months of May and July (refer Figure 15.6). However, „unhealthy‟ air quality conditions were occasionally recorded in Kuala Lumpur and were mainly due to the presence of high levels of ozone, formed by the reaction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted from motor vehicles and industrial sources, react in the presence of sunlight and heat.

CO2 and The Emerging Environmental Crisis
An increase of global temperature by more than 2°C has come to be the majority definition of what would constitute intolerably dangerous climate change, but some climate scientists are increasingly of the opinion that the goal should be a complete restoration of the atmosphere's preindustrial condition, on the grounds that too protracted a deviation from those conditions will produce irreversible changes… 350 ppm This is the target level advocated in a 2008 paper[1] by climate scientist James E. Hansen and others … At the 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poznań, Poland, the Least Developed Countries bloc spoke in favor of a 350 ppm target. [Yet the world‘s atmosphere is exceeding that limit by 1 % per year and now stands at over 390.] 550 ppm This is the target advocated (as an upper bound) in the Stern Review. As approximately a doubling of CO2 levels relative to preindustrial times, it implies a temperature increase of about three degrees, according to conventional estimates of climate sensitivity. Enduring Controversy In a 2000 paper,[18] Hansen argued that the 0.75° rise in average global temperatures over the last 100 years has been driven mainly by greenhouse gases[SUCH IS THE CURRENT THEORY] other than carbon dioxide, since warming due to CO2 had been offset by cooling due to aerosols, implying the viability of a strategy initially based around reducing emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and of black carbon, focusing on CO2 only in the longer run.[19] is an international environmental organization,[1][2][3] headed by author Bill McKibben,[4] with the goal of building a global grassroots movement to raise awareness of anthropogenic climate change, to confront climate change denial, and to cut emissions of one of the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide,[5][6] in order to slow the rate of global warming. takes its name from the research of NASA scientist James E. Hansen, who posited in a 2007 paper that 350 parts-per-million (ppm) of CO2 in the atmosphere is a safe upper limit to avoid a climate tipping point.[7][ James Hansen opined that "if humanity wishes to preserve a planet similar to that on which civilization developed and to which life on Earth is adapted, paleoclimate evidence and ongoing climate change suggest that

CO2 will need to be reduced from its current 385 ppm to at most 350 ppm, but likely less than that." [12] Carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, rose by 2.3 parts per million to 389 ppm in 2010 from the previous year [13], and continued to increase with January 2012 atmospheric CO2 concentration at 393.09 [14] and crossed 400 ppm on monitors in May 2012 in the industrialized Northern Hemisphere's Arctic region.[15]
The Consensus on the Effects of CO2 is Challenged by Many It should be noted that the global warming hoax can be dated to testimony by James Hansen before Congress in 1988 and he is still the GISS administrator! His apocalyptic predictions helped launch a U.S. response currently seen in the Environmental Protection Agency power-grab, based on the false CO2 claims,. On Earth Day—April 22nd—the birthday of Vladimir Lenin, the dictator who imposed Communism on Russia in 1917[totalitarian equalization], the various elements of the environmental movement will flood the world with propaganda. The connection between these two events should not be ignored. http://

Modern Slavery , by Stephen Lendman -- an estimated 27 million people are enslaved globally, more than at any other time previously…! ! ! Sex Slavery in the largest category of forced labor in America and with good reason: -- it's tied to organized crime and highly profitable; -- demand for sex services(includes children) is high and growing; and -- the lack of safe and legal migration facilitates.... The US Department of Justice (DOJ) states that the average entry prostitution age is between 12 - 14…A congressional finding estimated that between 100,000 - 300,000 children are at risk at any time. A DOJ assessment was that pimps control at least 75% of exploited minors by targeting vulnerable children using violence and psychological intimidation to hold them…An estimated 2.8 million children live on city streets, a third of whom are lured into prostitution within 48 hours of leaving home. [LIFE EXPECTANCY OF A CHILD
Of the 600,000-800,000 people trafficked across international borders each year, 70 percent are female and 50 percent are children. The majority of these victims are forced into the commercial sex trade (US DoJ. Trafficking in Persons Report.)

The Council of Europe states, "People trafficking has reached epidemic proportions over the past decade, with a global annual market of about $42.5 billion[one estimate]."[6][7]

Total profits of human trafficking estimated at US 32 billion per year. 15,000 new foreign nationals are trafficked into the US every year.

 

At least 12.3 million people[another ESTIMATE] are victims of forced labor worldwide. Of these, 2.4 million are as a result of human trafficking. Human trafficking is the fastest growing means by which people are enslaved, the fastest growing international crime, and one of the largest sources of income for organized crime. ~ The UN Office on Drugs and Crime Human trafficking is the second largest crime in the world. Only drug trafficking [and maybe weapons trafficking] is larger and makes more money.~ “Football and the Vulnerable: Anti-human Trafficking Program, ”

The Grand Chessboard by Zbigniew Brzezinski (Quotes)
"... But in the meantime, it is imperative that no Eurasian challenger emerges, capable of dominating Eurasia and thus of also challenging America(i.e., the hegemony or scope of America‘s global power). The formulation of a comprehensive and integrated Eurasian geostrategy is therefore the purpose of this book.‖ (p. xiv) "Ever since the continents started interacting politically, some five hundred years ago, Eurasia has been the center of world power."- (p. xiii) (Eurasia means "the Middle East") "In that context, how America 'manages' Eurasia is critical. A power that dominates Eurasia would control two of the world's three most advanced and economically productive regions. A mere glance at the map also suggests that control over Eurasia would almost automatically entail Africa's subordination, rendering the Western Hemisphere and Oceania (Australia) geopolitically peripheral to the world's central continent. About 75 per cent of the world's people live in Eurasia, and most of the world's physical wealth is there as well, both in its enterprises and underneath its soil. Eurasia accounts for about three-fourths of the world's known energy resources." (p.31) "For America, the chief geopolitical prize is Eurasia... Now a non-Eurasian power is preeminent in Eurasia - and America's global primacy is directly dependent on how long and how effectively its preponderance on the Eurasian continent is sustained.‖ (p.30) (bases in Iraq??) ―Never before has a populist democracy attained international supremacy. But the pursuit of power is not a goal that commands popular passion, except in conditions of a sudden threat or challenge to the public's sense of domestic well-being. The economic self-denial (that is, defense spending) and the human sacrifice (casualties, even among professional soldiers) required in the effort are uncongenial to democratic instincts. Democracy is inimical to imperial mobilization." (p.35) …as America becomes an increasingly multi-cultural society, it may find it more difficult to fashion a consensus on foreign policy issues, except in the circumstance of a truly massive and widely perceived direct external threat." (p. 211)

"The attitude of the American public toward the external projection of American power has been much more ambivalent. The public supported America's engagement in World War II largely because of the shock effect of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.‖ (pp 24-5)

The military-industrial complex has not emerged in quite the way Eisenhower envisioned. The United States spends an enormous sum on defense — over $700 billion last year, about half of all military spending in the world — but in terms of our total economy, it has steadily declined to less than 5 percent of gross domestic product from 14 percent in 1953… But Eisenhower’s least heeded warning — concerning the spiritual effects of permanent preparations for war — is more important now than ever.

Military Spending
1. United States …2010 spending: $698 billion …Change 2001-10: 81.3% …Share of GDP: 4.8%
3. United Kingdom 2010 spending: $59.6 billion Change 2001-10: 21.9% Share of GDP: 2.7% 5. Russia 2010 spending: $58.7 billion (est.) Change 2001-10: 82.4% Share of GDP: 4% (est.) 9. India 2010 spending: $41.3 billion Change 2001-10: 54.3% Share of GDP: 2.7%

By Country

Expenditure % of Gross Domestic Product in 2009

1 141 5 54 8 94 2 3 4 40 10 11 17 18 19 21 22 43 28 29 65 66

United States of America 663,255,000,000 4.3% Djibouti 36,300,000b 3.7% Russian Federation 61,000,000,000 3.5% Sudan 1,971,000,000c 4.4%c Saudi Arabia very rich 39,257,000,000 8.2% Eritrea very poor 327,000,000d 20.9%d China 98,800,000,000 2.0% United Kingdom 69,271,000,000 2.5% France 67,316,000,000 2.3% Malaysia 4,078,000,000 2.0% India 36,600,000,000 2.6% South Korea 27,130,000,000 2.8% Israel very rich 14,309,000,000 7.0% Greece 13,917,000,000 3.6% United Arab Emirates 13,052,000,000a 5.9%a Poland 10,860,000,000 2.0% Colombia drug war 10,055,000,000 3.7% Iraq very poor 3,814,000,000 5.4% Chile 5,683,000,000 3.5% Algeria 5,677,000,000 3.0% Lebanon 1,408,000,000 3.9% Jordan 1,392,000,000 5.9%

Note that countries AT WAR spend around 3-4 % of their national economy on war, as well as countries dealing with a popular resistance movement or dangerous border. Another factor [for high spending] could be a country’s building a modern army for the first time. Note that Malaysia’s spending is fairly high for a peaceful region. Also note that the USA spends more than all other countries combined.

MAJOR 20th CENTURY GENOCIDES Perpetrator Gov. Date ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~ Ottoman 1915-17 Turky Soviet Union Nazi Germany & occupied Europe China 1929-53 1933-45 Target ~~~~~~~~~ Armenians Anti-Comm. Anti-Stal. Jews, Anti-Nazis, Gypsies # Murdered (Estimated) ~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1-1.5 Mil. 20 Million 13 Million Date of Gun-Ctrl Source Law Document ~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ 1866 Art. 166, Penal Code 1929 1928 Art. 128, Penal Code Law on Firearms & Ammun. April 12, Weapons Law, March 18 Arts. 186 & 7 Penal Code. Pro-Reform Group Decree #36 Decree #283 Firearms Ord. Firearms Act Arts. 322-328, Penal Code



20 Million

1935 19661976

Guatemala Uganda Cambodia

1960-81 1971-79 1975-79

Mayan Indians Christians, Pol. Rivals Educated Persons

100,000 300,000 1 Million

1871 1964 1955 1970 1956


OTHER STATISTICS OF WAR‟S RECKLESSNESS Second World War, 55 million Mao Zedong's Regime, 40 million Stalin's Regime, 20 million First World War, 15 million Russian Civil War, 9 million Chinese Civil War(1945-9), 2.5 million

General Lee Butler, formerly responsible for all US Air Force and Navy strategic nuclear forces, describes nuclear weapons in the following way: "Nuclear weapons…Their effects transcend time and place, poisoning the Earth and deforming its inhabitants for generation upon generation. They leave us wholly [collectively & totally] without defence, expung[ing] all hope for meaningful survival. They hold in their sway not just the fate of nations, but the very meaning of civilization." Globally around 30,000 nuclear weapons are held by various countries. More than one thousand five hundred of them ready to launch at a moment's notice, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. On average, each of them has a destructive power thirty times that of the Hiroshima bomb. Through atmospheric effects, a few hundred could destroy a major part of the world… The US has around 9,962 nuclear weapons with 5,735 classed as [immediately] 'deliverable', on submarines, boats, planes and on land The Russian Federation has 16,000 nuclear weapons with 5,830 classed as deliverable… France has 348 nuclear weapons, all deliverable The UK has 200 weapons all of which are deliverable China has an estimated stockpile of around 200 nuclear weapons, with some 145 classed as deliverable. Israel has an estimated arsenal of 100 weapons all of which are considered deliverable. India is estimated to have a stockpile of between 40 & 50 Pakistan is estimated to have 50-60 Europe hosts 480 NATO US weapons. Germany 150; the UK hosts 110; Italy 90. Turkey 90; the Netherlands 20; and Belgium 20 .


The Rainbow Warrior was a boat used by Greenpeace, an anti-war group, to protest the testing of nuclear weapons in the South Pacific, in 1985. It was scuttled by two explosions caused by bombs planted by a team of French intelligence operatives. One reporter was killed when he went to investigate the damage from the first bomb, whereupon the second bomb went off, and he drowned as a result. A Neighborhood Watch group observed suspicious activity around the time of the bombing, and local police were able to follow up with arrests of fleeing sabateurs. Not all of the sabateurs were caught. And some of the uncaught went on to very lucrative careers in the same business. The French government denied conscious involvement at first, but years later (when the man who was president at the time of the incident died), France admitted participation of the highest levels of the French government in the sabatoge. New Zealand, where the incident took place, prosecuted the offenders, found them guilty, and awarded them huge jail sentences. The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Opération Satanique[1], was an operation by the "action" branch of the French foreign intelligence services. France used political blackmail and bribery(with an undisclosed sum of reparations) in order to reduce the jail sentences to almost nothing. Nonetheless, the protests of Greenpeace and other groups seems to have eventually led to the banning of almost all nuclear testing. Between 1945 and 2000, there had been more than 2000 live nuclear weapons tests worldwide. But the rate per year greatly decreased after the outcry from the public during the 1960s. The United States ended above-ground tests in 1962, yet continued with between 15 and 50 underground tests per year in the period ending in 1988. On 28 January 1996 then-President Jacques Chirac said the French military would not conduct any more nuclear tests. For a history protests and legislation against nuclear bomb testing, see: Numerous aspects of being an informed citizen emerge from this story. One is that closely observing the unscrupulous and illegal activities of governments intimidates or discourages them or frustrates them, to one degree or another, if such scrutiny is carried out in a systematic fashion. Scientists played a role in detecting radiation thousands of miles away. The mass media played a role in publishing the scientific findings. The local media played a role in highlighting the investigation and prosecution of the sabateurs, and calling for more eyewitnesses. The Neighborhood Watch group filtered information to the mass media. The government pursued the team of sabateurs internationally.
• Being an informed and engaged citizen means monitoring immediate and serious emerging internal and external threats to the stability and smooth functioning of our community’s environment, economy, government & public health, plus contemplating potential and available means for the rectification (and/or remedial accomodation) of the latter four when needed, where shortcomings exist

THE FUKUSHIMA DISASTER Possibly as much as 300,000 tons of radioactive material was stored or being used in and around the Fukushima nuclear reactor in 2011, when a Tsunami struck and rendered the plant disabled. Of those 300,000 tons, 1,000 tons are Plutonium, the most deadly chemical known to Man. Huge amounts of these radioactive materials spewed into the air as a result of the meltdown, explosion and continuous burning at these plants. A cold shutdown was declared in December 2011, but many suspect that the government of Japan, the nuclear industry and governments worldwide don’t want the general population to know the real extent of the damage and threat to human life – and to the environment for generations to come. Here is an example of how the Mainstream Media(MSM) portrays the disaster:

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Following a major earthquake, a 15-metre tsunami disabled the power supply and cooling of three Fukushima Daiichi reactors, causing a nuclear accident on 11 March 2011. Three reactor cores largely melted in the first three days. The accident was rated 7 on the INES scale, due to high radioactive releases in the first few days. Four reactors are written off - 2719 MWe net. After two weeks the three reactors (units 1-3) were stable with water addition but no proper heat sink for removal of decay heat from fuel. By July they were being cooled with recycled water from the new treatment plant. Reactor temperatures had fallen to below 80C at the end of October, and official 'cold shutdown condition' was announced in mid December. Apart from cooling, the basic ongoing task is to prevent release of radioactive materials, particularly in contaminated water leaked from the three units. There have been no deaths or cases of radiation sickness from the nuclear accident, but over 100,000 people had to be evacuated from their homes to ensure this. Government nervousness has delayed their return.


Links to Depleted Uranium in the US Mind: State of Denial: (excerpt…)A total of 580,400 US soldiers served in the first Gulf War[1991]. By the end of 2000 325,000 of these troops had become disabled This means that 56 % of those who served in the first Gulf War were disabled within less than 10 years. [Disabled means unable to function in any gainful employment.] (excerpt)….roughly 1 in 4 of the 697,000 veterans who served in the first Gulf War are afflicted with the disorder: a different estimate!


There are currently more than 800,000 disabled vets from the Gulf War Era (300,000 from Desert Storm in 1991 and 500,000 from Operation Iraqi Freedom since 2003 2
Why would veterans exposed to DU be “eligible” for health care and disability benefits if the VA claims there are "no health problems associated with DU exposure"? This makes no sense. Such is the current impasse, because of the conspiracy of silence.

American Use Of DU is "A crime against humanity which may, in the eyes of historians, rank with the worst atrocities of all time." US Iraq Military Vets "are on DU death row, waiting to die… It's going to destroy the lives of thousands of children, all over the world. We all know how far radiation can travel. Radiation from [the disaster in] Chernobyl reached Wales and in Britain you sometimes get red dust from the Sahara on your car." Dr. Chris Busby, the British radiation expert, Fellow of the University of Liverpool in the Faculty of Medicine and UK representative on the European Committee on Radiation Risk. DU is dirt cheap, toxic, waste from nuclear power plants and bomb production… On hearing that DU had been used in the Gulf in 1991, the UK Atomic Energy Authority sent the Ministry of Defense a special report on the potential damage to health and the environment. It said that it could cause half a million additional cancer deaths in Iraq over 10 years. In


Over 200,000 US troops who returned from the 1991 war are now invalided out with ailments officially attributed to service in Iraq-that's 1 in 3. Note the three very DIFFERENT estimates of victims on this page.

that war the authorities only admitted to using 320 tons of DU-although the Dutch charity LAKA estimates the true figure is closer to 800 tons… Case in Point and Public Witnesses: Today, David suffers from a variety of symptoms like
those known as Gulf War Syndrome, including respiratory and kidney problems, bowel conditions and painful joints… Robert C. Koehler of the Chicago-based Tribune Media Services wrote in an article about DU weapons entitled “Silent Genocide.” “DU dust does more than wreak havoc on the immune systems of those who breathe it or touch it; the substance also alters one’s genetic code,” Koehler wrote. “The Pentagon’s response to such charges is denial, denial, denial. And the American media is its moral co-conspirator.” The U.S. government has known for at least 20 years that DU weapons produce clouds of poison gas on impact. These clouds of aerosolized DU are laden with billions of toxic sub-micron sized particles. A 1984 Department of Energy conference on nuclear airborne waste reported that tests of DU anti-tank missiles showed that at least 31 percent of the mass of a DU penetrator is converted to nano-particles on impact. In larger bombs the percentage of aerosolized DU increases to nearly 100 percent, Fulk told me. DU is harmful in three ways, according to Fulk: “Chemical toxicity, radiological toxicity and particle toxicity.” Particles in the nano-meter (one billionth of a meter) range are a “new breed of cat,” Moret wrote. Because the size of the nano-particles allows them to pass freely throughout the organism and into the nucleus of its cells, exposure to nano-particles causes different symptoms than exposure to larger particles of the same substance. Internalized DU particles, Fulk said, act as “a non-specific catalyst” in both “nuclear and nonnuclear” ways. This means that the uranium particle can affect human DNA and RNA because of both its chemical and radiological properties. This is why internalized DU particles cause “many, many diseases,” Fulk said. Asked if this is how DU causes severe birth defects, Fulk said, “Yes.” MILITARY AWARE The military is aware of DU’s harmful effects on the human genetic code. A 2001 study of DU’s effect on DNA done by Dr. Alexandra C. Miller for the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Md., indicates that DU’s chemical instability causes 1 million times more genetic damage than would be expected from its radiation effect alone… “When inhaled through the nose, nano-particles can cross the olfactory bulb directly into the brain through the blood brain barrier, where they migrate all through the brain,” she wrote. “Many Gulf era soldiers exposed to depleted uranium have been diagnosed with brain tumors, brain damage and impaired thought processes.

What goes around comes around?

A total of 580,400 soldiers served in the first Gulf War[1991]. By the end of 2000 325,000 of these troops had become disabled This means that 56 % of those who served in the first Gulf War were disabled within less than 10 years. Roughly 1 in 4 of the 697,000 veterans who served in the first Gulf War are afflicted with the disorder. _______________________________________________________________________

The Horror Of US Depleted Uranium Threatens the World(with reckless warfare + no integrity in planning): American Use Of DU is "A crime against humanity which may, in the eyes of historians, rank with the worst atrocities of all time." US Iraq Military Vets "are on DU death row, waiting to die." By James Denver 4-29-5
"I'm horrified. The people out there - the Iraqis, the media and the troops - risk the most appalling ill health. And the radiation from depleted uranium can travel literally anywhere. It's going to destroy the lives of thousands of children, all over the world. We all know how far radiation can travel. Radiation from Chernobyl reached Wales and in Britain you sometimes get red dust from the Sahara on your car." The speaker is not some alarmist doom-sayer. He is Dr. Chris Busby, the British radiation expert, Fellow of the University of Liverpool in the Faculty of Medicine and UK representative of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, talking about the best-kept secret of this war: the fact that, by illegally using hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) against Iraq, Britain and America have gravely endangered not only the Iraqis but the whole world. For these weapons have released deadly, carcinogenic and mutagenic, radioactive particles in such abundance that-whipped up by sandstorms and carried on trade winds - there is no corner of the globe they cannot penetrate-including Britain. For the wind has no boundaries and time is on their side: the radioactivity persists for over 4,500,000,000 years and can cause cancer, leukemia, brain damage, kidney failure, and extreme birth defects - killing millions of every age for centuries to come… 'Depleted' uranium is in many ways a misnomer. For 'depleted' sounds weak. The only weak thing about depleted uranium is its price. It is dirt cheap, toxic, waste from nuclear power plants and bomb production. However, uranium is one of earth's heaviest elements and DU packs a Tyson's punch, smashing through tanks, buildings and bunkers with equal ease, spontaneously catching fire as it does so, and burning people alive. 'Crispy critters' is what US servicemen call those unfortunate enough to

be close. And, when John Pilger encountered children killed at a greater distance he wrote: "The children's skin had folded back, like parchment, revealing veins and burnt flesh that seeped blood, while the eyes, intact, stared straight ahead. I vomited." (Daily Mirror) The millions of radioactive uranium oxide particles released when it burns can kill just as surely, but far more terribly. They can even be so tiny they pass through a gas mask, making protection against them impossible. Yet, small is not beautiful. For these invisible killers indiscriminately attack men, women, children and even babies in the womb-and do the gravest harm of all to children and unborn babies. Doctors in Iraq have estimated that birth defects have increased by 2-6 times, and 312 times as many children have developed cancer and leukaemia since 1991…. Overall, cases of lymphoblastic leukemia more than quadrupled with other cancers also increasing 'at an alarming rate'. In men, lung, bladder, bronchus, skin, and stomach cancers showed the highest increase. In women, the highest increases were in breast and bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.1 On hearing that DU had been used in the Gulf in 1991, the UK Atomic Energy Authority sent the Ministry of Defense a special report on the potential damage to health and the environment. It said that it could cause half a million additional cancer deaths in Iraq over 10 years. In that war the authorities only admitted to using 320 tons of DU-although the Dutch charity LAKA estimates the true figure is closer to 800 tons… Troops who were only exposed to DU for the brief period of the war were still excreting uranium in their semen 8 years later and some had 100 times the socalled 'safe limit' of uranium in their urine. The lack of government interest in the plight of veterans of the 1991 war is reflected in a lack of academic research on the impact of DU but informal research has found a high incidence of birth defects in their children. Britain and America not only used DU in this year's Iraq war, they dramatically increased its use-from a minimum of 320 tons in the previous
war to a minimum of 1500 tons in this one. This time the use of DU wasn't limited to anti-tank weapons--as it had largely been in the previous Gulf war--but was extended to the guided missiles, large bunker busters and big 2000-pound bombs used in Iraq's cities. This means that Iraq's cities have been blanketed in lethal particles-any one of which can cause cancer or deform a child. In addition, the use of DU in huge bombs which throw the deadly particles higher and wider in huge plumes of smoke means that billions of deadly particles have been carried high into the air-again and again and again as the bombs rained down-ready to be swept worldwide by the winds.

The Royal Society has suggested the solution is massive decontamination in Iraq. That could only scratch the surface. For decontamination is hugely expensive and, though it may reduce the risks in some of the worst areas, it cannot fully remove them. For DU is too widespread on land and water. How do you clean up every nook and cranny of a city the size of Baghdad? How can they decontaminate a whole country in which microscopic particles, which cannot be detected with a normal geiger counter, are spread from border to border? And how can they clean

up all the countries downwind of Iraq-and, indeed, the world?

So there are only two things we can do to mitigate this crime against humanity. The first is to provide the best possible medical care for the people of Iraq, for our returning troops and for those who served in the last Gulf war and, through that, minimize their suffering. The second is to relegate [indiscriminate] war, and the production and sale of [such] weapons, to the scrap heap of history-along with slavery and genocide. Then, and only then, will this crime against humanity be expunged, and the tragic deaths from this war truly bring freedom to the people of Iraq, and of the world.
______________________AN ALTERNATIVE PERSPECTIVE__________________________ In his article, “The Gulf War Was The Most Toxic Battle In Western Military History,” Dr. Malcolm Hooper, emeritus professor of medicinal chemistry at the University of Sunderland UK, attributes the symptoms of mysterious “Gulf War Illness” among American and coalition troops to a combination of toxic substances to which they were subjected(much from chemical weapons dumps).

These included, in addition to weapons of mass destruction(like DU), experimental vaccines, anti-nerve gas tablets, aerosolized pesticides, and smoke from hundreds of burning oil wells. Some of the vaccines were not approved by the FDA and had never been used on human subjects. No one had studied the interactive effects of as many as seventeen vaccines administered at the same time. Many soldiers became violently ill immediately after receiving the battery of shots and others developed a variety of symptoms later. Strangely, the normally bureaucratic military kept no records of who received what shots and when. However, most researchers cite radioactive poisoning from depleted uranium shells as the deadliest element in the Gulf War Illness ―cocktail.‖ In the 1991 war the Pentagon fired more than 340 tons of DU projectiles at targets in Iraq and Kuwait. More than a half million Gulf era veterans are on medical disability.At last count, more than 1,000 tons have been used in Afghanistan and more than 3,000 tons in Iraq.

A Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to separate investors, not from any actual profit earned by the organization, but from their own money or money paid by subsequent investors. The Ponzi scheme usually entices new investors by offering returns other

investments cannot guarantee, in the form of short-term returns that are either abnormally high or unusually consistent. The perpetuation of the returns that a Ponzi scheme advertises and pays requires an ever-increasing flow of money from investors to keep the scheme going. The system is destined to collapse because the earnings, if any, are less than the payments to investors. Usually, the scheme is interrupted by legal authorities before it collapses because a Ponzi scheme is suspected or because the promoter is selling unregistered securities. This is different from embezzlement, although embezzlement along with bribery, human trafficking and drug trafficking, remain major economic problems throughout the world. For example, it is estimated that Hosni Mubarak’s family confiscated or embezzled, depending on the upcoming trial result, as much as $100-150 billion from national funds. Many today say that the entire world economy is becoming a Ponzi Scheme. Here’s why...


Who Owns The Federal Reserve – and by Extension the US Economy? The creation of the Federal Reserve was much more than the creation of a currency manager. It was a transformation of a new rulership and officialdom of the USA, by the purchase of media, government and money itself. That allpowerful central-banking concept has now spread across the world. Most importantly, it was the realization of unprecedented power in the hands of elite private citizens. A snowball had begun to roll, in which certain individuals would reap a degree of power never imagined by past societies in the annals of history. Jekyll Island 1910 was the stage where International Bankers organized a silent coup over the American system of government, shifting control of public and private monies into the hands of a few very clever bankers. The resulting FED or the Federal Reserve System became the all-powerful central bank of America, accountable to no-one. Its meetings and leadership are all totally secretive. These conspirators retained at that founding moment already 1/6 of the wealth of the world. Jacob Schiff and the Rockefellers, as agents of Rothschild interests centered in England, engineered a whole new management system for the US economy, a system passed into law by a few bribed congressmen during a holiday recess, with the cooperation of a compliant president, manoeuvered into position by the very same interests. (Eventually, Woodrow Wilson would confess to complicity in this dirty-money conspiracy.) Only the history and traditions of the Rothschild banking dynasty can unlock the secret of this pernicious and pervasive dominance in modern global finance. The availability of virtually unlimited funds – if not simply astronomical sums of money – accumulated by the Rothschild dynasty means that the alleged representatives in our various democratic republics will be compromised in their loyalty by persistant bribes and/or influence peddling. Stock market manipulation and the financing of wars entail an upward spiral of profit and financial control. The First World War is a case in point, as were the Napoleonic Wars, manipulated by the elite among the European bankers, the Rothschild family being the chief among them. Similarly, stock market crashes for windfall profits were enabled by the same central banking system deputed with the maintenance and stability of the same. A few voices have been courageous enough to speak truth to power and challenge this monopoly. Huey Long, President Lincoln, President Garfield, President McKinley and Andrew Jackson all suffered assassination

attempts for their refusal to submit to the burgeoning power of banks.
The Bilderberg Group, a closed-door meeting of the world‘s financial and political elite, is the continuation of the monopolized and centralized power-structure established by the super-bankers of the early 20th century and spawned by the Rothschild banking dynasty in the 19 th century. One possible future of this cartel is to bankcrupt existing nations(or embarress them in meaningless wars) in order to gut national sovereignty, only to be rescued by a global governance of bankers amid contrived banking emergencies in the face of incompetent nationally-based leaders and leadership. ―Free Trade‖ and other such policies are meant to erode national sovereignty, with menial/slave labor, drug money and destabilizing revolutions and/or occupations, erasing national borders in favor of international banking interests ―coming to the rescue.‖ ______________________________________________________________________.

Final Warning: A History of the New World Order
Illuminism and the master plan for world domination -- by David Rivera, 1994 source: View From the Wall
Constitutional Money (1787)

Napoleon said:
"When a government is dependent for money upon the bankers, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes ... (super)financiers are without patriotism and without decency..."

Karl Marx said in the Communist Manifesto: "Money plays the largest part in determining the course of history." The Rothschilds found out early that when you control the money you basically control everything else. So, while their political plans were being thwarted, they began to concentrate on tightening their grip on the financial structure of the world. Central banking was initiated by international banker William Paterson in 1691 when he obtained the Charter for the Bank of England which put the control of England's money in a privately owned company which had the right to issue notes payable on demand against the security of bank loans to the crown. One of their first transactions was to loan 1.2 million pounds at 8% interest to William of Orange to help the King pay the cost of his war with Louis XIV of France. Paterson said: "The bank hath benefit of interest on all monies which it creates out of nothing." Reginald McKenna, British Chancellor of the Exchequer (or Treasury), said 230 years later:
"The banks can and do create money ... And they who control the credit of the nation direct the policy of governments and hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people."

Hamilton's elitist views and real purpose for wanting Central Banking came to light, when he wrote:
"All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. The first are rich and well-born, the other the mass of the people. The people are turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or determine right."

In 1791, Thomas Jefferson said:

"To preserve our independence, we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. If we run into such debts, we (will then) be taxed in our meat and our drink, in our necessities and in our comforts, in our labor and in our amusements. If we can prevent the government from wasting the labor of the people under the pretense of caring for them, they (will) be happy."

Even though Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (later to be our 4th President, 1809-17) opposed the Bill, George Washington signed it into law on February 25, 1791. Alexander Hamilton became a very rich man. He and Aaron Burr helped establish the Manhattan Company in New York City, which developed into a very prosperous banking institution. It would later be controlled by the Warburg-Kuhn-Loeb interests, and in 1955 it merged with Rockefeller's Chase Bank to create the Chase Manhattan Bank.
The Second Bank of the United States (1816-32)

When Jefferson (1801-09) became President he opposed the bank as being unconstitutional and when the 20 year charter came up for renewal in 1811 it was denied. Nathan Rothschild, head of the family bank in England, had recognized America's potential and made loans to a few states, and in fact became the official European banker for the U.S. Government. Because he supported the Bank of the United States, he threatened:
"Either the application for renewal of the Charter is granted, or the United States will find itself in a most disastrous war."

He then ordered British troops to "teach these impudent Americans a lesson. Bring them back to Colonial status." This brought on the War of 1812, our second war with England, which facilitated the rechartering of the Bank of the United States. The war raised our national debt from $45 million to $127 million. Jefferson wrote to James Monroe (who later served as our 5th President, 1817-25) in January, 1815: "The dominion which the banking institutions have obtained over the minds of our citizens ... must be broken, or it will break us." In 1816, Jefferson wrote to John Tyler (who became our 10th President, 184145):
"If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issuance of their currency, first by inflation, and then by deflation, the banks and the corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their father's conquered ... I believe that banking institutions

are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies ... The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the Government, to whom it properly belongs." WAR-PROFITING AND GRAND ECONOMIC DECEIT In 1984, Marshall Cohen observed that: [T]o an alarming degree, the history of international relations is a history of selfishness and brutality. It is a story in which spying, deceit, bribery, disloyalty, ingratitude, betrayal, exploitation, plunder, repression, subjection, and genocide are all too conspicuous. And it is a history that may well culminate in the moral catastrophe of nuclear war. 1 … As the French Foreign Minister Walewski told Bismarck in 1857: "it was the business of a diplomat to cloak the interests of this country in the language of universal justice." 7 The willingness of realists to disguise their pursuit of interests as the pursuit of ideals often makes it difficult to discern their true objectives. In these situations, one must be prepared to test the rhetoric against probable outcomes and consistency of action in similar situations in order to parse out the true objectives of a state. … Kant had no illusions about human nature; indeed, he was quick to point out that the natural state of humanity was a state of war. 9 Kant firmly believed, however, that war only served the rational interests of a small group of individuals within a state--those who benefited from conflict in either political or economic terms. He believed that war did not serve the rational interests of the ordinary citizens of a state who were called upon to finance the war, die in the war, or repair the damage from war. Thus, the solution to the problem of war was to give a political voice to ordinary citizens. As the number of states with republican constitutions increased, then the incidence of war would decline and a state of perpetual peace would be achieved.

Banking Power is now THE great power in modern society…
and its money is mainly illegal money, by any standard(of any civilization or religion)

Who will stand up against this force of evil ? ? ? The issue which has swept down the centuries and which will have to be fought sooner or later is the people versus the banks. Lord Acton Give me control of a nation's money and I care not who makes the laws. Mayer Amschel Rothschild, founder of the Rothschild Dynasty

I care not what puppet is placed on the throne of England to rule the Empire, ...The man that controls Britain's money supply controls the British Empire. And I control the money supply.Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling the money and its issuance.James Madison, US President and author of the US Constitution For the first time in its history, Western Civilization[and therefore modern civilization] is in danger of being destroyed internally by a corrupt, criminal ruling cabal[super-secret agency] which is centered around the Rockefeller interests, which include elements from the Morgan, Brown, Rothschild, Du Pont, Harriman, Kuhn-Loeb, and other groupings as well. This junta took control of the political, financial, and cultural life of America in the first two decades of the twentieth century. Carrol Quigley The Rothschilds, and that class of money-lenders of whom they are the representatives and agents - men who never think of lending a shilling to their next-door neighbors, for purposes of honest industry, unless upon the most ample security, and at the highest rate of interest - stand ready, at all times, to lend money in unlimited amounts to those robbers and murderers, who call themselves governments, to be expended in shooting down those who do not submit quietly to being robbed and enslaved. Lysander Spooner Banking was conceived in iniquity and was born in sin. The Bankers own the earth. Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create deposits, and with the flick of the pen they will create enough deposits to buy it back again. However, take it away from them, and all the great fortunes like mine will disappear and they ought to disappear, for this would be a happier and better world to live in. But, if you wish to remain the slaves of Bankers and pay the

cost of your own slavery, let them continue to create deposits. Sir Josiah Stamp
"I sincerely believe that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies, and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity under the name of funding is but swindling futurity on a large scale." --Thomas Jefferson to John Taylor, 1816. "Everything predicted by the enemies of banks, in the beginning, is now coming to pass. We are to be ruined now by the deluge of bank paper. It is cruel that such revolutions in private fortunes should be at the mercy of avaricious adventurers, who, instead of employing their capital, if any they have, in manufactures, commerce, and other useful pursuits, make it an instrument to burden all the interchanges of property with their swindling profits, profits which are the price of no useful industry of theirs." --Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Cooper, 1814. "The Bank of the United States is one of the most deadly hostilities existing, against the principles and form of our Constitution. An institution like this, penetrating by its branches every part of the Union, acting by command and in phalanx, may, in a critical

moment, upset the government. I deem no government safe which is under the vassalage of any self-constituted authorities, or any other authority than that of the nation, or its regular functionaries. What an obstruction could not this bank of the United States, with all its branch banks, be in time of war! It might dictate to us the peace we should accept, or withdraw its aids. Ought we then to give further growth to an institution so powerful, so hostile?" --Thomas Jefferson to Albert Gallatin, 1803.

CRITICALLY ASSESSING OUR TEXTBOOK Do you agree with Eow Boon Hin’s definition of a good moral character(here)? 1. Strength of mind and citizenship, decent character and efficient work. Thus "A Responsible Family Man or Woman" ―A Practical Contributor to Society‖ 2. Sense of dignity = objective sense of worth, in oneself and in others:

"Caring" in principle, or valuing other human beings, in an absolute sense. 3. Integrity, meaning a degree of justice(fairness) and magnanimity(also called altruism). 4. Self-control, self-restraint and dispassionate, critical judgment. Do you agree with his preference for REFLECTIVE MORALITY vs. CUSTOMARY? Do you agree that the two are mutually exclusive?(pages 101 & 105) Does moral consciousness come from the individual, from spirituality(religious and secular ideals), from casually-adopted social norms or from enforced social norms – or from all combined?(p.103) Is Kant’s idea right – as the author seems to believe – that we must each collect moral maxims and assemble a set of categorical imperatives(pages 38 and 108)? If human knowledge is finite and not absolute(37), can we be free & responsible? Does Kant’s notion of being generally good but specifically uncertain make sense? Doesn’t a tension remain between objective and subjective considerations(108)? Do you like Eow Boon Hin’s definition of human nature as ―feeling and reasoning in a collective dimension‖?(109) Should human dignity & leadership be based on reason and reason alone? Isn’t reason in Eow Boon Hin a pure abstraction? Does being fully human mean becoming a moral agent, recipient and critic? What about the essence of morality as being cautious in a collective context?(110) By Eow Boon Hin’s definition, can or should a mentally retarded person be moral? By Eow Boon Hin’s definition, is a mentally retarded person fully or partly human?

Are employment opportunities, education, health and security against criminals responsibilities of government?(101-102)

the chief